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U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Bulletin

Prison and Jail Inmates
at Midyear 2006
By William J. Sabol, Ph.D.
Todd D. Minton
and Paige M. Harrison
BJS Statisticians
During the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the number of
inmates in the custody of State and Federal prisons and
local jails increased 2.8% to reach 2,245,189. From midyear 2005 to midyear 2006, inmates in State prisons
increased 3.0%; Federal prisons, 3.2%; and local jails,
2.5%. The increase in the number of inmates in State or
Federal custody accounted for about 70% of the growth in
the total custody population.
In the 12-month period ending June 30, 2006, the number
of prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal correctional authorities increased by 2.8% to reach 1,556,518.
In both absolute numbers and percent change, the
increase was the largest since midyear 2000. Jurisdiction
refers to the legal authority of a State or Federal correctional system over a prisoner, regardless of the location or
type of facility where the prisoner is housed. Four jurisdictions — the Federal Bureau of Prisons, California, Texas,
and Florida — accounted for 52% of the increase in the
jurisdiction population.
Prison admissions increased at a faster rate than releases,
resulting in prison population growth. During calendar year
2005 (the most recent data available), State and Federal
correctional authorities admitted 733,009 prisoners and
released 698,459. The number of admissions during 2005
was 4.7% larger than the number admitted during 2004
(699,812), while the number of releases (672,202)
increased by 3.9% during that period.
For the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, State systems
reported a larger increase than the Federal system in the
number of inmates housed in private prisons. State prisoners held in private prisons increased by 12.9% to reach
84,867. Federal prisoners in private facilities
increased by

June 2007, NCJ 217675

Annual change in total number of prison and jail inmates
in custody and prison inmates in custody, 2000-2006
Number of inmates
70,000
Total custody population
60,000
50,000
40,000

Inmates in prison
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

12 months ending June 30

2.1% to reach 27,108. The Federal system housed a larger
share of prisoners in private facilities (14.2%) than the
State systems (6.2%).
The number of female prisoners rose at a faster rate than
the number of male prisoners. Between midyear 2005 and
2006, the female prison population increased by 4.8% to
reach 111,403. In the same period, the male prison population increased by 2.7% to reach 1,445,115.
On June 30, 2006, an estimated 4.8% of black men were in
prison or jail, compared to 1.9% of Hispanic men and 0.7%
of white men. More than 11% of black males age 25 to 34
were incarcerated. Black women were incarcerated in
prison or jail at nearly 4 times the rate of white women and
more than twice the rate of Hispanic women.
Additional data in appendix tables are available on the BJS
Web site at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov.bjs/pub/pdf/pjim06.
pdf>.

Prison incarceration rate reaches 497 per 100,000 U.S.
residents

Three jurisdictions responsible for a third of State and
Federal prisoners at midyear 2006

At midyear 2006, 497 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents
were incarcerated in State or Federal prison, up from 488
at midyear 2005 (see Appendix table 1). Ten States
exceeded the national incarceration rate, led by Louisiana
(835 per 100,000 residents), Texas (687), and Oklahoma
(658). Six States had rates that were less than half the
national rate, with the lowest rates in Maine (141 per
100,000 residents), Rhode Island (195), and New Hampshire (200).

The three largest jurisdictions — the Federal system, California, and Texas — accounted for more than a third
(539,084 prisoners) of all prisoners under State or Federal
jurisdiction on June 30, 2006 (table 3). The Federal system
had 12.3% of the total prison population under its jurisdiction; California, 11.3%; and Texas, 11.1%. The seven largest jurisdictions accounted for over half of prisoners under
State or Federal jurisdiction (see Appendix table 2). The 21
smallest jurisdictions accounted for 7.8% of the total population under jurisdiction at midyear 2006.

Prison authorities reported largest increase in number
of prisoners since midyear 1999 to 2000
On June 30, 2006, State and Federal prison authorities had
jurisdiction over 1,556,518 prisoners, an increase of 2.8%
(42,942) from midyear 2005 (table 1).1 This was the largest
absolute increase since the 1999 to 2000 increase of
51,931 prisoners (table 2). Within the State prison systems,
the growth in the number of prisoners during the 6 months
from December 31, 2005, to June 30, 2006 (2.0%), was
faster than growth during the period from June 30, 2005, to
December 31, 2005 (0.7%). Within the Federal system,
growth was about the same during each 6-month period.
Most of the increase (84.6%) in the total prison population
was due to growth in prisoners under State jurisdiction (up
36,346). The 2.7% increase in State prisoners from midyear 2005 to midyear 2006 reversed a 3-year trend of
declining growth rates (figure 1). Similarly, the 3.6%
increase in Federal prisoners reversed a period of declining
growth rates from midyear 1999 to midyear 2005, when the
annual growth rate declined steadily from 9.6% to 2.9%.

1The

jurisdiction population includes jail inmates who are under the legal
authority of State or Federal correctional systems.

Annual percent change in number of prisoners under State
and Federal jurisdiction, June 30, 2000, to June 30, 2006
Percent change
10%

Table 1. Number and percent change in prisoners under
State or Federal jurisdiction
Prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or
Federal correctional authorities
U.S. total
Federal
State

Period
6/30/2006
12/31/2005
6/30/2005

1,556,518
1,526,470
1,513,576

Percent change from —
6/30/05 to 6/30/06
12/31/05 to 6/30/06

191,080
187,618
184,484

2.8%
2.0

3.6%
1.8

1,365,438
1,338,852
1,329,092
2.7%
2.0

Table 2. Annual change in number of prisoners under
State or Federal jurisdiction, July 1 to June 30
Change in the number
of prisoners
Federal
State

12-month period
1999-2000
2000-2001
2001-2002
2002-2003
2003-2004
2004-2005
2005-2006

12,152
10,258
8,893
8,780
8,749
5,274
6,596

39,779
9,781
11,694
26,022
24,547
14,086
36,346

8,092

20,413

Average annual change,
2000-2006

9%
8%

Federal prisoners

7%

Table 3. Number of State and Federal prisoners in the
seven largest jurisdictions, June 30, 2006

6%
5%
4%

State prisoners

3%
2%
1%
0%
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

12-month period ending June 30

Figure 1

2 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

2005

2006

Jurisdiction

Number of
prisoners

Percent
of total

U.S. total

1,556,518

100.0%

Federal
California
Texas
Florida
New York
Georgia
Michigan

191,080
175,115
172,889
91,001
63,295
51,549
50,701

12.3
11.3
11.1
5.8
4.1
3.3
3.3

Cumulative
percentage

12.3%
23.5
34.6
40.5
44.5
47.9
51.1

Four jurisdictions accounted for more than half of the
increase in the prison population

Prison populations increased in 43 jurisdictions;
8 jurisdictions had no growth or declined

Four jurisdictions (California, the Federal system, Georgia,
and Florida) accounted for more than half of the increase in
the jurisdiction population during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2006. California contributed 20% of the total
increase in prisoners; the Federal system, 15.4%; Georgia,
9.0%; and Florida, 8.0% (table 4). The increase in these
jurisdictions — along with increases in Ohio, Arizona, Michigan, Texas, and Pennsylvania — accounted for almost
three-quarters of the total change in the jurisdiction population between midyear 2005 and 2006.

In the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the percentage
change in prison population by jurisdiction ranged from
-2.9% in Missouri to 13.7% in Idaho. The prison population
in 43 jurisdictions grew, while 8 had no growth or declined.

Table 4. Increase in the number of State or Federal
prisoners, by jurisdiction, July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006
Change in number
of prisoners

Jurisdiction
Total

Percent of total Cumulative
change
percentage

42,942

100.0%

8,583
6,596
3,867
3,456
2,518
2,200
1,687
1,551
1,547

20.0
15.4
9.0
8.0
5.9
5.1
3.9
3.6
3.6

California
Federal
Georgia
Florida
Ohio
Arizona
Michigan
Texas
Pennsylvania

20.0%
35.3
44.4
52.4
58.3
63.4
67.3
70.9
74.5

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

625,219
638,978
661,082
686,437
699,812
733,009

43,732
45,140
48,144
52,288
52,982
56,057

Percent change
2000-2005
17.2%
2004-2005
4.7

581,487
593,838
612,938
634,149
646,830
676,952

28.2%
5.8

16.4%
4.7

Total

Releases*
Federal

604,858
628,626
630,176
656,384
672,202
698,459

35,259
38,370
42,339
44,199
46,624
47,981

15.5%
3.9

*Counts exclude escapes, AWOL’s, and transfers.

