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Bjs Workplace Violence Against Govt Employees April 2013

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U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

APRIL 2013	

Special Report

NCJ 241349

Workplace Violence Against
Government Employees, 1994-2011
Erika Harrell, Ph.D., BJS Statistician

T

he annual average rate of workplace violence
against local, county, state, and federal
government employees declined 82% from 1994
to 2011, compared to a decline of 72% for the privatesector (figure 1). Most of the decline (76%) occurred
between 1994 and 2002, when the rate of workplace violence
against government employees dropped from 99.2 violent
victimizations per 1,000 to 24.2 per 1,000. The rate dropped
an additional 25.6% from 2002 to 2011. In 2011, the rate of
workplace violence against government employees was more
than three times the rate for private-sector employees.
In 1994, the rate of violent victimization in the workplace of
government employees (99.2 per 1,000) was over five times
greater than the rate for employees in the private-sector
(18.5 per 1,000). From 1994 to 2011, the annual average rate
of workplace violence against government employees was
at least twice that for private-sector employees. The study
period ended in 2011 with the rate of workplace violence for
government employees (18.0 per 1,000) lower than its levels
of the mid 1990s but was over three times greater than the
rate for private-sector employees (5.2 per 1,000).

Figure 1
Rate of nonfatal workplace violence against government and
private-sector employees, 1994–2011
Rate per 1,000 employees age 16 or older
120
100
80
60
40

Government

20
0

Private-sector
'94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 ‘11

Note: Estimates based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent
year. See appendix table 1 for rates and standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
1993–2011.

HIGHLIGHTS
„„

In 2011, government employees had a rate of workplace
violence (18.0 per 1,000 employees age 16 or older) that
was more than three times the rate for private-sector
employees (5.2 per 1,000).

„„

About 56% of government employee workplace violence
from 2002 to 2011 was attributed to those working in law
enforcement and security-related occupations.

„„

From 2002 to 2011, the annual average rate of simple
assault in the workplace against government employees
(18.9 per 1,000) was more than three times that of privatesector employees (4.6 per 1,000).

„„

In 2011, excluding law enforcement and security
employees, the rate of workplace violence against
government employees (8.7 per 1,000) was greater than the
rate for private-sector employees (4.7 per 1,000).

„„

Serious violent crime accounted for a larger percentage of
workplace violence against private-sector employees (25%)
than government employees (15%).

„„

In 2011, about 1 in 5 victims of workplace homicide was a
government employee.

„„

From 2002 to 2011, about 96% of workplace violence
against government employees was against state, county,
and local employees, who made up 81% of the total
government workforce.

„„

Persons working in law enforcement and security
occupations in government (140.3 per 1,000) and privatesector organizations (102.5 per 1,000) had the highest
annual average rates of violent victimization occurring in
the workplace from 2002 to 2011.

„„

	 mong government employees, males (68%) were more
A
likely than females (38%) to face a stranger during an
incident of workplace violence.

„„

From 2002 to 2011, government employees (12%) were
less likely than private-sector employees (20%) to face an
offender with a weapon during an incident of workplace
violence.

BJS

The higher rates of workplace violence in the government
were partly due to the high rates of workplace violence
attributed to law enforcement and security employees
(figure 2). The rate of workplace violence for law
enforcement and security employees was a high of 672.3
per 1,000 in 1994, declining to 109.3 in 2011. These law
enforcement and security occupations accounted for over
half of the violence committed against government workers
and were concentrated most heavily in state, county, and
local government.
The estimates of nonfatal violent victimization in the
workplace against government employees are based on data
from the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National Crime
Victimization Survey (NCVS), which collects information on
nonfatal crimes against persons age 12 or older, reported and
not reported to the police, from a nationally representative
sample of U.S. households. In this report, nonfatal workplace
violence includes rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated
assault (serious violent offenses), and simple assault against
employed persons age 16 or older that occurred while at
work or on duty. Information on workplace homicide in
this report was obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’
(BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) (see
Methodology). Workplace homicide includes the homicide
of employed victims age 16 or older who were killed while at
work or on duty and excludes death by accident.
Figure 2
Rate of nonfatal workplace violence against law enforcement
and security employees, by type of employee, 1994-2011
Rate per 1,000 employees age 16 or older
800
700
600
500

Government

400
300
200

Private-sector

100
0

'94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11

Note: Estimates based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most
recent year. Definitions of NCVS occupational categories can be found in the
Methodology. See appendix table 3 for rates and standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
1993–2011.

 rend estimates of nonfatal workplace violence are based on
T
2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. For
example, estimates reported for 2011 represent the average
estimates for 2010 and 2011. For some tables in this report,
the focus is on the single 10-year aggregate period from 2002
through 2011. These approaches increase the reliability and
stability of estimates, which facilitates comparisons over
time and between subgroups. Trend estimates of workplace
homicide are based on a single most recent year estimates.
For example, estimates of workplace homicide for 2011
represent the estimate for 2011 only.
The rate of workplace violence against all types of
government employees fell between 1994 and 2011
From 2002 to 2011, government employees accounted for 16%
of all employed persons age 16 or older and were victims of
about 41% of the nonfatal workplace violence (table 1). Most
(96%) of the workplace violence against government employees
occurred against persons employed by state, county, and local
governments (not shown in table). State, county, and local
government employees accounted for 81% of all government
employees, and federal employees made up 19%. Federal
employees experienced 2% of all workplace violence and 4% of
workplace violence against all government employees.
Among persons in law enforcement and security
occupations, there was no statistically significant difference
in the rates of workplace violence against government
and private-sector employees in 2011. Between 1994 and
2011, the rate of workplace violence against government
law enforcement and security employees dropped 84%
from 672.3 per 1,000 in 1994 to 109.3 per 1,000 in 2011. In
comparison, the rate of workplace violence against privatesector law enforcement and security employees declined
52%, from 182.3 per 1,000 in 1994 to 87.5 per 1,000 in 2011.
Table 1
Percent of workplace violence and employed persons,
by type of employee, 2002–2011
Type of employee
Total
Government
Federal
State/county/local
Private-sector

Workplace violence
100%
41.0%
1.6
39.4
58.9%

All employed persons
100%
16.0%
3.1
12.9
82.5%

Note: Detail may not sum to 100% due to missing data and rounding. See
appendix table 2 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

