Skip navigation
Federal Prison Handbook - Header

Hiring Retention of Law Enforcement Officers, DOJ BJS, 2008

Download original document:
Brief thumbnail
This text is machine-read, and may contain errors. Check the original document to verify accuracy.
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

October 2012, NCJ 238251

By Brian A. Reaves, Ph.D., BJS Statistician

I

n 2008, the United States had roughly 16,000
general purpose state and local law enforcement
agencies, including local police departments,
sheriffs’ offices, and the 50 primary state agencies.
These agencies employed about 705,000 full-time
sworn personnel (table 1).
From 1992 to 2008, the number of sworn personnel
employed by general purpose agencies increased by
about 141,000, or 25% (figure 1). The 1.6% average
annual growth rate for the number of officers exceeded
that of the U.S. population (1.2%). Sheriffs’ offices (34%
overall, 2.1% annually) had a higher growth rate over
the 16-year period than local police departments (23%,
1.4%) or state agencies (15%, 0.9%).
Figure 1
Cumulative percent growth in number of full-time
sworn personnel employed by general purpose state
and local law enforcement agencies, 1992–2008

The agencies hired about 61,000 officers in 2008, but
lost about 51,000 through resignations, retirements,
and other types of separation for a net gain of about
10,000 officers (figure 2) or 1.4% (table 2).
Most agencies used specific strategies and policies
designed to help them meet the challenges of
recruiting, hiring, and retaining qualified sworn
personnel. To better understand these efforts, a
special survey was administered to a nationally
representative sample of approximately 3,000 general
purpose agencies as part of the 2008 BJS Census
of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies
(CSLLEA). (See Methodology for details.)

Figure 2
Number of full-time sworn personnel in state and
local law enforcement agencies who separated or
were hired, by type of agency, 2008

Percent
35

......Sheriff’s
office
..
....
...
......

60,994
All agencies

51,228

30 ---------~ ~- 25
20

/
.... ..

-------~~~
. --~

All
agencies
Local
police

--------!~
/ ~~~-

15

State

10

42,019
Local police
departments

33,997
15,644

Sheriffs'
offices

Hires
Separations

14,294
3,331

5
0

Bureau of Justice Statistics · Statistical Tables

Hiring and Retention of State and
Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 –
Statistical Tables

Primary
state agencies
1992

1996

2000

2004

2008

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law
Enforcement Agencies, 2008.

2,937
0

10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law
Enforcement Agencies, 2008.

BJS
HJS

Table 1
Number and percent of full-time sworn personnel employed by general purpose state and local law enforcement agencies, by
type and size of agency, 2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
Number
Percent
704,814
100%
286,674
41%
176,396
25
152,646
22
58,716
8
30,382
4

Local police
Number
Percent
461,063
65%
180,429
26%
100,960
14
109,525
16
44,520
6
25,629
4

Sheriff’s office
Number
Percent
182,979
26%
50,081
7%
70,828
10
43,121
6
14,196
2
4,753
1

Primary State
Number
Percent
60,772
9%
56,164
8%
4,608
1
~
~
~
~
~
~

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008.

Table 2
Percent growth in number of full-time sworn personnel
employed by state and local law enforcement agencies, by
size and type of agency, 2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
1.4%
1.3%
1.1
1.6
1.5
3.0

Local
police
1.7%
1.9%
1.3
1.8
1.6
3.8

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state
0.8%
0.6%
-0.7%
1.0
0.4
1.2
~
1.0
~
1.1
~

--Less than 0.5%.
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

2

•

List of figures
Figure 1

Cumulative percent growth in number of full-time sworn
personnel employed by general purpose state and local law
enforcement agencies, 1992–2008��������������������������������������������������������1

Figure 2

Number of full-time sworn personnel in state and local law
enforcement agencies who separated or were hired, by type of
agency, 2008������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1

Figure 3

Percent of full-time sworn personnel who separated from state
and local law enforcement agencies, by size of agency, 2008 ������6

Figure 4

Reason for officer separations from state and local law
enforcement agencies, by size of agency, 2008 ��������������������������������6

Figure 5

Percent of state and local law enforcement officers that were
military reservists called to active duty, by size of agency, 2008 9

Figure 8

Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies targeting specific applicant groups with special
recruitment efforts, 2008 ����������������������������������������������������������������������13

Figure 9

Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed by
agencies using selected screening methods in the hiring process
for sworn positions, 2007 ����������������������������������������������������������������������14

Figure 10

Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed by
agencies allowing the hiring of applicants with selected negative
prior events, 2008������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14

Figure 11

Percent of full-time sworn personnel in state and local law
enforcement agencies who were hired during the year, by size of
agency, 2008 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17

Figure 12

Figure 6

Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed by
agencies using selected methods to increase retention of sworn
personnel, 2008����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18

Figure 7

Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies with selected overtime and outside employment
policies, 2008 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19

Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed by
agencies using selected methods to recruit applicants for sworn
positions, 2008������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed by
agencies offering selected incentives to recruit applicants for
sworn positions, 2008 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������12

Figure 13

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

3

•

List of tables
Table 1

Number and percent of full-time sworn personnel employed by
general purpose state and local law enforcement agencies, by
type and size of agency, 2008 �������������������������������������������������������������2

Table 2

Percent growth in number of full-time sworn personnel
employed by state and local law enforcement agencies, by size
and type of agency, 2008 ���������������������������������������������������������������������2

Table 3

Table 13

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies using special
recruitment efforts to target selected groups for sworn positions,
by size and type of agency, 2008�������������������������������������������������������13

Table 14

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with special
officer recruitment efforts targeting women and racial/ethnic
minorities, by size and type of agency, 2008 ���������������������������������13

Table 15

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies that had
separations of full-time sworn personnel, by size and type of
agency, 2008 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies considering
applicants with selected negative prior events, by size and type
of agency, 2008�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15

Table 4

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies considering
applicants with selected negative prior events, by size and type
of agency, 2008�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15

Table 5

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with a
residency requirement for sworn personnel, by size and type of
agency, 2008 �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15

Officer separations from state and local law enforcement
agencies, by type of separation, and by size and type of agency,
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with a
mandatory retirement age for officers, 2008 �����������������������������������8

Table 6

Table 16

Table 17

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with officers
called to active military duty and number of full-time sworn
personnel called to active military duty, 2008 ���������������������������������9

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies that hired
full-time sworn personnel, by size and type of agency, 2008�����16

Table 7

Percent of newly hired officers in state and local law enforcement
agencies, by type of hire and size and type of agency, 2008�������17

Table 8

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies using
selected methods to increase retention of sworn personnel, by
size and type of agency, 2008 �����������������������������������������������������������18

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with a
dedicated recruiting budget, by size and type of agency, 2008�10
Median recruiting budget of state and local law enforcement
agencies, by size and type of agency, 2008�������������������������������������10

