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U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Bulletin

September 2007, NCJ 218915

HIV in Prisons, 2005
By Laura M. Maruschak
BJS Statistician
On December 31, 2005, correctional authorities reported
that 20,888 State inmates (1.8%) and 1,592 Federal
inmates (1.0%) were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or had confirmed AIDS. This was a total
of 22,480 inmates, a slight decrease from 22,936 inmates
in 2004.
Half of the HIV/AIDS cases were in the South, nearly a third
in the Northeast, and about a tenth in both the Midwest and
the West. The Northeast reported the highest percentage
of HIV/AIDS cases based on its custody population (3.9%).
At yearend 2005, three states — New York (4,440), Florida
(3,396), and Texas (2,400) — housed nearly half (49%) of
all HIV/AIDS cases in State prisons.
At yearend 2005, an estimated 18,953 males (1.8%) and
1,935 females (2.4%) in State prisons were HIV-infected or
had confirmed AIDS. The number of cases for both males
and females were down from 2004. At yearend 2005, five
States reported no female HIV/AIDS cases: New Hampshire, North Dakota, West Virginia, Hawaii, and Montana.
Among Federal inmates, 1,491 men (1.0%) and 101
women (0.9%) were HIV-infected or had confirmed AIDS.
An estimated 5,620 inmates had confirmed AIDS, down
from 5,969 in 2004. Of the confirmed cases, 5,026 were in
State prisons and 594 were in Federal prisons. Four States
accounted for nearly half (47%) of all confirmed AIDS
cases: Texas (894), New York (700), Florida (645), and
Maryland (408). Maryland (1.8%) had the highest percentage of confirmed AIDS cases among its custody population, followed by Connecticut, New York, and Delaware
(1.1% each). Five States (New Hampshire, Indiana, North
Dakota, Idaho, and Wyoming) reported having no confirmed AIDS cases.
During 2005 an estimated 176 State inmates died from
AIDS-related causes, down from 185 in 2004. For every
100,000 State inmates, 13 died from AIDS-related causes.
AIDS-related deaths accounted for nearly 1 in 20 deaths
reported in State prisons. New York reported the largest

Reported HIV/AIDS cases and AIDS-related deaths,
2004 and 2005
2005
2004
Percent of cusPercent of cusNumber tody population Number tody population
U.S. total

22,480

1.7%

22,936

1.8%

1,592

1.0%

1,680

1.1%

State
Northeast
Midwest
South
West

20,888
6,456
2,104
10,423
1,905

1.8%
3.9
0.9
2.2
0.7

21,256
6,646
2,025
10,691
1,894

1.8%
4.1
0.9
2.1
0.7

Gendera
Male
Female

20,444
2,036

1.7%
2.3

19,294
1,962

1.8%
2.5

5,620

0.4%

5,969

0.5%

Federal

Confirmed AIDSa
AIDS-related
deaths in prisonb
State
Federal

176
27

185
18

a

Includes estimates of the number inmates in States not reporting a
breakdown of the total number of HIV/AIDS cases. Estimates are based
on the most recent data available. See Methodology.

bTotal

number of deaths are based on a combination of data collected in
the National Prisoners Statistics (NPS) and the Death in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP).

number of AIDS-related deaths (19), followed by Florida
(17) and California (14). Relative to the number of inmates
in custody, the Northeast reported the highest rate of AIDSrelated deaths (28 per 100,000 inmates), followed by the
South (13 per 100,000 inmates).
Among Federal inmates, 27 died from AIDS-related causes
in 2005, up from 18 in 2004. For every 100,000 Federal
inmates, 15 died from AIDS-related causes. AIDS-related
deaths accounted for 7% of all deaths in Federal prisons.
State-level data and other detailed information are available in appendix tables on the BJS website at <http://www.
ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/hivp05.pdf>.

HIV/AIDS cases in State and Federal prisons steadily
declining since 1999

Table 1. Number of HIV/AIDS cases in State and Federal
prisons at yearend, 1999 and 2005

The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) began collecting official data on HIV infection in State and Federal prisons in
1991 (see Methodology). At that time, 17,551 State and
Federal inmates were HIV-infected or had confirmed AIDS
(figure 1). This number steadily increased through yearend
1995, but fluctuated thereafter until reaching a high of
25,807 at yearend 1999. Since then, the number of HIV/
AIDS cases has steadily declined, reaching 22,480 at
yearend 2005.

Jurisdiction

New York accounted for more than three-quarters of
the decline in HIV/AIDS cases between 1999 and 2005
Between 1999 and 2005, the number of inmates who were
HIV-infected or had confirmed AIDS increased in 18 States
and the Federal system, while the number decreased in 27
States (table 1). The remaining five States and the District
of Columbia either reported no change or did not report
data for 1999 or 2005.
The largest increases were reported in Florida (up 763), the
Federal system (up 436), Georgia (up 196), and North
Carolina (up 164). New York reported the largest decrease,
with 2,560 fewer HIV-infected or confirmed AIDS inmates,
followed by New Jersey (down 329), and California (down
321). New York alone accounted for more than threequarters (83%) of the total reported decrease in comparable HIV/AIDS cases.1
1New

York estimates the number of HIV/AIDS cases based on data
obtained through blind sero-prevalence studies conducted biennially by
the New York State Department of Health. See Methodology for details on
the estimation procedures.

