Bojs American Indians and Crime 1999
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U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics American Indians and Crime Average annual number of violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older, 1992-96 The rate for American Indians (124 violent crimes per 1,000 American Indians) was more than twice the rate for the Nation (50 per 1,000 persons) Number of violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older* *The annual av erage murder rate is per 100,000 residents of all ages. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20531 Janet Reno Attorney General Raymond C. Fisher Associate Attorney General Laurie Robinson Assistant Attorney General No11l Brennan Deputy Assistant Attorney General Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D. Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics Office of Justice Programs World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov Bureau of Justice Statistics World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/ For information contact: BJS Clearinghouse 1-800-732-3277 U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics American Indians and Crime By Lawrence A. Greenfeld and Steven K. Smith BJS Statisticians February 1999, NCJ 173386 U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D. Director Lawrence A. Greenfeld and Steven Smith, BJS statisticians, wrote this report. Devon Adams and Todd Minton provided the statistical review. Maureen Henneberg, John Scalia, Jodi Brown, and Tracy Snell provided analytic assistance and comment. Norena Henry commented on drafts of the report. Melvinda Pete and Tom Hester produced the report. Marilyn Marbrook, assisted by Yvonne Boston, prepared the report for final publication. This report and its data are available on the Internet: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/ The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data also offers the data for the National Crime Victimization Survey, the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, and the Surveys of Inmates in State or Federal Correctional Facilities: http://www.ojp.icpsr.umich.edu/ NACJD/home.html ii American Indians and Crime Contents Foreword Highlights Measuring criminal victimization among American Indians Types of violent crime Sex, age, and location of residence of victims of violent crime Household income of victims of violent crime Victim-offender relationship Race of offender Intimate and family violence Alcohol, drugs, and crime Location of violent crime Time of violent crime and crime in the workplace Weapons and self-protective measures used in violent crime Injury rates, hospitalization, and financial loss Child abuse and neglect Reporting violent crime to the police Arrests of offenders and services to victims Race and ethnicity in violent victimization Murder among American Indians Circumstances of murder Murder victim-offender relationship Race of murderers Murder weapons Arrests and convictions of American Indians Felony convictions in State courts American Indians under correctional supervision Offenses charged in U.S. district courts American Indians and the death penalty American Indian tribal criminal justice Sources of data on American Indians and crime Tables for the graphical figures iii v 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 34 38 Foreword This report represents a compilation and new analysis of data on the effects and consequences of violent crime among American Indians. The report uses data from a wide variety of sources, including statistical series maintained by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the FBI, and the Bureau of the Census. Data are reported from American Indian crime victims on how they were affected by the victimization and about who victimized them. The report also includes the first BJS estimates of the total number of American Indians under the custody or supervision of the justice system. The findings reveal a disturbing picture of American Indian involvement in crime as both victims and offenders. The rate of violent victimization estimated from responses by American Indians is well above that of other U.S. racial or ethnic subgroups and is more than twice as high as the national average. This disparity in the rates of violence affecting American Indians occurs across age groups, housing locations, income groups, and sexes. With respect to the offender, two findings are perhaps most notable: American Indians are more likely than people of other races to experience violence at the hands of someone of a different race, and the criminal victimizer is more likely to have consumed alcohol preceding the offense. However, the victim/offender relationships of American Indians parallel that of all victims of violence. On a given day, an estimated 1 in 25 American Indians age 18 or older is under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system — 2.4 times the per capita rate of whites and 9.3 times the per capita rate of Asians. But black Americans, with a per capita rate nearly double that of American Indians, are more likely to be under the care or custody of correctional authorities. This report is the first step in a vigorous BJS effort to document issues of crime and justice affecting American Indians. Statistical programs have been instituted to learn more about tribal criminal justice agencies, such as law enforcement and confinement facilities, and these will complement data available from other BJS series covering the justice system. This study was prepared as a resource to respond to frequent inquiries. Since the number of American Indians in our annual samples are inadequate to provide definitive statistics, this report cumulates data from over a 5-year period. I hope that this report will serve as a foundation for other reports and discussions about how best to address the problem of crime affecting this segment of our population. BJS has undertaken improvements in the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), designed to improve future data collection on crime and its consequences for American Indians. This year BJS enhanced the NCVS to permit future analyses to report statistics on victimizations occurring on tribal lands. In addition, victim descriptions of the offender were modified to permit greater precision in future statistics about the victim’s perceptions of the offender’s race. Together, these NCVS upgrades will result in much greater detail about both locations of crime incidents and perpetrators. Valuable contributions to the report were made by Norena Henry, Director of the American Indian/Alaska Native Affairs in the Office of Justice Programs, and Melvinda Pete, a BJS university student intern. In the development of the report, they helped to provide context for the statistical findings. Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D. Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics American Indians and Crime iii Highlights Violent victimizations* All races American Indian Black White Asian 0 60 120 Number of violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older • American Indians, experience per capita rates of violence which are more than twice those of the U.S. resident population. Murder* American Indian Black White Asian 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Number of murders per 100,000 persons, 1992-96 • The murder rate among American Indians is 7 per 100,000, a rate similar to that found among the general population. The rate of murder among blacks is more than 5 times that among American Indians. Age* • Rates of violence in every age group are higher among American Indians than that of all races. Age 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 American Indians All races 55 or older • Nearly a third of all American Indian victims of violence are between ages 18 and 24. This group of American Indians experienced the highest per capita rate of violence of any racial group considered by age & about 1 violent crime for every 4 persons of this age. 0 50 100 150 200 250 Rate of violent victimization per 1,000 persons in each group * Average annual rate, 1992-96. , American Indians in this report include Alaska Natives and Aleuts. Asians include Hawaiian Natives and Pacific Islanders. American Indians and Crime v Sex* Sex of victims Male Female American Indians All races 0 40 80 120 160 Number of violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older • Rates of violent victimization for both males and females are higher among American Indians than for all races. The rate of violent crime experienced by American Indian women is nearly 50% higher than that reported by black males. Offender race* Race of victims American Indian Black White Asian 0% 25% 50% 75% Percent of violent victimizations that were interracial • At least 70% of the violent victimizations experienced by American Indians are committed by persons not of the same race — a substantially higher rate of interracial violence than experienced by white or black victims. Alcohol use by offender* • American Indian victims of violence were the most likely of all races of victims to indicate that the offender committed the offense while drinking. American Indian Black White Asian 0% 25% 50% Percent of victims of violence reporting offender drinking Weapon use by offender Nonlethal violence* Firearm American Indians All races 0% 5% 10% 15% Percent of violent victimizations • More than 10% of American Indian nonlethal violent victimizations involved a firearm. American Indian murder victims were less likely to have been murdered by a handgun than victims of all races. Lethal violence Handgun American Indians All races 0% 20% 40% 60% Percent of murders, 1976-96 * Average annual rate or percentage, 1992-96. vi American Indians and Crime Crimes reported to police* • American Indian victims of violence reported the crime to the police at about the average rate for all races. American Indian Black White Asian 0% 20% 40% 60% Percent of violent victimizations reported to police Arrests of adults and youth Under age 18 All ages American Indian Black • American Indian arrest rates for violence among youth were about the same as the rates among white youth in 1996. White Asian 0 350 700 1,050 1,400 Number of arrests for Part I violent crimes per 100,000 persons, 1996 • Violent crime arrest rates for American Indian adults were similar to those for youth. Among other racial groups, arrest rates for adults are lower than for youth. Arrests for drug and alcohol offenses Arrests American Indians All races Drug Alcoholrelated 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 Number of arrests per 100,000 persons, 1997 • The 1997 arrest rate among American Indians for alcohol-related offenses (driving under the influence, liquor law violations, and public drunkenness) was more than double that found among all races. Drug arrest rates for American Indians were lower than average. * Average annual percentage, 1992-96. American Indians and Crime vii Under correctional supervision or control • An estimated 63,000 American