Table 9

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with a fulltime recruitment manager, by size and type of agency, 2008�����10

Table 10

Officer recruitment methods used by more than half of state and
local law enforcement agencies, by size and type of agency, 2008
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11

Table 11

Officer recruitment methods used by fewer than half of state and
local law enforcement agencies, by size and type of agency, 2008
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11

Table 12

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies offering
financial support for training or education as recruitment
incentive, by size and type of agency, 2008 �����������������������������������12

Table 18

Table 19

Table 20

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies allowing
officers to work overtime, by size and type of agency, 2008�������19

Table 21

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies allowing
officers to have outside employment, by size and type of agency,
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19

Table 22

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies offering a
full-service retirement pension to sworn personnel , by size and
type of agency, 2008 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������20

Table 23

Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies conducting
exit interviews of departing officers, by size and type of agency,
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

4

•

List of appendix tables
Appendix table 1

Item nonresponse for 2008 Census of State and Local Law
Enforcement Agencies supplement on hiring and retention �����21

Appendix table 2

Standard errors of the number of officers hired by and separated
from state and local law enforcement agencies, 2008 �����������������21

Appendix table 13

Standard errors for table 13: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies using special recruitment efforts to target
applicants with prior law enforcement experience, by size and
type of agency, 2008 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������23

Appendix table 14

Appendix table 3

Standard errors for table 14: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with special officer recruitment efforts
targeting women, by size and type of agency, 2008���������������������23

Appendix table 4

Standard errors for table 15: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies considering applicants with a prior
misdemeanor conviction, by size and type of agency, 2008 �����24

Appendix table 6

Standard errors for table 16: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a residency requirement for sworn
personnel, by size and type of agency, 2008 ���������������������������������24

Standard errors for table 3: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies that had separations of full-time sworn
personnel, 2008�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21
Standard errors for table 4: Percent of officer separations
resulting from resignations from state and local law enforcement
agencies, by size and type of agency, 2008�������������������������������������22
Standard errors for table 6: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with officers called to active military duty
and number of full-time sworn personnel called to active military
duty, 2008 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22

Appendix table 15

Appendix table 16

Appendix table 17

Appendix table 7

Standard errors for table 17: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies that hired full-time sworn personnel at the
entry level, by size and type of agency, 2008���������������������������������24

Appendix table 5

Standard errors for table 18: Percent of newly hired officers in
state and local law enforcement agencies, by type of hire and
size and type of agency, 2008 �����������������������������������������������������������24

Appendix table 8

Standard errors for table 19: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies providing take-home vehicles to increase
retention of sworn personnel, by size and type of agency, 200824

Appendix table 9

Standard errors for table 20: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies allowing officers to work overtime without
limits, by size and type of agency, 2008�������������������������������������������24

Appendix table 10

Standard errors for table 21: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies allowing officers to have outside
employment without limits, by size and type of agency, 2008�� �25

Appendix table 11

Standard errors for table 22: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies offering a full-service retirement pension
to sworn personnel , by size and type of agency, 2008�����������������25

Appendix table 12

Standard errors for table 23: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies conducting exit interviews of departing
officers , by size and type of agency, 2008���������������������������������������25

Standard errors for table 7: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a dedicated recruiting budget, by
size and type of agency, 2008 �����������������������������������������������������������22
Standard errors for table 5: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a mandatory retirement age for
officers, 2008 �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22
Standard errors for table 8: Median recruiting budget of state
and local law enforcement agencies, by size and type of agency,
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22
Standard errors for table 9: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a full-time recruitment manager, by
size and type of agency, 2008 �����������������������������������������������������������23
Standard errors for table 10: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies using internet advertising for officer
recruitment, by size and type of agency, 2008�������������������������������23
Standard errors for table 11: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies, using job fairs for officer recruitment, by
size and type of agency, 2008 �����������������������������������������������������������23
Standard errors for table 12: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies offering financial support training as a
recruitment incentive, by size and type of agency, 2008�������������23

Appendix table 18

Appendix table 19

Appendix table 20

Appendix table 21

Appendix table 22

Appendix table 23

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

5

•

Officer separations
Types of separation
ƒƒOverall, about 7% of state and local officers separated from
agencies during 2008. The separation rate from agencies
with fewer than 10 officers (20%) was 4 times the rate of
agencies with 500 or more officers (5%) (figure 3).
ƒƒAbout two-thirds (65%) of all agencies had at least one
officer separate in 2008. Nearly all agencies with 100 or
more sworn personnel lost officers (table 3).
ƒƒOfficer separations in 2008 included resignations (54%),
nonmedical retirements (23%), dismissals (10%),
probationary rejections (5%), and medical or disability
retirements (5%) (table 4).
ƒƒResignations accounted for more than half of the
separations from sheriffs’ offices (56%) and local police
departments (55%), compared to less than a third from
state agencies (30%).
Figure 3
Percent of full-time sworn personnel who separated from
state and local law enforcement agencies, by size of agency,
2008
Size of agency

500 or more
officers
100–499

7.0

25–99

7.2

Figure 4
Reason for officer separations from state and local law
enforcement agencies, by size of agency, 2008
Size of agency

Resignations
Retirements (nonmedical)
Dismissals/probationary
rejections
Other

10–24
Fewer than
10 officers

Fewer
than 10

19.9
5

ƒƒNonmedical retirements accounted for 41% of officer
departures in agencies with 500 or more officers in 2008,
compared with 5% of the separations from agencies
employing fewer than 10 officers.

25–99

10.7

0

ƒƒResignations accounted for nearly twice the percentage of
separations in agencies with fewer than 10 officers (71%)
as agencies with 500 or more officers (37%) (figure 4).

100–499

5.4

10–24

ƒƒAmong agencies with 500 or more officers, the percentage
of separations in 2008 resulting from nonmedical
retirements was higher in state law enforcement agencies
(54%) than local police departments (41%) or sheriffs’
offices (32%).

500 or more
officers

7.4

All sizes

ƒƒAbout half (52%) of the separations from state agencies
in 2008 were attributable to nonmedical retirements,
compared to less than a quarter from local police
departments (23%) and sheriffs’ offices (19%).