State
569,599
590,256
587,837
612,185
625,578
650,478

36.1%
2.9

Jurisdiction with —
Largest increase
Idaho
Alaska
Vermont
Georgia
Nevada
Largest decrease
Missouri
Louisiana
Maine
Kansas
South Carolina

Percent change
in prison population, 2005-2006
13.7 %
9.4
8.3
8.1
7.8
-2.9 %
-1.8
-1.8
-1.2
-1.1

Prison admissions outpaced releases, resulting in
population growth

Table 5. Number of sentenced prisoners admitted and
released from State or Federal jurisdiction, during calendar
year, 2000-2005
Admissions*
Total
Federal State

Of the 5 jurisdictions with the largest percentage increase
in prisoners, 4 ranked among the 20 having the smallest
prison population, and 1 (Georgia) ranked among the 10
largest jurisdictions.

14.2%
4.0

During calendar year 2005, State and Federal correctional
authorities admitted 733,009 prisoners into their systems,
an increase of 4.7% over the number admitted during 2004
(table 5). (The 2005 calendar year data were the most
recent data available.)
States admitted 676,952 prisoners during 2005 which represented a 4.7% increase (30,122 admissions) over the
number admitted during 2004. While 34 States had an
increase in the number of admissions during 2005, three
States accounted for over half of the total growth in admissions to State prison: Florida (up 6,145 admissions), California (up 6,022), and Texas (up 5,006) (see Appendix
table 3). Federal prisons admitted 56,057 prisoners during
2005, an increase of 3,075 or 5.8% from 2004.
The number of releases from State or Federal jurisdiction
also increased during 2005, but at a slightly lower pace
than admissions. State and Federal authorities released
698,459 prisoners during 2005, up 3.9% from the number
in 2004.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 3

Growth in admissions driven by new court
commitments and returned parole violators
Between 2000 and 2005, the number of new court commitments to State prison increased by 20.3%, while the number of parole violators who were revoked and returned to
prison increased by 14.1%. During 2005, the number of
new court commitments increased at a lower rate (2.5%)
than the number of returned parole violators (6.0%).
State prison admissions, by type, 2000 to 2005
New court
All*
commitments Parole violators
581,487
350,431
203,569
593,838
365,714
215,450
612,938
392,661
207,961
634,149
399,843
209,753
646,830
411,300
219,033
676,952
421,426
232,229

Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Percent change
2000-2005
2004-2005

16.4 %
5.1

20.3 %
2.5

14.1 %
6.0

*Counts exclude escapes, AWOL’s, and transfers.

States increased the use of private prisons more
rapidly than the Federal system
On June 30, 2006, the number of State and Federal prisoners housed in private facilities reached 111,975, an
increase of 10,255 prisoners (or 10.1%) since midyear
2005. State prisoners held in private facilities increased
12.9%; those under Federal jurisdiction increased 2.1%.
The proportion of all prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction housed in privately operated facilities reached 7.2%
at midyear 2006, up from 6.5% in 2003 (table 6).
Texas, Indiana, Colorado, and Florida accounted for more
than half of the increase in prisoners held in private faciliTable 6. Number of prisoners held in private facilities, June
30, 2000-2006
Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

Number of prisoners
Total
Federal
State
90,542
91,953
93,912
95,522
98,901
101,720
111,975

15,524
19,251
20,274
21,865
24,768
26,544
27,108

Percent of
all prisoners

75,018
72,702
73,638
73,657
74,133
75,176
84,867

4 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

6.5%
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.6
6.9
7.2

ties between midyear 2005 and 2006. With an additional
2,806 prisoners in private facilities, Texas accounted for
27.3% percent of the total increase.
Jurisdictions varied in their use of private facilities. At midyear 2006, 19 jurisdictions reported housing no prisoners in
private facilities (see Appendix table 4). Six jurisdictions
held at least a quarter of their inmates in privately operated
facilities, led by New Mexico (43%), Wyoming (38%) and
Hawaii (30%).
Number of persons under age 18 in State custody
increased at midyear 2006
During the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the number of
juveniles in State prisons increased by 156 persons to
reach 2,364, a 7.1% increase (table 7). This is the first
annual increase in the number of persons under age 18
since 1995. Between 1995 and 2006, the number of juveniles declined 55%, from 5,309 to 2,208 (not shown in
table).
All but seven States housed at least one juvenile prisoner.
Five States — Connecticut (425), New York (219), Florida
(221), North Carolina (188), and Texas (162) — accounted
for more than half of all juveniles held in State prisons (see
Appendix table 5).
Little change in noncitizens in State or Federal prisons
State and Federal prisons held 91,426 noncitizens on June
30, 2006, an increase of 337 prisoners (or 0.4%) over 12
months (see Appendix table 6). More than two-thirds of the
noncitizens in State or Federal prison were held by three
jurisdictions: the Federal system housed 33,701 (37% of
the total); California housed 15,849 (17% of the total); and
Texas housed 9,227 (10% of the total).
Table 7. Number of persons under age 18 held in State
prisons, June 30, 2000-2006
Year

Total number
in prison

Male

Female

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

3,896
3,147
3,038
2,741
2,485
2,208
2,364

3,721
3,010
2,927
2,627
2,375
2,118
2,259

175
137
111
114
110
90
105

Female prisoners continued to rise faster than male
prisoners

Local jail population growth slowed from midyear 2005
to 2006

Between midyear 2005 and 2006, the percent increase in
female prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal
authorities was almost twice that of male prisoners. The
female prison population increased 4.8% to reach 111,403,
while the male prison population increased 2.7% to reach
1,445,115 (table 8).

Between July 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006, the number of
persons held in local jails increased 2.5% to reach 766,010
inmates, the lowest growth since the 1.6% increase in midyear 2001 (figure 2). The growth in the jail population was
largely due to an additional 14,522 adult male inmates who
made up 78.5% of the total change in the jail population.

This growth is part of a larger trend between 2000 and
2006, when the female prison population grew 3.3% on
average, compared to a 2.0% growth in the male prison
population. Women made up 7.2% of the prison population
on June 30, 2006, compared to 6.1% at yearend 1995 (not
shown in table).

Similar to the prison population, the number of adult
females in local jails grew at a faster rate (4.9%) than the
number of adult males (2.2%). From 2000 to 2006, the
number of adult females in local jails increased by 40%,
compared to 22% in adult males (table 9).

At midyear 2006 men were 14 times more likely than
women to be incarcerated. Their rate of incarceration was
940 men per 100,000 males, compared to 67 women per
100,000 females.

Percent change in the annual number of inmates in local
jails, 2000-2006
Percent change
6%

5%

Table 8. Number of prisoners under State or Federal
jurisdiction, by gender, December 31, 2000, June 30, 2005,
and 2006
Male
All inmates
6/30/2006
6/30/2005
12/31/2000
Percent change, 2005-2006
Average annual change,
2000-2006
Sentenced to more than 1 year
6/30/2006
6/30/2005
12/31/2000
Incarceration rate*
6/30/2006
6/30/2005
12/31/2000

1,445,115
1,407,293
1,298,027

4%

3%

Women
2%

111,403
106,283
93,234

2.7%

4.8%

2.0%

3.3%

1,386,485
1,350,656
1,246,234

101,455
97,156
85,044

940
926
915

67
65
59

*The total number of prisoners with a sentence of more than 1
year per 100,000 U.S. residents.

1%

0%
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 2

Table 9. Number of inmates in local jails on June 30, 2000,
2005, and 2006
2000

2005

2006

Average daily populationa

618,319

733,442

755,896

Number of inmates, June 30
Adults
Male
Female
Juvenilesb
Held as adultsc
Held as juveniles

621,149
613,534
543,120
70,414
7,615
6,129
1,489

747,529
740,770
646,807
93,963
6,759
5,750
1,009

766,010
759,906
661,329
98,577
6,104
4,836
1,268

a

Average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates
in jail on each day for a year divided by the total number of
days in a year.

bJuveniles

are persons under age 18 on June 30.

c

Includes juveniles who were tried or awaiting trial as adults.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 5

The number of juveniles held in adult jails declined by 1.0%
(or 655 inmates). Juveniles held as adults dropped 16% in
the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, but the number held
as juveniles increased by 26%. Overall, the number of juveniles held in local jails decreased 20% between 2000 and
2006.
At midyear 2006 local jails held 256 inmates per 100,000
U.S. residents, up from 252 at midyear 2005. The 1.6%
increase in the incarceration rate continued a pattern of
annual growth, but was less than half the 3.7% increase
experienced from midyear 2004 to 2005.
Year

Number of
jail inmates

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

Jail incarceration rate*

621,149
631,240
665,475
691,301
713,990
747,529
766,010

220
222
231
238
243
252
256

From 2000 to 2006 the number of females in local jails
increased from 11.4% to 12.9% of the jail inmate population. Whites increased from 41.9% to 43.9%, and blacks
decreased from 41.3% to 38.6%. The percentage of jail
inmates who were convicted declined from 44% to 37.9%.