Indians are under the care, custody, or control of the criminal justice system on an average day — about 4% of the American Indian population age 18 or older. U.S. total American Indian Black White Asian 0 5,000 10,000 Total under correctional supervision or control per 100,000 adults, 1997 • On average in 1997 about 2,000 American Indians per 100,000 adults (persons age 18 or older) were serving a sentence to probation, about half the rate found among blacks. • In 1997 about 16,000 American Indians were held in local jails — a rate of 1,083 per 100,000 adults, the highest of any racial group. In State or Federal prison U.S. total American Indian Black White Asian 0 1000 2000 3000 Number in prison per 100,000 adults, 1997 • The rate of American Indians on parole is similar to that of the general population, about 300 per 100,000 adults. • On a per capita basis, American Indians had a rate of prison incarceration about 38% higher than the national rate. Federal convictions American Indians convicted in Federal district court, fiscal year 1997 Total Violent Murder Assault Robbery Rape Other Property Drug Other* 854 100% 81 153 22 168 23 178 93 134 9% 18 3 20 3 21 11 15 *Includes persons for whom the offense was unknown. viii American Indians and Crime • American Indians accounted for 1.5% of Federal case filings in U.S. district courts in 1997, and half of these were for violent offenses. • 854 American Indians were convicted in Federal court & 9% for murder and 20% for rape. Measuring criminal victimization among American Indians provided on American Indians in the criminal justice system. American Indians have higher per capita rates of violent criminal victimization than whites, blacks, or Asians in the United States, according to data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The NCVS collects information on the Nation's experience with crime. It also collects information on the race of the victim and the race of the offender as reported by the victim. Population estimates from the Bureau of the Census for July 1, 1998, indicate that American Indians account for just under 1% of the U.S. population: All races 270,029,000 American Indian* 2,357,000 White 222,932,000 Black 34,370,000 Asian 10,370,000 100.0% 0.9 82.6 12.7 3.8 Two demographic factors distinguish American Indians from other racial groups: in 1998 the median age of the American Indian population is nearly 8 years younger than the U.S. resident population, and American Indians are the most likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Race All races American Indian White Black Asian Median Percent age Hispanic 35.2 years 11.3% 27.4 15.2 36.3 12.4 29.9 5.0 31.2 5.8 This report presents data on the rates and characteristics of violent crimes, including murder, experienced by American Indians. Information is also *In this report the term American Indian refers to Alaska Natives, Aleuts, and American Indians. The term Asian encompasses Asians, Hawaiian Natives, and Pacific Islanders. The NCVS provides estimates of the violent crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and assault for persons age 12 or older. During 1992-96 the NCVS found that American Indians experienced an average of almost 150,000 violent crimes per year from among the estimated 10.8 million violent crimes occurring on average per year among all racial groups. Victimization data for 1996 indicate that American Indians accounted for about 1.4% of all violent victimizations that year, about the same percentage as in preceding years. American Indian tribes in the United States, 1996 The indigenous peoples in the United States belong to about 550 federally recognized tribes that have a distinct history and culture and often a separate language. Tribe Cherokee Navajo Chippewa Sioux Choctaw Pueblo Apache All other tribes Percent of American Indians 16.4% 11.7 5.5 5.5 4.4 2.8 2.7 51.0 Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997, table 51, p. 51. American Indians and Crime 1 Measuring criminal victimization among American Indians provided on American Indians in the criminal justice system. American Indians have higher per capita rates of violent criminal victimization than whites, blacks, or Asians in the United States, according to data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The NCVS collects information on the Nation's experience with crime. It also collects information on the race of the victim and the race of the offender as reported by the victim. Population estimates from the Bureau of the Census for July 1, 1998, indicate that American Indians account for just under 1% of the U.S. population: All races 270,029,000 American Indian* 2,357,000 White 222,932,000 Black 34,370,000 Asian 10,370,000 100.0% 0.9 82.6 12.7 3.8 Two demographic factors distinguish American Indians from other racial groups: in 1998 the median age of the American Indian population is nearly 8 years younger than the U.S. resident population, and American Indians are the most likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Race All races American Indian White Black Asian Median Percent age Hispanic 35.2 years 11.3% 27.4 15.2 36.3 12.4 29.9 5.0 31.2 5.8 This report presents data on the rates and characteristics of violent crimes, including murder, experienced by American Indians. Information is also *In this report the term American Indian refers to Alaska Natives, Aleuts, and American Indians. The term Asian encompasses Asians, Hawaiian Natives, and Pacific Islanders. The NCVS provides estimates of the violent crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and assault for persons age 12 or older. During 1992-96 the NCVS found that American Indians experienced an average of almost 150,000 violent crimes per year from among the estimated 10.8 million violent crimes occurring on average per year among all racial groups. Victimization data for 1996 indicate that American Indians accounted for about 1.4% of all violent victimizations that year, about the same percentage as in preceding years. American Indian tribes in the United States, 1996 The indigenous peoples in the United States belong to about 550 federally recognized tribes that have a distinct history and culture and often a separate language. Tribe Cherokee Navajo Chippewa Sioux Choctaw Pueblo Apache All other tribes Percent of American Indians 16.4% 11.7 5.5 5.5 4.4 2.8 2.7 51.0 Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997, table 51, p. 51. American Indians and Crime 1 Table 1. Annual average violent victimization rates for persons age 12 or older, by race, 1992-96 Annual average All races American Indian White Black Asian Population age 12 or older 213,660,000 1,204,014 180,543,825 25,587,158 6,325,003 Rate of violent victimiNumber of zation per 1,000 violent victimizations persons age 12 or older 10,784,826 50 149,614 124 8,880,083 49 1,570,386 61 184,743 29 Note: The NCVS estimates of the racial distribution of the resident population age 12 or older for the period 1992-96 correspond closely to the estimates reported by the Bureau of the Census in their P-25 series of population estimates. The NCVS estimate shows that American Indians represented 0.6% of those interviewed while the P-25 estimate shows that American Indians account for 0.8% of the resident population age 12 or older. The average annual violent crime rate among American Indians & 124 per 1,000 persons age 12 or older & is about 2½ times the national rate (table 1). All races American Indian Black White Asian 0 60 120 Number of violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older The average annual violent crime rate per 1,000 persons age 12 or older during that period was 49 for whites and 61 for blacks. The aggravated assault rate among American Indians (35 per 1,000) was more than 3 times the national rate (11 per 1,000) and twice that for blacks. The rate of robbery experienced by American Indians (12 per 1,000) was similar to that of black residents (13 per 1,000) (table 3). American Indians are overrepresented among victims of violence compared to their share of the general population age 12 or older. Total American Indian White Black Asian Annual average for persons age 12 or older, 1992-96 NCVS estimates Victims of of population violence 213.7 million 10.8 million 0.6% 1.4% 84.5 82.3 12.0 14.6 3.0 1.7 Table 2 2 American Indians and Crime Table 3. Annual average rate of rape and sexual assault, robbery, and assault, by race of victim, 1992-96 Violent victimizations Rape/sexual assault Robbery Aggravated assault Simple assault Number of victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older in each racial group All American races Indian White Black Asian 50 124 49 61 29 2 7 2 3 1 6 12 5 13 7 11 35 10 16 6 31 70 32 30 15 For the 1992-96 period, the average annual per capita rate of violent victimization translates into about 1 violent crime for every 20 residents age 12 or older. Substantial variation, however, was evident by race. American Indians experienced about 1 violent crime for every 8 residents age 12 or older compared to 1 violent victimization for every 16 black residents, 1 for every 20 white residents, and 1 for every 34 Asian residents. The types of violent crimes experienced by American Indians were generally similar to that found across the Nation (table 4). The most common type of violent crime experienced by American Indian victims was simple assault (56%). American Indian Black White Asian 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Number of simple assaults per 1,000 persons age 12 or older Types of violent crime The Nation's population of American Indians age 12 or older experienced an annual average of 126,400 simple and aggravated assaults, 14,800 robberies, and 8,400 rapes or sexual assaults during 1992-96. Among all the violent crimes reported by American Indians, 28% were aggravated assault, 10% robbery, and 6% rape/sexual assault. Asian and black victims of violence were more likely than American Indian or white victims to have reported a robbery. Table 4. Violent crime, by type of crime and race of victim, 1992-96 Type of crime Total Rape/sexual assault Robbery Aggravated assault Simple assault All races Percent of violent victimizations American Indian White Black Asian 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 4.3 11.7 21.8 62.2 5.6 9.9 28.4 56.1 4.3 9.7 21.0 65.0 4.4 21.5 25.7 48.5 4.1 24.6 21.0 50.2 8,880,083 1,570,386 184,743 Average annual number of victimizations 10,784,826 149,614 American Indians and Crime 3 Sex, age, and location of residence of victims of violent crime Age 12-17 The violent crime rate among American Indian males was 153 per 1,000 males age 12 or older, more than double that found among all males (60 per 1,000 age 12 or older) (table 5). The violent crime rate for American Indian females during this period was 98 per 1,000 females, a rate higher than that found among white females (40 per 1,000) or black females (56 per 1,000). In 1995 the Bureau of Census reported 2.2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives residing in the United States, about 1.94 million of whom were American Indians. In 1990 