HIV/AIDS cases in State and Federal prisons, 1991-2005
Number of HIV/AIDS cases
30,000
25,000

Total reported

20,000

Excluding New York

15,000
10,000
5,000

Reported in New York

0
1991

1993

1995

Figure 1

2 HIV in Prisons, 2005

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

U.S. total
Comparablea
Reported
Federal
State

Total HIV/AIDS cases
2005
1999

Change from
1999-2005

22,346
22,480
1,592
20,888

25,438
25,807
1,156
24,651

-3,092
-3,327
436
-3,763

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandb
Vermont

6,456
463
10
221
21
540
4,440
692
58
11

10,030
632
9
346
17
869
7,000
939
203
15

-3,574
-169
1
-125
4
-329
-2,560
-247
-145
-4

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

2,104
474
134
28
34
525
41
301
19
2
410
14
122

2,171
635
/
30
41
578
32
290
20
2
391
5
147

-67
-161
:
-2
-7
-53
9
11
-1
0
19
9
-25

10,423
268
94
124
/
3,396
1,042
83
488
671
302
718
136
489
210
2,400
/
2

10,243
283
99
170
359
2,633
846
122
381
820
192
554
122
617
185
2,520
330
10

180
-15
-5
-46
:
763
196
-39
107
-149
110
164
14
-128
25
-120
:
-8

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbiac
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

West
1,905
2,207
-302
Alaska
/
16
:
Arizona
152
144
8
California
1,249
1,570
-321
Colorado
148
131
17
Hawaii
23
30
-7
Idaho
26
15
11
Montana
6
10
-4
Nevada
124
125
-1
New Mexico
25
26
-1
Oregon
/
23
:
Utah
38
34
4
Washington
107
75
32
Wyoming
7
8
-1
Note: For detailed State-level data for 2005, see Appendix table 1 at
<http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/hivp05.pdf>.
/Not reported.
:Not calculated.
a
The comparable numbers for 1999 and 2005 include data from the
Federal system, 46 States, and the District of Columbia.
b
In 2005 Rhode Island changed their method for reporting HIV/AIDS
cases. As a result, Rhode Island revised their HIV/AIDS counts for
2000-2004.
c
The percentage change was not calculated for the District of
Columbia because at yearend 2001 responsibility for housing sentenced felons was transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Number of confirmed AIDS cases fluctuated between
1999 and 2005
Between 1999 and 2005, the estimated number of confirmed AIDS cases in State and Federal prisons fluctuated,
reaching a high of 7,039 in 1999 and a low of 5,607 in 2002
(table 2). Overall, the estimated number of confirmed cases
decreased by 1,419 cases between 1999 and 2005. Since
2000, the estimated confirmed AIDS cases as a percent of
all HIV/AIDS cases have remained stable at about 25%.
The number of confirmed AIDS cases was estimated
because not all States reported counts in every year during
the 7-year period between 1999 and 2005. For States that
reported counts, the number of confirmed AIDS cases
ranged between 6,642 in 1999 and 4,862 in 2002.
A total of 31 States and the Federal system provided data
in all 7 years (see comparable column in table 2). The pattern of change in confirmed AIDS cases was similar across
the three measures — estimated, reported, and comparable confirmed AIDS cases. The number fluctuated but
decreased overall during the period.
Difference between the rate of confirmed AIDS cases
in prisons and the general population shrinking
In each year since 1991, the rate of confirmed AIDS has
been higher among prison inmates than in the U.S. general
population, but the gap has been narrowing. At yearend
2005, the estimated rate of confirmed AIDS in State and
Federal prisons was more than 2½ times higher than in the
general population (table 3). In 1999 it was nearly 5 times
higher.

Table 2. Number of confirmed AIDS cases in State
and Federal prisons, at yearend 1999-2005

Number of confirmed AIDS cases
Yearend
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Estimateda Reportedb Comparablec
7,039
6,275
6,240
5,607
5,892
5,969
5,620

6,642
5,676
5,708
4,862
5,175
5,425
5,422

5,973
5,453
5,399
4,788
5,095
5,206
5,011

Estimated confirmed
AIDS cases as a
percent of total HIV/
AIDS cases
27.3%
24.8
25.9
23.5
25.0
26.0
25.0

Note: For State-level data for 2004 and 2005, see Appendix table 3 at
<http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/hivp05.pdf>.
aIn

States that did not report confirmed AIDS cases, estimates were
made by applying to the total the percentages by type of HIV infection
from the most recent year for which data were available. For each
year, estimates do not include data from States that did not report sufficient data on HIV/AIDS cases.

bExcludes

6 States in 1999, 9 in 2000, 7 in 2001, 13 in 2002, 14 in
2003, 11 in 2004, and 9 in 2005.

cThe Federal system and 31 States reported data for all 7 years shown
in the table.

Table 3. Percent with confirmed AIDS among State
and Federal prisoners and U.S. general population,
1999-2005

Yearend

Percent of population estimated
to have confirmed AIDS
State and Federal U.S. general
prisoners
population*

The shrinking difference between the rate of confirmed
AIDS cases in prisons and the general population between
1999 and 2005 resulted from a decrease in the number of
confirmed AIDS cases in prisons (down 20%) and an
increase in cases (up 44%) among the general population.

1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

HIV/AIDS cases among both male and female State
inmates declining, but at a faster rate for females

Note: See Methodology for data sources and calculations.
*Based on persons age 13 or older in 1999 and age 15 or older thereafter. Excludes confirmed AIDS cases in State and Federal prisons.