2

Excluding law enforcement and security employees, the rate
of workplace violence against government employees (8.7
per 1,000) was higher than that of private-sector employees
(4.7 per 1,000) in 2011(figure 3). The rate of workplace
violence against non-law enforcement and security
government employees dropped 80% from 1994 to 2011,
compared to a 73% decline for non-law enforcement and
security private-sector employees.
In 2011, the rate of workplace violence against state, county,
and local employees (21.6 per 1,000) was more than five
times the rate of federal employees (3.7 per 1,000) (figure
4). Between 1994 and 2011, the rate of workplace violence
against federal employees dropped 78%, from 16.7 per
1,000 in 1994 to 3.7 per 1,000. In comparison, the rate of
workplace violence declined 82% for state, county, and local
employees during the same period, from 122.4 per 1,000 in
1994 to 21.6 per 1,000 in 2011.
Figure 3
Rate of nonfatal workplace violence against non-law
enforcement and security employees, 1994-2011
Rate per 1,000 employees age 16 or older
50

15
10
5
0

Rate per 1,000 employees age 16 or older
140
120

60

Government

40

25
20

Figure 4
Rate of nonfatal workplace violence against all government
and non-law enforcement and security government
employees, by type of employee, 1994-2011

80

40
30

Among non-law enforcement and security government
employees, those employed by state, county, and local
governments had a rate of workplace violence (10.0 per
1,000) that was more than twice that of federal employees
(3.6 per 1,000) in 2011. From 1994 to 2011, the rate of
workplace violence declined 69% for non-law enforcement
and security federal employees and 82% for non-law
enforcement and security employees of state, county, and
local governments.

100

45
35

As with the overall rate of violence against government
workers, the rate of violence against state, local, and city
government employees was driven in part by the high rates
associated with law enforcement and security employees.

20

Private-sector

......

_-

0

-'.

'94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11

Note: Estimates based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most
recent year. Definitions of NCVS occupational categories can be found in the
Methodology. See appendix table 4 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
1993–2011.

•

-'.

~--:;::::::::~-

-

State/county/
local total
Federal total
State/county/local
non-law enforcement
and security
Federal non-law
enforcement and
security

- -- -........__....
--

'94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11

Note: Estimates based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most
recent year. Definitions of NCVS occupational categories can be found in the
Methodology. See appendix table 5 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
1993–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

3

Except transportation, the rate of workplace violence
was higher for government employees than privatesector employees for each measured occupation

Government employees experienced simple assault
at more than three times the rate of private-sector
employees

From 2002 to 2011, about 56% of workplace violence against
government employees occurred against persons in law
enforcement and security occupations (table 2). Persons
in law enforcement and security-related fields accounted
for about 9% of all government employees. In comparison,
persons working in teaching occupations experienced
about 14% of workplace violence from 2002 to 2011, and
accounted for about 34% of government employees.

From 2002 to 2011, the annual average rate of workplace
violence against government employees (22.3 per 1,000) was
more than three times the rate for private-sector employees
(6.2 per 1,000) (table 3). During the same 10-year period,
the annual average rate of simple assault in the workplace
against government employees (18.9 per 1,000) was more
than three times that of private-sector employees (4.6 per
1,000). Similarly, the rate of serious violence (rape/sexual
assault, robbery, and aggravated assault) was greater for
government (3.4 per 1,000) than private-sector employees
(1.6 per 1,000).

Persons working in law enforcement and security
occupations had the highest annual average rate of
workplace violence among government (140.3 per
1,000) and private-sector employees (102.5 per 1,000).
No difference was detected in the annual average rate of
workplace violence against government and private-sector
employees who worked in transportation occupations. For
all other occupations measured, the annual average rate of
workplace violence was higher for government employees
than private-sector employees.

Government employees experienced an annual average
of about 528,000 nonfatal violent crimes in the workplace
during the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011, compared to
an annual average 760,000 against private-sector employees.
Serious violent crime accounted for a larger percentage of
workplace violence against private-sector employees (25%)
than government employees (15%).

Table 2
Rate and percent of workplace violence and percent of employed persons, by occupation and type of employee, 2002–2011

Occupation*
Total
Medical
Mental health
Teaching
Law enforcement and security
Retail sales
Transportation
Other

Government
Workplace violence
Rate per 1,000
Percent of all
age 16 or older
Percent
government employees
22.3
100%
100%
22.6
6.5
6.5
87.1
7.8
2.0
9.4
14.1
33.5
140.3
56.1
8.9
36.3
0.7
0.4
21.8
3.0
3.1
5.8
11.8
45.6

Private-sector
Workplace violence
Rate per 1,000
Percent of all privateage 16 or older
Percent
sector employees
6.2
100%
100%
10.5
14.3
8.5
35.6
4.6
0.8
2.9
1.2
2.5
102.5
11.5
0.7
10.0
17.1
10.7
16.2
8.1
3.1
3.7
43.3
73.7

Note: See appendix table 6 for standard errors.
*Definitions of NCVS occupational categories can be found in the Methodology.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

Table 3
Rate, percent, and annual average number of workplace violence, by type of crime and type of employee, 2002–2011
Government
Type of crime
Total
Serious violent crime
Rape/sexual assault
Robbery
Aggravated assault
Simple assault

Rate per 1,000
age 16 or older
22.3
3.4
0.6
0.1 !
2.7
18.9

Percent
100%
15.1%
2.9
0.3 !
11.9
84.9%

Private-sector
Annual average
number
528,420
79,610
15,200
1,470 !
62,940
448,810

Rate per 1,000
age 16 or older
6.2
1.6
0.2
0.2
1.1
4.6

Percent
100%
25.4%
3.7
3.2
18.5
74.6%

Annual average
number
759,840
193,080
28,180
24,090
140,800
566,760

Note: See appendix table 7 for standard errors.
! Interpret with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or coefficient of variation is greater than 50%.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

4

In 2011, one in every five victims of workplace
homicide was a government employee
From 1993 to 2002, the number of government employees
who were victims of workplace homicide declined by 33%,
from 124 in 1993 to 83 in 2002 (figure 5). For private-sector
employees, homicide declined 44%, from 944 in 1993 to
525 in 2002. From 2003 to 2010, government employees
experienced a 29% increase in the number of homicides,
from 71 in 2003 to 86 in 2010. During the same period,
homicide in private-sector employees decreased by 28%,
from 560 in 2003 to 432 in 2010. In 2011, the private-sector
experienced 367 homicides compared to 90 homicides for
government employees.