10
Percent

15

20

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

0

10

20

30
40
Percent

50

60

70

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

6

•

Table 3
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies that had
separations of full-time sworn personnel, by size and type of
agency, 2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
65%
100%
98
88
73
47

Local
police
63%
100%
98
88
75
46

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state
73%
100%
100%
100%
97
100
88
~
68
~
53
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Table 4
Officer separations from state and local law enforcement
agencies, by type of separation, and by size and type of
agency, 2008
Type of separation and
size of agency
Resignation
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Non-medical retirement
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Dismissal
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Probationary rejection
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Medical/disability retirement
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Other
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
Local Sheriff’s Primary
agencies police office
state
54%
36
51
58
70
71

55%
38
48
55
71
70

56%
40
54
65
66
81

30%
28
47
~
~
~

23%
41
26
18
10
5

23%
41
29
20
10
5

19%
32
22
13
9
3

52%
54
32
~
~
~

10%
7
9
11
11
16

9%
6
7
10
9
16

12%
11
12
12
15
10

4%
4
5
~
~
~

5%
4
6
5
4
3

6%
6
7
7
4
4

3%
2
4
3
4
2

3%
2
12
~
~
~

5%
6
5
5
3
3

5%
6
6
6
3
3

3%
4
3
3
4
2

10%
11
3
~
~
~

4%
5
4
3
2
3

3%
3
3
2
2
3

6%
11
4
5
3
2

2%
2
1
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

7

•

Mandatory retirement policies
ƒƒIn 2008, 10% of all agencies, employing 21% of officers,
had a mandatory retirement age for officers. About 1 in
4 agencies with 500 or more officers had a mandatory
retirement age, compared to 1 in 20 agencies with fewer
than 10 officers (table 5).
ƒƒAmong agencies with 500 or more officers, state law
enforcement agencies (52%) were more likely than local
police departments (24%) or sheriffs’ offices (3%) to have
a mandatory retirement age.
ƒƒThe most common mandatory retirement age used by
state and local law enforcement agencies in 2008 was
age 65 (42%). Other jurisdictions reported mandatory
retirement ages of 60 (21%), 70 (13%), 63 (10%), 62 (8%),
and 55 (4%) (not in a table).

Table 5
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with a
mandatory retirement age for officers, 2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
10%
25%
19
16
12
5

Local
police
11%
24%
25
19
14
5

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state
7%
45%
3%
52%
8
29
6
~
7
~
7
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

ƒƒIn agencies with a mandatory retirement age, nonmedical
retirements accounted for 44% of separations, compared
to 20% among agencies without a retirement age (not in a
table).

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

8

•

Military reservists called to active duty
ƒƒIn 2008, 19% of agencies had about 7,500 full-time sworn
personnel who were called to active military duty (table
6). This was a decrease from 2003 when 23% of agencies
had 11,400 officers called to active duty (not in a table).
ƒƒNearly all agencies employing 500 or more sworn
personnel had officers called to active duty in both 2003
(99%) and 2008 (99%) (2003 data not in a table).
ƒƒAs in 2003, agencies with fewer than 10 officers (5%) were
the least likely to have officers called to active duty in 2008.
ƒƒOf all full-time sworn personnel, 1.1% got called to active
military duty in 2008, compared to 1.7% in 2003. In
agencies that had officers called, 1.5% of all officers got
called to active duty in 2008, compared to 2.2% in 2003
(2003 data not in a table) (figure 5).
ƒƒAmong agencies employing fewer than 10 sworn
personnel that had officers called to active duty in 2008,
call-ups affected about 20% of their total number of
full-time sworn personnel, compared to about 1% in the
largest agencies. A similar effect was observed in 2003
(23% and 1.5%) (not in a table).

Figure 5
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers that were
military reservists called to active duty, by size of agency,
2008
Size of agency

••

All agencies
Agencies with callups

1.1

All sizes

1.6
0.9
1.0

500 or more
officers

1.3
1.6

100–499

1.2

25–99

2.9
1.1

10–24

7.3
1.2

Fewer
than 10

20.2
0

5

10

Percent

15

20

25

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Table 6
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with officers called to active military duty and number of full-time sworn
personnel called to active military duty, 2008
All
agencies
19%
99%
79
36
14
5

Percent of agencies
Local
Sheriff’s
police
office
16%
27%
99%
100%
79
79
36
36
14
15
4
8

Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.

Primary
state
96%
100%
93
~
~
~

Full-time sworn officers called to active military duty
All
Local
Sheriff’s
Primary
agencies
police
office
state
7,474
4,959
1,900
615
2,462
1,596
358
508
2,229
1,304
818
107
1,784
1,279
504
~
633
483
150
~
366
297
70
~

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

9

•

Recruitment of officers
Recruitment methods
ƒƒAbout 9 in 10 agencies actively recruited applicants for
sworn positions during 2008 (not in a table).
ƒƒMost agencies with 100 or more officers had a dedicated
recruiting budget in 2008. Among agencies with 25 to
99 officers, about half of local police departments had a
recruiting budget, compared to about a quarter of sheriffs’
offices (table 7).
ƒƒAmong agencies with a recruiting budget, the overall
mean was $13,700 (not in a table) and the median was
$2,000 (table 8).
ƒƒAmong agencies with 500 or more officers, the median
recruiting budget was $50,000, compared to $1,000 in
agencies with fewer than 10 officers.
ƒƒAbout 8 in 10 agencies with 500 or more sworn personnel
and about 5 in 10 agencies with 100 to 499 officers had a
full-time recruitment manager (table 9).
ƒƒAmong agencies with recruitment managers, nearly all
employed either one (79%) or two (14%). About 85% of
agencies employed only sworn personnel in the position,
8% employed only civilians, and 7% used both sworn and
civilian personnel (not in a table).
Table 7
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with
a dedicated recruiting budget, by size and type of agency,
2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
32%
76%
63
44
30
23

Local
police
34%
85%
69
51
34
24

Sheriff’s
office
24%
71%
52
26
16
16

Primary
state
61%
56%
71
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

ƒƒAbout 7 in 10 agencies used newspaper advertisements
(69%) for recruitment purposes, with little variation by
size category (table 10). A majority of agencies (59%) also
used personal contacts, including about 3 in 4 agencies
employing 100 or more officers.
ƒƒA majority of agencies in each size category of 10 officers
or more used the internet in 2008 to recruit applicants.
Agencies with 500 or more officers (96%) were nearly 3
times as likely to use internet advertising as those with
fewer than 10 officers (36%).
ƒƒMost agencies employing 100 or more officers used job
fairs and special events in 2008 to recruit applicants
(table 11).
ƒƒIn 2008 a majority of officers were employed by an agency
that used agency websites (78%), personal contacts (74%),
newspapers (71%), job fairs (70%), employment websites
(62%), or special events (56%) to recruit applicants for
sworn positions (figure 6).
Table 8
Median recruiting budget of state and local law enforcement
agencies, by size and type of agency, 2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
$2,000
$50,000
8,000
2,500
1,500
1,000

Local
police
$2,000
$45,000
10,000
2,500
1,500
1,000

Sheriff’s
office
$2,500
$46,800
5,000
2,000
2,000
1,000

Primary
state
$39,800
$57,500
29,800
~
~
~

Note: Excludes agencies not having a separate recruiting budget.
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Table 9
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with a
full-time recruitment manager, by size and type of agency,
2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
12%
80%
49
18
8
7

Local
police
12%
82%
53
21
9
7

Sheriff’s
office
11%
74%
41
11
4
6

Primary
state
76%
81%
64
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

10

•

Table 10
Officer recruitment methods used by more than half of state
and local law enforcement agencies, by size and type of
agency, 2008