Since 1999 the estimated number of both male and female
inmates who had HIV infection or confirmed AIDS has
decreased. Among men, HIV/AIDS dropped from 22,175
cases to 18,953 between 1999 and 2005 (table 4). For
women, the number of cases dropped from 2,402 to 1,935.
The percentage of male inmates who were HIV positive or
had confirmed AIDS decreased from 2.2% to 1.8%; the
percentage for female inmates fell from 3.4% to 2.4%.
While both groups experienced a decrease in the number
of HIV/AIDS cases, females had a larger decrease in the
percentage of HIV/AIDS cases. This can be explained by
the faster growing female population in prisons and a larger
decrease in the number of HIV/AIDS cases among women.

0.58%
0.51
0.50
0.45
0.47
0.46
0.43

Percent of AIDS cases
in prisons by percent in
U.S. general population

0.12%
0.13
0.14
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.16

4.8
3.9
3.6
3.2
3.1
3.1
2.7

Table 4. HIV/AIDS cases in State and Federal prisons,
by gender, 1999-2005

Yearend
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Male inmates in custody
Estimated Percent of
number
population
22,175
21,889
20,357
20,265
20,010
19,294
18,953

2.2%
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8

Female inmates in custody
Estimated Percent of
number
population
2,402
2,467
2,196
2,153
2,126
1,962
1,935

3.4%
3.6
3.1
2.9
2.8
2.5
2.4

Note: To provide year-to-year comparisons, estimates were made
for States that did not report data by gender. For each State, estimates were calculated by applying to the total the percentages by
gender from the most recent year for which data were available. For
State-level data for 2005, see Appendix table 2 at <http://www.ojp.
usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/hivp05.pdf>.

HIV in Prisons, 2005 3

Inmate survey data support decline in HIV infection in 1997 and 2004
Data reported by inmates in personal interviews,
collected in the BJS Survey of Inmates in State
Correctional Facilities, were consistent with the decline
in HIV infection observed in National Prisoner Statistics
(NPS-1) official records. Personal interview data are
obtained every 5 to 6 years. The most recent data
collections were in 1997 and 2004. In each year,
inmates were asked if they had been tested for HIV at
admission or had ever been tested and the results of
the test. In 2004, 1.6% of tested State inmates reported
being HIV positive, down from 2.2% in 1997.
Decreases found in the percent of HIV positive
among male and female inmates and inmates ages
25 to 34
The inmate survey data provide a broad range of individual characteristics, including gender, race, age, current
offense, and prior drug use, that can be used to describe
trends. Despite apparent declines within each category,
not all declines were statistically significant (see table
footnote “a” for statistically significant items).
Overall, the percentage of State inmates reporting HIV
infection in 2004 was down from 1997. Both male and
female inmates were less likely to report being HIV positive in 2004 than in 1997. In 2004, 1.6% of male inmates,
compared to 2.2% in 1997, were HIV positive. For female
inmates, 1.9% in 1997, down from 3.4% in 2004, reported
being HIV positive.
Among State inmates ages 25 to 34, there was a sharp
decline in the number who reported being HIV positive
between 1997 and 2004 (2.3% compared to 0.8%). Over
the same time period, inmates in each of the other age
categories were equally likely to report being HIV positive.
Decrease in HIV infection found among drug
offenders and inmates who reported prior drug
involvement
Drug offenders were less likely in 2004 to report being
HIV positive than in 1997. In 2004, 1.8% of drug
offenders reported being HIV positive, down from 2.9%
in 1997. Between 1997 and 2004, significant decreases
in the percentage of inmates who reported being HIV
positive were found among inmates who ever used
drugs, used drugs in the month before arrest, and used
needles to inject drugs. Among inmates who reported

4 HIV in Prisons, 2005

Characteristic

State inmates who were ever tested for HIV
and reported results
2004
1997
Percent HIV
Percent
Number positive
Number HIV positive

All inmates
Gender
Malea
Femalea

967,200

1.6%

790,100

2.2%

897,700
69,500

1.6%
1.9

734,300
55,800

2.2%
3.4

Race/Hispanic origin
336,700
Whiteb
Black or African
Americanb
409,000
Hispanic or Latino
166,500

1.0%

257,900

1.4%

2.0
1.8

384,900
123,700

2.8
2.5

Age
24 or younger
25-34a
35-44
45 or older

159,600
328,900
300,600
178,000

0.3%
0.8
2.5
2.6

154,200
310,200
232,800
92,200

0.5%
2.3
3.1
2.7

Current offense
Violent
Druga
Property
Public-order

457,900
201,800
183,800
110,700

1.3%
1.8
2.6
0.9

360,400
164,300
178,600
77,000

1.9%
2.9
2.4
1.9

155,400
809,900

1.3%
1.7

123,000
666,000

1.7%
2.3

552,300

1.9

460,700

2.7

183,800
77,900

2.8
5.1

168,400
74,400

4.6
7.7

Prior drug use
Never
Evera
In month before
arresta
Used needle to
inject drugsa
Shared a needle

Note: See Appendix table 7 for standard error estimates at <http://www.
ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/hivp05.pdf>.
aDifferences

significant at the 95% confidence interval.

b

Not Hispanic or Latino.

ever using drugs, 1.7% reported being HIV positive in
2004, down from 2.3% in 1997. Inmates who used
drugs in the month before arrest were less likely to
report being HIV positive in 2004 (1.9%) than in 1997
(2.7%). Among inmates who said they had used a
needle to inject drugs, 2.8% reported being HIV positive
in 2004, down from 4.6% in 1997.