Number of jail inmates per 100,000
U.S. residents on July 1 of each year.

Table 10. Estimated number of jail inmates and jail
incarceration rate, by gender, race, and Hispanic origin,
June 30, 2006
Estimated
number

Jail incarceration ratea

Total

766,010

256

Gender
Male
Female

666,985
99,025

457
66

Race/Hispanic origin
Whiteb
Black/African Americanb
Hispanic/Latino
Otherc
Two or more racesb

336,600
296,000
119,200
13,500
700

170
815
283
90
:

Note: Inmate counts by race/Hispanic origin were estimated
and rounded to the nearest 100.
Resident population figures were estimated for July 1, 2006,
based on the 2000 Census of Population and Housing.
:Not calculated
aNumber
b

Characteristics of jail inmates changed slightly
In the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, characteristics of
inmates in local jails changed slightly. The reported percentage of females increased by 0.2% to reach 12.9% of all
jail inmates. The respective percentages of white, black,
convicted, and unconvicted jail inmates on June 30, 2006,
were comparable to their percentages at midyear 2005
(table 11).

*

Characteristic

The jail incarceration rate varied by gender and race. Males
(457 per 100,000) were incarcerated at about 7 times the
rate of females (66 per 100,000). About 1 in every 219
males in the U.S. resident population was held in a local jail
at midyear 2006, compared to 1 in every 1,515 females.
Based on administrative records’ designation of race and
Hispanic origin, blacks were incarcerated at 4.8 times the
rate of whites. About 1 in every 123 blacks were incarcerated on June 30, 2006, compared to 1 in every 353 Hispanics and 1 in every 588 whites (table 10).

of jail inmates per 100,000 residents.

Excludes inmates of Hispanic or Latino origin.

c
Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native
Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Table 11. Gender, race, Hispanic origin, and conviction
status of local jail inmates, June 30, 2000, 2005, and 2006
Characteristic

2000

2005

2006

Total

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Gender
Male
Female

88.6%
11.4

87.3%
12.7

87.1%
12.9

41.9%
41.3
15.1
1.6

44.3%
38.9
15.0
1.7
0.1

43.9%
38.6
15.6
1.8
0.1

44.0%
39.0
5.0
56.0
50.0
6.0

38.0%
33.2
4.8
62.0
54.2
7.7

37.9%
32.9
5.0
62.1
54.3
7.8

Race/Hispanic origin
Whitea
Black/African Americana
Hispanic/Latino
Otherb
Two or more racesa,c
Conviction status
Convicted
Male
Female
Unconvicted
Male
Female

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
aExcludes

inmates of Hispanic or Latino origin.

bIncludes

American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native
Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

c

Not collected prior to midyear 2005.

6 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Jail capacity expanded with the growth of the jail
inmate population

More than 60,000 jail inmates supervised outside of jail
facilities

Total rated capacity of local jails at midyear 2006 reached
810,863 beds, an increase of 2.8% (see Appendix table 7).
Rated capacity is the maximum number of beds or inmates
allocated by State or local rating officials to each jail facility.
On June 30, 2006, local jails nationwide operated at an
average of 94% of rated capacity. Based on the peak number of inmates incarcerated on a given day during the year,
local jails nationwide operated at 100% of rated capacity.

On June 30, 2006, jail officials reported supervising 60,222
offenders in alternative programs outside of jail facilities.
These offenders made up 7.3% of the total 826,232 offenders either in custody in jails or under supervision in the
community by local jail officials (see Appendix table 9).
Offenders in community service (14,667), weekender programs (11,421), and on electronic monitoring (10,999)
comprised the largest number of persons under supervision in the community.

The smallest jail jurisdictions (those with an average daily
population of fewer than 50 inmates) generally had a lower
percent of capacity occupied. Jurisdictions with larger average daily populations generally met or exceeded their
capacity (figure 3).
Local jail officials collectively added jail capacity at a rate
about equal to the rate of growth in the jail inmate population. Between 1995 and 2006, the jail population and rated
capacity both increased steadily, although during some
periods the rates of increase in population and capacity
varied. Between 1998 and 2001, capacity expanded more
rapidly than did the jail population, and the average percentage of rated capacity used declined slightly, from about
97% to about 90%. After 2002 jail populations increased at
a slightly faster rate than rated capacity, and the percentage of rated capacity used by local jails increased to 94%
by 2006 (figure 4).2
A small number of large jail jurisdictions held majority
of all jail inmates
At midyear 2006, 5.6% of jurisdictions had average daily
jail populations of 1,000 or more inmates. These jurisdictions held 50% of the nation’s jail population. By comparison, 39.5% of jurisdictions had an average daily jail population of fewer than 50 inmates and held 3.1% of the nation’s
jail population.
The Nation’s 50 largest jail jurisdictions accounted for less
than 2% of all jurisdictions but held 29.5% of all jail inmates
on June 30, 2006. The two largest jail jurisdictions — Los
Angeles County and New York City — held 32,703 inmates,
or 4.3% of all jail inmates (see Appendix table 8).
In the 12-month period ending June 30, 2006, jail populations in the 50 largest jail jurisdictions increased 1.3%.
Among these jurisdictions, 29 experienced jail inmate population increases, with the largest percentage increase
occurring in Fresno County, California, up 22.2%. Twenty of
the 50 largest jurisdictions experienced declines in jail
inmate populations. The largest decrease occurred in Hillsborough County, Florida, down 16.9%.

Percent of capacity occupied, by size of jurisdiction, 2006
Size of jurisdiction
Fewer than
50 inmates
50-99
inmates
100-249
inmates
250-499
inmates
500-999
inmates
1,000 or more
inmates
All jurisdictions
0%

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
100%

Percent occupied

Figure 3

Annual change in rated capacity and in jail inmate
population during the 12 months ending June 30, 2000-2006
Number of jail inmates/beds
35,000
30,000
25,000

Population

Rated capacity

20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 4

2

On December 31, 2005, State prison systems were between operating
1% below and 14% above capacity. The Federal prison system was operating at 34% above capacity. See Prisoners in 2005, November 2006,
NCJ 215092.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 7

Total number of inmates in custody of prison or jail
authorities increased by 2.8%
During the 12 months ending midyear 2006, the total number of inmates in the custody of State and Federal prisons
and in local jails increased by 2.8% to reach 2,245,189
inmates. This increase was smaller than the average
annual growth rate of 3.4% percent from midyear 2000 to
midyear 2006.
The growth of inmates in different facilities varied. The
number of inmates in Federal prisons increased by 3.2%
from midyear 2005 to midyear 2006; those in local jails
increased by 2.6%, and those in State prisons increased by
3.0% (table 12).
One in every 133 U.S. residents in prison or jail at midyear 2006
At midyear 2006, 750 persons per 100,000 U.S. residents
were in prison or jail, the equivalent to 1 in every 133 residents (Appendix table 10). This is an increase from 744
persons in prison or jail per 100,000 residents at midyear
2005.
Increase in local jail inmates was a third of the total
increase in total custody population
In the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the increase in the
jail population accounted for 30% of the change in the population of inmates in custody, while the increase in the number of prisoners in State or Federal facilities accounted for
70%. By comparison, during the 12 months ending June
30, 2005 (the prior 12-month period), change in the local

jail population accounted for 70% of the change in the custody population, while change in the number of inmates in
State and Federal prisons accounted for 30% of the change
in the total custody population.
With one exception, jail population growth accounted for
successively larger proportions of the change in the total
custody population during each of the years from 2000 to
2005. The exception was during the 12 months ending on
June 30, 2004. Between 2000 and 2005, the proportion of
the change in the custody population due to change in the
jail population increased from about 35% to 70% (figure 5).
Percent of total increase in custody population due to jail
inmates, 12-month period ending June 30, 2000-2006
Percent of total increase
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2000

2001

2002

2003

Figure 5

Table 12. Number of persons held in State or Federal prisons or in local jails, 1995 and 2000-2006
Year
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
June 30
December 31
2006
June 30

Total inmates
in custodya

Prisoners in custody
Federal
State

Inmates held
in local jails

Incarceration
rateb

1,585,586
1,935,753
1,961,247
2,033,331
2,081,580
2,135,335

89,538
133,921
143,337
151,618
161,673
170,535

989,004
1,176,269
1,180,155
1,209,640
1,222,135
1,243,745

507,044
621,149
631,240
665,475
691,301
713,990

601
683
685
701
712
723

2,183,152
...