over half of American Indians and Alaska Natives lived in 10 States: Oklahoma 252,000 California 242,000 Arizona 204,000 New Mexico 134,000 Alaska 86,000 Washington 81,000 North Carolina 80,000 Texas 66,000 New York 63,000 56,000 Michigan Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990 CP-2-1A, Social and Economic Characteristics, American Indian and Alaska Native Areas. Among the different age groups, violent crime rates were highest (232 per 1,000 persons) for American Indians age 18 to 24. This 18-24 25-34 35-44 American Indians All races 45-54 55 or older 0 50 100 150 200 250 Rate of violent victimization per 1,000 persons in each group violent crime rate was more than twice that found among whites and blacks of the same age. About 40% of American Indians reside in rural areas, compared to 18% of whites and 8% of blacks. The violent crime rate for American Indians was highest for those in urban areas, 207 per 1,000, and lowest for those in rural Table 5. Violent crime rates for persons 12 or older, by age, sex, location of residence, and race, 1992-96 Annual average rates of violent victimization per 1,000 Victim All American White Black Asian characteristic races Indian Total 50 124 49 61 29 60 42 153 98 59 40 68 56 37 21 Age 12 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 or older 116 100 61 44 27 9 171 232 145 124 43 14 118 101 61 43 27 8 115 105 66 51 30 11 60 41 34 24 15 5 Location Urban Suburban Rural 65 48 37 207 138 89 63 48 37 75 52 33 29 29 30 Sex Male Female 4 American Indians and Crime Table 6. Violent victimizations, by age, sex, and race of victim, 1992-96 Percent of violent victimizations Victim age/sex All races American Indian 100.0% 100.0% 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 or older 24.2% 23.6 23.6 17.0 7.5 4.1 Male Female 57.4% 42.6 Total Number of violent victimizations 10,784,826 Rural American Indians All races Suburban Urban 0 50 100 150 200 250 Number of violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older areas, 89 per 1,000. However, this rural crime rate for American Indians is more than double that found among rural whites (37 per 1,000) or blacks (33 per 1,000). The urban crime rate American Indians with incomes under $10,000 had the highest rate of violent victimization, 182 per 1,000. At every income category American Indians had a higher rate of violent victimization than persons of other races. Black Asian 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 20.4% 31.5 23.5 18.0 4.7 1.9 23.8% 23.4 23.6 17.1 7.8 4.3 26.8% 24.0 23.2 16.6 6.1 3.3 24.0% 21.7 26.3 18.3 7.3 2.4 58.9% 41.1 58.4% 41.6 50.5% 49.5 62.6% 37.4 149,614 White 8,880,083 1,570,386 184,743 for American Indians is more than 3 times that found among urban whites. About half (52%) of the violent crimes committed against American Indians occurred among those age 12 to 24 years (table 6). Two percent of the violent crimes committed against American Indians were against the elderly, age 55 or older. Nearly 6 in 10 of the violent crimes experienced by American Indians had been committed against males, similar to the national distribution. Table 7. Violent victimization rates, by annual household income and race, 1992-96 Number of victimizations per 1,000 persons Household All income races Less than $10,000 73 $10,000 - 19,999 54 $20,000 - 29,999 48 $30,000 - 39,999 46 $40,000 or more 42 American Indian 182 137 104 72 84 White 74 51 47 46 42 Black 71 70 56 54 50 Asian 30 30 32 22 22 American Indians and Crime 5 More than half the violent victimizations of American Indians involved victims and offenders who had a prior relationship, about the same percentage as for all violent victimizations. Victim-offender relationship American Indians Intimate All races Family Acquaintance Stranger 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Percent of violent victimizations Note: Figure excludes those victimizations in which the victim did not know the relationship to the offender or those in which the number of offenders could not be specified. Victim-offender relationship Overall, strangers were reported to have committed 46% of the violent crimes against American Indians (table 8). More than half of the violent victimizations of American Indians involved offenders with whom the victim had a prior relationship. About 1 in 6 violent victimizations among American Indians involved an offender who was an intimate or family member to the victim, about the same as for victims of all races. Victim-offender relationship Intimates Family members Acquaintances Strangers Percent of violence All American races Indians 11% 8% 5 7 34 38 51 46 Table 8. Violent victimizations of American Indians, by victim-offender relationship and type of victimization, 1992-96 Percent of violent victimizations against American Indians Type of Intimates/ AcquaintStrangers victimization Total family members ances All 100% 15% 38% 46% Rape 100 25 43 32 Robbery 100 10 14 76 Aggravated assault 100 7 41 51 Simple assault 100 19 40 40 6 American Indians and Crime Race of offender Violent crime against white or black victims is primarily intraracial. Among white victims of violence, 69% of offenders were white (table 9). Likewise, black victims of violence were most likely to have been victimized by a black offender (81%). The majority (60%) of American Indian victims of violent crime described the offender as white, and nearly 30% of the offenders were likely to have been other American Indians. An estimated 10% of offenders were described as black. The less serious the offense, the higher was the percentage of American Indian victims of violence describing the offender as “other race” (table 10). The NCVS classifies as “other race” those offenders whom victims perceive to be Asian or American Indian. However, based Table 9. Percent of violent victimizations, by race of victim on self-reports of and race of offender, 1992-96 offender race, it is clear that American Race of offender Indians and Asians, Race of victim Total Other White Black when victimized by All races 100% 11% 60% 29% violence, were the American Indian 100 29 60 10 White 100 11 69 20 most likely to report Black 100 7 12 81 that the offender was Asian 100 32 39 29 from a different race. Note: Table excludes an estimated 420,793 victims of violence (3.9% of all victims) who could not describe the offender’s race. American Indian victims of rape/sexual assault most often reported that the victimization involved an offender of a different race. About 9 in 10 American Indian victims of rape or sexual assault were estimated to have had assailants who were white or black. Two-thirds or more of the American Indian victims of robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault described the offender as belonging to a different race. Race of offender Total White Black Other All violent victimizations 100% 63% 10 29 Percent of American Indian victims, 1992-96 Rape/sexual Aggravated assault Robbery assault 100% 100% 100% 82% 6 12 55% 24 21 61% 12 27 Simple assault 100% 59% 8 34 Table 10 American Indians and Crime 7 Intimate and family violence Intimate and family violence Family v iolence each account for about 9% American Indians Intimate v iolence of all violent victimizations experienced by American 0% 5% 10% 15% Indian victims, about the Percent of violent victimizations same percentage as found among all victims of violence. (See Note on the graph below.) Most striking among American Indian victims of violence is the substantial difference in the racial composition of offenders in intimate violence incidents when contrasted with family violence. Among violence victims of all races, about 11% of intimate victims and 5% of family victims report the offender to have been of a different race; however, among American Indian victims of violence, 75% of the intimate victimizations and 25% of the family victimizations involved an offender of a different race. Intimate and family violence involve a comparatively high level of alcohol and drug use by offenders as perceived by victims — as is the case for Indian and non-Indian victims. Indian victims of intimate and family violence, however, are more likely than others to be injured and need hospital care. Family v iolence Interracial Intimate v iolence Alcohol-involved Victims injured 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Percent of American Indian victimizations Note: Intimate violence refers to victimizations involving current and former spouses, boyfriends, and girlfriends. Family violence refers to victimizations involving spouses and other relatives. Alcohol-involved incidents included only those incidents in which the victim felt that he/she could determine whether the offender had been using drugs or alcohol. 8 American Indians and Crime Table 11. Violent crime, by the perceived drug or alcohol use of the offender and by race of victim, 1992-96 Perceived drug or alcohol use by offender Race of victim Total American Indian White Black Asian Total Alcohol Drugs Both Neither 100% 28% 8% 7% 57% 100 100 100 100 38 29 21 20 9 8 7 3 8 7 7 2 45 56 65 75 Note: Table excludes those respondents who were unable to report whether they perceived the offender to have been using drugs or alcohol. Alcohol, drugs, and crime Alcohol and drug use was a factor in more than half of violent crimes against American Indians (table 11). Substantial differences can be found by race in the reports of victims of violence of their perceptions of drug and alcohol use by offenders. Among those who could describe alcohol or drug use by offenders, American Indian victims of violence were the most likely to report such perceived use by the offender. Overall, in 55% of American Indian violent victimizations, the victim said the offender was under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or both. The offender’s use of alcohol and/or drugs was somewhat less likely in violent crimes committed against whites (44%) or blacks (35%). Offenders’ use of alcohol and drugs reported by American Indian victims of violence varied with the race of the offender: Intraracial violence was more likely to involve a drinking offender while interracial violence involved higher levels of offender drug use. According to American Indian victims of violence, offender use of alcohol was a factor in nearly two-thirds of the violent victimizations in which the offender was neither white nor black. Race of Percent of victimizations in which the offender was perceived using& victim/offender Alcohol Drugs Both Neither American Indian/white 30% 10% 8% 52% American Indian/black 35 13 3 49 American Indian/other 57 1 8 34 White/white Black/black Asian/other 36% 21 18 8% 8 2 1% 6 3 48% 66 77 Table 12 American Indians and Crime 9 An estimated 3 in 4 American Indian victims of family violence reported that they perceived the offender to have been drinking at the time of the offense. About half the persons of all races who were victims of family violence reported a drinking offender. Victim-offender relationship American Indians All races Intimates Family Acquaintances Strangers 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Percent of v