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U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs

Revised

9/29/00

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Special Report
January 2000, NCJ 178888

Veterans in Prison or Jail
By Christopher J. Mumola
BJS Policy Analyst
In 1998 there were an estimated
25,062,400 veterans in the United
States population, including 225,700
veterans held in the Nation’s prisons
and jails. Males comprised 95% of all
veterans and 99% of those veterans in
prison and jail. Among adult males in
1998, there were 937 incarcerated
veterans per 100,000 veteran
residents, up from 571 per 100,000 in
1985. Despite the increase, male
veterans were incarcerated at less than
half the rate of adult male nonveterans
(1,971 per 100,000) in 1998.
Since 1985 the number of U.S. veterans has declined by nearly 3 million, an
average decline of 1% per year. The
number of male veterans dropped from
26,962,000 in 1985 to 23,834,100 in
1998, while the number of female
veterans rose from 1,044,700 to
1,228,300. The number in prison or jail
rose from 154,600 in 1985 to 225,700
in 1998, an increase of 46%. However,
during this period the number of
nonveteran inmates rose 172%. Veterans accounted for 12% of all inmates
in 1998, down from 21% in 1985.
These data are based on interviews
with national samples of inmates. In
responses to the 1997 Survey of
Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities and the 1996 Survey of
Inmates in Local Jails, inmates
provided information on their military
service, as well as their criminal history
and personal background.

Highlights
Over 225,000 veterans held in Nation’s prisons or jails in 1998

Prison

Estimated number
of veteran inmates
1998
1985
100,200
156,400

Local jail

54,400

69,300

Prison
Federal
State

Percent of inmates
reporting military service
1997
1986
24.9%
14.5%
20.2
12.5

Local jail

1983
21.2%

1996
11.7%

$ 1 in every 6 incarcerated veterans
were not honorably discharged from
the military.
$ About 20% of veterans in prison
or jail reported seeing combat duty
during their military service.
$ In 1998, an estimated 56,500
Vietnam War-era veterans and 18,500
Persian Gulf War-era veterans were
held in State and Federal prisons.

Veterans more likely than others to be in prison for a violent offense
but less likely to be serving a sentence for drugs
Offense
Violent
Property
Drug
Public-order

State prisoners, 1997
Veterans
Nonveterans
55.1%
46.1%
20.3
22.2
14.4
21.5
10.2
9.8

Violent
Property
Drug
Public-order

Average maximum sentence
264 mo
214 mo
123
116
118
107
86
79

$ About 35% of veterans in State
prison, compared to 20% of nonveterans, were convicted of homicide
or sexual assault.
$ Veterans (30%) were more likely
than other State prisoners (23%)
to be first-time offenders.

$ Among violent State prisoners, the
average sentence of veterans was 50
months longer than the average of
nonveterans.
Veterans in State prison reported higher levels of alcohol abuse,
lower levels of drug abuse, than other prisoners
State prisoners, 1997
Veterans Nonveterans
Drug use in month
before offense
Alcohol dependent
Identified as
mentally ill
Homeless at some
time in 12 months
before arrest

45.4%
30.6%

58.1%
23.6%

19.3%

15.8%

12.4%

10.3%

$ Veterans in State prison (26%) were
less likely than other State prisoners
(34%) to report having used drugs at
the time of their offense.
$ Nearly 60% of veterans in State
prison had driven drunk in the past,
compared to 45% of other inmates.
$ About 70% of veterans, compared
to 54% of other State prisoners, had
been working full-time before arrest.



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