Number of AIDS-related deaths declined dramatically
between 1995 and 2000
The number of State inmates who died of AIDS-related diseases, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and
Kaposi's sarcoma,2 peaked in 1995 at 1,010 deaths and
declined through 2000 to 185 deaths. In 2001 the number
of AIDS-related deaths reported in the NPS-1 increased to
256 and has steadily declined since (figure 2).
In 2001 BJS began collecting individual-level information
about deaths in State prisons, under the Death in Custody
Reporting Program (DCRP).3 The estimated number of
AIDS-related deaths calculated using data from both the
NPS-1 and the DCRP followed the same downward trend
between 2001 and 2005 that was found using data from
NPS-1 only. The estimated number of AIDS-related deaths
was 176 in 2005, down from 311 in 2001.
Between 1995 and 2000, New York reported the largest
decline in AIDS-related deaths (down 250), followed by
Florida (down 102) and California (down 68). These three
States combined accounted for more than half of the total
decline (825) in the number of AIDS-related deaths. New
Jersey (down 46) and Georgia (down 42) also had large
declines.
2Center

for Disease Control, 1993, Revised Classification System for HIV
Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among
Adolescents and Adults. MMWR 1992; 41(RR-17).

3In

2001 BJS began to estimate the number of AIDS-related deaths using
data from the NPS-1 and the DCRP. The most complete data for each
State's number of deaths were used to calculate the estimated number of
AIDS-related deaths. See Methodology.

Trends in AIDS-related deaths, 1991-2005
Number of AIDS-related deaths in State prisons
1,200

Reported in NPS-1

1,000
800
600
400

Estimated*

200
0
1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

*See Methodology.
Figure 2

Almost all of the decrease in AIDS-related deaths
attributed to male inmates
Using the individual records collected under the DCRP,
estimates of AIDS-related deaths by gender, age, and race
were calculated by applying the percentages in DCRP in
each year to the estimated total number of deaths. The
number of AIDS-related deaths decreased across gender,
age, race and Hispanic origin. Between 2001 and 2005,
male inmates, inmates ages 35 to 44, and black non-Hispanic inmates accounted for most of the decrease (table 5).
In 2005, 166 male inmates died from AIDS-related causes,
down from 295 in 2001. This decrease of 129 AIDS-related
deaths among male inmates was almost all (96%) of the
total decrease of 135 deaths among all inmates.

Table 5. Profile of inmates who died of AIDS-related causes in State prisons, 2001-2005
Characteristic
State total
Gender
Male
Female
Age
19 or younger
20-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55 or older
Race/Hispanic origin
Whitec
Black or African Americanc
Hispanic or Latino

Estimated number of AIDS-related deathsa
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001

Rate of AIDS-related deaths per 100,000 inmatesb
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001

176

185

268

283

311

14

15

22

24

26

166
10

176
9

258
10

273
10

295
16

14
12

15
11

23
12

24
13

27
21

0
0
25
82
55
14

0
3
26
88
57
11

0
1
48
124
75
19

0
0
32
139
96
16

0
5
52
150
86
18

0
0
6
21
31
22

0
1
6
23
33
19

0
1
12
33
44
31

0
0
8
38
57
27

0
3
13
41
52
31

33
120
21

46
122
11

46
186
32

58
188
35

56
208
46

8
24
9

11
24
5

10
34
15

13
35
17

13
39
22

Note: For State-level data for 2005, see appendix table 4 at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/hivp05.pdf>.
a

Estimates of the number of AIDS-related deaths by gender, age, and race/Hispanic origin were made by applying the percentages based on DCRP data to the estimated total number of AIDS-related deaths.

b

To calculate the rate, the number of State prisoners by age was first estimated by applying the age distribution reported in the
2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities to the 2001-2005 midyear custody counts in NPS-1.

c

Not Hispanic or Latino.

HIV in Prisons, 2005 5

Between 2001 and 2005, inmates ages 35 to 44 accounted
for half of the decrease (down 68) in the total number of
AIDS-related deaths. AIDS-related deaths of black nonHispanic inmates accounted for 65% of the total decline of
88 AIDS-related deaths reported between 2001 and 2005
(down from 208 to 120).
AIDS-related deaths as a percent of all deaths
decreasing more rapidly in State prison than in the
general population
AIDS-related deaths as a percent of total deaths in State
prisons also decreased significantly between 1995 and
2000, from 34.2% to 5.3% (table 6). Over a slightly different
time period (1995 to 2004, the most recent year for which
data are available), AIDS-related deaths among the general population ages 15 to 54 decreased 68%, from 44,233
to 14,315. AIDS-related deaths as a percent of all deaths in
the general population declined from 12.9% to 4.3% during
the period.
Between 2001 and 2004, the rate of AIDS-related deaths
among prison inmates as a percent of all deaths in the
prison population was nearly cut in half (from 10.3% to
5.6%). However, the rate in the general population
remained stable at about 4.3%.

Table 6. Percent of AIDS-related deaths among all deaths
in State prisons and U.S. general population
Percent of deaths
State
prisonsa

Yearend
1995

34.2%

2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

10.3
9.1
8.0
5.6
5.3

Between 1995 and 2001, the rate of AIDS-related deaths
declined from 100 deaths per 100,000 inmates to 25 per
100,000 (table 7). In the general population the rate
dropped from 29 per 100,000 to 9 per 100,000. After 2001,
while the rate of AIDS-related deaths in the State prison
population continued to decline, from 25 to 13 per 100,000
inmates, the rate in the general population ages 15 to 54
remained stable between 8 and 9 deaths per 100,000 persons.
Older persons in State prisons had a higher rate of
AIDS-related deaths than those in the general
population
Older inmates were more likely to die from AIDS-related
causes than persons in the same age group in the general
population. In 2005, inmates ages 35 to 44 were almost
twice as likely to die from AIDS-related causes (21 per
100,000 State inmates) than their counterparts in the general population (12 per 100,000 persons) (table 8). Among
persons ages 45 to 54, State inmates were more than twice
as likely as those in the general population to die from
AIDS-related causes (31 per 100,000 compared to 14 per
100,000).