Figure 5
Number of workplace homicides, by type of employee,
1993–2011

Number of workplace homicides
1,200
1,000

,

.....

800

600 - ---------------'

Private-sector

.......--..........

_-,

400
200
0

.

,',

---'

Government
,-------------

•.

'93 '94 '95* '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11

Note: Based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries. BLS declared breaks in series in 2003 and 2011 due to
changes in injuries classification: the Standard Industrial Classification system was
used from 1993 to 2002, the North American Industry Classification from 2003
to 2010, and a revised Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System 2.01
in 2011. Data from 1993 to 2010 are final; data from 2011 are preliminary. See
Methodology. Excludes fatalities due to the September 11, 2001, terror attacks.
See appendix table 8 for numbers.
*Includes homicides as a result of the Oklahoma City bombings, which accounted
for about 12% of workplace homicides, according to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cfnr0002.txt, retrieved March 5, 2012.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, based on files provided by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1993–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

5

Male government employees experienced a higher
rate of the workplace violence than females
For most of the victim characteristics measured, government
employees had a higher rate of workplace violence than
private-sector employees. Among government employees,
males (35.3 per 1,000) had a rate of workplace violence
that was over twice the rate of females (12.0 per 1,000)
due primarily to the large percentage of males working
in law enforcement and security-related government
occupations (table 4). Persons of two or more races had
the highest rate of workplace violence among government
employees. Among government employees, whites were
more likely than blacks, Hispanics, and Asians to be victims
of workplace violence. Government employees ages 25 to 34
had the highest rate of workplace violence (35.8 per 1,000).
Government employees who were divorced or separated
had the highest rate of workplace violence (33.5 per 1,000)

among all marital statuses. Among government employees,
persons with annual household incomes of $50,000 to
$74,999 had the highest rate of workplace violence (33.6 per
1,000) among all income categories.
Among non-law enforcement and security employees,
government employees had a higher rate of workplace
violence (10.8 per 1,000) than private-sector employees (5.6
per 1,000). No difference was found due to sex in the rates
of workplace violence against non-law enforcement and
security employees in the government or the private-sector.
In both the government and private-sector, American Indian
and Alaska Natives in non-law enforcement and security
occupations had a higher rate of workplace violence than
whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in similar occupations.
Among government non-law enforcement and security
employees, persons ages 25 to 64 had similar rates of
workplace violence (11.7 per 1,000).

Table 4
Rates of workplace violence, by type of employee and victim characteristics, 2002–2011
Victim characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
White*
Black/African American*
Hispanic
American Indian/Alaska Native*
Asian/Pacific Islander*
Two or more races*
Age
16–17
18–24
25–34
35–49
50–64
65 or older
Marital status
Never married
Married
Widowed
Divorced or separated
Unknown
Annual household income
Less than $25,000
$25,000 to $49,999
$50,000 to $74,999
$75,000 or more
Unknown

Rate of workplace violence per 1,000 age 16 or older
All employees
Non-law enforcement and security employees
Government
Private-sector
Government
Private-sector
22.3
6.2
10.8
5.6
35.3
12.0

6.7
5.6

11.2
10.5

5.6
5.6

25.0
10.6
18.3
42.5 !
8.7 !
69.7

6.7
6.4
3.1
19.1
4.9
14.1

12.0
5.7
9.4
28.3 !
4.3 !
14.5 !

6.0
5.4
2.8
18.1
5.0
14.3

-- !
18.5
35.8
22.8
16.3
3.7

5.6
8.6
8.0
5.8
4.4
1.0

-- !
6.1
12.1
11.4
11.6
3.6

5.6
7.6
6.9
5.3
4.2
0.9

20.7
20.8
16.9
33.5
-- !

8.7
4.2
7.3
9.0
1.3 !

9.9
9.8
6.2
18.2
-- !

7.7
3.8
7.4
8.1
1.0 !

13.3
21.4
33.6
21.5
16.8

7.4
6.7
7.6
5.5
4.9

10.3
10.2
15.5
11.2
6.1

6.3
5.7
7.2
5.1
4.3

Note: See appendix table 9 for standard errors. Definitions of NCVS occupational categories can be found in the Methodology.
! Interpret with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or coefficient of variation is greater than 50%.
-- Less than 0.05.
*Excludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

6

Among government and private-sector employees,
males were more likely than females to be violently
victimized in the workplace by a stranger
With few exceptions, the distributions shown in the
remainder of the report do not vary substantially after
excluding law enforcement and security occupations or are
limited by small sample sizes. Therefore, comparisons are
shown by employment sector totals.
About 68% of workplace violence against male government
employees was committed by strangers compared to 38%
for female government employees (table 5). Among privatesector employees, males (60%) also had a higher percentage
of workplace violence committed by strangers than females
(42%). Among government and private-sector employees, a
greater percentage of female victims of workplace violence
than male victims were attacked by a person with whom
the victim had a work relationship, such as a customer or
client, patient, current or former supervisor, current or

former employee, or current or former coworker. About
23% of violence committed against female government
employees involved a work relationship, compared to 7% for
male government employees. For both males and females,
a larger percentage of violence was committed by casual
acquaintances and persons well-known to the victim for
government employees (between 20% and 33%) compared
to private-sector employees (between 6% and 8%).
Government employees experienced a lower
percentage of workplace violence involving a weapon,
compared to private-sector employees
From 2002 to 2011, a smaller percentage of weapons were
present in workplace violence against government employees
(12%) than against private-sector employees (20%) (table
6). Two percent of workplace violence against government
employees involved an offender with a firearm, compared to
6% for private-sector employees.

Table 5
Victim-offender relationship in workplace violence, by type of employee and sex, 2002–2011
Government
Victim-offender relationship
Total
Intimate partner
Other relatives
Well-known/casual acquaintances
Work relationships
Customer/client
Patient
Current/former—
Supervisor
Employee
Coworker
Stranger
Unknown

Private-sector

Male
100%
0.5% !
0.3% !
20.2%
6.9%
2.2
2.0 !

Female
100%
0.2% !
0.7% !
32.5%
23.1%
5.2
11.1

Male
100%
0.6% !
0.6% !
5.9%
28.1%
6.0
0.9 !

