FL Corrections Officer Training Manual, FDLE, 2013
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Florida Basic Recruit Training Program: CORRECTIONS VOLUME 1 Florida CMS Correctional Basic Recruit Training Program: Volume 1 © 2013 by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE). All rights reserved. ISBN 13: 978-1-58152-934-0 ISBN 10: 1-58152-934-1 Disclaimer FDLE makes a sincere effort to ensure accuracy and quality of its published materials; however, no warranty, expressed or implied, is provided. FDLE disclaims any responsibility or liability for any direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of the information in this course or products described in it. Mention of any product does not constitute an endorsement by FDLE of that product. All referenced persons, places, or situations are intended to be fictional, unless otherwise stated. Any resemblance to real persons, places, or situations is coincidental. The training in this course is provided to familiarize students with issues that may involve high liability and/or high stress. FDLE urges students to ensure that their practices are correct in accordance with their agencies’ policies and procedures. Employing agencies are solely responsible for guiding their employees’ actions in actual situations. Acknowledgments This project is a collaboration between the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission Certified Training Schools, other state and local agencies, and volunteers. We extend our sincere appreciation to the agencies of the Florida Criminal Justice System that allowed their members to assist in the development of this Curriculum Maintenance System (CMS) training program. Effective Date This textbook is effective for basic recruit training that begins on or after July 1, 2013, and no later than June 30, 2014. Designed by Kessler Creative Cover art by Saeedeh Posey, FDLE Published by XanEdu Publishing, Inc., 530 Great Road, Acton, Massachusetts 01720. TABLE OF CONTENTS Florida Basic Recruit Training Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Corrections UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION Lesson 1: Correctional Officer Training Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Lesson 2: Criminal Justice Values and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lesson 3: Professionalism and Chain of Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 UNIT 2: LEGAL Lesson 1: Criminal Justice System and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Lesson 2: Constitutional Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Lesson 3: Inmate Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Lesson 4: Legal Issues with Contraband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Lesson 5: Criminal Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Lesson 6: Use of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Lesson 7: Criminal and Civil Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Chapter 2 Communications UNIT 1: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Lesson 1: Interpersonal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 UNIT 2: TELECOMMUNICATIONS Lesson 1: Procedures and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 UNIT 3: INTERVIEWING Lesson 1: Preparing for and Conducting an Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 UNIT 4: REPORT WRITING Lesson 1: Note Taking and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Lesson 2: Organizing Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Lesson 3: Elements of Effective Report Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Lesson 4: Writing and Evaluating the Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Chapter 3 Officer Safety LESSON 1: SAFETY AND SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 LESSON 2: IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 LESSON 3: MANIPULATION AND DECEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 LESSON 4: CONTRABAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 LESSON 5: SEARCHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Chapter 4 Facility and Equipment UNIT 1: EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT Lesson 1: Issuing, Receiving, and Documenting Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Lesson 2: Weapons in a Correctional Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 UNIT 2: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND SENSITIVE SUPPLIES Lesson 1: Hazardous Materials and Sensitive Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 UNIT 3: ENTERING, EXITING AND MOVING WITHIN FACILITIES Lesson 1: Security Equipment and Moving Within Secured Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 UNIT 4: INSPECTIONS Lesson 1: Inspection Criteria and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 UNIT 5: SECURITY Lesson 1: Security Standards and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Lesson 2: Perimeter Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 UNIT 6: FACILITY SAFETY CONCERNS Lesson 1: Identifying and Resolving Safety Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 UNIT 7: SANITATION AND HEALTH Lesson 1: Sanitation Standards and Environmental Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Chapter 5 Intake and Release LESSON 1: INTAKE AND ASSESSMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 LESSON 2: SEARCHING AND INVENTORYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 LESSON 3: FINGERPRINTING AND PHOTOGRAPHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 LESSON 4: CLASSIFICATION AND HOUSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 LESSON 5: RELEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 Chapter 6 Supervision of Inmates LESSON 1: OBSERVATION AND MONITORING OF INMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 LESSON 2: SUPERVISION OF THE REFERRAL PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 LESSON 3: INMATE DISCIPLINE PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 LESSON 4: INMATE COUNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 LESSON 5: INMATE DINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 LESSON 6: PROCESSING MAIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 