Table 11
Officer recruitment methods used by fewer than half of state
and local law enforcement agencies, by size and type of
agency, 2008

All
Method and size of agency agencies
Newspaper advertisement
All sizes
69%
500 or more officers
75
100–499
64
25–99
71
10–24
71
Fewer than 10
67
Personal contact
All sizes
59%
500 or more officers
84
100–499
75
25–99
69
10–24
63
Fewer than 10
50
Internet advertisement
All sizes
51%
500 or more officers
96
100–499
85
25–99
70
10–24
57
Fewer than 10
36

All
Method and size of agency agencies
Job fair
All sizes
21%
500 or more officers
97
100–499
79
25–99
48
10–24
17
Fewer than 10
3
Special event
All sizes
15%
500 or more officers
81
100–499
60
25–99
33
10–24
12
Fewer than 10
3
Task force/advisory group
All sizes
6%
500 or more officers
54
100–499
29
25–99
12
10–24
2
Fewer than 10
1
Radio advertisement
All sizes
5%
500 or more officers
49
100–499
19
25–99
7
10–24
4
Fewer than 10
2
Magazine advertisement
All sizes
4%
500 or more officers
43
100–499
17
25–99
6
10–24
3
Fewer than 10
2
Television advertisement
All sizes
3%
500 or more officers
37
100–499
13
25–99
5
10–24
1
Fewer than 10
1

Local
police

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state

70%
76
68
74
73
68

63%
77
58
62
63
65

66%
70
57
~
~
~

57%
83
78
68
63
48

65%
77
68
71
61
62

91%
91
93
~
~
~

52%
98
86
78
64
36

47%
97
83
50
37
38

91%
91
93
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Figure 6
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies using selected methods to recruit applicants for
sworn positions, 2008
Recruitment method
78

Ad on agency website
74

Personal contact
Newspaper ad

71

Information at job fair

70
62

Ad on employment website
56

Information at special event
35

Task force or advisory group

25

Magazine ad

Sheriff’s
office

Primary
state

20%
98
82
54
18
3

24%
97
72
33
15
4

96%
94
100
~
~
~

15%
87
68
37
14
3

15%
71
47
21
6
3

68%
73
57
~
~
~

6%
54
34
14
2
1

5%
54
19
5
2
1

55%
55
57
~
~
~

5%
57
25
7
3
2

5%
31
8
5
5
4

45%
46
43
~
~
~

4%
47
20
7
4
2

3%
31
12
2
-2

36%
45
14
~
~
~

3%
48
17
6
1
1

2%
11
7
2
1
0

30%
33
21
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
--Less than 0.5%
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

29

Radio ad

Local
police

19

Television ad
0

20

40
Percent

60

80

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

11

•

Recruitment incentives
ƒƒTo attract applicants for sworn positions, many agencies
offered financial support to defray or eliminate the costs
of recruit training. A majority (57%) of agencies offered
these types of incentives including nearly all (99%)
agencies with 500 or more officers (table 12).
ƒƒAbout 1 in 2 state law enforcement agencies offered
college tuition reimbursement to new recruits in 2008,
compared to about 1 in 4 local police departments
and 1 in 8 sheriffs’ offices. A majority of local police
departments with 25 or more officers used this incentive.

ƒƒIn 2008 most officers were employed by an agency that
paid their salary during academy training (81%), offered
free academy training (71%), or reimbursed them for
college tuition (57%) (figure 7).
ƒƒSmall percentages of officers worked for agencies that
offered incentives such as flexible hours to allow college
attendance (12%), a signing bonus (7%), an academy
graduation bonus (7%), or relocation assistance (5%) to
recruit applicants.

Table 12
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies offering
financial support for training or education as recruitment
incentive, by size and type of agency, 2008

Figure 7
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies offering selected incentives to recruit applicants
for sworn positions, 2008

All
Local
Size of agency
agencies police
Financial support for training
All sizes
57%
53%
500 or more officers
99
100
100–499
90
94
25–99
78
79
10–24
57
54
Fewer than 10
42
40
College tuition reimbursement
All sizes
25%
28%
500 or more officers
68
77
100–499
61
71
25–99
50
62
10–24
31
38
Fewer than 10
6
7

Recruitment incentive

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state
70%
97
84
76
69
58

96%
100
86
~
~
~

13%
66
45
16
7
1

51%
48
57
~
~
~

*No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Salary paid during
academy training

81

Free academy training

71

College tuition
reimbursement

57

Flexible hours
to attend college

12

Employment
signing bonus

7

Training academy 5
graduation bonus
Relocation assistance 5
0

20

40
Percent

60

80

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

12

•

Targeted recruitment efforts
ƒƒAbout half of agencies employing 100 or more officers
and a third of agencies employing fewer than 100
targeted applicants who possessed prior law enforcement
experience for sworn positions (table 13).
ƒƒAbout 4 in 5 agencies with 100 or more officers targeted
women and minorities with special recruitment efforts
in 2008 (table 14). Among larger agencies, state agencies
were the most likely to target women and minorities, and
sheriffs’ offices were the least likely.
ƒƒWomen represented 12.1% of the officers in agencies that
targeted female applicants in 2008, compared to 10.6% of
officers in agencies that did not. Likewise, the percentage
of minority officers was larger in agencies that targeted
such applicants (24.3%) than in agencies that did not
(18.9%) (not in a table).
Table 13
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies using
special recruitment efforts to target selected groups for
sworn positions, by size and type of agency, 2008
Targeted group and
size of agency
Persons with prior law
enforcement experience
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Military veterans
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Multi-lingual persons
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
4-year college graduates
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
Local Sheriff’s Primary
agencies police office
state
36%
54
46
36
36
35

37%
54
50
38
36
35

34%
54
40
31
33
34

51%
55
43
~
~
~

17%
76
46
22
16
11

17%
75
49
25
17
11

16%
74
39
14
14
10

72%
82
50
~
~
~

16%
58
41
24
16
8

16%
69
46
28
18
9

13%
51
34
14
10
6

34%
36
29
~
~
~

14%
53
36
22
12
7

14%
60
41
26
13
7

11%
46
27
12
8
6

45%
42
50
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

ƒƒIn 2008 most officers worked for an agency that targeted
minorities (59%) and women (56%) for employment.
About half worked for an agency that targeted military
veterans (51%), applicants with prior law enforcement
experience (45%), and multi-lingual persons (42%)
(figure 8).
Table 14
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with
special officer recruitment efforts targeting women and
racial/ethnic minorities, by size and type of agency, 2008
All
Local
Sheriff’s Primary
Size of agency
agencies police
office
state
Women
All sizes
21%
21%
19%
83%
500 or more officers
79
79
71
88
100–499
57
63
45
71
25–99
33
38
19
~
10–24
21
22
16
~
Fewer than 10
10
10
9
~
Racial /ethnic minorities
All sizes
21%
22%
19%
85%
500 or more officers
84
83
77
91
100–499
61
68
48
71
25–99
36
42
19
~
10–24
21
24
14
~
Fewer than 10
9
9
10
~
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Figure 8
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies targeting specific applicant groups with special
recruitment efforts, 2008
Group targeted
59

Racial/ethnic minorities
56

Women
51

Military veterans
45

Law enforcement
42

Multi-lingual persons
4-year
college graduates

36
0

20

Percent

40

60

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

13

•

Selection of officers
ƒƒAs of 2007, more than 9 in 10 state and local officers
were employed by an agency that screened recruits
with criminal and driver records checks, background
investigations, and medical and psychological exams
(figure 9). More than 8 in 10 officers worked for an
agency that used physical agility or fitness tests, credit
history checks, and written aptitude tests.