Female
100%
4.3%
0.6% !
8.3%
39.4%
5.8
11.1

0.2 !
0.3 !
2.3
67.7%
4.4%

0.3 !
0.5 !
6.0
38.4%
5.1%

1.2
2.7
17.3
59.7%
5.2%

6.6
1.6
14.4
41.7%
5.7%

Note: See appendix table 10 for standard errors.
! Interpret with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or coefficient of variation is greater than 50%.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

		

Table 6
Offender weapon possession in workplace violence, by type
of weapon and type of employee, 2002–2011
Weapon type
Total
No weapon
Weapon
Firearm
Knife
Other
Unknown
Did not know if offender had weapon

Government
100%
83.7%
11.5%
2.4
4.4
4.2
0.5 !
4.8%

Private-sector
100%
75.3%
20.3%
6.0
4.7
8.3
1.2
4.4%

Note: See appendix table 11 for standard errors.
! Interpret with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or
coefficient of variation is greater than 50%.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

7

From 2002 to 2011, a similar percentage of government
and private-sector victims were injured in workplace
violence. No difference was observed in the percentages of
government and private-sector employees (about 1 to 2%)
who suffered a serious injury (such as gunshot wounds, knife
wounds, internal injuries, unconsciousness, broken bones,
and other injuries that required hospitalization for more
than 2 days) as a result of workplace violence (table 7).
The percentage of workplace violence against
government employees that was reported to police
declined from 1994 to 2011
From 1994 to 2011 (with the exception of 1999, 2003, and
2011), a greater percentage of workplace violence against
government employees than that against private-sector
employees was reported to the police. The percentage of
workplace violence against government employees that
was reported to police declined from 54% in 1994 to 35%
in 2011 (figure 4). The percentage of workplace violence
against private-sector employees reported to police fluctuated
between 1994 and 2011. No difference was detected in the
percentage of workplace violence against private-sector
employees reported to police in 1994 and 2011.
The most common reason why workplace violence was
not reported to police by a government employee was that
the incident was reported to another official (60%) (table
8). Government employees were more likely to report an
incidence of workplace violence to another official than
private-sector employees (30%). Government employees
(13%) were less likely than private-sector employees (22%)
to state that they did not report workplace violence to
police because it was not important enough to the victim.
Table 7
Injury in workplace violence, by type of employee,
2002–2011
Injury
Total
Not injured
Injured
Seriousa
Minorb
Unknownc

Government
100%
86.6%
13.4%
1.4
11.4
0.7% !

Private-sector
100%
88.3%
11.7%
2.1
9.1
0.5% !

Note: See appendix table 12 for standard errors.
aIncludes gunshot wounds, knife wounds, internal injuries, unconsciousness,
broken bones, and undetermined injuries that required hospitalization for more
than 2 days and rape without other injuries.
bIncludes bruises, cuts, and other undetermined injuries that required
hospitalization for less than 2 days.
cIncludes unknown injury types.
! Interpret with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or
coefficient of variation is greater than 50%.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

Figure 6
Percent of workplace violence reported to police, by type of
employee, 1994–2011
Percent reported to police
80

60

40

Government

Private-sector

20

0

'94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11

Note: Estimates based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent
year. See appendix table 13 for percentages and standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
1993–2011.

Table 8
Reasons for not reporting workplace violence to police, by
type of employee, 2002–2011
Reason not reported to police
Reported to another official
Private or personal matter
Not important enough to reporta
Insurance would not cover
Police could not do anythingb
Police would not helpc
Other reasond
Unknown

Government
60.0%
14.9
12.7
-- !
0.9 !
2.8 !
24.2
-- !

Private-sector
29.9%
20.0
22.0
0.1 !
2.1
16.0
35.8
0.3 !

Note: Percentages sum to more than 100% because the respondent may report
more than one reason. See appendix table 14 for standard errors.
Interpret with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or
coefficient of variation is greater than 50%.
-- Less than 0.05%.
aIncludes minor crime, child offender, and not clear it was a crime.
bIncludes did not find out until too late, could not recover or identify property,
and could not find or lack of proof.
cIncludes police would not think it was important enough, police would be
inefficient, police would be biased, and offender was a police officer.
dIncludes did not want to get offender in trouble, was advised not to report to
police, afraid of reprisal, and too inconvenient.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

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8

Methodology

Occupational categories in the NCVS

The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is an
annual data collection conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau
for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The NCVS is a selfreport survey in which interviewed persons are asked about
the number and characteristics of victimizations experienced
during the prior 6 months. The NCVS collects information
on nonfatal personal crimes (rape or sexual assault, robbery,
aggravated assault, simple assault, and personal larceny) and
household property crimes (burglary, motor vehicle theft,
and other theft) both reported and not reported to police.
In addition to providing annual level and change estimates
on criminal victimization, the NCVS is the primary source
of information on the nature of criminal victimization
incidents. Survey respondents provide information about
themselves (such as age, sex, race and ethnicity, marital
status, education level, and income) and if they experienced
a victimization. For crime victims, data are collected about
each victimization incident, including information about the
offender (such as age, race and ethnicity, sex, and victimoffender relationship), characteristics of the crime (including
time and place of occurrence, use of weapons, nature of
injury, and economic consequences), whether the crime was
reported to police, reasons why the crime was or was not
reported, and experiences with the law enforcement and
security system.

The NCVS began using the occupational categories
displayed in this report after the 1992 redesign. In 2001,
the employment questions were revised on the incidents
form using the Industry and Occupation coding of the 1990
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) coding system.
However, the screening questionnaire remained the same. In
order to generate rates of workplace violence by occupation,
the occupation categories on the incident form were
collapsed into occupation categories used on the screening
questionnaire. Population estimates were generated from
the screening questionnaire and incidents of workplace
violence were generated using the collapsed categories from
the incident form. The percentages of workplace violence
presented in appendix table 15 were derived using the data
on the incident form only. The other occupation group
accounted for 12% of government workplace violence and
43% of private-sector workplace violence.*

The NCVS is administered to persons age 12 or older from a
nationally representative sample of households in the United
States. In 2011, about 143,120 persons age 12 or older from
79,800 households across the country were interviewed
during the year. Once selected, households remain in the
sample for 3 years, and eligible persons in these households
are interviewed every 6 months for a total of seven
interviews. New households rotate into the sample on an
ongoing basis to replace outgoing households that have been
in sample for the 3-year period. The sample includes persons
living in group quarters (such as dormitories, rooming
houses, and religious group dwellings) and excludes persons
living in military barracks and institutional settings (such
as correctional or hospital facilities) and the homeless. (For
more information, see the Survey Methodology for Criminal
Victimization in the United States, 2008, BJS website, NCJ
231173, May 2011.)
The 79,800 households that participated in the NCVS in
2011 represent a 90% household response rate. The person
level response rate—the percentage of persons age 12 or
older in participating households who completed an NCVS
interview—was 88% in 2011.
All victimizations that occurred outside of the U.S. were
excluded. From 1993 to 2011, less than 1% of the unweighted
violent victimizations occurred outside of the U.S. and was
excluded from the analyses.