175,954
179,220

1,252,436
1,259,017

747,529
...

744

2,245,189

181,622

1,290,200

766,010

750

Percent change,
6/30/05-6/30/06

2.8%

3.2%

3.0%

2.5%

Average annual change,
12/31/95-6/30/06

3.4%

7.0%

2.6%

3.8%

Note: Jail counts are for midyear (June 30) and exclude persons who were supervised outside of a jail facility. State and Federal prisoner counts for 1995 to 2004 are for December 31.
...Not available.
a
Total counts include Federal inmates in non-secure privately operated facilities (6,143 in 2000, 6,192 in
2001, 6,598 in 2002, 6,471 in 2003, 7,065 in 2004, 7,233 (June) and 7,144 (December) in 2005, and 7,357
(June) in 2006).
bPersons in custody per 100,000 residents in each reference year.

8 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

2004

2005

2006

Black males in their late twenties incarcerated at
higher rates than other groups

between 5.7 and 8.5 times more likely than white men to be
incarcerated.

At midyear 2006 more black men (836,800) were in custody in State or Federal prison or local jail than white men
(718,100) or Hispanic men (426,900) (table 13). Black men
comprised 41% of the more than 2 million men in custody,
and black men age 20 to 29 comprised 15.5% of all men in
custody on June 30, 2006.

Among female offenders, more white women (95,300) than
black women (68,800) or Hispanic women (32,400) were in
custody. White women comprised 47% of the female population in custody at midyear 2006.
In general females had a lower incarceration rate than
males. White females had a lower incarceration rate (94
per 100,000 white women) than black females (358 per
100,000 black women) and Hispanic females (152 per
100,000 Hispanic women). The overall incarceration rate
for black women was 3.8 times the rate for white women
(table 14). Hispanic women were 1.6 times more likely than
white women to be incarcerated. Across age groups black
women were incarcerated between 2.8 and 4.3 times the
rate of white women.

Relative to their numbers in the general population, about
4.8% of all black men were in custody at midyear 2006,
compared to about 0.7% of white men and 1.9% of Hispanic men. Overall, black men were incarcerated at 6.5
times the rate of white men. The incarceration rate for black
men was highest among black men age 25 to 29. About
11.7% of black males in this age group were incarcerated
on June 30, 2006. Across age groups black men were

Table 13. Number of inmates in State or Federal prisons and local jails, by gender, race,
Hispanic origin, and age, June 30, 2006

Totala
Total
18-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-54
55 or older

Males
Black/African Hispanic/
Americanb
Latino
Whiteb

Totala

Females
Black/African
Whiteb Americanb

Hispanic/
Latino

2,042,100

718,100

836,800

426,900

203,100

95,300

68,800

32,400

75,600
365,700
359,300
328,300
298,700
262,600
257,400
79,000

24,800
111,100
103,700
109,600
110,900
107,200
105,100
41,800

33,000
160,000
156,200
132,400
120,500
103,000
101,000
22,200

15,300
84,900
90,800
78,000
58,300
43,200
41,500
12,200

4,900
29,600
30,300
36,000
39,800
32,000
24,600
4,700

2,000
13,900
13,700
16,800
18,900
15,100
11,700
2,800

1,600
9,300
10,100
12,100
13,800
11,700
8,700
1,000

1,200
5,900
5,600
6,000
5,600
4,200
3,100
700

Note: Based on custody counts from the National Prisoner Statistics (NPS-1A) 2006 and the Annual Survey of Jails, 2006. Estimates by age were obtained from the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002, the National Corrections Reporting Program, 2003,
and the Federal Justice Statistics Program (FJSP) for inmates on September, 30, 2003. Estimates were rounded to the nearest 100.
Detailed categories exclude persons identifying with two or more races.
aIncludes
b

American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Not Hispanic or Latino.

Table 14. Number of inmates in State or Federal prisons and local jails, per 100,000 residents,
by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, June 30, 2006
Number of inmates per 100,000 residents
Males
Black/African Hispanic/
Americanb
Latino
Totala
Whiteb

Females
Black/African
Americanb

Hispanic/
Latino

Totala

Whiteb

U.S. total

1,384

736

4,789

1,862

134

94

358

152

18-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-54
55 or older

1,766
3,352
3,395
3,289
2,805
2,344
1,209
256

935
1,675
1,685
1,874
1,641
1,419
677
170

5,336
10,698
11,695
11,211
9,804
7,976
4,421
869

2,112
4,168
3,912
3,652
3,094
2,630
1,813
543

120
290
300
370
378
284
112
12

81
221
226
292
282
200
75
9

262
637
716
924
999
798
326
28

175
346
305
333
337
279
141
26

Note: Based on the U.S. resident population for July 1, 2006, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age.
Detailed categories exclude persons identifying with two or more races.
aIncludes
bNot

American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Hispanic or Latino.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 9

Methodology
National Prisoner Statistics
The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), with the U.S. Census Bureau as its collection agent, obtains midyear and
yearend counts of prisoners from the departments of corrections in the 50 States and from the Federal Bureau of
Prisons.
The National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) distinguishes prisoners in custody from those under jurisdiction. To have custody of a prisoner, a correctional agency must hold that person in one of its facilities. To have jurisdiction means that
an entity has legal authority over a prisoner. Prisoners
under a State’s jurisdiction may be in the custody of a local
jail, another State’s prison, or in another correctional facility.
Some States are unable to provide jurisdiction counts.
NPS counts exclude persons confined in locally administered facilities (jails) and who are under the jurisdiction of
local authorities. NPS counts include all inmates in Stateoperated facilities in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware,
Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont, which have combined
prison-jail systems. NPS exclude inmates held by the District of Columbia, which as of yearend 2001 operated only a
jail system.
Annual Survey of Jails, 2006

phone calls to respondents, the response rate for the survey was 100% for critical items such as the number of
inmates confined, average daily population, and rated
capacity. (See Appendix tables 10, 11, and 12 for standard
errors associated with reported estimates from the ASJ
2006 at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/
pjim06.htm>.)
National Prisoner Statistics jurisdiction notes
Alaska C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All
NPS data include jail and prison populations. Jurisdiction
counts exclude inmates held in local jails that are operated
by communities.
Arizona C Counts are based on custody data.
California C Counts include unsentenced inmates temporarily housed in local jails or in hospitals.
Colorado C Counts include 579 inmates housed in local
jails, 4,362 inmates in Colorado contract facilities, and 219
inmates in the Youthful Offender System, which was established primarily for violent juvenile offenders. Counts of
inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an
undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year or less.
Report foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens.
Connecticut C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations.

In each year between the years that BJS conducts a complete census of local jails, BJS conducts the Annual Survey
of Jails (ASJ), a sample survey of local jails which is used
to estimate the number and characteristics of local inmates
nationwide. For the 2006 ASJ, the U.S. Census Bureau, as
collection agent, drew a sample of 874 jurisdictions and
936 jail facilities. Local jail jurisdictions include counties
(parishes in Louisiana) or municipal governments that
administer one or more local jails.

Delaware C Prisons and jails form one integrated system.
All NPS data include jail and prison populations.

The 2006 ASJ sample included all jails operated jointly by
two or more jurisdictions, multi-jurisdictional jails, with certainty (63). Other jail jurisdictions included with certainty
(269) were those that (1) held juveniles inmates at the time
of the 2005 Census of Jail Inmates and that had an average daily population of 500 or more inmates during the 12
months ending June 30, 2005, or (2) held only adults and
the average daily inmate population was 750 or more.

Hawaii C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All
NPS data include jail and prison populations. Non-citizen
data based only on inmates who reported their citizenship.