ƒƒA majority of agencies in all size categories were willing
to consider applicants with a misdemeanor conviction,
including more than 80% of agencies employing 100 or
more officers.

ƒƒAs of 2006, basic recruit training programs included more
than 1,200 classroom and field hours on average. Of those
recruits who started a training program in 2005, 14%
failed to complete it (not in a table) (see State and Local
Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006).
ƒƒIn 2008, 5% of post-academy recruits did not successfully
complete the probationary period with their hiring agency
(not in a table). Because of probationary rejections and
academy failures, it is estimated that for every 122 officer
recruits, agencies obtained 100 non-probationary postacademy officers.
ƒƒIn order to increase the pool of applicants for sworn
positions, an estimated 84% of agencies had a policy in 2008
that allowed for some applicant screening criteria to be
relaxed at times within agency-specified parameters (such as
severity, frequency, or time elapsed) (not in a table).
ƒƒA majority of agencies in all size categories were willing
to consider applicants with prior credit-related problems,
including about 90% of those employing 100 or more
officers (table 15).
Figure 9
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies using selected screening methods in the hiring
process for sworn positions, 2007
Screening method
Criminal record check

99.9

Driving record check

99.8

Background investigation

99.6

Personal interview

98.5

Medical exam

97.7
93.3

Drug test

91.9

Psychological evaluation
Physical agility/fitness test

83.8

Credit history check

82.2

0

20

40

Percent

60

80

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Law Enforcement Management and
Administrative Statistics Survey, 2007.

ƒƒAbout 4 in 10 agencies were willing to consider applicants
with prior driving-related problems such as a suspended
license or a conviction for driving under the influence.
Nearly 9 in 10 agencies with 100 or more officers had such
a policy.
ƒƒIn 2008, more than two-thirds of officers worked for
agencies that allowed the consideration of highly qualified
applicants whose personal history included prior
credit-related problems (82%), marijuana use (76%), a
misdemeanor conviction (75%), a suspended driver’s
license (72%), or job-related problems (71%) (figure 10).
ƒƒIn 2008, nearly all state agencies (98%) had a residency
requirement, compared to 65% of sheriffs’ offices and 38%
of local police departments (table 16).
ƒƒAbout half of state agencies (51%) and sheriffs’ offices
(49%) required officers to live within a specified service
area, compared to 8% of local police departments.
Figure 10
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies allowing the hiring of applicants with selected
negative prior events, 2008
Prior event
82

Credit-related problems
Marijuana use

76

Misdemeanor conviction

75

Suspended driver's license

72

Job-related problems

71
62

DUI conviction
Use of illegal drugs
other than marijuana
Gang affiliation

80.2

Written aptitude test

ƒƒNearly half (47%) of agencies allowed the hiring of
applicants with prior marijuana use, including more than
80% of agencies with 100 or more officers. Overall, a sixth
of agencies considered hiring applicants that used illegal
drugs other than marijuana, including more than half of
agencies with 100 or more officers.

100

0

47
20
20

40
Percent

60

80

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

14

•

Table 15
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies
considering applicants with selected negative prior events,
by size and type of agency, 2008

Table 15 (continued)
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies
considering applicants with selected negative prior events,
by size and type of agency, 2008

Prior event and size of
agency
Credit-related problems
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Misdemeanor conviction
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Job-related problems
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Marijuana use
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Suspended driver’s license
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
DUI conviction
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Use illegal drugs other
than marijuana
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

Prior event and size of
agency
Gang affiliation
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies

Local
police

Sheriff’s Primary
office state

66%
94
86
72
66
61

66%
91
86
73
68
61

66%
100
87
68
60
61

87%
94
71
~
~
~

60%
86
81
66
59
56

59%
84
80
65
58
55

66%
94
82
68
63
60

85%
85
86
~
~
~

50%
85
72
58
48
44

49%
83
73
60
49
44

51%
94
70
54
45
45

79%
82
71
~
~
~

47%
87
84
71
50
30

48%
86
87
76
54
31

46%
88
80
59
39
25

91%
91
93
~
~
~

44%
89
77
59
43
33

43%
85
78
61
45
33

44%
97
76
52
38
28

87%
91
79
~
~
~

34%
78
65
48
35
24

32%
70
63
50
33
23

42%
89
68
45
39
32

81%
85
71
~
~
~

17%
70
53
29
15
7

17%
65
53
32
17
7

17%
77
51
21
10
6

68%
73
57
~
~
~

All
agencies

Local
police

7%
27
19
10
6
4

7%
31
20
11
7
4

Sheriff’s Primary
office state
7%
23
19
8
5
4

21%
21
21
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Table 16
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with a
residency requirement for sworn personnel, by size and type
of agency, 2008
All
Size of agency
agencies
Any type of requirement
All sizes
43%
500 or more officers
44
100–499
41
25–99
49
10–24
49
Fewer than 10
38
Requirement to live within
agency service area
All sizes
16%
500 or more officers
20
100–499
14
25–99
14
10–24
15
Fewer than 10
17

Local
police

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state

38%
34
38
45
44
33

65%
20
43
60
65
81

98%
97
100
~
~
~

8%
12
7
4
5
10

49%
17
23
38
49
73

51%
45
64
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

15

•

Hiring of officers
ƒƒAbout two-thirds (68%) of all agencies hired at least one
full-time officer during 2008. Nearly all (95%) agencies
with 100 or more officers had at least one new hire,
compared to about half (53%) of agencies with fewer than
10 officers (table 17).
ƒƒMore than half (57%) of all agencies hired at least one
officer at the entry level (no prior law enforcement
experience) during 2008. This included about 9 in 10
agencies employing 100 or more officers and about 4 in 10
agencies employing fewer than 10 officers.
ƒƒIn 2008, 81% of all new officer hires were at the entry
level. The proportion of new hires that were entry level
ranged from about 9 in 10 among agencies with 500 or
more officers to about 7 in 10 among agencies with fewer
than 25 officers (table 18).
ƒƒAn estimated 14% of hires by state and local law
enforcement agencies in 2008 were lateral hires (those
with experience as a sworn officer for a minimum time,
such as 5 years, who were already employed by a law
enforcement agency (or had only a brief break in service).
ƒƒOfficers newly hired during the year accounted for about
9% of all full-time sworn personnel working in state and
local law enforcement agencies in 2008 (figure 11). This
percentage ranged from 7% in the largest agencies to 23%
in the smallest.
ƒƒNew entry-level hires accounted for about 7% of all state
and local officers in 2008, ranging from 6% in the largest
agencies to 17% in the smallest agencies.