LESSON 7: VISITATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 LESSON 8: ESCORTING INMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 LESSON 9: TRANSPORTING INMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 LESSON 10: WORK SQUADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 LESSON 11: HOSPITAL ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Chapter 7 Supervising Special Populations UNIT 1: DIVERSITY IN THE CORRECTIONAL SETTING Lesson 1: Inmate Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 UNIT 2: SECURITY THREAT GROUPS Lesson 1: Gang and STG Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Lesson 2: STG Structures and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 UNIT 3: RECOGNIZING SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG INMATES Lesson 1: Inmates with a History of Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 UNIT 4: MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH MENTAL RETARDATION Lesson 1: Inmates with Mental Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Lesson 2: Inmates with Mental Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 UNIT 5: JUVENILE INMATES AND YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS Lesson 1: Monitoring Juvenile Inmates and Youthful Offenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 UNIT 6: ELDERLY INMATES Lesson 1: Monitoring Elderly Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 UNIT 7: FEMALE INMATES Lesson 1: Female Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 UNIT 8: INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES Lesson 1: Sexually Abused Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Lesson 2: Inmates with Sexuality Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 UNIT 9: PHYSICALLY DISABLED INMATES Lesson 1: Monitoring Physically Disabled Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 UNIT 10: INMATES WITH MEDICAL NEEDS Lesson 1: Characteristics of Inmates with Medical Needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 UNIT 11: INMATES IN CONFINEMENT Lesson 1: Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 UNIT 12: DEATH ROW INMATES Lesson 1: Monitoring Death Row Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Chapter 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies UNIT 1: IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Lesson 1: Responding to an Emergency Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Lesson 2: Emergency Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 UNIT 2: DETERMINING LEVEL OF RESPONSE ASSISTANCE Lesson 1: Determining Level of Response Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 UNIT 3: TYPES OF EMERGENCIES Lesson 1: Inmate Escapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Lesson 2: Medical Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Lesson 3: Riots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Lesson 4: Hostage Incidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Lesson 5: Outside Threats to a Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Lesson 6: Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Lesson 7: Hazardous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Lesson 8: Bomb Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Lesson 9: Man-Made or Natural Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 UNIT 4: INVESTIGATING CRIMES Lesson 1: Crime Scene Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Lesson 2: Managing Victims, Witnesses and Suspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Lesson 3: Investigations and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Lesson 4: Chain of Custody for Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Court Case Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 FOREWORD We are grateful for the many agencies and officers who contributed to making this textbook relevant to the job, practical, and concise. Florida Statutes defines correctional officers and provides that the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission, through rule, specify certain conditions for basic recruits and certified officers. Florida Statute further requires that cultural diversity be included in all officer basic recruit training programs (correctional, correctional probation, and law enforcement). Particularly in Florida, a correctional officer may encounter a population very different from him- or herself. Training in how to relate to people who are different than you is valuable. You will not find a lesson or chapter in this textbook called Cultural Diversity. However, from the first chapter, Introduction to Corrections, to the last chapter, Responding to Incidents and Emergencies, instruction on how to communicate, interact with and respond to inmates, staff, and visitors is included. Effective communication is key to understanding others. Chapter 7 describes the wide range of populations and groups a Florida officer may encounter and teaches appropriate communication responses. It is hoped that your being a correctional officer is a long-term career. This training program will provide a clear picture of the job requirements and work environment. Your training academy is encouraged to coordinate a field trip so you may observe a correctional facility, preferably early on in your studies. You and your fellow students are encouraged to take full advantage of the training to learn and prepare for the day that you will be depended on to maintain the care, control and custody of inmates within Florida’s prisons and jails. CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Corrections UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION LESSON 1: Correctional Officer Training Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 LESSON 2: Criminal Justice Values and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 LESSON 3: Professionalism and Chain of Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 UNIT 2: LEGAL LESSON 1: Criminal Justice System and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 LESSON 2: Constitutional Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 LESSON 3: Inmate Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 LESSON 4: Legal Issues with