The remaining jurisdictions were stratified into two groups:
jurisdictions with jails holding at least one juvenile on June
30, 2005, and jails hold only adults on that date. Using
stratified random sampling, 542 jurisdictions were selected
from 8 strata based upon the two conditions enumerated
above and 4 strata based upon their average daily jail
inmate population during 2005. The average daily jail
inmate population was derived from the 2005 Census of
Jail Inmates.
Data were obtained from sampled jurisdictions by mail-out
and web-based survey questionnaires. After follow-up
10 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Federal C Custody counts include inmates housed in privately operated secure facilities under contract with BOP.
Also includes 7,357 inmates held in privately operated
community correctional centers. An additional 219 inmates
under age 18 were housed in contract facilities.
Georgia C Counts are based on custody data.

Illinois C Counts are based on jurisdiction data. Counts of
inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an
undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year.
Iowa C Counts are based on custody data. Counts of
inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an
undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year or less and
unsentenced inmates.
Kansas C Counts of inmates with sentences of more than
1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of
1 year or less. Citizenship counts are estimated.
Louisiana C Counts include 15,053 males and 1,177
females housed in local jails as a result of a partnership
with the Louisiana Sheriffs’ Association and local authorities.

Maryland C Counts by sentence length are estimates
extracted from actual sentence length breakdowns from
automated data and applied to totals based on manual
data. Report foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens.
Massachusetts C Jurisdiction counts exclude approximately 6,200 male inmates in the county system (local jails
and houses of correction) serving a sentence of more than
1 year. These male inmates are included in Massachusetts'
incarceration rate. By law, offenders may be sentenced to
terms up to 2½ years in locally operated jails and correctional institutions.
Mississippi C Does not collect citizenship data.
Missouri C Reports foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens.
New Jersey C Counts of inmates with sentences of more
than 1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year. Citizenship data are not collected from
every inmate.
New York C Reports foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens.
Ohio C Counts of inmates with sentences of more than 1
year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1
year or less.
Rhode Island C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations.
Tennessee C Reports foreign-born inmates rather than
noncitizens.
Vermont C Prisons and jails form an integrated system. All
NPS data include jail and prison populations.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

11

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

*NCJ~217675*

PRESORTED STANDARD
POSTAGE & FEES PAID
DOJ/BJS
Permit No. G-91

Washington, DC 20531

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical
agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Jeffrey L.
Sedgwick is director.
BJS Bulletins present the first release of findings from
permanent data collection programs.
This Bulletin was written by William J. Sabol, Ph.D.,
Todd D. Minton, and Paige M. Harrison. Todd D.
Minton and Paige M. Harrison also verified the report.

This report in portable document format (includes
12 appendix tables) and in ASCII and its related
statistical data are available at the BJS World
Wide Web Internet site: <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/
bjs/abstract/pjim06.htm>

Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

12 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Lisa A. McNelis, Pamela H. Butler, and Theresa M.
Reitz carried out the data collection and processing
under the supervision of Charlene M. Sebold,
Governments Division, Census Bureau, U.S.
Department of Commerce. Duane H. Cavanaugh and
Diron J. Gaskins provided technical assistance.
Carolyn C. Williams and Tina Dorsey produced and
edited the report, and Jayne Robinson prepared the
report for final printing, under the supervision of Doris
J. James.
June 2007, NCJ 217675

Appendix table 1. Sentenced prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal correctional authorities,
June 30, 2005, to June 30, 2006
Region and jurisdiction
U.S. total

6/30/2006

12/31/2005

6/30/2005

Percent change,
6/30/05 to 6/30/06

Prison incarceration
rate, 6/30/06a

1,487,940

1,459,667

1,447,812

2.8%

497

169,945
1,317,995

166,173
1,293,494

162,682
1,285,130

4.5
2.6

57
440

Northeast
Connecticutb
Maine
Massachusettsc
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandb
Vermontb

165,358
13,388
1,861
9,335
2,625
28,436
62,950
43,074
2,079
1,610

162,641
13,121
1,905
9,081
2,520
27,359
62,743
42,345
2,025
1,542

162,665
13,181
2,017
8,907
2,561
28,124
62,922
41,539
1,928
1,486

1.7%
1.6
-7.7
4.8
2.5
1.1
0.0
3.7
7.8
8.3

302
382
141
241
200
326
326
346
195
258

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

259,772
45,440
27,472
8,659
8,936
50,701
9,776
30,639
4,362
1,342
47,494
3,511
21,440

251,380
44,919
22,951
8,737
9,068
49,546
9,281
30,803
4,330
1,327
45,854
3,454
21,110

252,116
44,669
24,476
8,578
9,042
49,014
9,187
31,531
4,173
1,265
44,976
3,334
21,871

3.0%
1.7
12.2
0.9
-1.2
3.4
6.4
-2.8
4.5
6.1
5.6
5.3
-2.0

392
354
435
290
323
502
189
524
247
211
414
449
386

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delawareb
Florida
Georgiad
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

589,597
27,003
13,450
4,102
89,082
51,536
19,516
35,795
22,447
19,225
32,007
23,535
22,762
26,119
161,575
36,074
5,369

583,132
27,003
13,383
3,972
89,766
48,741
19,215
36,083
22,143
19,335
31,522
23,245
22,464
26,369
159,255
35,344
5,292

582,539
26,758
13,330
4,030
87,544
47,677
18,014
37,254
22,654
19,918
31,335
23,232
22,904
26,208
160,795
35,667
5,219

1.2%
0.9
0.9
1.8
1.8
8.1
8.3
-3.9
-0.9
-3.5
2.1
1.3
-0.6
-0.3
0.5
1.1
2.9

540
587
478
481
492
550
464
835
400
661
361
658
527
433
687
472
295

West
Alaskab
Arizonad
California
Colorado
Hawaiib
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

303,268
2,680
32,644
173,453
22,145
4,440
6,976
3,623
12,328
6,521
13,614
6,132
16,618
2,094

296,341
2,781
31,411
168,982
21,456
4,422
6,818
3,509
11,644
6,292
13,390
6,269
17,320
2,047

287,810
2,479
29,829
164,847
20,841
4,259
6,526
3,369
11,551
6,308
13,297
5,928
16,550
2,026

5.4%
8.1
9.4
5.2
6.3
4.2
6.9
7.5
6.7
3.4
2.4
3.4
0.4
3.4

437
400
529
476
466
345
476
384
494
334
368
240
260
407

Federal
State

aThe
b

number of prisoners with a sentence of more than 1 year per 100,000 U.S. residents.

Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.

cIncarceration
d

rate includes an estimated 6,200 inmates sentenced to more than 1 year but held in local jails or houses of corrections.

Population figures are based on custody counts.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

13

Appendix table 2. Prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal correctional
authorities, June 30, 2005, December 31, 2005, and June 30, 2006
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State

6/30/2006

12/31/2005

6/30/2005

Percent change
6/30/05 to
12/31/05 to
6/30/06
6/30/06

1,556,518
191,080
1,365,438

1,526,470
187,618
1,338,852

1,513,576
184,484
1,329,092

2.8%
3.6
2.7

2.0%
1.8
2.0

Northeast
Connecticuta
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islanda
Vermonta

176,705
20,054
2,046
11,109
2,625
28,436
63,295
43,087
3,914
2,139

172,910
19,442
2,023
10,701
2,530
27,359
62,743
42,380
3,654
2,078

173,125
19,744
2,084
10,495
2,561
28,124
62,963
41,540
3,639
1,975

2.1%
1.6
-1.8
5.9
2.5
1.1
0.5
3.7
7.6
8.3

2.2%
3.1
1.1
3.8
3.8
3.9
0.9
1.7
7.1
2.9

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

259,588
45,440
25,460
8,659
8,936
50,701
9,776
30,657
4,507
1,401
47,494
3,527
23,030

255,252
44,919
25,001
8,737
9,068
49,546
9,281
30,823
4,455
1,385
45,854
3,463
22,720

253,159
44,669
24,505
8,578
9,042
49,014
9,187
31,564
4,284
1,338
44,976
3,344
22,658

2.5%
1.7
3.9
0.9
-1.2
3.4
6.4
-2.9
5.2
4.7
5.6
5.5
1.6

1.7%
1.2
1.8
-0.9
-1.5
2.3
5.3
-0.5
1.2
1.2
3.6
1.8
1.4

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delawarea
Florida
Georgiab
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