12.9%

2.6

4.3
4.1
4.2
4.3
...

2.4
2.2
1.9
1.3
:

... Not available.
:Not calculated.
a

Percentages were based on the number of inmate deaths,
excluding those in jurisdictions not reporting AIDS-related deaths.

b
Excludes deaths reported in State prisons. See Methodology for
data sources.

Table 7. Rate of AIDS-related deaths in State prisons
and U.S. general population
Rate per 100,000 persons
State
prisons

Yearend

Rate of AIDS-relate deaths declining in prisons,
stabilizing in the general population

Percent of deaths
in State prisons by
percent in U.S.
U.S. general popu- general populalation, ages 15-54b tion, ages 15-54

U.S. general population, ages 15-54a

Rate of deaths in State
prisons by rate in U.S.
general population,
ages 15-54b

1995

100

29

3.5

2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

25
22
21
14
13

9
9
9
9
8

2.9
2.6
2.4
1.7
1.7

aExcludes

deaths reported in State prisons. See Methodology for
data sources.

bCalculation

based on unrounded rates.

Table 8. Rate of AIDS-related deaths per 100,000 persons
in State prisons and U.S. general population, by age, 20012005

Age
20-24
25-34
35-44
45-54

Rate of AIDS-related deaths
per 100,000 persons, by agea
U.S. general
State prisons populationb
2005 2001
2005 2001
0
6
21
31

3
13
42
52

1
4
12
14

1
6
15
13

Percent of population
U.S. general
State prisons population
2004
2005 2001
15.5%
33.1
30.5
14.1

7.1% 6.9%
13.5
13.8
14.7
15.8
14.3
13.8

Note: Data on AIDS-related deaths by age were not collected in prisons prior to 2001.
a

To calculate the rate, the number of State prisoners by age was first
estimated by applying the age distribution reported in the 2004 Survey
of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities to the 2005 and 2001 midyear custody counts in NPS-1.

b
Excludes deaths reported in State prisons. See Methodology for data
sources.

6 HIV in Prisons, 2005

Methodology
National Prisoner Statistics
The National Prisoner Statistics collection (NPS-1), which
primarily measures prison population movement, began in
1926. The NPS-1 includes yearend counts of prisoners by
jurisdiction, gender, race, Hispanic origin, and admissions
and releases during the year. The series consists of reports
from the departments of corrections in the 50 States and
the Federal Bureau of Prisons. In 1991 BJS began collecting data on HIV/AIDS in prisons in NPS-1. BJS respondents have indicated the circumstances under which
inmates are tested for HIV and have provided the number
of HIV-infected inmates in their custody.
Surveys of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities
The Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities provides nationally representative data on State prison
inmates. The 1997 and 2004 surveys used the same questionnaire and a stratified two-stage sample design. Facilities were selected in the first stage and inmates were
selected for interviews in the second stage. Detailed
descriptions of each survey’s methodology and links to
other reports or findings are available on the BJS Website
<http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/sicf04.htm>.
Accuracy of the survey estimates
The accuracy of the estimates in this report depends on
two types of error: sampling and nonsampling. Sampling
error is the variation that may occur by chance because a
sample rather than a complete enumeration of the population was conducted. Nonsampling error can be attributed to
many sources, such as nonresponses, differences in the
interpretation of questions among inmates, recall difficulties, and processing errors. In any survey the full extent of
the nonsampling error is never known. The sampling error,
as measured by an estimated standard error, varies by the
size of the estimate and the size of the base population.
Testing for differences in the proportions of inmates reporting that they were HIV positive within subgroups in the
1997 and 2004 surveys compared a calculated z-value
against the critical value of 1.645 (the 95% level for a onetail test). Given the overall declines in HIV cases reported
in the administrative data, a one-tail test showed that the
difference in proportions was less than zero. The z-value
was calculated by taking the ratio of the estimated difference in proportions to the square root of the pooled variances of the two samples. (See standard errors in appendix table 7 at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/pub/hiv05.pdf>.)
Deaths in Custody Reporting Program
To implement the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000
(PL 106-297), BJS developed four quarterly data collections of death records from local jails (begun in 2000), State
prisons (2001), State juvenile correctional agencies (2002),