Contraband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 LESSON 5: Criminal Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 LESSON 6: Use of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 LESSON 7: Criminal and Civil Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Like a judge is to the court and police officers are to the streets, correctional officers are the most important members of the correctional system. Correctional officers are responsible for their own safety and that of others. An officer’s personal perspective, based on his or her culture, heritage, values, and ethics, affects his or her decisions that, in turn, impact the well-being of others. This training program will expose students to the most critical features of being a correctional officer in a Florida jail or state correctional institution. This chapter provides an overview of the correctional officer training program and the requirements for becoming a certified officer. This chapter will also help to provide a legal basis from which students may begin to function as correctional officers and gives instruction on basic criminal justice values, ethics, and ways to demonstrate professionalism when interacting with others. Students will also learn about the command structure within a criminal justice agency. To act properly and effectively as correctional officers without infringing on the rights of others, students must have a working knowledge of federal and state laws. Officers’ duties include a variety of responsibilities requiring a foundational knowledge of the law and the ability to apply that law to specific incidents. Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 1 | INTRODUCTION LESSON 1 | Correctional Officer Training Program Overview OBJECTIVES CO1-1.1.1 Define correctional officer in accordance with F.S. §943.10. CO1-1.1.2 Summarize personal characteristics supervisors look for in new officers. CO1-1.1.3 Explain the role of the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission established by the Florida Statutes. CO1-1.1.4 State the requirements to become a correctional officer. CO1-1.1.5 List the reasons the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission may take action against an officer’s certification. CO1-1.1.6 Identify the penalties that may be imposed in the officer discipline process. Every person who enters this training program has one goal in mind: to become a certified correctional officer in the State of Florida. This profession is governed by federal and state law, state rules, local regulation (for county officers and facilities), and agency and facility policies and procedures. The law defining correctional officers is found in §943.10(2), Florida Statutes: Correctional officer means any person who is appointed or employed full time by the state or any political subdivision thereof, or by any private entity which has contracted with the state or county, and whose primary responsibility is the supervision, protection, care, custody, and control, or investigation, of inmates within a correctional institution; however, the term “correctional officer” does not include any secretarial, clerical, or professionally trained personnel. (CO1-1.1.1) In addition to the Florida Statutes (F.S.), other legal mandates concerning this profession are found in rules enforced through the Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). Also, county correctional officers and facilities are governed by the Florida Statutes and the Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS). There are governmental entities and many laws that provide oversight of correctional officers. Even so, correctional officers are considered professionals in their field and much is expected of them as they provide care, custody and control of inmates. Some of the personal characteristics supervisors look for in new officers include those who are able to: • work alone with little or no supervision • perform tasks without letting distractions interfere • independently make decisions and stand by decisions made • learn new techniques and procedures • adapt to change without incurring undue stress • be attentive to their environment • be responsible for actions taken as well as the consequences of inaction (CO1-1.1.2) Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission The Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission was created to oversee the certification, employment, training, and conduct of Florida law enforcement, correctional, and correctional probation officers. The Commission meets quarterly and 2 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 has as its purpose “to ensure that the citizens of the state of Florida are served by the most qualified, welltrained, competent and ethical criminal justice officers in the nation.” Primary Responsibilities of the Commission Florida Statute §943.12 explains the Commission’s duties as follows: • establish uniform minimum standards for the employment and training of full-time, part-time, and auxiliary law enforcement, correctional, and correctional probation officers • establish and maintain officer training programs, curricula requirements, and certification of training schools and training school instructors • certify officers who complete a Florida Basic Recruit Training Program or who are diversely qualified through experience and training and who meet minimum employment standards • review and administer appropriate administrative sanctions in instances when an officer, instructor, or training school is found to be in violation of Florida Statutes and Commission standards • promulgate rules and procedures to administer the requirements of §943.085–943.255, F.S. • conduct studies of compensation, education, and training for correctional, correctional probation, and law enforcement disciplines • maintain a central repository of records of all certified criminal justice officers • develop, maintain, and administer the State Officer Certification Examination for criminal justice officers The Criminal Justice Professionalism Program (CJPP) is statutorily created within the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) to support and assist the Commission in the