617,264
27,888
13,570
7,252
91,001
51,549
20,005
36,571
23,084
21,085
37,201
23,935
23,633
26,119
172,889
36,074
5,408

606,236
27,888
13,511
6,944
89,768
48,749
19,662
36,083
22,737
20,515
36,365
24,826
23,160
26,369
169,003
35,344
5,312

606,361
27,740
13,469
7,180
87,545
47,682
18,897
37,254
23,276
20,856
36,399
23,702
23,896
26,208
171,338
35,667
5,252

1.8%
0.5
0.7
1.0
3.9
8.1
5.9
-1.8
-0.8
1.1
2.2
1.0
-1.1
-0.3
0.9
1.1
3.0

1.8%
0.0
0.4
4.4
1.4
5.7
1.7
1.4
1.5
2.8
2.3
-3.6
2.0
-0.9
2.3
2.1
1.8

West
Alaskaa
Arizonab
California
Colorado
Hawaiia
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

311,881
5,063
34,864
175,115
22,145
6,227
6,976
3,623
12,468
6,803
13,645
6,225
16,633
2,094

304,454
4,812
33,471
170,676
21,456
6,146
6,818
3,509
11,782
6,571
13,411
6,373
17,382
2,047

296,447
4,630
32,664
166,532
20,841
6,071
6,136
3,369
11,565
6,595
13,317
6,013
16,688
2,026

5.2%
9.4
6.7
5.2
6.3
2.6
13.7
7.5
7.8
3.2
2.5
3.5
-0.3
3.4

2.4%
5.2
4.2
2.6
3.2
1.3
2.3
3.2
5.8
3.5
1.7
-2.3
-4.3
2.3

a

Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.
figures are based on custody counts.

bPopulation

14 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 3. Number of sentenced prisoners admitted and released from
State or Federal jurisdiction, by region and jurisdiction, 2000, 2004, and 2005
Admissions
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islanda
Vermont

2005

2004

733,009

699,812 625,219

56,057
676,952

52,982 43,732
646,830 581,487

68,742
6,513
521
2,597
1,271
14,251
24,199
16,222
911
2,257

66,441
6,577
655
2,278
1,099
13,886
24,664
14,319
755
2,208

2000

Releases
Percent change,
2000-2005

Percent change,
2000-2005

2005

2004

2000

17.2%

698,459

672,202

604,858

15.5%

28.2
16.4

47,981
650,478

46,624
625,578

35,259
569,599

36.1
14.2

67,765
6,185
751
2,062
1,051
13,653
27,601
11,777
3,701
984

1.4%
5.3
-30.6
25.9
20.9
4.4
-12.3
37.7
---

67,152
6,349
573
2,166
1,179
13,590
25,198
15,069
769
2,259

68,760
6,707
636
2,391
1,080
14,418
26,043
14,396
828
2,261

70,646
5,918
677
2,889
1,044
15,362
28,828
11,759
3,223
946

-4.9%
7.3
-15.4
-25.0
12.9
-11.5
-12.6
28.1
---

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

150,411
39,887
16,957
6,397
4,892
13,145
7,112
19,110
2,264
1,088
29,121
2,664
7,774

144,002 117,776
39,293 29,344
16,029
11,876
4,364
4,656
4,519
5,002
13,248 12,169
6,604
4,406
18,281 14,454
2,085
1,688
1,008
605
28,196 23,780
2,304
1,400
8,071
8,396

27.7%
35.9
42.8
37.4
-2.2
8.0
61.4
32.2
34.1
79.8
22.5
90.3
-7.4

146,727
38,964
16,432
5,795
4,768
12,397
7,115
18,881
1,966
998
27,947
2,640
8,824

143,497
38,646
15,100
6,049
4,683
13,723
5,849
17,307
2,029
917
28,170
2,428
8,596

114,382
28,876
11,053
4,379
5,231
10,874
4,244
13,346
1,503
598
24,793
1,327
8,158

28.3%
34.9
48.7
32.3
-8.9
14.0
67.6
41.5
30.8
66.9
12.7
98.9
8.2

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

261,503
9,723
8,053
1,422
46,531
19,228
13,324
14,801
10,113
8,923
10,454
8,756
9,446
14,251
71,889
11,989
2,600

249,733 217,950
8,278
6,296
8,035
6,941
1,648
2,709
40,386 35,683
20,140 17,373
13,009
8,116
15,512 15,735
10,330 10,327
9,187
5,796
10,411
9,848
9,003
7,426
9,850
8,460
13,149 13,675
66,883 58,197
11,645
9,791
2,267
1,577

20.0%
54.4
16.0
-47.5
30.4
10.7
64.2
-5.9
-2.1
54.0
6.2
17.9
11.7
4.2
23.5
22.4
64.9

254,010
10,405
9,037
1,555
42,017
16,974
12,316
14,880
10,618
9,101
9,683
8,338
9,642
14,410
70,793
12,104
2,137

238,628 210,777
9,156
7,136
7,457
6,308
2,013
2,260
36,908
33,994
18,211
14,797
10,740
7,733
15,009
14,536
10,531
10,004
8,607
4,940
9,315
9,687
8,432
6,628
10,060
8,676
13,295
13,893
65,800
59,776
11,148
9,148
1,946
1,261

20.5%
45.8
43.3
-31.2
23.6
14.7
59.3
2.4
6.1
84.2
0.0
25.8
11.1
3.7
18.4
32.3
69.5

West
Alaskab
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

196,296
2,868
12,440
129,559
9,899
1,662
4,075
2,390
5,648
4,264
6,436
3,600
12,683
772

186,654 177,996
2,746
2,427
11,343
9,560
123,537 129,640
8,634
7,036
1,677
1,594
4,392
3,386
2,182
1,202
6,548
4,929
4,279
3,161
5,378
4,059
3,275
3,270
11,894
7,094
769
638

10.3%
18.2
30.1
-0.1
40.7
4.3
20.3
98.8
14.6
34.9
58.6
10.1
78.8
21.0

182,589
2,699
11,865
121,523
8,658
1,409
3,541
2,042
4,804
4,060
6,177
3,242
11,872
697

174,693 173,794
2,726
2,599
10,190
9,100
117,762 129,621
8,001
5,881
1,667
1,379
3,480
2,697
1,897
1,031
4,715
4,374
4,090
3,383
4,910
3,371
3,050
2,897
11,547
6,764
658
697

5.1%
3.8
30.4
-6.2
47.2
2.2
31.3
98.1
9.8
20.0
83.2
11.9
75.5
0.0

Note: Excludes escapes, AWOLs, and transfers to and from other jurisdictions.
--Percent change not calculated due to changes in reporting.
a
Changed reporting in 2004 to exclude prisoners unsentenced and sentenced to less than 1 year.
bAlaska data may include escapes, AWOL’s and transfers.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

15

Appendix table 4. Prisoners held in private facilities,
June 30, 2005, and 2006
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total

Number of inmates
6/30/2006
6/30/2005

Percent of all
inmatesa
6/30/2006

111,975

101,720

27,108
84,867

26,544
75,176

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jerseyc
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandc
Vermontc

3,800
0
0
0
0
2,626
0
713
0
461

3,214
0
0
0
0
2,437
0
403
0
374

2.2%
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.2
0.0
1.7
0.0
21.6

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

4,403
0
1,356
0
0
0
940
0
0
18
2,080
9
0

3,453
0
580
0
0
479
403
0
0
57
1,924
10
0

1.7%
0.0
5.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.6
0.0
0.0
1.3
4.4
0.3
0.0

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

53,333
320
0
0
6,285
5,190
2,463
2,954
135
4,865
211
5,926
16
5,169
18,220
1,579
0

48,266
257
0
0
5,423
4,625
1,907
2,924
129
4,837
206
5,812
15
5,142
15,414
1,575
0

8.6%
1.1
0.0
0.0
6.9
10.1
12.3
8.1
0.6
23.1
0.6
24.8
0.1
19.8
10.5
4.4
0.0

West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonc
Wyoming

23,331
1,338
5,318
3,000
4,362
1,885
1,749
987
0
2,927
0
0
964
801

20,243
1,365
5,291
2,470
3,320
1,774
1,283
747
0
2,810
0
0
406
777

7.5%
26.4
15.3
1.7
19.7
30.3
25.1
27.2
0.0
43.0
0.0
0.0
5.8
38.3

Federalb
State

a

7.2%
14.2
6.2

Based on the total number of inmates under State or Federal
jurisdiction.
b
Includes Federal inmates held in privately operated community
correctional centers: 7,357 on 6/30/06 and 7,233 on 6/30/05.
cIncludes inmates held in out-of-State private facilities.