iolent v ictimizations in which the v ictims f elt certain they could distinguish alcohol use by the of f ender Note: Intimates include current and former spouses, boyfriends, and girlfriends. Family includes all other family members. Location of violent crime victims of all races to have occurred at or near a home. Just over 40% of American Indian victims of violence reported that the incident occurred in or around their own home or that of a friend, relative, or neighbor (table 13). This is higher than the approximately one-third of violent victimizations reported by Nineteen percent of violent victimizations against American Indians took place in open areas, on the street or on public transportation. Fewer than 1 in 10 violent crimes were reported to have occurred at school. Table 13. Violent incidents, by place of occurrence and race of victim, 1992-96 Percent of violent victimizations Place of occurrence Total Home or lodging Near own home At, in, or near friend’s, relative’s, or neighbor’s home Commercial places Parking lots/garages School Open areas, on street or public transportation Other 10 American Indians and Crime All American races Indian 100% 100% 14 12 11 17 White 100% 14 11 Black 100% 17 14 Asian 100% 12 9 9 13 8 13 14 13 9 7 9 14 8 13 10 9 6 11 7 19 9 12 22 10 19 9 21 10 28 6 24 9 Time of occurrence Half of the violent crimes committed against American Indians occurred after dark. About 1 in 5 of the violent victimizations took place between midnight and 6:00 a.m. Table 14. Violent crime, by time of occurrence and race of victim, 1992-96 Percent of violent victimizations Time of violent American crime occurrence Indian White Black Asian Total Light Dark Dawn 100% 44 52 5 100% 52 44 4 100% 51 46 4 100% 51 45 4 Total 6 am-12 noon 12 noon-6 pm 6 pm-midnight Midnight-6 am 100% 11 30 40 19 100% 14 38 35 13 100% 13 38 38 11 100% 17 34 38 11 Crime in the workplace On average nearly 2 million violent crimes occurred in the workplace every year. The workplace accounted for about 1 in 5 violent crimes experienced by the public. Among American Indians about 14% of the violent victimizations were reported to have occurred in the workplace. About 1 in 4 employed American Indian victims of violence said that the incident occurred in the workplace. All races Unemployed Employed Percent reporting workplace violence Percent of all violent incidents which occurred at the workplace Percent of victims of violence American Indian White Black Asian 40% 60 48% 52 37% 63 52% 48 41% 59 31% 26% 32% 25% 31% 19% 14% 20% 12% 18% Table 15 American Indians and Crime 11 Table 16. Violent victimizations, by use of weapon and race of victim, 1992-96 Percent of violent victimizations Offender use of weapon American All races Indian White Black Asian No weapon used Hands/feet only 74% 35 66% 33 76% 35 62% 34 68% 34 Weapon used Firearm Knife Blunt object Other weapon 26% 11 7 4 5 34% 13 7 7 6 24% 9 6 4 5 38% 19 9 4 5 33% 17 8 5 4 Weapons used in violent crime In about a third of the violent crime incidents American Indian victims were faced with an offender who had a weapon (table 16). About 13% of the crimes involved an offender with a firearm. In almost 70% of the violent crime incidents, the American Indian victim resisted the offender, most frequently through the use of physical force (table 17). American Indian victims used a weapon in self-defense in less than 3% of the violent incidents committed against them. Table 17. Self-protective measures employed by victims, by race of victim, 1992-96 Percent of violent victimizations Self-protective actions taken during incident American Indian White Black Asian None 31% 28% 31% 37% Confrontational actions Used physical force toward offender Weapons No weapons Chased, tried to catch/hold offender Defended self/property Scared or warned off offender 18% 3 16 2 16 4 14% 3 11 1 15 5 15% 4 12 1 16 5 9% 1 9 1 11 5 Nonconfrontational actions Persuaded or appeased offender Ran away, hid, locked door Got help or gave alarm Other 7% 12 4 7 9% 12 4 12 8% 11 4 10 11% 14 3 9 Note: Victims may have used more than one measure. 12 American Indians and Crime Table 18. Violent victimizations in which the victims sustained physical injury or received medical care, by race Victim reported physical injury Percent of violent victimizations American All victims Indian White Black Asian Yes 25% 32% 24% 31% 25% Type of Injury Sexual assault Shot/internal injuries Broken bones/concussion Bruises Other injuries 2% 1 2 18 3 4% 3 5 18 2 2% 1 2 18 2 2% 3 2 19 4 3% 2 1 17 2 Treatment for injuries Not treated Treated At hospital 57% 44 19 48% 53 32 59% 41 16 45% 55 26 55% 44 24 Note: The percent treated was calculated on those injured during the violent incident. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Injury rates, hospitalization, and financial loss American Indian victims of a violent crime were more likely to have been injured than were white or Asian crime victims. Nearly a third of the American Indian violent crime victims were injured during the incident (table 18). About a quarter of all violence victims of all races were injured during the incident. Seventy-one percent of American Indian crime victims who were injured during the incident and sought medical treatment had medical insurance or qualified for public medical benefits. Injured American Indian victims of violence who sought treatment for their injuries were as likely as other racial groups to have some form of coverage for medical benefits. Injured victims As a result of their victimizations, an estimated 18% of American Indian victims of violence sustained bruises, the most commonly reported injury. Among those injured, about half received some kind of medical treatment & a third at the hospital. American Indians White Black Asian Percent with coverage 71% 69 71 64 American Indians and Crime 13 Victims of violence were asked to report the value of losses associated with the violence they experienced. These losses could include medical expenses, property lost or damaged, and pay lost by missing work. About 1 in 4 American Indian victims of violence suffered an economic loss as a consequence of the victimization. The average per-victim loss among American Indian victims of violence reporting a loss was $936 (table 19). Table 19. Average dollar loss per victim of violence, by race of victim, 1992-96 Race of victim of violence All American Indian White Black Asian Average dollar loss $878 936 818 1,081 810 The total annual loss for American Indians arising from violent criminal victimization translates into more than $35 million (table 20). The losses reported by American Indian victims of violence largely resulted from medical expenses that accounted for more than $21 million. Losses to American Indian victims of violence were distributed as follows: Medical Cash Property Loss Repair Replacement Lost pay From injury Other causes 4.0 5.4 2.9 12.6 11.7 Table 20. Economic loss to American Indian victims of violent crime, by type of loss, 1992-96 Reason for loss Total Medical expenses Cash loss Property Loss Repair Replacement Lost pay from & Injury Other causes 14 American Indians and Crime 60.4% 2.7 American Indian victims of violence Average loss Estimated total annual loss per victim $936 $35,123,400 $2,407 223 $21,227,333 960,907 $155 152 191 $1,403,370 1,907,680 1,013,064 $641 754 $4,433,797 4,116,086 Child abuse and neglect In the United States from 1992 to 1995, American Indians and Asians were the only racial or ethnic groups to experience increases in the rate of abuse or neglect of children under age 15, as measured by incidents recorded by child protective service agencies. The increase in reported incidents involving American Indian children was more than 3 times as large as that for Asian children. The per capita rate for American Indian children was 7 times that of Asian children. All children American Indian White Black Asian Hispanic Number of victims per 100,000 children, age 14 or younger 1992 1995 Percent change 1,866 1,724 -8% 2,830 3,343 18 1,628 1,520 -7 3,560 3,323 -7 454 479 6 1,486 1,254 -16 Note: Rates were calculated on the number of children age 14 or younger because they account for at least 80% of the victims of child abuse and neglect. Each year the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System of the Department of Health and Human Services obtains from child protective service agencies nationwide the number of reports of alleged maltreatment of children. Published data for 1995 indicate that about 1 million children were substantiated to have been victims of neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, medical neglect, or other forms of verified maltreatment. 1992 1993 1994 1995 Percent Number of victims American of maltreatment* Indian 1,044,480 1.5% 966,163 1.6 1,011,595 1.8 1,000,502 1.9 *Reported by child protective agencies. Data may contain duplicate counts of incidents. Source: National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Non-Hispanic American Indians accounted for just under 2% of the victims of child abuse/neglect in reports collected nationwide in 1995. There is evidence that their share has been increasing. Non-Hispanic American Indians, who accounted for just under 1% of the population age 14 or younger, were overrepresented twofold as victims of child abuse. On a per capita basis, 1995 data indicate about 1 substantiated report of a child victim of abuse or neglect for every 30 American Indian children age 14 or younger. Nationwide, the 1995 rates translate into about 1 child victim of maltreatment known to a child protective services agency for every & & 58 children of any race & 66 white children & 30 black children & 209 Asian children & 80 Hispanic children Table 21 American Indians and Crime 15 American Indians differ little from other racial groups in their reporting of violent crime to the police or in the likelihood that the victim knows of the arrest of the offender. American Indian White Black Asian Victims 149,600 8,880,100 1,570,400 184,700 Average annual number of victimizations 10,785,800 Subsequent arrest Reported to of offender the police (reported offenses only) 45% 28% 41 28 50 22 39 19 Table 22 Reporting violent crime to the police Among victims not reporting the crime to the police, the reasons that persons of different racial backgrounds had for Forty-five percent of American Indian not reporting were also similar. Nearly victims of violent crime reported the half of both American Indians not crime to the police (table 22). This reporting the violent crime to the police level of crime reporting was similar to and victims of all races who did not that found among white (41%) and report the violence to the police said black (50%) violent crime victims. that they considered the matter private or too minor to bother the Table 23. Reasons why victims of violence did police (table 23). not report the victimization to the police, by race of victim, 1992-96 Percent of victims of violence not reporting the victimization to the police Reason for not All American reporting to the police races Indians Total 100% 100% Personal matter 21 26 Too