execution, administration, implementation, and evaluation of its powers, duties, and functions. The CJPP manages the administrative functions involved in the certification and decertification of criminal justice officers in Florida. The CJPP writes and keeps up to date each of the basic and post-basic training courses that certified officers receive in Florida. The program also maintains the automated training system for all officer records. (CO1-1.1.3) Officer Certification Correctional officers, like all criminal justice personnel, are held to the highest standard. The knowledge and skills that are learned during basic recruit training will prepare future officers for a rewarding and satisfying career. The Commission, the training academy, and the employing agency are devoted to ensuring that each recruit is fully trained and ready to assume the duties of a Florida correctional officer. F.S. §943.13 sets the minimum requirements and standards that persons must meet before becoming certified as officers. An officer must: • be at least 19 years of age • be a citizen of the United States • be a high school graduate or its equivalent • not have been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor which involves perjury or a false statement, regardless of withholding of adjudication or suspended sentence • not have received a dishonorable discharge from any of the Armed Forces of the United States • have processed fingerprints on file with the employing agency 3 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • have passed a physical examination by a licensed physician based on specifications established by the Commission • have a good moral character, as determined by a background investigation under procedures established by the Commission • submit an affidavit attesting to compliance (a signed document agreeing to abide by all Commission rules) • satisfactorily complete a Commission-approved course of basic recruit training • satisfactorily pass a state examination in the respective specialty A recruit has four years from the starting date of the basic recruit training to complete the certification process. In order to become certified as a correctional officer, a person must do all of the following: • meet all the minimum requirements and standards • complete the approved basic recruit training • pass the State Officer Certification Examination • become actively employed with a correctional facility in an auxiliary, a part-time, or a full-time officer position Simply completing the basic recruit training and passing the certification exam does not mean that a person is a certified officer. For example, if Rob Recruit begins basic recruit training on July 1, 2012, he must meet all the minimum requirements and standards, complete the approved basic recruit training, pass the State Officer Certification Examination, and become actively employed with a correctional facility as a certified officer by June 30, 2016. If Rob Recruit does not meet all these requirements by June 30, 2016, he will have to repeat the basic recruit training, at which time a new four-year period begins. State Officer Certification Examination Upon completion of a basic recruit training program, an individual must pass the State Officer Certification Examination (SOCE) to become certified as a correctional officer. An applicant must pass the SOCE within three attempts. Information concerning the SOCE can be found in the Applicant Information Handbook available online at http://www.fdle.state.fl.us. Other information on the website includes SOCE schedules, registration information, exam topics, and sample questions. (CO1-1.1.4) Officer Compliance When a recruit is being hired by a correctional facility, the agency will conduct a thorough background investigation to determine his or her moral character prior to employment with the agency. If a recruit has entered the academy prior to employment, the recruit is subject to the same moral character requirements as active certified officers and may be denied certification by the Commission if evidence indicates noncompliance with these standards. Disciplinary Action In addition to certifying criminal justice officers, the Commission has the authority to impose discipline on an officer’s certification if the officer fails to maintain the required standards of conduct. 4 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 The Commission may take action against an officer’s certification if the officer does the following: • pleads nolo contendere, pleads guilty, or is found guilty of any felony Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary correctional officer • pleads nolo contendere, pleads guilty, or is found guilty of a misdemeanor involving perjury or false statement • fails to maintain good moral character as defined by the Florida Statutes and Florida Administrative Code (CJSTC Rule 11B-27, F.A.C.) • commits any act constituting a felony offense, regardless of criminal prosecution • tests positive for controlled substances by a urine or blood test, in accordance with the requirements for testing reliability and integrity set forth in Rule 11B27.00225, F.A.C. • is found guilty of excessive use of force under color of authority under Rule 11B27.0011(4)(c)1, F.A.C. • engages in sexual harassment involving physical contact or misuse of official position • misuses the official position, as defined by §112.313(6), F.S. • engages in sex while on duty • has unprofessional relationships with an inmate, detainee, probationer, parolee, or community controlee; has written or oral communication that is intended to facilitate conduct which is prohibited by Commission rule; engages in any physical contact not required in the performance of official duties that is normally associated with the demonstration of affection or sexual misconduct as defined in section F.S. §944.35(3) • makes false statements during the employment process • commits conduct that subverts or attempts to subvert the state officer certification examination process in accordance with rule 11B-30.009(3), F.A.C. • commits conduct that subverts or attempts to subvert the CJSTC-approved training examination process or an employing agency’s promotional examination process in accordance with, but not limited to, acts described in rule 11B27.0011(4)(c)9, F.A.C. (CO1-1.1.5) The Commission may impose discipline on an officer’s certification in keeping with an established set of penalty guidelines that may be required during the officer discipline process. The penalties include written reprimand, probation, suspension, or revocation of certification. When the Commission revokes an officer’s certification in accordance with F.S. §943.1395(6), the officer can no longer work as a certified correctional officer in the state of Florida. (CO1-1.1.6) While these guidelines are specific to certified officers, it is important to remember that the Commission and the academy expect recruits to adhere to the standards of conduct during basic recruit training. Violations may result in the denial of officer certification. 