16 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 5. Number of inmates under age 18 held in State prisons, by
State and gender, June 30, 2005, and 2006
June 30, 2006
Male
Female

June 30, 2005
Total
Male
Female

Region and
jurisdiction

Total

State total

2,364

2,259

105

2,208

2,118

90

Northeast
Connecticuta
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jerseyb
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islanda
Vermonta

714
425
0
4
1
17
219
38
5
5

681
405
0
3
0
17
211
36
5
4

33
20
0
1
1
0
8
2
0
1

678
383
0
3
1
28
223
31
4
5

649
363
0
3
1
27
216
31
4
4

29
20
0
0
0
1
7
0
0
1

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakotab
Wisconsin

450
103
29
17
13
112
11
38
8
1
64
1
53

433
95
27
17
12
112
11
37
8
1
63
0
50

17
8
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
3

399
82
18
15
10
98
16
21
16
4
51
2
66

388
81
17
15
9
96
16
20
15
4
49
2
64

11
1
1
0
1
2
0
1
1
0
2
0
2

1,036
70
17
23
221
61
0
9
68
38
188
5
129
14
162
31
0

988
67
17
23
210
57
0
9
66
37
176
4
121
14
156
31
0

48
3
0
0
11
4
0
0
2
1
12
1
8
0
6
0
0

956
34
19
26
185
75
0
10
51
55
169
10
120
8
167
27
0

916
33
19
26
178
71
0
10
47
55
164
10
113
8
155
27
0

40
1
0
0
7
4
0
0
4
0
5
0
7
0
12
0
0

164
4
112
0
33
1
3
1
0
0
6
1
0
3

157
4
111
0
29
1
2
0
0
0
6
1
0
3

7
0
1
0
4
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

175
10
78
5
38
1
3
2
16
2
6
7
3
4

165
8
77
5
32
1
3
2
16
2
6
6
3
4

10
2
1
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delawarea
Florida
Georgiab
Kentucky
Louisianab
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolinab
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaskaa
Arizona
Californiab
Colorado
Hawaiia
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonb
Wyoming
a

Prisons and jails form an integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.
include those held in privately-operated facilities.

bCounts

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

17

Appendix table 6. Number of noncitizens held in State or Federal prisons,
by State and gender, June 30, 2005, and June 30, 2006
Region and jurisdiction
U.S. total

Total

June 30, 2006
Male

Female

Total

June 30, 2005
Male
Female

91,426

87,726

3,700

91,089

87,430

3,659

33,701
57,725

31,556
56,170

2,145
1,555

35,285
55,804

33,048
54,382

2,237
1,422

Northeast
Connecticuta
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jerseyb
New Yorkc
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islanda
Vermonta

9,365
956
10
915
59
/
6,912
497
/
16

9,015
881
10
863
55
/
6,699
492
/
15

350
75
0
52
4
/
213
5
/
1

8,941
897
10
/
55
/
7,444
521
/
14

8,632
828
10
/
51
/
7,223
507
/
13

309
69
0
/
4
/
221
14
/
1

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouric
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakotab
Wisconsin

4,343
1,277
388
189
264
664
304
409
185
7
603
53
/

4,227
1,245
381
186
261
655
294
385
185
6
577
52
/

116
32
7
3
3
9
10
24
0
1
26
1
/

4,013
1,065
307
207
226
715
338
408
160
9
561
17
/

3,895
1,033
302
200
221
700
331
386
158
8
539
17
/

118
32
5
7
5
15
7
22
2
1
22
0
/

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delawarea
Florida
Georgiab
Kentucky
Louisianab
Marylandc
Mississippi
North Carolinab
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennesseec
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

19,182
52
165
263
5,987
888
/
108
488
/
1,299
283
224
180
9,227
/
18

18,612
52
165
255
5,731
872
/
99
463
/
1,272
271
218
173
9,025
/
16

570
0
0
8
256
16
/
9
25
/
27
12
6
7
202
/
2

16,907
65
135
276
4,772
/
/
116
557
/
1,182
96
199
154
9,346
/
9

16,456
65
129
255
4,617
/
/
109
539
/
1,155
92
195
150
9,141
/
9

451
0
6
21
155
/
/
7
18
/
27
4
4
4
205
/
0

West
Alaskaa
Arizona
Californiab
Coloradoc
Hawaiia
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

24,835
11
4,432
15,849
1,488
103
250
8
/
122
1,292
257
951
72

24,316
11
4,352
15,528
1,459
95
233
8
/
121
1,244
255
938
72

519
0
80
321
29
8
17
0
/
1
48
2
13
0

25,943
12
4,179
16,613
1,029
101
230
7
1,402
126
877
310
986
71

25,399
12
4,117
16,259
1,007
93
215
6
1,364
126
846
310
974
70

544
0
62
354
22
8
15
1
38
0
31
0
12
1

Federal
State

/Not reported.
a

Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.

b

Counts include those held in privately-operated facilities.

c

Report foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens.

18 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 7. Rated capacity of local jails
and percent of capacity occupied, 1995-2006
Year
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
Average annual
increase, 1995-2006

Rated
capacitya
810,863
789,001
755,603
736,471
713,899
699,309
677,787
652,321
612,780
586,564
562,971
545,763
3.7%

Amount of
capacity
addedb
21,862
33,398
19,132
22,572
14,590
21,522
25,466
39,541
26,216
23,593
17,208

Percent of
capacity
occupiedc
94%
95
94
94
93
90
92
93
97
97
92
93

24,100

Note: Capacity data for 1995-1998, 2000-2004, and 2006 are
survey estimates subject to sampling error.
a
Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned
by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction.
b
The number of beds added during the 12 months ending
June 30 of each year.
c
The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity times 100.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

19

Appendix table 8. The 50 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of inmates held, average daily population
and rated capacity, midyear 2004-06
Number of inmates helda
Jurisdiction
Total
Los Angeles County, CA
New York City, NY
Maricopa County, AZ
Cook County, IL
Harris County, TX

2004

2005

215,934 223,562

Average daily populationb

2006

2004

226,171

214,831 219,826 226,612

18,600
13,818
9,148
10,155
7,902

19,732
13,153
9,584
9,872
9,031

19,062
13,641
9,243
9,505
9,464

Philadelphia City, PA
Dallas County, TX
Dade County, FL
Orange County, CA
Broward County, FL

7,404
7,090
6,581
6,117
5,264

7,769
7,392
6,558
6,493
5,618

8,725
7,354
6,502
6,455
6,121

7,376
7,090
6,619
5,569
5,203

San Bernardino County, CA
San Diego County, CA
Shelby County, TN
Santa Clara County, CA
Hillsborough County, FL

5,494
5,243
4,939
4,054
4,464

5,753
5,186
5,273
4,789
4,729

5,533
5,117
5,413
4,421
3,929

Baltimore City, MD
Sacramento County, CA
Bexar County, TX
Alameda County, CA
Orange County, FL

4,440
3,958
3,856
4,116
3,529

3,490
3,985
4,109
4,083
3,735

District of Columbiae
Fresno County, CA
Pinellas County, FL
Tarrant County, TX
Jacksonville City, FL

3,555
3,124
2,922
3,147
3,375

Clark County, NVf
Allegheny County, PA
Riverside County, CA
Davidson County, TN
De Kalb County, GA