Use of the NCVS to generate estimates of government
employees
For this report, BJS calculated rates of violent victimization
in the workplace against government employees using
information from the screening questionnaire of the NCVS.
To determine the validity of the employment information
gathered from the NCVS, BJS compared NCVS estimates
of the age, sex, and racial distributions of government
employees with those in the American Community Survey
(ACS). No systematic differences were detected between the
estimates from the two surveys, and as a result, the NCVS
data were used to estimate all government employees.
Weighting adjustments for estimating personal
victimization
Estimates in this report use data primarily from the 1993 to
2011 NCVS data files weighted to produce annual estimates
for persons age 12 or older living in U.S. households.
Because the NCVS relies on a sample rather than a census
of the entire U.S. population, weights are designed to inflate
sample point estimates to known population totals and to
compensate for survey nonresponse and other aspects of the
sample design.
The NCVS data files include both household and person
weights. The household weight is commonly used to
calculate estimates of property crimes, such as motor vehicle
theft or burglary, which are identified with the household.
Person weights provide an estimate of the population
represented by each person in the sample. Person weights are
most frequently used to compute estimates of crime
*The NCVS classifies a limited number of occupations for all persons
interviewed, but a more detailed set for those who experience a crime. The
distribution of crime by occupational group is shown in appendix table 15.

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9

victimizations of persons in the total population. Both
household and person weights, after proper adjustment, are
also used to form the denominator in calculations of crime
rates.

standard errors for each point estimate (such as counts,
percentages, and rates) in the report. For annual average
estimates, standard errors were based on the ratio of the
sums of victimizations and respondents across years.

The victimization weights used in this analysis account
for the number of persons present during an incident and
for repeat victims of series incidents. The weight counts
series incidents as the actual number of incidents reported
by the victim, up to a maximum of ten incidents. Series
victimizations are victimizations that are similar in type but
occur with such frequency that a victim is unable to recall
each individual event or to describe each event in detail.
Survey procedures allow NCVS interviewers to identify and
classify these similar victimizations as series victimizations
and collect detailed information on only the most recent
incident in the series. In 2011, about 3% of all victimizations
were series incidents.

In this report, BJS conducted tests to determine whether
differences in estimated numbers and percentages were
statistically significant once sampling error was taken into
account. Using statistical programs developed specifically
for the NCVS, all comparisons in the text were tested for
significance. The primary test procedure used was Student’s
t-statistic, which tests the difference between two sample
estimates. To ensure that the observed differences between
estimates were larger than might be expected due to
sampling variation, the significance level was set at the 95%
confidence level.

Weighting series incidents as the number of incidents up
to a maximum of ten produces more reliable estimates of
crime levels, while the cap at ten minimizes the effect of
extreme outliers on the rates. Additional information on
the series enumeration is detailed in Methods for Counting
High Frequency Repeat Victimizations in the National Crime
Victimization Survey, BJS website, NCJ 237308, April 2012.

Data users can use the estimates and the standard errors of
the estimates provided in this report to generate a confidence
interval around the estimate as a measure of the margin of
error. The following example illustrates how standard errors
can be used to generate confidence intervals:
According to the NCVS, from 2002 to 2011, 11.5%
of violent victimizations in the workplace against
government employees involved an offender with a
weapon (see table 6). Using the GVFs, BJS determined
that the estimate has a standard error of 0.8% (see
appendix table 11). A confidence interval around the
estimate was generated by multiplying the standard
errors by ±1.96 (the t-score of a normal, two-tailed
distribution that excludes 2.5% at either end of the
distribution). Therefore, the confidence interval around
the 11.5% estimate from 2002 to 2011 is 11.5% ± 0.8%
X 1.96 (or 9.93% to 13.07%). In other words, if different
samples using the same procedures were taken from the
U.S. population in from 2002 to 2011, 95% of the time
the percentage of violent victimization in workplace
against government employees involving an offender
with a weapon would fall between 9.93% and 13.07%.

Standard error computations
When national estimates are derived from a sample, as is the
case with the NCVS, caution must be taken when comparing
one estimate to another or comparing estimates over time.
Although one estimate may be larger than another, estimates
based on a sample have some degree of sampling error. The
sampling error of an estimate depends on several factors,
including the amount of variation in the responses, the size
of the sample, and the size of the subgroup for which the
estimate is computed. When the sampling error around
the estimates is taken into consideration, the estimates that
appear different may, in fact, not be statistically different.
One measure of the sampling error associated with an
estimate is the standard error. The standard error can vary
from one estimate to the next. In general, for a given metric,
an estimate with a smaller standard error provides a more
reliable approximation of the true value than an estimate
with a larger standard error. Estimates with relatively large
standard errors are associated with less precision and
reliability and should be interpreted with caution.
In order to generate standard errors around estimates
from the NCVS, the Census Bureau produces generalized
variance function (GVF) parameters for BJS. The GVFs take
into account aspects of the NCVS complex sample design
and represent the curve fitted to a selection of individual
standard errors based on the Jackknife Repeated Replication
technique. The GVF parameters were used to generate

In this report, BJS also calculated a coefficient of variation
(CV) for all estimates, representing the ratio of the standard
error to the estimate. CVs provide a measure of reliability
and a means to compare the precision of estimates across
measures with differing levels or metrics. If the CV was
greater than 50%, or the unweighted sample had 10 or fewer
cases, the estimate would have been noted with a “!” symbol
(interpret data with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer
sample cases, or the coefficient of variation exceeds 50%).
Many of the variables examined in this report may be related
to one another and to other variables not included in the
analyses. Complex relationships among variables were not
fully explored in this report and warrant more extensive
analysis. Readers are cautioned not to draw causal inferences
based on the results presented.