5 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 1 | INTRODUCTION LESSON 2 | Criminal Justice Values and Ethics OBJECTIVES CO1-1.2.1 Define values. CO1-1.2.2 Define ethics. Officer Code of Ethics Values are principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable. They are core beliefs or desires that guide or motivate a person’s attitude and actions. Values are what people care about and what they think is important. Values determine how people behave in certain situations. Values are based on family heritage, cultural background, personal experiences, and beliefs. A variety of influences shape an individual’s values including attitudes about work, respect, and responsibility. Honesty is an important value for correctional officers and should be displayed on and off duty. Some of the characteristics associated with honesty include truthfulness and fairness. (CO1-1.2.1) Ethics is defined as the principles of honor, morality, and accepted rules of conduct that direct an individual or group. Ethics are derived from the principles of right and wrong. Officers must always act within the boundaries of their authority and uphold the recognized standards of their profession’s code of ethics. Ethics, values, and professionalism are intertwined, and each element is essential in the correctional officer’s personal and professional life. Ethical behavior is value-based decision making, on a daily basis, for personal or professional reasons. Correctional officers should behave ethically on and off duty and avoid conflicts of interest. Other examples of ethical behavior are obeying all laws, policies and procedures; protecting the civil rights of all inmates; respecting confidential and privileged communication; and treating persons who may be different from you with courtesy and fairness. (CO1-1.2.2) Ethical violations can result in disciplinary action by your agency and the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission up to and including termination of employment and decertification. Preamble: The American Correctional Association expects of its members unfailing honesty, respect for the dignity and individuality of human beings and a commitment to professional and compassionate service. To this end, we subscribe to the following principles: Members shall respect and protect the civil and legal rights of all individuals. Members shall treat every professional situation with concern for the welfare of the individuals involved and with no intent to personal gain. Members shall maintain relationships with colleagues to promote mutual respect within the profession and improve the quality of service. 6 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Members shall make public criticism of their colleagues or their agencies only when warranted, verifiable and constructive. Members shall respect the importance of all disciplines within the criminal justice system and work to improve cooperation with each segment. Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary ethics values Members shall honor the public’s right to information and share information with the public to the extent permitted by law subject to individual’s right to privacy. Members shall respect and protect the right of the public to be safeguarded from criminal activity. Members shall refrain from using their position to secure personal privileges or advantages. Members shall refrain from allowing personal interest to impair objectivity in the performance of duty while acting in an official capacity. Members shall refrain from entering into any formal or informal activity or agreement which presents a conflict of interest or is inconsistent with the conscientious performance of duties. Members shall refrain from accepting any gifts, service, or favor that is or appears to be improper or implies an obligation inconsistent with the free and objective exercise of professional duties. Members shall clearly differentiate between personal views/statements and views/statements/positions made on behalf of the agency or Association. Members shall report to appropriate authorities any corrupt or unethical behaviors in which there is sufficient evidence to justify review. Members shall refrain from discriminating against any individual because of race, gender, creed, national origin, religious affiliation, age, disability, or any other type of prohibited discrimination. Members shall preserve the integrity of private information; they shall refrain from seeking information on individuals beyond that which is necessary to implement responsibilities and perform their duties; members shall refrain from revealing nonpublic information unless expressly authorized to do so. Members shall make all appointments, promotions, and dismissals in accordance with established civil service rules, applicable contract agreements, and individual merit, rather than furtherance of personal interests. Members shall respect, promote, and contribute to a work place that is safe, healthy, and free of harassment in any form. 7 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 1 | INTRODUCTION LESSON 3 | Professionalism and Chain Of Command OBJECTIVES CO1-1.3.1 Define professionalism. Professionalism is behavior that demonstrates good character and is marked by pride in self and career (CO1-1.3.1). Professionalism requires that an officer respect the people he or she serves and maintain