Table 18
Percent of newly hired officers in state and local law
enforcement agencies, by type of hire and size and type of
agency, 2008
Type of hire and size
of agency
Entry-level hire
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Lateral hire
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Other hire
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
Local
agencies police

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state

81%
92
82
78
71
73

82%
92
85
80
72
73

77%
89
79
72
67
72

94%
95
82
~
~
~

14%
5
13
17
24
16

14%
5
12
16
25
16

16%
8
14
20
22
16

3%
2
12
~
~
~

5%
3
5
5
5
11

4%
3
3
4
4
11

7%
3
7
8
10
12

3%
3
5
~
~
~

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Figure 11
Percent of full-time sworn personnel in state and local law
enforcement agencies who were hired during the year, by
size of agency, 2008
Size of agency

Table 17
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies that
hired full-time sworn personnel, by size and type of agency,
2008
All
agencies

Local
police

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state

Size of agency
Any type of new hire
All sizes
68%
67%
75%
500 or more officers
94
97
89
100–499
95
95
96
25–99
89
89
86
10–24
75
76
73
Fewer than 10
52
52
56
Entry-level hires
All sizes
54%
52%
61%
500 or more officers
92
96
82
100–499
90
92
88
25–99
80
81
76
10–24
61
62
56
Fewer than 10
34
33
41
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.

89%
91
86
~
~
~
85%
91
71
~
~
~

500 or more
officers

••

8.8

7.1

All sizes

Entry-level
Total

6.1 6.7

100–499

6.7

25–99

6.8

8.1
8.8
8.6

10–24

12.2

Fewer
than 10

22.9

16.7
0

5

10

Percent

15

20

25

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

16

•

Retention of officers
Retention strategies
ƒƒIn 2008, 19% of agencies required new officers to sign a
minimum time-of-service agreement. Among agencies
with service agreements, most required either a 2-year
(43%) or 3-year (32%) service term (not in a table).
ƒƒAbout 9% of officers were employed by a state or local
law enforcement agency with a 2-year time-of-service
agreement, and 5% by one with a 3-year time-of-service
agreement (not in a table).
ƒƒMany agencies used financial incentives to increase
officer retention rates in 2008. About two-thirds (65%) of
agencies offered free uniforms or a financial allowance for
uniform-related expenses (table 19).
Table 19
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies using
selected methods to increase retention of sworn personnel,
by size and type of agency, 2008
Retention method and
All
Local
Sheriff’s Primary
size of agency
agencies police
office
state
Free uniforms or uniform
allowance
All sizes
65%
65%
64%
91%
500 or more officers
86
87
77
94
100–499
80
82
78
86
25–99
78
82
70
~
10–24
74
77
63
~
Fewer than 10
52
52
52
~
Increased pay at service
milestones
All sizes
55%
55%
52%
74%
500 or more officers
77
80
71
76
100–499
72
76
65
71
25–99
73
78
62
~
10–24
66
71
52
~
Fewer than 10
39
39
36
~
Take-home vehicle
All sizes
46%
37%
80%
83%
500 or more officers
48
36
49
79
100–499
51
39
72
93
25–99
47
34
81
~
10–24
46
33
86
~
Fewer than 10
45
41
77
~
~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.

ƒƒAbout half of agencies offered increased pay at specific
service milestones (55%) or take-home vehicles (46%) to
officers. Local police departments (37%) were less likely
to offer take-home vehicles to officers than state agencies
(83%) or sheriffs’ offices (80%).
ƒƒIn 2008, about 8 in 10 officers worked for an agency that
offered free or subsidized uniforms. More than 7 in 10
worked for an agency with pay raises at service milestones
(figure 12).
ƒƒMore than 4 in 10 officers worked for an agency that
offered take-home vehicles or a pay raise for a college
degree.

Figure 12
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies using selected methods to increase retention of
sworn personnel, 2008
Retention method
Uniform allowance

82
75

Pay increase at service milestones
47

Pay increase for college degree

43

Take-home vehicle
Enhanced retirement benefits

35

Relaxed residency requirements

33

Increased overtime opportunities

26

Enhanced medical benefits

23
20

Change in title at service milestones

15

Health club membership/subsidy

Change in uniform at service milestones 12
0

20

40

60
Percent

80

100

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

17

•

Overtime and outside employment policies
ƒƒNearly all (95%) agencies allowed officers to work
overtime in 2008. About 4 in 5 agencies (78%) did not
limit the amount of overtime that could be worked
(table 20).
ƒƒNearly all (93%) agencies allowed officers to earn extra
income by working at a second job; however, most agencies
limited the number of hours worked outside of the agency
and the types of establishments where officers could work
(table 21).
ƒƒAbout two-fifths of agencies with fewer than 10 officers
allowed outside employment without restrictions.
ƒƒNearly all officers were employed by an agency that
allowed them to earn additional income through overtime
(99%) or outside employment (98%) during 2008. An
estimated 70% of officers worked for an agency that
allowed them to earn unlimited overtime, compared to
7% who worked for an agency that allowed unrestricted
outside employment (figure 13).

Table 20
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies allowing
officers to work overtime, by size and type of agency, 2008
Size of agency
Overtime allowed
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Overtime allowed
without limits
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies

Local
police

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state

95%
96
97
98
98
93

96%
100
97
99
99
93

94%
86
97
96
93
93

98%
97
100
~
~
~

78%
61
68
74
80
81

78
66
64
71
81
81

80%
54
76
81
80
80

60%
55
71
~
~
~

Table 21
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies allowing
officers to have outside employment, by size and type of
agency, 2008
Size of agency
Outside employment
allowed
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10
Outside employment
allowed without limits
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies

Local
police

Sheriff’s Primary
office
state

93%
99
99
96
95
89

93%
100
99
96
96
90

93%
94
98
96
93
89

100%
100
100
~
~
~

25%
1
5
7
16
41

27%
0
5
6
13
42

21%
3
7
9
26
34

2%
3
0
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Figure 13
Percent of state and local law enforcement officers employed
by agencies with selected overtime and outside employment
policies, 2008
Overtime policy
Overtime allowed
without limits

70

Overtime allowed
with limits

28

Overtime not allowed 1
Outside employment policy

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Outside employment
allowed without limits

7

Outside employment
allowed with limits

91

Outside employment
not allowed

3
0

20

40

60
Percent

80

100

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

18

•

Pension and exit interview policies
ƒƒAbout 9 in 10 agencies offered full-service retirement
pensions to officers during 2008. At least 96% of the
agencies in each size category employing 10 officers or
more had a pension plan, compared to 85% of agencies
with fewer than 10 officers.
ƒƒRetirement plans varied, but the minimum service
requirement was most commonly 20 or 25 years, and the
minimum qualifying age was most commonly age 50 or
55 (table 22).
ƒƒAgencies with 500 or more officers (81%) were nearly
3 times as likely to conduct exit interviews as agencies
with fewer than 10 officers (30%). State agencies were
more likely than local police departments or sheriffs’
offices to conduct exit interviews (table 23).