unimportant 24 24 Police of limited assistance 11 14 Reported to other authority 13 8 Fear of or worry about offender 7 6 Too busy 3 2 Other reasons 22 20 16 American Indians and Crime For those violent crimes reported to the police victims said that police made an arrest in about a quarter of the cases (table 24). Twelve percent of the victims who reported their violent crime to the police received victim services assistance. Arrests of offenders and services to victims Table 24. Violent victimizations reported to the police, by whether an arrest was made and whether victim services were provided, by race of victim, 1992-96 All races Percent of violent victimizations reported to the police American Indian White Black Asian Was an arrest made? Yes No Do not know 27% 66 7 27% 65 8 28% 65 7 22% 70 8 19% 71 11 Victim services assistance? Yes 10% 12% 10% 9% 9% Note: The percent reporting an arrest and the percent reporting that they had received assistance from a victim services agency were based on those victimizations reported to the police. There were no differences between victims of violence who were American Indians and victims of all races in the percentage having contacts with the prosecutor’s office or a victim services agency. For all victims such contacts were higher in those cases in which an arrest was known to have occurred. Average annual number of violent victimizations reported to the police 4,525,200 | Resulted in & Arrests No arrests Victims of all races Subsequent contact with & Prosecutor’s office Victim services agency 1,228,400 American Indian victims Subsequent contact with & Prosecutor’s office Victim services agency 19,000 23% 17 25% 21 3,296,800 3% 7 49,000 3% 8 American Indians and Crime 17 Average annual rates of violent victimization, by race and ethnicity, 1992-96 Number of violent victimizations, per 1,000, age 12 or older All ethnicities Hispanic Non-Hispanic All races American Indian White Black Asian 50 124 49 61 29 58 243 56 85 63 50 116 48 61 28 Note: The table excludes respondents who did not provide complete data on race and ethnicity. Race and ethnicity in violent victimization The NCVS asks respondents about both race and ethnicity. For 1992-96 about 9% of all participants, or about 18.5 million residents age 12 or older in an average year, were of Hispanic origin and belonged to one of the four primary racial groups sampled in the survey— white, black, American Indian, or Asian. Hispanic residents were estimated to consist of 17.8 million whites, 0.5 million blacks, about 0.1 million Asians, and a slightly smaller number of American Indians. Across each racial group, Hispanic residents were found to have higher average per capita rates of violent victimization. Among all racial and ethnic groups, non-Hispanic Asians were found to have the lowest estimated rates of violent victimization, about 1 violent crime for every 36 residents. By contrast, American Indian residents who also identified themselves as Hispanic reported a rate of violent victimization that translated into about 1 violent crime for every 4 residents. • While about 7% of all American Indian participants in the NCVS reported they were also of Hispanic ethnicity, nearly 14% of those American Indians victimized by violence were of Hispanic origin. • Among American Indians who also described themselves as Hispanic, the rate of violent victimization was 4 times the rate found among all Hispanics and twice the rate found among non-Hispanic American Indians. Table 25 18 American Indians and Crime Annual number of murders of American Indians, 1976-96 Number of American Indian murder v ictims 200 150 100 50 0 1976 1980 1984 Murder among American Indians Each year about 150 American Indians become murder victims. Little year-toyear variation occurred in the number of American Indian murder victims, but recent years were below the peak reached in 1986. American Indians were 0.7% of all murder victims nationwide, about the same as their share of the population (table 26). From 1976 to 1996 an estimated 3,100 American Indians were murdered. Because of variations in reporting by law enforcement agencies over time, detail on these murder victims is available for 2,826 American Indian murder victims or about 92% of the total estimated number of victims. Over the 21-year period, just under 14% of the murders of American Indians occurred in California, proportional to California’s share of the American Indian population. Alaska, by contrast, accounts for about 10% of American Indian murder victims over the period but just over 4% of the American Indian population 1988 1992 1996 nationwide. In Alaska in 1976-96, American Indians and Alaska Natives composed about 16% of the population but 28% of that State’s murder victims. The 10 States in which about 63% of the American Indian population reside have accounted for about 75% of the murders. Rates of murder As observed across the other racial groups, the number of murders per capita among American Indians has been declining. The rate of murder among American Indians in 1996 was below the national average for ages under age 40 (table 27). For ages 40 or older, murder rates are close to the national average. For persons age 24 or younger in 1996, American Indian rates of murder closely paralleled the rates among whites and Asians and were well below the rates among black victims. For those age 25 to 29, the 37% decline in the rate of murder among American Indians reflects the largest decline of any racial group. American Indians and Crime 19 Table 26. Murders of American Indians, as a percent of all American Indians and of all murder victims, by State, 1976-96 States with the largest number of American Indian murder victims U.S. total California Oklahoma Alaska North Carolina Arizona Washington Minnesota New Mexico New York Oregon All other States Number Percent of & of murders All murders The American of American of American Indian Indians Indians population 2,826 100.0% 100.0% 386 13.7 13.7 326 11.5 11.9 268 9.5 4.2 245 8.7 3.9 233 8.2 10.8 191 6.8 4.4 164 5.8 2.5 160 5.7 6.7 75 2.7 3.1 71 2.5 2.0 707 25.0 36.8 American Indians as a percent of & All Total murder resident victims population 0.7% 0.8% 0.6 1.0 6.2 8.1 28.0 15.5 2.0 1.2 4.1 5.8 4.2 1.8 7.4 1.2 7.5 8.9 0.2 0.4 2.7 1.4 0.3 0.4 Note: Supplementary Homicide Data are for 1976-96. Population data are for 1994. Table 27. Number of murders per 100,000 population, by race and age, 1991 and 1996 Age of murder victims 17 or younger 18-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-49 Murder rate, 1996 Total American Indian White Black Asian 7.9 4.0 4.9 24.3 4.3 19.6 9.1 9.5 76.6 9.0 14.5 11.2 7.4 58.2 6.2 10.8 10.8 6.2 40.8 5.3 9.2 8.8 5.8 32.7 3.4 6.6 7.2 4.3 24.1 3.2 4.4 5.7 3.3 14.0 3.3 Murder rate, 1991 Total American Indian White Black Asian 9.3 5.0 5.4 30.6 4.7 23.9 9.7 11.6 97.4 9.9 18.6 17.8 9.8 75.0 9.5 15.0 14.1 8.5 60.0 7.7 12.0 11.7 7.2 46.3 7.9 8.7 7.0 5.6 34.1 6.2 5.7 5.1 4.0 21.1 4.9 -18.0% -6.2 -18.1 -21.4 -9.1 -22.0% -37.1 -24.5 -22.4 -34.7 -28.0% -23.4 -27.1 -32.0 -31.2 -23.3% -24.8 -19.4 -29.4 -57.0 -24.1% 2.8 -22.4 -29.4 -48.9 Percent change, 1991-96 Total -15.1% American Indian* -20.0 White -9.3 Black -20.6 Asian -8.5 *Increases occurred from 4 additional murders of persons age 40 to 49 and 4 additional murders of persons age 50 or older. Denominators for the oldest group included persons age 50 to 74 years. 20 American Indians and Crime 50 or older -23.6% 12.7 -18.7 -33.6 -33.2 Table 28. Circumstances of murder, by race, 1976-96 Murders Murders with known circumstances Total American All races Indian 100% 100% Violent felony Other felony offenses Suspected felony Brawl under the influence of alcohol/drugs Arguments Other circumstances Number 14 10 4 White 100% Black 100% Asian 100% 16 10 4 11 11 3 27 8 3 6 38 27 181,043 4 50 21 156,203 11 5 4 5 43 24 344,928 13 45 22 2,515 2 35 25 4,545 Note: Table excludes an estimated 101,446 murder victims for whom the circumstances were not known. Source: FBI, Supplemental Homicide Reports, 1976-96. Circumstances of murder Supplemental data regarding murders with known circumstances indicate that American Indian murder victims were more likely to have been killed during a brawl involving alcohol or drugs (13%) than white (6%), black (4%), or Asian (2%) murder victims (table 28). Fortyfive percent of American Indian murder victims were killed during an argument, and 11% were killed during the commission of a violent felony. American Indian and Asian murder victims, whether victims of violent felony murder or murders arising from arguments, were more likely than whites or blacks to have been victimized by an offender of a different race. American Indian White Argument murders Violent f elony murders Black Asian 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percent of murder victims killed by someone of a dif f erent race American Indians and Crime 21 Table 29. Murders, by victim-offender relationship and race, 1976-96 Percent of murder Total Victim/offender had prior relationship Victim/offender were strangers Same race Different races Number of murder victims Victims of American all races Indian 100.0% 100.0% White 100.0% Black 100.0% Asian 100.0% 81.2 83.9 78.4 84.5 70.9 18.8 13.8 5.0 281,603 16.1 3.9 12.2 2,242 21.6 14.4 7.1 147,417 15.5 13.4 2.1 128,551 29.1 8.2 20.9 3,393 Note: Table excludes victims with unknown relationship to offender and victims and offenders of unspecified races. Victim-offender relationship in murder cases offender relations in American Indian murder cases were similar to those found among all murders. In American Indian murder cases in which the victim offender-relationship was known, strangers accounted for approximately 16% of the murders (table 29). Acquaintances accounted for about half the murders. Victim- American Indian and Asian murder victims were more likely than white or black murder victims to have been killed by a stranger of a different race. Table 30. Murders, by race of offender and victim, 1976-96 Race of murder victim Race of offender Total American Indian White Black Asian Number All races 100% American Indian 100% White 100% Black 100% Asian 100% 0.8% 47.6 50.4 1.0 313,032 56.9% 32.5 9.7 0.7 2,381 0.6% 85.6 13.3 0.5 162,609 0.1% 5.8 94.0 0.1 143,854 0.4% 22.1 18.1 59.2 3,688 Note: Table excludes cases in which the race of the victim or offender is unknown. Source: Supplemental Homicide Data are for the period 1976-96. Population data are for 1994. Race of murderers In most murder cases involving a white or black victim, the offender was of the same race as the victim (table 30). 