a personal commitment to the continued development of his or her skills in the pursuit of excellence. Correctional officers are service oriented and are trained to respond to needs in a timely and efficient manner. (CO1-1.3.2) CO1-1.3.3 State that correctional officers must be conscientious. The officer should consider professionalism as a means of doing the right thing no matter who is looking or whose back is turned. Thoughts and values help define character and influence behavior. The officer should evaluate his or her behaviors, strengths, and weaknesses. Assessing and overcoming weaknesses is especially important to achieving professionalism and being conscientious. (CO1-1.3.3) CO1-1.3.2 Explain that correctional officers are service oriented and must respond to needs in a timely and efficient manner. CO1-1.3.4 Explain that correctional officers are dependable and fulfill obligations. CO1-1.3.5 Specify that correctional officers must consistently perform the best job possible. CO1-1.3.6 State that correctional officers must remain levelheaded and react appropriately in stressful situations. CO1-1.3.7 Summarize that correctional officers must avoid stereotypes. CO1-1.3.8 State that correctional officers respect self and others, treating people fairly and with dignity. CO1-1.3.9 State that correctional officers must exhibit the self-control to resist abuse of authority. CO1-1.3.10 Define chain of command. CO1-1.3.11 Illustrate how chain of command facilitates communication within the organization. CO1-1.3.12 Summarize why chain of command within a criminal justice agency should be followed. 8 A correctional officer is to model professional behavior and perform his or her job to the best of his or her ability. An officer should be dependable, strive at all times to work efficiently and consistently, and fulfill his or her obligations (CO1-1.3.4). This includes reporting to your shift on time, wearing the proper uniform, being neat and clean, and consistently performing the best job possible. (CO1-1.3.5) The work environment of a correctional officer can range from quiet to chaotic throughout the course of a shift. The officer must be able to make quick, accurate decisions and prioritize his or her responses. The officer must remain calm and levelheaded in stressful situations, react appropriately, and gather as much information as possible to make the best decisions. (CO1-1.3.6) The need for professionalism at all times cannot be overstated; one unprofessional behavior that should be avoided is stereotyping. Stereotyping is making a generalization about a person or group. Stereotypes are characteristics projected onto a group of people that do not fit some of its individuals. For example, not all little old ladies are good cooks—many do not like to cook. Not all teenagers love to dance—some do not know how. Both positive and negative stereotypes hurt because they represent an oversimplified categorization of people. Most people can readily think of negative stereotypes (e.g., all inmates are scumbags). They rarely stop to think of positive information about a culture or race. In any case, neither positive nor negative stereotypes are acceptable. Stereotyping takes your attention away from gathering factual information about a person or situation. (CO1-1.3.7) When you allow stereotypes to guide your behavior, you may respond unfairly and with prejudice. Showing consideration for your coworkers and integrity as you work in a correctional facility lets others see that you handle your job professionally. An officer is expected to treat people fairly, with dignity and respect, regardless of their race, gender, creed, national origin, religious affiliation, age, or disability. (CO1-1.3.8) FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 When considering your actions, think through your professional response, and recall skills and information you received during training, and apply agency policies and procedures in your decisions. A sense of professionalism instills correctional officers with the self-control to resist abusing their authority. (CO1-1.3.9) Chain of command is the order of authority within an organization. It provides the linkage of authority and responsibility that joins one level of an organization to another (CO1-1.3.10). Following a chain of command facilitates coordination, reduces confusion, and enhances the efficiency of the organization. (CO1-1.3.11) Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary chain of command insubordination organization professionalism An organization is a group of two or more people who cooperate to accomplish an objective or multiple objectives. An organizational chart is a diagram that visually represents an agency, the connection between each position and its ranks. Rank structure establishes boundaries between the different levels within the organization. In correctional agencies, this rank structure might be as follows: • Sheriff or Warden • Undersheriff or Assistant Warden • Colonels or Chief of Security • Majors • Captains • Lieutenants • Sergeants • Corporals • Deputies or Officers Organizations use the chain of command to facilitate communication and make decisions. Questions that subordinates might have are typically answered at the lowest level possible of the chain of command. Officers should go to their immediate supervisor for information and assistance. In some emergency situations, an officer’s direct supervisor may not be available to answer an important question or meet an immediate need. This is when it may be necessary to bypass the chain of command. If this happens, contact your supervisor as soon as possible. For example, in a medical emergency, contact medical or the communications center immediately and then notify your supervisor. As part of the chain of command and the organizational structure the officer must be aware of the importance of following orders. Failure to follow lawful orders from supervisors is considered insubordination, a very serious offense. An order known to be illegal must not be carried out; however, an officer refusing to follow an order must be absolutely certain that it violates the law or the officer will be subject to charges of insubordination. (CO1-1.3.12) 