2005

18,512 17,893
13,751 13,576
8,657
9,054
10,535 10,278
8,200
8,987

2006

Percent of capacity at midyeard

Rated capacityc
2004

2005

2006

227,933 234,901 239,028

2004
95%

2005
95%

2006
95%

19,287
13,494
9,733
9,345
9,091

21,667
20,793
5,201
10,252
9,409

20,619
20,804
7,270
10,257
9,372

22,411
19,674
7,270
10,114
9,241

86
66
176
99
84

96
63
132
96
96

85
69
127
94
102

7,701
7,250
6,736
6,067
5,497

8,772
7,140
6,765
6,513
5,949

7,118
7,284
8,052
4,517
5,656

7,118
7,665
8,052
5,782
6,254

7,269
7,145
7,821
7,019
6,254

104
97
82
135
93

109
96
81
112
90

120
103
83
92
98

5,299
5,163
4,854
4,187
4,269

5,618
5,244
5,071
4,472
4,637

5,735
5,333
5,300
4,750
4,384

4,874
4,768
6,216
3,849
4,190

5,258
4,768
6,641
4,129
4,190

5,914
4,768
6,839
4,169
4,190

113
110
79
105
107

109
109
79
116
113

94
107
79
106
94

4,038
4,197
4,084
3,993
4,051

4,305
4,004
3,776
4,056
3,456

3,999
4,190
3,862
4,028
3,803

4,156
4,049
4,015
3,982
3,835

3,783
4,751
4,131
4,634
4,352

4,522
4,751
4,294
4,185
4,352

4,522
4,991
4,294
4,469
4,352

117
83
93
89
81

77
84
96
98
86

89
84
95
89
93

3,552
2,836
3,600
3,393
3,580

3,214
3,467
3,695
3,475
3,613

3,521
2,980
3,087
3,437
3,428

3,540
3,006
3,600
3,345
3,447

3,584
3,538
3,502
3,500
3,493

3,825
3,542
3,119
4,040
3,137

3,825
3,820
3,119
4,044
3,137

3,825
3,778
3,363
4,564
3,137

93
88
94
78
108

93
74
115
84
114

84
92
110
76
115

3,056
2,802
3,250
3,097
2,623

3,173
2,856
3,188
3,246
3,030

3,354
3,026
3,264
3,450
2,779

2,906
2,733
3,222
3,220
2,600

3,205
2,815
3,237
3,122
2,810

3,384
3,370
3,258
3,202
3,117

2,855
3,271
2,884
2,654
3,636

2,857
3,307
2,882
3,679
3,636

2,859
3,342
2,884
3,679
3,636

107
86
113
117
72

111
86
111
88
83

117
91
113
94
76

Marion County, IN
Fulton County, GA
Milwaukee County, WI
Wayne County, MI
Oklahoma County, OK

2,593
3,524
3,015
2,497
2,582

2,717
3,202
2,738
2,472
2,761

3,114
2,816
2,917
2,902
2,876

2,470
3,152
3,383
2,483
2,640

2,407
3,126
2,809
2,599
2,337

3,064
2,970
2,892
2,867
2,752

2,510
2,698
3,000
2,721
2,975

2,463
2,725
3,000
2,725
2,850

2,463
3,115
3,000
2,725
2,890

103
131
101
92
87

110
118
91
91
97

126
90
97
106
100

Gwinnett County, GA
Palm Beach County, FL
Polk County, FL
Travis County, TX
Franklin County, OH

2,187
2,848
2,491
2,341
2,681

3,016
2,771
2,877
2,869
2,726

2,998
2,766
2,565
2,548
2,553

2,454
2,753
2,637
2,407
2,659

2,709
2,782
2,871
2,750
2,701

2,716
2,630
2,605
2,595
2,561

1,964
3,365
1,808
2,847
2,659

2,076
3,365
1,808
2,847
2,659

2,076
3,365
1,808
3,056
2,531

111
85
138
82
101

145
82
159
101
103

144
82
142
83
101

King County, WA
Cobb County, GA
Denver County, CO
Suffolk County, MA
Hamilton County, OH

2,407
2,405
1,855
2,479
2,335

2,536
2,422
2,368
2,160
2,333

2,499
2,540
2,429
2,531
2,393

2,423
2,339
1,863
2,539
2,242

2,525
2,431
2,256
2,576
2,319

2,560
2,510
2,469
2,387
2,347

2,527
2,634
1,350
2,932
2,470

3,154
2,559
1,672
2,932
2,472

3,154
2,559
1,710
2,932
2,472

95
91
137
85
95

80
95
142
74
94

79
99
142
86
97

Mecklenburg County, NC
Bernalillo County, NM
Kern County, CA
El Paso County, TX
Hampden County, MA

2,024
2,136
2,099
2,539
1,773

2,225
2,169
2,263
2,291
1,858

2,466
2,410
2,279
2,303
2,081

2,085
2,096
2,189
2,400
1,602

2,047
2,157
2,212
2,185
1,937

2,335
2,292
2,279
2,142
2,063

2,668
2,048
2,324
2,448
1,525

2,668
2,048
2,324
2,440
1,525

2,668
2,048
2,698
2,440
1,525

76
104
90
104
116

83
106
97
94
122

92
118
84
94
136

Note: Jurisdictions are ordered by their average daily population in 2006.
a
Number of inmates held in jail facilities.
b
Based on the average daily population for the year ending June 30. The average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in jail each day
for a year, divided by the number of days in the year.
c
Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction.
dThe number of inmates divided by the rated capacity multiplied by 100.
e
Includes the D.C. Detention Facility, community corrections center, and contract housing under the Department of Corrections; excludes the Bureau of
Prisons.
fThe confined population total for Clark County, NV, excludes those held in contract facilities.

20 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 9. Persons under jail supervision, by confinement status
and type of program, midyear 2000, 2005, and 2006
Confinement status and type
of program
Total
Held in jail
Supervised outside of a jail facilityb
Weekender programs
Electronic monitoring
Home detentionc
Day reporting
Community service
Other pretrial supervision
Other work programsd
Treatment programse
Other

Number of persons under jail supervision
2000
2005
2006
687,033

817,214a

826,232

621,149

747,529

766,010

65,884
14,523
10,782
332
3,969
13,592
6,279
8,011
5,714
2,682

69,685a
14,110
11,403
1,497
4,747
17,193
10,858
6,519
1,973
1,385

60,222
11,421
10,999
807
4,841
14,667
6,409
8,319
1,486
1,273

a

2005 supervised release updated from previously published data.
Excludes persons supervised by a probation or parole agency.
cIncludes only those without electronic monitoring.
d
Includes persons in work release programs, work gangs, and other work alternative programs.
e
Includes persons under drug, alcohol, mental health, and other medical treatment.
b

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

21

Appendix table 10. Standard error estimates for the Annual
Survey of Jails, 2006
Survey
estimates

Characteristic
Total
Held in jail
Supervised outside a jail
facility
Excluding weekenders
Weekender programs
Average daily population
Peak population
Rated capacity

Standard Relative standard
error
error (percent)

2006
Standard
Estimate
error

826,232

4,081

0.49%

Characteristic

766,010

3,827

0.50

60,222
48,801
11,421
755,896
809,621
810,863

1,154
1,026
383
3,516
4,545
12,303

1.92
2.10
3.35
0.47
0.56
1.52

Gender
Male
Female

87.1%
12.9

0.11%
0.11

Race/Hispanic origin
Whitea
Black/African Americana
Hispanic/Latino
Othera,b
Two or more racesa

43.9%
38.6
15.6
1.8
0.1

0.33%
0.33
0.22
0.09
0.01

Conviction status
Convicted
Male
Female
Unconvicted
Male
Female

37.9%
32.9
5.0
62.1%
54.3
7.8

0.32%
0.30
0.09
0.32%
0.30
0.08

Appendix table 11. Standard error estimates by selected
characteristics, for the Annual Survey of Jails, 2006
Characteristic

Appendix table 12. Estimated percentages of local
jail inmates having selected characteristics
and ratio estimates of standard errors

Survey
Standard Relative standard
error (percent)
Totala estimates error

Gender
Male
Female

666,985
99,025

666,985
99,025

3,383
1,005

0.51%
1.01

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

Adults

759,905

759,905

3,826

0.50%

b

6,105
4,836
1,269

6,105
4,836
1,269

148
152
144

2.43%
3.14
11.39

336,600

323,474

3,131

0.97%

296,000
119,200
13,500
700

284,412
114,564
12,992
633

2,765
1,757
657
72

Conviction status (adults)
Awaiting trial or in
other unconvicted
category
472,100
Convicted
287,800

460,837
280,914

3,456
2,803

Juveniles
Held as adults
Held as juveniles
Race/Hispanic origin
Whiteb
Black/African Americanb
Hispanic/Latino
Otherb,c
Two or more racesb

0.97
1.53
5.06
11.33

0.75%
1.00

Note: Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.
a

Total estimates were based on reported data adjusted for nonresponse.

b

Excludes Hispanic or Latino origin.

cIncludes

American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians,
and other Pacific Islanders.

22 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

aExcludes

Hispanic or Latino origin.

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians,
Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

 

 

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