22 American Indians and Crime However, when the races of the offender and victim were known, more than 40% of American Indian murder victims were killed by an offender who was not an American Indian; in 33% of the cases the offender was white. Compared to all murder victims, American Indian murder victims were substantially less likely to have been killed by a handgun but more likely to have been killed by a rifle or shotgun or stabbed. Handgun Rifle/shotgun Other firearm Knife Blunt object Personal weapon* American Indian murder v ictims All murder v ictims All other weapons 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Percent of murder victims 50% 60% *Includes hands and f eet. Note: Excludes cases in which type of weapon is unknown. Murder weapons American Indian murder victims were substantially less likely (28% to 50%) than all murder victims to have been killed by a handgun. Almost 30% of American Indian murder victims were killed by a knife, compared to less than 20% of all murders. American Indians and Crime 23 Approximately 17% of American Indians arrested for these violent offenses are under age 18, nearly the same percentage found among arrestees for all violent crimes in 1996. The 1996 arrest rates for Part I violent crimes among American Indian youth were about the same as for white youth and were about a fifth of those of black youth. Arrests and convictions of American Indians Arrest data for 1996, provided by local law enforcement agencies, indicate that American Indians account for 0.9% of the arrests for Part I violent crimes (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) & an estimated 6,600 arrests for these offenses. Unlike the pattern of violent crime arrest rates for other racial groups & higher for youth than for the whole population & among American Indians the arrest rates for those under age 18 did not vary from the overall rate. All ages All races Y outh American Indian Black White Asian 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Number of arrestees for Part I v iolent crimes per 100,000 population Note: Arrest rates f or y outh were based on the estimated number of arrests of persons under the age of 18 and calculated on the number of residents age 10-17. Source: FBI, Crime in the United States, 1996. 24 American Indians and Crime American Indians have a rate of arrest for alcohol violations (DUI, liquor law violations, and public drunkenness) more than double the national rate. Arrests of American Indians under age 18 for alcohol-related violations are also twice the national average. Number of arrests per 100,000 population All ages Youth All races Total violent Murder Rape Robbery Aggravated assault Total property American Indian All races American Indian 275 291 445 294 7 13 59 197 7 16 37 231 9 19 165 252 5 14 67 208 1,039 1,369 2,783 3,026 Total alcohol violations DUI Liquor laws Drunkenness 1,079 2,545 649 1,341 553 1,069 61 98 255 727 510 1,108 271 749 78 135 Note: Arrest rate is the number of arrests per 100,000 resident population. Arrest rates for youth were based upon the estimated number of arrests of persons under the age of 18. The youth arrest rate was calculated on the number of residents age 10-17. Table 31 Felony convictions in State courts On average there are annually about 900,000 felony convictions in State courts. American Indians account for just over ½ of 1% of felony convictions across the Nation (table 32). In 1996 State and local felony courts throughout the United States convicted an estimated 1 million defendants. Among these were an estimated 7,000 felony convictions of American Indians, a rate of approximately 1 felony conviction for every 200 American Indians age 18 or older. By contrast in 1996 whites experienced a felony conviction rate of about 1 conviction per 300 adults; among blacks the rate of felony Table 32. Annual average number of felony convictions in State courts, by race, 1990-96 Felony convictions Average annual number Percent Total American Indian White Black Asian 898,290 4,980 468,944 418,124 6,243 100% 0.6 52.2 46.6 0.7 Note: The annual average estimates are based on the National Judicial Reporting Program, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. conviction was 1 for every 51 adults; and Asians reflected the lowest rate, about 1 felony conviction for every 600 Asian residents age 18 or older. American Indians and Crime 25 Table 33. Correctional population, by status and race, 1997 Percent of correctional populations Number Number of offenders Total corrections Probation Local jails State prisons Federal prisons Parole 5,751,277 3,261,888 557,974 1,131,581 112,973 685,033 Offenders per 100,000 resident population age 18 or older Total corrections Probation Local jails State prisons Federal prisons Parole American Indians under correctional supervision American Indians accounted for about 1% of the more than 5.7 million adults under correctional care, custody, or control on a single day in 1997 (table 33). The estimated 62,600 American Indians with a correctional status accounted for just over 4% of the American Indian adult population (not shown in a table). 26 American Indians and Crime All races American Indian White 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 2,907 1,650 282 572 57 346 1.1% 0.9 2.9 1.0 1.5 0.6 4,194 1,965 1,083 757 113 275 58.8% 66.5 53.1 43.1 60.1 52.6 2,036 1,306 178 294 41 217 Black Asian 39.6% 32.3 42.8 55.4 37.0 46.4 0.5% 0.4 1.0 0.5 1.5 0.5 9,863 4,561 1,031 2,714 181 1,376 414 183 78 80 24 48 By comparison, an estimated 2% of white adults, 10% of black adults, and less than a half of 1% of Asian adults were under correctional supervision (not shown in a table). In 1997, 54% of the American Indians under correctional supervision were in the community & on probation (47%) or parole (7%). Twenty-five percent were held in local jails, 18% in State prisons, and 3% in Federal prisons. In 1997 just under half of the American Indian offenders under the care, custody, or control of Federal, State, or local correctional authorities were confined in prisons or jails. By contrast, less than a third of correctional populations nationwide were confined in prisons or jails. American Indian correctional population 62,659 Local jails (26%) Probation (47%) State prisons (18%) Parole (7%) Federal prisons (3%) Nationwide correctional population 5,751,277 Local jails (10%) State prisons (20%) Probation (57%) Federal prisons (2%) Parole (12%) American Indians and Crime 27 Table 34. American Indian jail inmates, by offense, 1996 Unconvicted jail inmates All American races Indians Total Convicted jail inmates All American races Indians 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Violent Homicide Sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent 36.7% 6.6 3.8 8.8 15.4 2.1 26.6% 2.7 -2.2 15.7 5.9 21.7% 1.5 3.0 5.5 10.0 1.7 21.9% 0.2 7.1 7.9 10.1 1.6 Property Burglary Larceny Motor vehicle theft Other property 25.6% 7.7 5.6 3.3 9.0 27.4% 11.5 2.3 7.3 6.3 28.6% 8.0 9.5 2.3 8.8 27.0% 8.1 6.2 4.7 7.9 Drugs 20.2% 6.5% 23.7% 15.8% Public-order Weapons DWI Other public-order 17.4% 2.2 3.6 11.6 39.5% 8.2 13.8 17.5 25.6% 2.4 9.6 13.6 35.3% 0.7 13.1 21.5 165,733 4,241 314,867 9,824 Number --Too small to estimate. American Indians comprised just over 1% of the offenders on probation or parole or in State or Federal prisons but an estimated 2.9% of persons in local jails nationwide. American Indians accounted for 2.5% of those detained in local jails who had not been convicted of crimes and 3% of the convicted offenders in jail serving shorter sentences or awaiting transfer to other institutions. 28 American Indians and Crime Compared to jail inmates of all races, when the statuses of conviction are combined, American Indians were less likely to have been jailed for a violent or drug offense (table 34). However, consistent with their higher arrest rates for driving under the influence of alcohol, a substantial percentage of American Indians reported that they were in jail charged with or convicted of an offense involving driving while intoxicated (DWI). American Indians accounted for an estimated 10% of unconvicted jail inmates charged with DWI and just over 4% of convicted DWI offenders in local jails. About half of convicted American Indian inmates in local jails had been consuming alcoholic beverages at the time of the offense for which they had been convicted. An estimated 7 in 10 American Indians in local jails convicted of a violent crime had been drinking when they committed the offense. Ty pe of conv iction of f ense All offenses Violent Property American Indian jail inmates All conv icted jail inmates Drug Public-order 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Percent of convicted inmates reporting drinking at the time of the of f ense Blood alcohol concentration calculated from inmates’ reports of drinking at the time of their offense Jail Prison All races 0.20 0.27 American Indian 0.23 0.32 White 0.20 0.28 Black 0.18 0.26 Asian 0.20 0.20 Note: Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the number of grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood. Nearly 4 in 10 American Indian inmates held in local jails had been charged with a public-order offense & most commonly driving while intoxicated. Sixteen percent of convicted American Indians serving time in local jails had been convicted of a drug offense. American Indians and Crime 29 In fiscal year 1996 U.S. attorneys investigated 1,927 suspects for offenses committed in Indian country. & Distribution of Indian country suspects investigated, by Federal court district& Number of investigations None Fewer than 50 50 to 99 100 or more Table 35. Types of offenses charged in cases filed in U.S. district courts, 1997 Type of offense Total Violent Fraud Property Drugs Regulatory Other Number Federal district court filings, 1997 American Indian All cases cases 100.0% 100.0% 6.7 47.5 18.3 9.1 5.2 12.9 39.5 14.7 3.3 2.0 27.0 13.8 60,403 1,126 American Indian youth detained In September 1994, American Indians were 75 of the 124 juvenile delinquents confined under Federal jurisdiction & about 60% of such juveniles. American Indians in the Federal justice system The BJS Special Report Juvenile Delinquents in In 1997 U.S. attorneys filed cases in Federal the Federal Criminal district court against 1,126 American Indians. Justice System, February Almost half of these cases involved a violent crime. 1997, NCJ 163066, describes the circumThe majority of cases were filed in U.S. district stances of youth in the courts in South Dakota, Arizona, New Mexico, Federal system. and Montana. 30 American Indians and Crime American Indians and the death penalty All American Over the period 1973-97, races Indians 6,139 persons were senSentenced to death, 1973-97 6,139 52 tenced to death in the Executions, 1976-97 432 3 United States. During the Percent executed 7.0% 5.8% same years 52 American Removed from death row by Indians were sentenced to means other than execution 2,372 21 death, 0.8% of the total. other means Percent removed by 38.6% 40.4% Between 1976 and 1997 a Remaining under sentence total of 432 persons were of death, 1997 3,335 28 executed, including 3 Percent remaining, 1997 54.3% 53.8% American Indians (0.7% of those executed). This sentenced to death between 1973 translates into a rate of execution and 1997 still remained under a for those sentenced to death of death sentence at the close of 1997. about 7 per 100 persons receiving a death sentence and for American About half of all death sentences Indians, about 5.8 per 100. imposed upon American Indians were in North Carolina (11) and OklaAmong the 6,139 persons sentenced homa (14). Oklahoma (8) had the to death, 3,335 were still under a largest number of American Indians death sentence at the end of 1997& currently under a sentence to death. 