Table 22
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies offering
a full-service retirement pension to sworn personnel , by size
and type of agency, 2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
91%
98%
97
96
96
85

Local
police
90%
100%
97
97
96
85

Sheriff’s
office
92%
94%
96
94
94
88

Primary
state
98%
97%
100
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Table 23
Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies
conducting exit interviews of departing officers, by size and
type of agency, 2008
Size of agency
All sizes
500 or more officers
100–499
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All
agencies
43%
81%
70
58
47
31

Local
police
44%
79%
72
63
50
32

Sheriff’s
office
38%
77%
65
45
35
20

Primary
state
89%
91%
86
~
~
~

~No primary state agency had fewer than 100 sworn officers.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

19

•

Methodology
Sample design
The data analyzed for this report are from a supplement to the
2008 BJS Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies
(CSLLEA). The sample, based on the 2007 Law Enforcement
Management and Administrative Statistics Survey (LEMAS),
included 3,095 state and local law enforcement agencies. The
sample was designed to be representative of all general purpose
state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States,
with separate samples for local police departments and sheriffs’
offices.
Agencies serving special jurisdictions (such as schools,
airports, or parks) or with special enforcement
responsibilities (such as conservation or alcohol laws) were
out of scope for the survey. Sheriffs’ offices without primary
law enforcement jurisdiction were also out of scope.
The survey included all agencies employing 100 or more
full-time sworn personnel and a systematic random sample
of smaller agencies. Because sampling was used for smaller
agencies, some of the statistics presented in the report are
subject to sampling error. Statements of comparison have
been tested at the 95%-confidence level.

departments with 63 to 99 officers, the base weight is 2.15;
with 40 to 62 officers, 3.37; with 24 to 39 officers, 4.97; with
14 to 23 officers, 7.09; with 7 to 13 officers, 9.86; and with
fewer than 7 officers, 18.70.
The final weight associated with every agency, both SR and
NSR, is the product of the base weight and a factor that
adjusted for the number of agencies in each sample cell that
did not respond. For all state law enforcement agencies, the
final weight is 1.06. For SR sheriffs’ offices, the final weight
is 1.04, and for NSR sheriffs’ offices, the final weight is 4.40.
The final weight for all SR local police departments is 1.02.
For NSR local police departments with 63 to 99 officers,
the final weight is 2.20; with 40 to 62 officers, 3.40; with 24
to 39 officers, 5.13; with 14 to 23 officers, 7.09; with 7 to 13
officers, 10.17; and with fewer than 7 officers, 19.38.
To compute officer-based percentages, the final weight for
an agency was multiplied by the proportion of all full-time
equivalent sworn officers employed by that agency. The
number of full-time equivalent sworn officers was defined as
the sum of the number of full-time sworn officers and half
the number of part-time sworn officers.

The final sample includes 942 self-representing (SR)
agencies with 100 or more sworn personnel, and 2,153 non
self-representing (NSR) agencies employing fewer than
100 sworn personnel. The SR agencies include 589 local
police departments, 303 sheriffs’ offices, and 50 state law
enforcement agencies.

Item nonresponse

The NSR local police agencies were selected using a stratified
random sample with cells based on the number of sworn
personnel. The NSR sheriffs’ offices were selected using a simple
random sample. Overall, the NSR sample included 1,504 local
police departments and 615 sheriffs’ offices. All SR and NSR
agencies received the two-page CSLLEA supplement containing
questions on retention and recruitment in addition to the
standard two-page CSLLEA questionnaire

Imputations

Agency response rate
A total of 3,006 agencies completed the two-page CSLLEA
supplement for a response rate of 97%. This included 918 SR
agencies (97%) and 2,088 NSR agencies (97%). The response
rate for local police departments was 98%; for sheriffs’
offices, 95%; and for state law enforcement agencies, 94%.
The final database includes 2,053 local police departments,
906 sheriffs’ offices, and 47 state agencies.
Weighting
The base weight for all SR agencies is 1.00. For NSR sheriffs’
offices, the base weight is 4.19. For NSR local police

For the 3,006 agencies completing the supplemental
questionnaire, item nonresponse rates due to omission or
invalid data were quite low. For most categorical items, the
nonresponse rate was under 1% (appendix table 1).

When an agency did not supply a response to a numeric
item related to number of hires and separations, a ratio
imputation was used. The imputations used the mean value
of the ratio of the missing value relative to the number of
full-time sworn personnel as reported by other agencies
in the same sample cell. Imputations were not used for
categorical items.
Accuracy of the estimates
The accuracy of the estimates presented in this report
depends on two types of error: sampling and nonsampling.
Sampling error is the variation that may occur by chance
because a sample rather than a complete enumeration of
the population was conducted. Nonsampling error can be
attributed to many sources such as the inability to obtain
information about all cases in the sample, inability to obtain
complete and correct information from the administrative
records, and processing errors. The full extent of the nonsampling error is never known in a sample. The sampling
error, as measured by an estimated standard error, varies by
the size of the estimate and the size of the base population.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

20

•

Appendix table 1
Item nonresponse for 2008 Census of State and Local Law
Enforcement Agencies supplement on hiring and retention
Item description
Number of sworn personnel
Number of officers hired
Number of officer separations
Mandatory retirement age
Number of reserve call-ups
Agency recruiting budget
Agency recruitment manager
Agency recruitment methods
Agency recruitment incentives
Groups targeted for recruitment
Policy on applicants with negative history
Residency requirement
Types of hires
Reasons for separations
Retention methods
Overtime policy
Outside employment policy
Retirement pension
Exit interview policy

Percent of cases missing
0.0%
0.9
1.2
0.1
0.3
4.6
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.8
0.1
1.1
1.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 2
Standard errors of the number of officers hired by and separated from state and local law enforcement agencies, 2008
Number of officers hired
All agencies
Local police
Sheriff’s office
971
854
444
468
295
363
338
310
135
390
382
81

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Number of officers separated
All agencies
Local police
Sheriff’s office
680
568
358
377
237
293
306
279
127
361
351
84

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100 officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 3
Standard errors for table 3: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies that had separations of full-time
sworn personnel, 2008
Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
0.6%
0.4%
0.6
1.2