and State and local law enforcement agencies (2003).
Records include data on the deceased’s characteristics
(such as age, gender, and race/Hispanic origin), criminal
background (such as legal status, offenses, and time in
custody), and the death itself (such as cause, time, location, and medical conditions and treatment).
Estimation of HIV/AIDS cases in New York State
New York estimates the number of HIV/AIDS cases based
on data from blind sero-prevalence studies conducted biennially by the New York State Department of Health. Blood
samples are taken from all inmates entering New York
State prisons. Every other year an extra sample from 1,000
sequential admissions at reception in four reception centers is tested for various diseases, including HIV. The percentage with HIV infection is applied to the total inmate
population, then adjusted for length of stay and data from
other studies. Projections for interim years are made without blind studies.
AIDS in the U.S. resident population
The number of persons with confirmed AIDS in the U.S.
general population (age 13 and older) was derived from the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HIV/
AIDS Surveillance Report, yearend editions 1995-2005.
For each year the number of active AIDS cases in the
United States was calculated by taking the —
• cumulative number of total AIDS cases for persons age
13 or older at yearend (from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance
Report), minus estimated confirmed AIDS cases in State
and Federal prisons, and subtracting the
• cumulative number of AIDS deaths for people age 15 or
older at yearend, minus estimated number of AIDS-related
deaths in State and Federal prisons.
The rate of confirmed AIDS cases in the U.S. general population was calculated by —
• dividing the annual total number of individuals with AIDS
by
• the estimated U.S. general population (age 13 or older
before 2000; age 15 or older since 2000) minus the State
and Federal custody population.
AIDS-related deaths in the United States
The number of AIDS-related deaths for persons ages 15 to
54 was based on the CDC, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report,
yearend editions. Deaths in the U.S. population for persons
ages 15 to 54 were taken from the CDC, Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 42, No. 2(S); Vol. 43, No. 12; Vol. 43,
No. 6(S); Vol. 45, No. 3(S); and Vol. 45, No. 11(S). Also
deaths were taken from the CDC, National Vital Statistics
Report, Vol. 47, No. 9; Vol. 47, No. 25; Vol. 48, No. 11; Vol.
49, No. 8; Vol. 50, No. 15; Vol. 53, No. 15; and Vol. 54, No.
19.
HIV in Prisons, 2005 7

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

*NCJ~218915*

PRESORTED STANDARD
POSTAGE & FEES PAID
DOJ/BJS
Permit No. G-91

Washington, DC 20531

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

For 2001 to 2005, AIDS-related deaths were calculated as
a percent of all deaths among persons ages 15 to 54 in the
U.S. general population. The difference of the national estimate of AIDS deaths of persons ages 15 to 54 minus AIDSrelated deaths of persons ages 15 to 54 in State prison was
divided by the national mortality estimates of persons ages
15 to 54 minus total deaths in State prisons.
For 2001 through 2005, the rates of AIDS-related deaths in
the general population were calculated by taking the difference of the national estimate of AIDS-related deaths for
persons ages 15 to 54 minus AIDS-related deaths for those
ages 15 to 54 in State prisons and dividing it by the U.S.
general population estimate minus the State prison population ages 15 to 54.
Because data on AIDS-related deaths by age in State prisons were not collected prior to 2001, the total number of
AIDS-related deaths in State prison were subtracted from
the national estimate of AIDS-related deaths for the 1995
rate calculations.

Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov
8 HIV in Prisons, 2005

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical
agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Jeffrey L.
Sedgwick is the director.
BJS Bulletins present the first release of findings
from permanent data collection programs.
This Bulletin was written by Laura M. Maruschak.
Margaret Noonan and Heather Couture verified the
report. Theresa M. Reitz carried out the data
collection and processing under the supervision of
Charlene M. Sebold, Governments Division,
Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce.
Duane H. Cavanaugh and Diron J. Gaskins
provided technical assistance. Tina Dorsey and
Carolyn C. Williams edited the report and Jayne
Robinson prepared it for final printing, under the
supervision of Doris J. James.
September 2007, NCJ 218915
This report in portable document format and in
ASCII and its related statistical data and tables
are available at the BJS World Wide Web
Internet site: <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
abstract/hivp05.htm>.

Appendix table 1. Inmates in custody of State or Federal prison authorities and reported
to be positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or to have confirmed AIDS,
2003-05
HIV/AIDS cases as a percent
of total custody populationb
2005
2004
2003

Jurisdiction

Total HIV/AIDS casesa
2005
2004
2003

U.S.total
Comparable reportingc
Reportedd
Federal
State

22,263
22,480
1,592
20,888

22,560
22,936
1,680
21,256

23,247
23,608
1,631
21,977

1.7%
1.0%
1.8

1.8%
1.1%
1.8

1.9%
1.1%
2.0

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

6,456
463
10
221
21
540
4,440
692
58
11

6,646
477
11
215
31
655
4,500
693
51
13

7,339
572
10
230
21
657
5,000
775
65
9

3.9%
2.6
0.5
2.1
0.9
2.3
7.0
1.7
1.7
0.7

4.1%
2.7
0.6
2.2
1.3
2.9
7.0
1.7
1.6
0.9

4.4%
3.2
0.5
2.3
0.9
2.8
7.6
1.9
1.8
0.6

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

2,104
474
134
28
34
525
41
301
19
2
410
14
122

2,025
488
/
32
41
575
44
294
20
6
387
9
129

2,087
551
/
31
32
579
40
268
21
2
416
11
136

0.9%
1.1
0.6
0.3
0.4
1.1
0.5
1.0
0.4
0.2
1.0
0.4
0.6

0.9%
1.1
/
0.4
0.5
1.2
0.6
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.9
0.3
0.6