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Methodological changes to the NCVS in 2006
Methodological changes implemented in 2006 may have
affected the crime estimates for that year to such an extent
that they are not comparable to estimates from other years.
Evaluation of 2007 and later data from the NCVS conducted
by BJS and the Census Bureau found a high degree of
confidence that estimates for 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 are
consistent with and comparable to estimates for 2005 and
previous years. The reports are—
Criminal Victimization, 2006, NCJ 219413, December 2007;
Criminal Victimization, 2007, NCJ 224390, December 2008;
Criminal Victimization, 2008, NCJ 227777, September 2009;
Criminal Victimization, 2009, NCJ 231327, October 2010;
Criminal Victimization, 2010, NCJ 235508, September
2011, are available on the BJS website. Although caution is
warranted when comparing data from 2006 to other years,
the aggregation of multiple years of data in this report
diminishes the potential variation between 2006 and other
years. In general, findings do not change significantly if the
year 2006 is excluded from the analyses.
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
Data on workplace homicide were obtained from the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) collected
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). CFOI produces
comprehensive, accurate, and timely counts of fatal work
injuries. CFOI is a federal-state cooperative program that
has been implemented in all 50 states and the District of
Columbia since 1992. Data from 1993 to 2010 are based
on final data from the CFOI. Data from 2003 to 2010 is
not comparable with data from previous years, due to
BLS’s decision to start using the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS) to define industries.
Prior to 2003, the program used the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system. Because of the substantial
differences between NAICS and SIC, the results by industry
beginning in 2003 constitute a break in series. Readers are
advised against comparing data from 2003 to 2010 to data
from 1993 to 2002. For 2003 to 2008 data, the IIF program
used the 2002 NAICS to classify industry. Since 2009, the IIF
program has used the 2007 NAICS. (For more information
on NAICS, see http://www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.) Data for
2011 are not comparable with data from previous years,
due to BLS’s major revision to the Occupational Injury and
Illness Classification System (OIICS). The revised OIICS
structure (OIICS 2.01) was used beginning with reference
year 2011 for both the CFOI and the Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) programs. Because of the
extensive revisions, data for the OIICS case characteristics
for reference year 2011 represent a break in series with data
for prior years. (For more information, see http://www.bls.
gov/iif/osh_notice11.htm.)
To compile counts that are as complete as possible, the
CFOI uses multiple sources to identify, verify, and profile
fatal worker injuries annually. Information about each fatal

injury from all workplaces—occupation and other worker
characteristics, equipment involved, and circumstances
of the event—is obtained by cross referencing the source
records, such as death certificates, workers’ compensation
reports, and federal and state agency administrative
reports. To ensure that fatal injuries are work-related,
cases are substantiated with two or more independent
source documents, or a source document and a follow-up
questionnaire. Data compiled by the CFOI program are
issued annually for the preceding calendar year. The National
Safety Council has adopted the CFOI estimates, beginning
with 1992, as the authoritative count for work-related deaths
in the United States. More information about CFOI can be
found here: http//www.bls.gov/iif/oshfat1.htm.
Definition of terms
Government employees—Persons who work for federal,
state, county, and local governments.
Private-sector employees—Persons who work for a private
company, business, or an individual for wages, and persons
who are self-employed.
Workplace—Place where an employed person is working or
on duty.
Workplace violence—Nonfatal violent crime (rape and
sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assaults, and simple
assault) against employed persons age 16 or older that
occurred while they were at work or on duty.
Workplace homicide—Homicide of employed victims
age 16 or older who were killed while at work or on duty.
Excludes death by accident.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime
Victimization Survey; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census
of Fatal Occupational Injuries.
Occupational categories used in the NCVS
Medical—physician, nurse, technician, and other medical
occupations.
Mental health services—professional (social worker/
psychiatrist), custodial care, and other mental health services
occupations.
Teaching—preschool, elementary school, junior high or
middle school, high school, college or university, technical
or industrial school, special education facility, and other
teaching occupations.
Law enforcement and security—law enforcement
officer, prison or jail guard, security guard, and other law
enforcement occupations.
Retail sales—convenience or liquor store clerk, gas station
attendant, bartender, and other retail sales occupations.
Transportation field—bus driver, taxi cab driver, and other
transportation occupations.
Other occupations—all other not elsewhere listed.

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Appendix table 1
Rates and standard errors for figure 1: Rate of nonfatal
workplace violence against government and private-sector
employees, 1994–2011
Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Government
Private-sector
Rate per 1,000
Rate per 1,000
age 16 or older Standard error age 16 or older Standard error
99.2
3.9
18.5
0.8
83.7
3.1
18.3
0.7
69.4
2.8
18.5
0.7
67.9
3.0
16.2
0.7
56.5
2.9
15.0
0.7
42.1
2.6
13.4
0.7
37.1
2.4
11.2
0.6
28.5
2.0
9.7
0.5
24.2
1.7
7.1
0.4
27.2
1.8
7.2
0.4
27.1
1.9
7.1
0.4
26.0
1.9
6.9
0.5
26.4
2.0
7.3
0.5
25.6
1.9
6.6
0.4
19.2
1.6
5.9
0.4
14.7
1.4
5.1
0.4
13.6
1.4
5.2
0.4
18.0
1.4
5.2
0.4

Appendix table 2
Standard errors for table 1: Percent of workplace violence
and employed persons, by type of employee, 2002–2011
Type of employee
Government
Federal
State/county/local
Private-sector

Workplace violence All employed persons
0.9%
0.1%
0.2
0.0
0.9
0.1
0.9%
0.1%

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
1993–2011.

Appendix table 3
Rates and standard errors for figure 2: Rate of nonfatal workplace violence against law enforcement and security employees,
by type of employee, 1994–2011
Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Government law enforcement and security
Rate per 1,000 age 16 or older
Standard error
672.3
18.7
587.3
17.3
505.7
17.0
483.6
18.6
423.6
19.5
249.2
17.1
245.5
17.1
234.5
16.4
154.7
12.9
167.7
13.3
181.2
14.3
173.7
15.2
173.0
14.6
153.0
13.1
115.5
11.4
105.8
11.5
93.1
11.0
109.3
10.0

Private-sector law enforcement and security
Rate per 1,000 age 16 or older
Standard error
182.3
19.7
192.7
17.8
199.2
17.8
175.7
18.6
259.7
23.1
219.1
22.8
194.7
21.8
204.2
22.1
108.7
16.0
114.5
16.2
119.4
17.1
127.5
18.3
121.9
17.9
118.6
17.9
101.0
16.6
59.4
13.7
89.8
16.7
87.5
14.0

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 1993–2011.