54.3% of those entering death row No Federal death sentences were over the period. For American imposed on American Indians during Indians, 28 of the 52 (53.8%) the period 1973-97. State Alabama Arizona California Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Maryland Montana Nebraska New Mexico North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Tennessee Texas Utah U.S. total Total sentenced to death 1973-97 1 5 5 1 1 Executed Died from other causes Under sentence of death 12/31/97 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 11 1 14 1 Sentence overturned or commuted 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 52 3 1 4 1 1 4 1 8 1 1 1 1 20 28 Table 36 American Indians and Crime 31 American Indian tribal criminal justice The BJS Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 1996 identified 135 tribal law enforcement agencies with a total of 1,731 full-time sworn officers. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which also has law enforcement responsibility for selected tribal jurisdictions, reported 339 fulltime officers authorized to make arrests and carry firearms. In addition to law enforcement services, American Indian tribes and the BIA operate jails in tribal areas.* Data provided by BIA indicate that these facilities employed 659 persons and had an authorized capacity to house just over 2,000 adults and juveniles (table 37). *BJS has conducted a survey of tribal confinement facilities. Analysis of survey responses will be reported in Survey of Jails in Indian Country, 1998, forthcoming, NCJ 173410. Table 37. Tribal jail capacity and jail staff, by State and tribe, 1998 Capacity State Alaska Arizona California Colorado Idaho Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Montana Nebraska Tribe Metlakatla Indian Community Navajo Nation Colorado River Indian Tribes Fort Mohave Indian Tribe White Mountain Apache Tribe Hopi Tribe Tohono O'Odham Nation Gila River Indian Community Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community San Carlos Apache Tribe Hualapai, Havasupai, Prescott Apache, and Tonto Apache Supai Tribe Pascua Yaqui Tribe Chehalis Indian Tribe Southern Ute Tribe Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Shoshone-Bannock Tribe Saginaw Chippewa Tribe Boise Forte Tribe Red Lake Chippewa Tribe Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians Blackfeet Tribe Crow Tribe Gros Ventre and Assiniboine Tribe Assiniboine and Sioux Tribe Northern Cheyenne Tribe Chippewa Cree Tribe Confederated Tribes of Salish and Kootenai Omaha Tribe 32 American Indians and Crime Adult 8 208 30 1 31 68 33 73 Juvenile 36 8 1 17 28 16 32 Staff 4 96 12 4 22 8 31 40 70 38 33 18 14 36 4 1 2 4 14 24 2 8 18 8 7 2 6 1 5 5 4 9 32 34 12 8 21 10 22 8 34 2 21 3 4 17 12 5 5 19 3 3 16 20 4 12 11 9 1 2 4 6 1 4 13 Table 37. Continued. Capacity State Nevada New Mexico North Dakota Oklahoma Oregon South Dakota Utah Washington Wisconsin Wyoming Total Tribe Battle Mountain, Duckwater, Ely, Goshute, South Fork, Elko Band, and Wells Band Jicarilla Apache Tribe Laguna Pueblo Tribe Mescalero Apache Tribe Taos Pueblo Ramah Navajo Isleta Pueblo Zuni Pueblo Navajo Nation Spirit Lake Sioux Tribe Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Turtle Mountain Chippewa Tribe Three Affiliated Tribes Sac and Fox Nation Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs BIA Law Enforcement Services Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Crow Creek Sioux Tribe Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Oglala Sioux Tribe Rosebud Sioux Tribe Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe Uintah and Ouray Tribe Olympic Peninsula Tribe Puget Sound Tribe Kalispel and Spokane Tribe Confederated Tribes of Yakama Nation Menominee Tribe Shoshone and Arapaho Tribe Adult 28 0 12 24 8 10 6 22 41 25 42 22 8 Juvenile 8 4 12 14 8 8 8 69 32 53 10 14 52 48 16 24 14 7 8 12 4 10 4 2 32 16 4 4 1 Staff 5 0 5 7 5 5 6 13 21 5 8 8 6 23 13 24 2 4 31 12 5 5 8 7 4 30 32 26 17 10 4 10 16 6 1,462 536 649 Note: Data were supplied by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Data are for April 1998. Staff of the facilities includes juvenile and adult detention officers and dispatchers. American Indians and Crime 33 Sources of data on American Indians and crime One of the challenges facing all Federal statistical agencies is that representative statistical data about American Indians are difficult to acquire and use. This is true for a number of reasons with respect to crime data: Sampling & Most Federal surveys utilize nationally representative samples of persons or households, thus limiting the capability to describe small population subgroups in detail. (American Indians comprise under 1% of the U.S. population.) In addition, sampling procedures, relying upon selection of respondents within clustered geographical sampling units, may by chance miss those areas where concentrations of residences of small subgroups (such as American Indians) may be located. Finally, the fluidity of population movement between tribal and nontribal areas for both Indian and non-Indian populations makes it difficult to systematically describe those living in these areas. The 1990 Census revealed, for example, that nearly half the population of reservation and trust lands was non-Indian. The design of national surveys such as the NCVS does not permit calculating separate statistics for each American Indian tribe. Coverage of data & Statistical coverage of incidents or cases in Indian country utilizing law enforcement, judicial, or corrections data is difficult to quantify because Federal, State, and 34 American Indians and Crime local authorities may have overlapping jurisdiction on tribal lands. Data about some crimes are collected by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in Indian country while other crimes by or against American Indians are recorded by local sheriffs or police. Arrest data are profoundly limited by the lack of information on arrest coverage among tribal and BIA law enforcement agencies. Data on trends & Crime data relying upon either samples of population or incident and case-level data from administrative records suffers from the lack of repetitive collection so that change rates and trends can be analyzed. Much data on the employment, education, and quality of life measures of American Indians are only available from periodic collections and are often of only limited value for comparisons over time. Often many years have passed since they were last conducted. Agencies do not generally use some form of aggregation or multiyear averages for examining change or for comparisons to other racial or ethnic groups. These limitations severely circumscribe the depth and generalizability of data on American Indians and inhibit the Nation’s ability to know much of the details about victims, offenders, and the consequences of crime for both. BJS has made a strong commitment toward improving this situation through the National Crime Victimization Survey, improvements planned for the National Incident-Based Reporting System, and periodic BJS surveys of offender populations. National Crime Victimization Survey The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is one of two statistical series maintained by the Department of Justice to learn about the extent to which crime is occurring. The NCVS, which gathers data on criminal victimization from a national sample of household respondents, provides annual estimates of crimes experienced by the public without regard to whether a law enforcement agency was called about the crime. Initiated in 1972, the NCVS was designed to complement what is known about crimes reported to local law enforcement agencies under the FBI's annual compilation known as the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). The NCVS gathers information about crime and its consequences from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents age 12 or older about any crimes they may have experienced. For personal contact crimes the survey asks about the perpetrator. Asking the victim about his/her relationship to the offender is critical to determining whether the crime occurred between intimates. In the latter half of the 1980's, BJS, with the Committee on Law and Justice of the American Statistical Association, sought to improve the NCVS components to enhance the measurement of crimes including rape, sexual assault, and intimate and family violence. The new questions and revised procedures were phased in from January 1992 through June 1993 in half the sampled households. Since July 1993 the redesigned methods have been used for the entire national sample. One of the important contributions of the NCVS is that it permits multiple years of responses to the same questions to be analyzed, facilitating research on small subgroups of the population. For this study 5 years of NCVS data (1992-96) were combined, resulting in more than 1.1 million interviews, just over 7,000 of which were conducted among American Indians. This represents the largest national sample of American Indians assembled for purposes of better understanding the incidence and effects of criminal victimization. In addition, changes are being introduced to the NCVS which will permit future disaggregation of those incidents occurring on tribal lands from those occurring elsewhere. Uniform Crime Reporting program The UCR program of the FBI provides another opportunity to examine the issue of crime and violence among American Indians through the incidentbased Supplementary Homicide Report program and the summary compilation of national arrest data. The summarybased arrest component of the UCR provides data by race of arrestees for both Part I crimes and the less serious Part II crimes. In 1996 detailed data by race and offense were available for about 3 out of 4 arrests nationwide (about 11.1 million of the estimated 15.2 million arrests that year). American Indians are estimated to account for just under 1% of those arrested for Part I violent crimes and a slightly higher percentage of those arrested for Part I property crimes. Part II arrest offenses show that American Indians comprise larger percentages of those arrested for DUI, American Indians and Crime 35 vagrancy, liquor law violations, and public drunkenness. Specific UCR coverage of those arrests by tribal or BIA law enforcement agencies is not known, and the extent to which they are included in the national estimates of arrests is not systematically described. In addition, the 1996 UCR does indicate reduced reporting of arrests by race (table 43) and that a number of jurisdictions (Kentucky, Illinois, the District of Columbia, Florida, Vermont, Kansas, and Montana) supplied either limited or no arrest data. Some of these incomplete or missing States, notably Montana, may affect the national estimates for American Indians. National Incident-Based Reporting System The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) represents the next