1.0%
1.3
/
0.4
0.3
1.2
0.5
0.9
0.5
0.2
1.0
0.4
0.7

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

10,423
268
94
124
3,396
1,042
83
488
671
302
718
136
489
210
2,400
/
2

10,691
270
102
149
3,250
1,109
74
487
792
254
647
133
489
215
2,405
302
13

10,740
270
94
105
3,112
1,095
/
511
988
200
640
162
520
208
2,460
361
14

2.2%
1.1
0.8
1.8
3.9
2.1
0.7
2.5
3.0
2.7
/
0.8
2.2
1.5
1.7
/
0.0

2.1%
1.1
0.8
2.2
3.9
2.2
0.6
2.5
3.4
2.2
1.8
0.8
2.2
1.5
1.7
1.0
0.3

2.2%
1.0
0.7
1.6
3.9
2.3
/
2.6
4.2
1.6
1.9
1.0
2.3
1.5
1.8
1.2
0.4

West
1,905
1,894
1,811
0.7%
0.7%
0.7%
Alaska
/
/
/
/
/
/
Arizona
152
155
123
0.5
0.5
0.4
e
1,249
1,212
1,196
0.7
0.7
0.7
California
Colorado
148
185
162
0.9
1.1
1.0
Hawaii
23
15
27
0.6
0.4
0.7
Idaho
26
33
26
0.6
0.7
0.6
Montana
6
5
4
0.3
0.2
0.2
Nevada
124
116
107
1.1
1.1
1.0
New Mexico
25
25
29
0.4
0.4
0.5
Oregon
/
/
/
/
/
/
Utah
38
39
37
0.8
0.8
0.8
Washington
107
102
93
0.6
0.6
0.6
Wyoming
7
7
7
0.6
0.6
0.6
/Not reported.
a
Counts published in previous reports may have been revised.
b
Percentages are based on custody counts, except for New Mexico for which percentages are based
on its yearend jurisdiction count.
c
Excludes data from Indiana, Kentucky, Virginia, Alaska, and Oregon for all 3 years due to incomplete
reporting.
d
Exclude inmates in jurisdictions that did not report data.
eThe 2005 number of HIV/AIDS cases in California was based on the count on 2/3/06.

HIV in Prisons, 2005 9

Appendix table 2. Inmates in custody of State and Federal prison authorities reported to be
positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or to have confirmed AIDS, by gender, 2005
Jurisdiction

Male HIV/AIDS cases
Number
Percent of population

Female HIV/AIDS cases
Number
Percent of population

U.S. total
Estimateda,b
Reported
Federal
State

20,444
20,320
1,491
18,829

1.7%
1.0%
1.8

2,036
2,024
101
1,923

2.3%
0.9%
2.5

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

5,839
411
9
195
21
463
4,040
636
54
10

3.7%
2.5
0.5
2.0
0.9
2.1
6.7
1.6
1.7
0.7

617
52
1
26
0
77
400
56
4
1

7.2%
4.0
0.8
3.3
0
6.8
14.1
2.9
2.1
0.7

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

1,950
430
117
24
33
487
40
287
18
2
380
13
119

0.8%
1.0
0.6
0.3
0.4
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
0.2
1.0
0.4
0.6

154
44
17
4
1
38
1
14
1
0
30
1
3

0.9%
1.6
0.9
0.5
0.1
1.8
0.2
0.6
0.2
0
0.9
0.3
0.2

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

9,306
256
85
103
3,054
949
70
455
597
262
654
/
452
203
2,164
/
2

2.2%
1.1
0.7
1.6
3.8
2.1
0.6
2.5
2.8
2.7
1.9
/
2.2
1.6
1.7
/
0.1

981
12
9
21
342
93
13
33
74
40
64
/
37
7
236
/
0

3.1%
1.0
1.2
3.9
5.7
3.2
1.4
3.2
6.9
2.5
2.4
/
2.5
0.6
2.3
/
0

West
1,734
0.7%
171
0.8%
Alaska
/
/
/
/
Arizona
138
0.5
14
0.5
California
1,149
0.7
100
0.9
Colorado
135
0.9
13
0.7
Hawaii
23
0.7
0
0
Idaho
23
0.6
3
0.6
Montana
6
0.4
0
0
Nevada
99
0.9
25
2.7
New Mexico
23
0.4
2
0.3
Oregon
/
/
/
/
Utah
32
0.7
6
1.3
Washington
100
0.7
7
0.5
Wyoming
6
0.5
1
0.9
/Not reported.
a
Includes estimates of the number of inmates with HIV/AIDS by gender for Oklahoma.
b
In States that did not report HIV/AIDS cases by gender, estimates were made by applying to the total the percentages by gender from the most recent year for which data were available. For each year, estimates do not include
data from States that did not report sufficient data on HIV/AIDS cases.

10 HIV in Prisons, 2005

Appendix table 3. Inmates in custody of State or Federal prison authorities
and reported to have confirmed AIDS, yearend 2004 and 2005
Confirmed AIDS casesa
Number
Percent of custody populationb
2004
2005
2004

Jurisdiction

2005

U.S. total
Estimatedc
Reported
Federal
State

5,620
5,422
594
4,828

5,969
5,425
641
4,784

0.5%
0.4%
0.5

0.5%
0.4%
0.5

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

1,322
200
1
101
0
118
700
197
/
5

1,500
213
0
83
6
202
800
192
/
4

0.8%
1.1
-1.0
0
0.5
1.1
0.5
/
0.3

0.9%
1.2
0
0.8
0.2
0.9
1.2
0.5
/
0.3

497
96
0
13
4
223
21
/
8
0
89
3
40

389
167
/
16
6
/
18
4
8
1
141
1
27

0.2%
0.2
0
0.1
-0.5
0.3
/
0.2
0
0.2
0.1
0.2

0.2%
0.4
/
0.2
0.1
/
0.2
-0.2
0.1
0.3
-0.1

2,670
29
24
74
645
/
12
/
408
46
295
/
196
45
894
/
2

2,565
133
13
61
721
/
53
/
204
51
249
/
212
66
801
/
1

0.7%
0.1
0.2
1.1
0.7
/
0.1
/
1.8
0.4
0.8
/
0.9
0.3
0.6
/
--

0.7%
0.5
0.1
0.9
0.9
/
0.5
/
0.9
0.4
0.7
/
0.9
0.5
0.6
/
--

339
/
11
196
33
2
0
1
/
4
/
22
70
0

330
/
/
191
38
2
/
0
19
4
/
11
65
0

0.1%
/
-0.1
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
/
0.1
/
0.4
0.4
0

0.1%
/
/
0.1
0.2
0.1
/
0
0.2
0.1
/
0.2
0.4
0

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

/Not reported.
--Less than .05%.
a
Counts published in previous reports have been revised.
b
Percents exclude inmates in jurisdictions that did not report type of HIV/AIDS infection.
cIncludes estimates of the number of inmates with confirmed AIDS for Georgia, Louisiana, and Oklahoma in 2004 and 2005; for Arizona, Idaho, Indiana, Michigan, and Virginia
in 2004; and for Missouri and Nevada in 2005. Also see table 2, footnote a.