	

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12

Appendix table 4
Rates and standard errors for figure 3: Rate of nonfatal workplace violence against non-law enforcement and security
employees, by type of employee, 1994–2011
Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Government non-law enforcement and security
Rate per 1,000 age 16 or older
Standard error
43.9
2.6
36.8
2.1
28.7
1.8
29.3
1.9
23.1
1.8
23.1
1.9
18.6
1.7
10.3
1.2
12.4
1.2
14.6
1.3
13.4
1.3
13.0
1.4
12.4
1.3
12.2
1.3
9.3
1.1
5.4
0.9
5.4
0.9
8.7
1.0

Private-sector non-law enforcement and security
Rate per 1,000 age 16 or older
Standard error
17.1
0.8
16.9
0.7
17.1
0.6
15.0
0.6
13.2
0.7
11.7
0.6
9.5
0.6
8.4
0.5
6.5
0.4
6.4
0.4
6.3
0.4
6.0
0.4
6.5
0.4
5.9
0.4
5.3
0.4
4.8
0.4
4.7
0.4
4.7
0.3

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 1993–2011.

	

Appendix table 5
Rates and standard errors for figure 4: Rate of nonfatal workplace violence against all government employees and non-law
enforcement and security employees, by type of employee, 1994–2011

Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

All government employees
Federal
State/county/local
Rate per 1,000
Rate per 1,000
Standard
age 16 or older
Standard error age 16 or older error
16.7
2.9
122.4
4.9
19.0
2.7
102.1
3.9
17.5
2.5
83.6
3.4
18.9
3.0
80.6
3.6
23.5
3.5
64.9
3.4
16.6
3.0
48.3
3.0
13.1
2.7
43.0
2.8
16.2
2.9
31.4
2.3
9.4
2.1
27.6
2.0
5.5
1.6
32.4
2.2
5.5
1.6
32.2
2.2
4.0
1.5
31.0
2.3
30.9
2.3
7.0
2.0
7.8
2.1
29.8
2.3
3.8
1.4
22.8
1.9
1.6
0.9
17.9
1.8
3.1
1.3
16.2
1.7
3.7
1.2
21.6
1.7

Non-law enforcement and security employees
Federal
State/county/local
Rate per 1,000
Rate per 1,000
age 16 or older Standard error age 16 or older Standard error
11.3
2.4
54.4
3.3
13.0
2.3
45.0
2.6
11.6
2.1
34.8
2.2
9.2
2.1
35.8
2.4
11.9
2.5
26.4
2.2
11.4
2.5
26.4
2.2
7.1
2.0
21.8
2.0
5.6
1.7
11.7
1.4
4.1
1.4
14.5
1.5
3.8
1.3
17.2
1.6
3.6
1.4
15.7
1.6
3.3
1.4
15.2
1.6
3.9
1.6
14.3
1.6
5.4
1.8
13.8
1.6
4.2
1.5
10.5
1.3
1.8
1.0
6.3
1.0
3.0
1.3
6.1
1.0
3.6
1.2
10.0
1.2

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 1993–2011.

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13

Appendix table 6
Standard errors for table 2: Rate and percent of workplace violence and percent of employed persons, by occupation and type
of employee, 2002–2011

Occupation
Total
Medical
Mental health
Teaching
Law enforcement and
security
Retail sales
Transportation
Other

Government
Workplace violence
Rate per 1,000 age
Percent of all government
16 or older
Percent
employees
0.7
--%
--%
2.3
0.6
0.1
7.8
0.7
0.1
0.7
0.9
0.3
4.9
11.0
3.2
0.5

1.4
0.2
0.4
0.9

Private-sector
Workplace violence
Rate per 1,000 age
Percent of all private16 or older
Percent
sector employees
0.2
--%
--%
0.6
0.8
0.1
3.6
0.5
-0.6
0.2
--

0.1
-0.1
0.3

6.4
0.6
1.3
0.1

0.7
0.8
0.6
1.2

-0.1
-0.2

-- Less than 0.05%.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

Appendix table 7
Standard errors for table 3: Rate, percent, and annual average number of workplace violence, by type of crime and type of
employee, 2002–2011
Government
Type of crime
Total
Serious violent crime
Rape/sexual assault
Robbery
Aggravated assault
Simple assault

Rate per 1,000 age
16 or older
0.7
0.2
0.1
-0.2
0.6

Percent
--%
1.0%
0.3
0.1
0.8
1.1%

Private-sector
Annual average
number
44,763
16,488
4,728
2,004
14,389
43,424

Rate per 1,000 age
16 or older
0.2
0.1
--0.1
0.1

Percent
--%
1.0%
0.3
0.3
0.9
1.1%

Annual average
number
54,523
26,178
6,475
8,251
21,858
49,247

-- Less than 0.05% or less than 0.05.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

Appendix table 8
Numbers for figure 5: Number of workplace homicides,
by type of employee, 1993–2011
Year
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Government
124
104
212
100
88
94
66
78
89
83
71
70
86
79
86
73
80
86
90

Private-sector
944
975
819
825
770
615
580
596
554
525
560
489
480
461
542
450
461
432
367

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, based on files provided by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1993–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

14

Appendix table 9
Standard errors for table 4: Rate of workplace violence, by type of employee and victim characteristics, 2002–2011
Victim characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
White
Black/African American
Hispanic
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian/Pacific Islander
Two or more races
Age
16-17
18-24
25-34
35-49
50-64
65 or older
Marital status
Never married
Married
Widowed
Divorced or separated
Unknown
Annual household income
Less than $25,000
$25,000 to $49,999
$50,000 to $74,999
$75,000 or more
Unknown

Rate of workplace violence per 1,000 age 16 or older
All employees
Non-law enforcement and security employees
Government
Private-sector
Government
Private-sector
0.7
0.2
0.5
0.2
1.2
0.6