Local police
0.7%
0.2%
0.5
1.3

Sheriff’s office
0.7%
1.2%
1.5
1.6

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

21

•

Appendix table 4
Standard errors for table 4: Percent of officer separations
resulting from resignations from state and local law
enforcement agencies, by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 5
Standard errors for table 5: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a mandatory retirement age for
officers, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.1%
1.3%
2.0
2.5

Local police
1.3%
1.5%
2.3
2.8

Sheriff’s office
1.4%
2.3%
3.0
2.9

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100 officers
because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

All agencies
0.6%
1.1%
1.4
0.9

Local police
0.7%
1.4%
1.7
1.0

Sheriff’s office
0.8%
1.5%
1.5
1.6

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 6
Standard errors for table 6: Percent of state and local law enforcement agencies with officers called to active military duty and
number of full-time sworn personnel called to active military duty, 2008
Percent of agencies with call-ups
All agencies
Local police
Sheriff’s office
0.6%
0.7%
1.3%
1.5%
1.7%
2.9%
1.4
1.7
2.2
0.8
0.9
1.7

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

Number of full-time sworn personnel called up
All agencies
Local police
Sheriff’s office
159
128
92
90
68
60
70
66
24
74
72
16

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100 officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 7
Standard errors for table 7: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a dedicated recruiting budget, by
size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 8
Standard errors for table 8: Median recruiting budget of
state and local law enforcement agencies, by size and type of
agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.1%
1.6%
1.9
1.9

Local police
1.3%
1.8%
2.4
2.1

Sheriffs’ office
1.3%
2.7%
2.3
2.4

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

All agencies
$190
$213
210
320

Local police
$227
$271
237
357

Sheriffs’ office
$232
$296
452
338

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

22

•

Appendix table 9
Standard errors for table 9: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a full-time recruitment manager,
by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 12
Standard errors for table 12: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies offering financial support training as
a recruitment incentive, by size and type of agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
0.6%
1.1%
1.1
1.1

Local police
0.8%
1.4%
1.5
1.2

Sheriffs’ office
0.8%
1.9%
1.3
1.5

All agencies
1.2%
1.3%
2.0
2.1

Local police
1.4%
1.5%
2.5
2.4

Sheriffs’ office
1.5%
2.6%
2.8
3.1

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 10
Standard errors for table 10: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies using internet advertising for officer
recruitment, by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 13
Standard errors for table 13: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies using special recruitment efforts to
target applicants with prior law enforcement experience, by
size and type of agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.2%
1.4%
2.0
2.1

Local police
1.4%
1.5%
2.4
2.3

Sheriffs’ office
1.6%
3.1%
3.0
3.1

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.2%
1.5%
2.0
2.1

Local police
1.4%
1.8%
2.4
2.3

Sheriffs’ office
1.5%
2,8%
2.9
3.0

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 11
Standard errors for table 11: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies, using job fairs for officer recruitment,
by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 14
Standard errors for table 14: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with special officer recruitment efforts
targeting women, by size and type of agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
0.6%
1.5%
1.5
0.7

Local police
0.7%
1.8%
1.9
0.7

Sheriffs’ office
1.2%
2.9%
2.2
1.3

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

All agencies
0.8%
1.4%
1.7
1.3

Local police
1.0%
1.7%
2.1
1.4

Sheriffs’ office
1.2%
2.4%
2.3
1.8

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

23

•

Appendix table 15
Standard errors for table 15: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies considering applicants with a prior
misdemeanor conviction, by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 18
Standard errors for table 18: Percent of newly hired officers
in state and local law enforcement agencies, by type of hire
and size and type of agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.2%
1.5%
2.0
2.2

Local police
1.5%
1.8%
2.5
2.4

Sheriffs’ office
1.5%
2.9%
3.0
3.1

All agencies
1.2%
1.1%
1.9
2.8

Local police
1.5%
1.3%
2.3
3.2

Sheriffs’ office
1.5%
2.4%
3.0
3.8

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 16
Standard errors for table 16: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies with a residency requirement for
sworn personnel, by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 19
Standard errors for table 19: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies providing take-home vehicles to
increase retention of sworn personnel, by size and type of
agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.1%
1.6%
2.0
2.0

Local police
1.4%
1.8%
2.5
2.2

Sheriffs’ office
1.5%
3.0%
2.9
2.5

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.2%
1.5%
1.9
2.1

Local police
1.4%
1.7%
2.4
2.4

Sheriffs’ office
1.2%
2.4%
2.2
2.6

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 17
Standard errors for table 17: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies that hired full-time sworn personnel
at the entry level, by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 20
Standard errors for table 20: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies allowing officers to work overtime
without limits, by size and type of agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.1%
1.3%
2.0
2.0

Local police
1.4%
1.5%
2.4
2.3

Sheriffs’ office
1.6%
2.6%
3.1
3.1

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

All agencies
1.0%
1.3%
1.6
1.7

Local police
1.2%
1.6%
2.0
1.9

Sheriffs’ office
1.3%
2.4%
2.4
2.5

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

24

•

Appendix table 21
Standard errors for table 21: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies allowing officers to have outside
employment without limits, by size and type of agency, 2008

Appendix table 23
Standard errors for table 23: Percent of state and local
law enforcement agencies conducting exit interviews of
departing officers , by size and type of agency, 2008

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
1.1%
0.8%
1.4
2.1

Local police
1.4%
1.0%
1.7
2.4

Sheriffs’ office
1.3%
1.7%
2.7
3.0

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

All agencies
1.1%
1.5%
2.0
2.0

Local police
1.4%
1.8%
2.5
2.2

Sheriffs’ office
1.5%
3.0%
3.0
2.5

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Appendix table 22
Standard errors for table 22: Percent of state and local law
enforcement agencies offering a full-service retirement
pension to sworn personnel , by size and type of agency,
2008
Size of agency*
All sizes
25–99 officers
10–24
Fewer than 10

All agencies
0.8%
0.6%
0.8
1.6

Local police
1.0%
0.7%
1.0
1.8

Sheriffs’ office
0.9%
1.5%
1.5
2.0

Note: Standard errors are not presented for primary state agencies because all
state agencies were selected for the survey.
*Standard errors are not presented for agencies employing more than 100
officers because all agencies of that size were selected for the survey.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement
Agencies, 2008.

Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 – Statistical Tables | October 2012	

25

•

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical agency of the U.S. Department
of Justice. James P. Lynch is director.
These Statistical Tables were prepared and data were analyzed by Brian Reaves.
Sheri Simmons and Alexia Cooper verified the report.
Catherine Bird and Jill Thomas edited the report, and Barbara Quinn produced
the report under the supervision of Doris J. James.
October 2012, NCJ 238251

Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
www.ojp.usdoj.gov

 

 

Disciplinary Self-Help Litigation Manual - Side
Advertise Here 2nd Ad
Disciplinary Self-Help Litigation Manual - Side