HIV in Prisons, 2005 11

Appendix table 4. Deaths of State prisoners, 2005

Jurisdiction
Total

Prisoner deaths reported
In NPS-1
In DCRPa
AIDSAIDSTotal
related
Total related

Total estimated deathsb
All causes
AIDS-related
Rate per
Rate per
Number 100,000 inmates
Number 100,000 inmates

3,308

121

3,179

172

3,316

249

176

13

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

477
41
1
37
8
61
172
149
2
6

41
9
0
0
0
5
17
10
0
0

474
40
0
37
8
61
171
149
2
6

48
11
0
0
0
6
19
11
0
1

477
41
1
37
8
61
172
149
2
6

276
208
48
353
312
217
273
359
55
304

48
11
0
0
0
6
19
11
0
1

28
56
0
0
0
21
30
26
0
51

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

557
74
50
19
19
141
13
75
8
1
122
4
31

10
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2

542
73
45
19
19
140
13
70
8
1
121
4
29

24
6
2
0
0
6
1
4
0
0
3
0
2

557
74
50
19
19
141
13
75
8
1
122
4
31

220
166
204
221
210
288
142
238
187
75
271
120
137

24
6
2
0
0
6
1
4
0
0
3
0
2

9
13
8
0
0
12
11
13
0
0
7
0
9

1,565
75
58
22
248
128
41
103
57
65
73
79
76
75
371
84
10

50
0
3
0
14
10
1
/
/
2
1
2
3
0
10
3
1

1,483
66
38
19
244
122
43
89
57
64
70
75
75
76
351
84
10

79
2
3
3
17
10
1
7
12
2
1
2
3
2
10
3
1

1,568
75
58
22
248
128
43
103
57
65
73
79
76
76
371
84
10

259
270
431
306
283
268
228
276
245
312
201
333
318
290
217
236
190

79
2
3
3
17
10
1
7
12
2
1
2
3
2
10
3
1

13
7
22
42
19
21
5
19
52
10
3
8
13
8
6
8
19

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

West
709
20
680
21
714
241
25
8
Alaska
0
/
4
0
4
86
0
0
Arizona
77
1
78
1
78
239
1
3
California
374
9
366
14
374
225
14
8
Colorado
65
4
54
3
65
312
4
19
Hawaii
8
0
8
0
8
132
0
0
Idaho
16
/
13
0
16
261
0
0
Montana
14
0
12
0
14
416
0
0
Nevada
33
0
29
0
33
285
0
0
New Mexico
19
0
18
0
19
288
0
0
Oregon
41
2
37
2
41
308
2
15
Utah
8
0
8
0
8
133
0
0
Washington
46
4
45
1
46
276
4
24
Wyoming
8
0
8
0
8
395
0
0
/Not reported.
aBased on individual reports submitted to the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP).
b
Data from the National Prisoners Statistics (NPS-1) and DCRP were combined to provide the number of total deaths in each State.
The most complete data for each State were used to calculate a total for each State.

12 HIV in Prisons, 2005

Appendix table 5. Circumstances under which inmates were tested for the antibody to the human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV), by jurisdiction, 2005
All inmates
Jurisdiction

Entering

In custody

Upon
release

Total
Federal system*
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

High-risk Inmate Clinical
Involvement Random
group
request indication in incident sample Court order Other
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/Not reported.
*The Bureau of Prisons tests a random sample of inmates in alternate years.

HIV in Prisons, 2005 13

Appendix table 6. Inmate deaths in Federal prisons,
by cause, 2004 and 2005

Cause of death
Total
Natural causes
other than AIDS
AIDS
Suicide
Accident
By another person

Appendix table 7. Standard error estimates for Survey
of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 1997 and 2004

Deaths of Federal inmates reported in the NPS-1
Number
Rate per 100,000 inmates*
2005
2004
2005
2004
388

333

210

186

327
27
13
6
15

295
18
11
6
3

177
15
7
3
8

165
10
6
3
2

*Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

Characteristic
Gender
Male
Female

0.20%
0.35

0.20%
0.44

Race/Hispanic origin
White*
Black or African American*
Hispanic or Latino

0.30%
0.34
0.47

0.29%
0.37
0.58

Age
24 or younger
25-34
35-44
45 or older

0.23%
0.25
0.46
0.61

0.20%
0.30
0.40
0.60

Current offense
Violent
Drug
Property
Public-order

0.27%
0.48
0.60
0.46

0.25%
0.46
0.40
0.55

Prior drug use
Never
Ever
In month before arrest
Used needle to inject drugs
Shared a needle

0.46%
0.23
0.29
0.62
1.27

0.41%
0.21
0.27
0.57
1.09

*Not Hispanic or Latino.

14 HIV in Prisons, 2005

Estimated standard error of the percent of inmates who were HIV positive
2004
1997

 

 

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