generation of crime data from law enforcement agencies. Rather than being restricted to a group of 8 Index crimes that the summary-based program uses, NIBRS obtains information on 57 types of crimes. The information collected on each violent crime incident includes victim-offender demographics, victim-offender relationship, time and place of occurrence, weapon use, and victim injuries. An important contribution of NIBRS is that investigating officers are asked to record information on the race of victims and offenders in the incident. As of the end of 1997, jurisdictions certified by the FBI as capable of reporting incident-based data in the required format accounted for just over 36 American Indians and Crime 7% of the U.S. population (about 19 million Americans) and just over 6% of all Index crimes (murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries, larcenies, and motor vehicle thefts). In those States with certified NIBRS systems, about 50% of the population is now covered by NIBRS reporting to the FBI. BJS is currently funding preliminary studies of NIBRS data on two Indian reservations and their utility for improving our knowledge of crime with special regard for such concerns as intimate violence, family violence, and domestic violence and the role alcohol may play in these kinds of police-reported incidents. The Mille Lac (Minnesota) and Lummi (Washington) tribal law enforcement agencies will use NIBRS data as a part of a case-tracking system to follow the subsequent processing of criminal incidents brought to the attention of police. Surveys of probationers and jail and prison inmates BJS also conducts national surveys of persons under probation supervision and those confined in local jails and State and Federal prisons. These nationally representative surveys are the principal source of information on those serving time following a conviction: their backgrounds, their prior criminal histories, and the circumstances surrounding the offense for which they had been incarcerated. Both jail and prison surveys obtain from violent offenders details about the offender's relationship to the victim and how the crime was carried out. All surveys ask respondents to identify their race and ethnicity. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics BJS maintains the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) series as the principal national source of data on the operations of police and sheriff’s departments nationwide. LEMAS compiles information every 3 to 4 years from all large law enforcement agencies (at least 100 sworn personnel) and a sample of all other departments. To create the sample BJS also sponsors the Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, collecting basic information about the functions and number of personnel of all agencies in the United States. LEMAS data are obtained on the organization and administration of law enforcement agencies, agency responsibilities, operating expenditures, job functions, weapons policies, and demographic characteristics of sworn personnel. BJS obtains similar information from campus law enforcement agencies and Federal law enforcement agencies. LEMAS data are available on the race and ethnicity of law enforcement personnel since 1987. National Judicial Reporting Program reported felony sentencing data for 1986 and has provided national estimates at 2-year intervals since that time. In addition to the convicted felon’s race and ethnicity, NJRP obtains individuallevel data on the conviction offense, sentences received, case-processing, methods of conviction, and a wide variety of other defendant characteristics. Federal Justice Statistics Program The Federal Justice Statistics Program (FJSP) provides annual data on workload, activities, and case outcomes in the Federal criminal justice system. Information is reported on all aspects of case processing in the Federal justice system including the number of persons investigated, prosecuted, convicted, incarcerated, sentenced to probation, released prior to trial, handled by magistrates, sentencing outcomes, and time served. Data for this series are obtained from the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys, the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, the U.S. Sentencing Commission, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Data are available by defendant race and ethnicity at each processing stage of the Federal criminal justice system. The FJSP was initiated in 1980. The National Judicial Reporting Program (NJRP) is a biennial sample survey of court records on convicted felons nationwide. Using a nationally representative sample of counties, NJRP compiles information on the sentences that felons receive in State courts and on the characteristics of convicted felons. The NJRP first American Indians and Crime 37 Numerical tables for the graphical figures Highlights. Pages v and 4. Age of victim, 1992-96 Cover. Violent victimization rates, 1992-96 Rate of violent victimization per 1,000 persons under age 12 in each group All American Age of victim races Indians All violent 50 124 Murder* 9 7 Rape/sexual assault 2 7 Robbery 6 12 Aggravated assault 11 35 Simple assault 31 70 *The average annual murder rate is for 100,000 persons, all ages, 1992-96. Highlights. Pages v and 2. Violent victimizations, 1992-96 All races American Indian Black White Asian Number of violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older 50 124 61 49 29 Highlights. Page v. Murder, 1992-1996 Race of victim American Indian Black White Asian Number of murders per 100,000 persons 7 34 5 5 38 American Indians and Crime Age of victim 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 or older Rate of violent victimization per 1,000 persons in each group All American races Indians 116 171 100 232 61 145 44 124 27 43 9 14 Highlights. Page vi. Sex of victim, 1992-96 Sex of victim Male Female Rate of violent victimization per 1,000 persons age 12 or more in each group All American races Indians 60 153 42 98 Highlights. Page vi. Offender race, 1992-96 Race of victim American Indian Black White Asian Percent of violent victimizations that were interracial 70% 19 31 68 Highlights. Page vi. Alcohol use by the offender, 1992-96 Race of victim American Indian Black White Asian Percent of victims of violence reporting offender drinking 46% 28 36 22 Highlights. Page vi. Weapon use by offender, 1992-96 Age of victim Firearm in nonlethal violence Handgun in lethal violence Percent of violent victimizations or murders All American races Indians 11% 13% 50% 28% Highlights. Page vii. Crimes reported to the police, 1992-96 Race of victim American Indian Black White Asian Highlights. Page viii. Under correctional supervision or control, 1997 Percent of violent victimizations reported to the police 46% 50 41 39 Highlights. Page vii. Arrests of adults and youth, 1996 Number of arrests for Part I violent crimes per 100,000 persons in each group Race of All Under arrestees ages age 18 American Indian 291 294 Black 937 1,356 White 182 283 Asian 98 192 Highlights. Page vii. Arrests for drug and alcohol offenses, 1997 Number of arrests per 100,000 persons Arrest All American offense races Indians Drug 592 344 Alcohol-related 1,064 2,550 U.S. total American Indian Black White Asian Total under correctional supervision or control per 100,000 adults 2,907 4,193 9,863 2,036 414 Highlights. Page viii. In State or Federal prison, 1997 U.S. total American Indian Black White Asian Number in prison per 100,000 adults 629 870 2,895 335 104 Page 3. Simple assault rates, 1992-96 Race of victim American Indian Black White Asian Number of simple assaults per 1,000 persons age 12 or older 70 30 32 15 Page 5. Location of victims of violence, 1992-96 Residence of victim Rural Suburban Urban Number of violent victimization per 1,000 persons age 12 or more in each group All American races Indians 37 89 48 138 65 207 American Indians and Crime 39 Page 6. Victim-offender relationship in violent victimizations, by race, 1992-96 Victim-offender relationship Intimate Family Acquaintance Stranger Percent of violent victimizations All American races Indians 10.7% 8.9% 4.7 6.7 33.7 38.7 50.8 45.7 Page 8. Characteristics of intimate and family violence among American Indians, 1992-96 Interracial Alcohol-involved Victims injured Percent of violent victimizations against American Indians Family Intimates members 75% 25% 58 67 59 49 Page 10. Violent offender use of alcohol, by victim-offender relationship and race, 1992-96 Victim-offender relationship Intimate Family Acquaintance Stranger Percent of violent victimizations in which the victims felt certain they could distinguish alcohol use by the offender All American races Indians 64.7% 60.9% 49.2 76.5 36.1 40.0 28.9 42.0 40 American Indians and Crime Page 19. Number of murders of American Indians, 1976-96 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Number of murders of American Indians 140 140 123 146 154 140 167 152 133 141 176 151 133 151 150 152 158 141 133 161 134 Page 21. Murders by someone of a different race from the victim, by race of victim and type of murder, 1976-96 Percent of murder victims killed by someone of a different race, committed during & Race of Commission An murder victim of a felony argument American Indian 74% 38% Black 8 5 White 43 9 Asian 80 27 Page 23. Murder weapons used, by race of victim, 1992-96 Weapon* Handgun Rifle/shotgun Other firearm Knife Blunt object Personal weapon, including hands and feet Other types of weapons Percent of murder victims All American races Indians 50.3% 28.1% 11.2 17.0 4.5 1.6 18.5 29.1 5.3 8.0 6.1 11.3 4.1 4.9 *Excludes cases in which type of weapon is unknown. Page 24. Arrests of adults and youth for violent crimes, by race, 1996 Number of arrests for Part I violent crimes per 100,000 persons in each group, 1996 Race of All Under arrestees ages age 18 All races 275 445 American Indian 291 294 Black 937 1,356 White 182 283 Asian 98 192 Page 29. Use of alcohol by convicted jail inmates at the time of their offense, by offense type and race, 1996 Most serious offense All offenses Violent Property Drug Public-order Percent of convicted jail inmate reporting alcohol use at the time of their offense All American races Indians 39.5% 48.8% 40.6 71.0 32.8 37.1 28.8 14.3 56.0 60.2 Page 30. Map of Federal district courts. Investigations by U.S. attorneys of suspects in Indian country, fiscal year 1996 U.S. district court Northern Alabama Arizona Central California Northern California Southern California Colorado Middle Florida Southern Florida Northern Iowa Idaho Northern Illinois Western Louisiana Maine Eastern Michigan Western Michigan Minnesota Montana Western North Carolina North Dakota Nebraska New Mexico Nevada Northern New York Eastern Oklahoma Northern Oklahoma Western Oklahoma Oregon Western Pennsylvania South Dakota Utah Eastern Washington Western Washington Eastern Wisconsin Western Wisconsin Wyoming Number of suspects from American Indian country 2 355 2 2 1 21 3 1 3 47 1 5 3 6 10 15 115 21 149 21 333 7 1 66 31 44 6 1 479 46 58 19 15 2 24 Source: Federal Justice Statistics Program American Indians and Crime 41