0.2
0.2

0.7
0.6

0.2
0.2

0.8
1.1
1.8
9.0
1.9
11.2

0.2
0.4
0.3
3.6
0.6
2.3

0.6
0.8
1.3
7.5
1.3
5.5

0.2
0.4
0.2
3.5
0.6
2.4

-1.8
1.7
1.0
0.9
1.2

0.9
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.3

-1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
1.2

0.9
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3

1.2
0.8
3.3
2.0
--

0.3
0.2
1.1
0.5
0.8

0.9
0.5
2.0
1.5
--

0.3
0.2
1.1
0.5
0.7

1.5
1.3
1.7
1.1
1.2

0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3

1.4
0.9
1.2
0.8
0.7

0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3

--Less than 0.05.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

15

Appendix table 10
Standard errors for table 5: Victim-offender relationship in workplace violence, by type of employee and sex, 2002–2011
Government
Victim-offender relationship
Intimate partner
Other relatives
Well-known/casual acquaintances
Work relationships
Customer/client
Patient
Current/former—
Supervisoer
Employee
Coworker
Stranger
Unknown

Private-sector

Male
0.2%
0.2
1.3
0.8
0.5
0.4

Female
0.2%
0.4
2.2
2.0
1.0
1.5

Male
0.2%
0.2
0.7
1.3
0.7
0.3

Female
0.7%
0.3
1.0
1.8
0.8
1.1

0.1
0.2
0.5
1.6%
0.6%

0.3
0.3
1.1
2.3%
1.0%

0.3
0.5
1.1
1.5%
0.6%

0.9
0.4
1.2
1.8%
0.8%

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

Appendix table 11
Standard errors for table 6: Offender weapon possession
in workplace violence, by type of weapon and type of
employee, 2002–2011
Weapon type
No weapon
Weapon
Firearm
Knife
Other
Unknown
Did not know if offender had weapon

Government
1.0%
0.8%
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.6%

Private-sector
1.0%
0.9%
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.2
0.4%

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

Appendix table 12
Standard errors for table 7: Injury in workplace violence, by
type of employee, 2002–2011
Injury
Not injured
Injured
Serious
Minor
Unknown

Government
1.0%
0.9%
0.3
0.8
0.2%

Private-sector
0.8%
0.7%
0.3
0.6
0.1%

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

Appendix table 13
Percentages and standard errors for figure 6: Percent of
workplace violence reported to police, by type of employee,
1994–2011
Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Government
Percent Standard error
53.6%
1.9%
57.0
1.7
61.0
1.8
61.2
2.0
60.0
2.3
50.5
2.7
52.9
2.9
64.2
3.0
58.8
3.2
52.6
3.0
56.7
3.1
53.3
3.5
48.5
3.4
59.8
3.4
56.9
3.8
36.2
4.3
45.8
4.7
34.6
3.3

Private-sector
Percent Standard error
44.4%
1.9%
40.8
1.6
37.2
1.5
34.5
1.7
40.6
1.9
45.1
2.2
44.6
2.3
46.9
2.4
44.8
2.6
47.4
2.6
48.7
2.7
36.3
2.8
38.5
2.8
42.7
2.9
35.1
2.9
27.2
3.0
29.6
3.2
40.9
2.9

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
1993–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

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Appendix table 14
Standard errors for table 8: Reasons for not reporting
workplace violence to police, by type of employee,
2002–2011
Reason not reported to police
Reported to another official
Private or personal matter
Not important enough to report
Insurance would not cover
Police could not do anything
Police would not help
Other reason
Unknown

Government
1.9%
1.3
1.3
-0.3
0.6
1.6
--

Private-sector
1.3%
1.2
1.2
0.1
0.4
1.1
1.4
0.1

--Less than 0.05%.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
2002–2011.

Appendix table 15
Percent of workplace violence by occupation with extension of other category, by type of employee, 2002–2011
Occupation
Total
Medical
Mental health
Teaching
Law enforcement and security
Retail sales
Transportation
Other
Management
Business and financial operations
Computer and mathematical
Architecture and engineering
Life, physical, and social science
Legal
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media
Food preparation and serving
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance
Personal care and service
Office and administrative support
Farming, fishing, and forestry
Construction and extraction
Installation, maintenance, and repair
Production
Other remaining occupations

Government
100%
6.5%
7.8%
14.1%
56.1%
0.7%
3.0%
11.8%
2.9
0.6
0.2 !
-- !
0.6 !
0.8 !
0.2 !
0.3 !
0.2 !
1.2
3.3
-- !
0.6
0.4 !
0.1 !
0.4 !

Private-sector
100%
14.3%
4.6%
1.2%
11.5%
17.1%
8.1%
43.3%
9.6
2.7
0.4 !
0.2 !
0.2 !
0.1 !
1.1
7.3
3.6
2.0
7.0
0.2 !
2.6
1.9
4.2
0.3 !

Note: Definitions of NCVS occupational categories can be found in the Methodology. See appendix table 16 for standard errors.
! Interpret with caution; estimate is based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or coefficient of variation is greater than 50%.
--Less than 0.05 %.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

17

Appendix table 16
Standard errors for appendix table 15: Percent of workplace violence by occupation with extension of other category, by type
of employee, 2002-2011
Occupation
Medical
Mental health
Teaching
Law enforcement and security
Retail sales
Transportation
Other
Management
Business and financial operations
Computer and mathematical
Architecture and engineering
Life, physical, and social science
Legal
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media
Food preparation and serving
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance
Personal care and service
Office and administrative support
Farming, fishing, and forestry
Construction and extraction
Installation, maintenance, and repair
Production
Other remaining occupations

Government
0.6%
0.7%
0.9%
1.4%
0.2%
0.4%
0.9%
0.4%
0.2
0.1
-0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
-0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2

Private-sector
0.8%
0.5%
0.2%
0.7%
0.8%
0.6%
1.2%
0.7%
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.1

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2002–2011.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, 1994-2011 | APRIL 2013

18

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistics agency of the U.S. Department of
Justice. William J. Sabol is acting director.
This report was written by Erika Harrell. Lynn Langton and Shannan Catalano
verified the report.
Jill Thomas edited the report, and Tina Dorsey produced the report under the
supervision of Doris J. James.
April 2013, NCJ 241349

1111111111111111111111111111111
N C J

~I

241 349

Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
www.ojp.usdoj.gov

 

 

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