9 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 2 | LEGAL LESSON 1 | Criminal Justice System and Components OBJECTIVES CO1-2.1.1 Outline the role of the correctional officer. CO1-2.1.2 List the major components of the Criminal Justice System. CO1-2.1.3 Explain the function of the corrections system. CO1-2.1.4 Describe the components of the corrections system. Structure of the Criminal Justice System A correctional officer is part of a large, complex interrelated group known as the Criminal Justice System. Correctional officers play an important role in the Criminal Justice System and interact regularly with other components. An officer’s ability to interact effectively within the organizational network directly affects the officer’s job performance. The correctional officer is responsible for the care, custody, and control of inmates in a city or county jail, state correctional institution, or similar form of secure supervision. (CO1-2.1.1) Criminal justice refers to the structure, functions, and decision-making processes of those agencies that deal with the management and control of crime and criminal offenders. The three main components of the criminal justice system include law enforcement, the court system, and corrections. (CO1-2.1.2) As its name implies, law enforcement is responsible for enforcing and maintaining civil order. The court system is responsible for the interpretation of laws—both federal and state. Corrections is the part of the system responsible for enforcing penalties as defined by the court system and for the care, custody and control of inmates and pretrial detainees. (CO1-2.1.3) Corrections A general overview of the corrections systems in Florida includes the following components: Prisons (federal and state): Prisons are correctional institutions maintained by federal or state governments for the confinement of convicted felons. County Jails: County jails are used for in-processing and temporary detention of defendants awaiting trial or disposition on federal or state charges and of convicted offenders sentenced to short-term detention (a year or less). County jails may also hold convicted felons returned from prison for court appearances. Treatment and Evaluation Centers: These facilities are designed to meet the special needs of particular offenders. Treatment centers deal with alcohol/drug abusers or mentally ill offenders. In addition to general processing procedures, various testing (e.g., medical, mental, educational aptitude) is performed at these facilities. Probation, Parole, and Community Control: Probation, parole, and community control are part of a community-based correctional system. Its purpose is to supervise the enforcement of specific restrictions on individuals who have received an alternative to incarceration. 10 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Probation is a court-ordered sentence that places a person under the supervision of a probation officer under specified court ordered terms and conditions as an alternative to supervision after incarceration. Parole is the release of an inmate from a correctional institution prior to the conclusion of the inmate’s court-imposed sentence. Community control (house arrest) is a form of community supervision that is closely monitored and is more restrictive than probation or parole. Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary community control criminal justice parole probation Juvenile Assessment/Detention Center: Juvenile suspects are taken to a center for processing and possible pretrial detention. (CO1-2.1.4) UNIT 2 | LEGAL LESSON 2 | Constitutional Rights Bill of Rights According to the U.S. Constitution, all people stand equal before the law and therefore share certain rights. Many of these rights, such as freedom of speech, protection against unreasonable searches and seizures, and prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, are described in the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. Although many of these amendments focus on the courts and legislation, some, such as the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments, are of particular importance to correctional officers. The First Amendment protects freedom of speech, the press, and religion, and the right to peacefully assemble. In a correctional setting the First Amendment is limited to access to religious practice and the press. An example of this limitation is that while inmates cannot assemble and protest, they may maintain the right to express their religious beliefs and communicate with the press. OBJECTIVES CO1-2.2.1 Describe the components of the amendments to the U.S. Constitution that relate to corrections. CO1-2.2.2 Define search. CO1-2.2.3 Define seizure. CO1-2.2.4 Identify types of searches used for visitors entering and exiting a correctional setting. CO1-2.2.5 Apply Miranda in a correctional setting. The Fourth Amendment prohibits unreasonable search and seizure. The purpose of this amendment is to protect people from governmental intrusion in areas where they have a reasonable expectation of privacy. For example, generally, a search warrant signed by a judge is required to search a home. However, in a 11 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 correctional setting there is a diminished expectation of privacy and there is no general requirement for a search warrant. The Fifth Amendment is best known for prohibiting compelled self-incrimination. It also requires grand jury indictment for capital crimes and prohibits double jeopardy and deprivation of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Due process of law generally requires a notice and hearing when a liberty interest is at stake. In a correctional setting this may take the form of a disciplinary hearing prior to the loss of inmate gain-time. The Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial, to counsel, to an impartial jury, to be informed of the nature of the charges, and to confront witnesses. Access to legal counsel is a significant activity affected by the Sixth Amendment in a correctional setting. The Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive bails and fines, and cruel and unusual punishment. This amendment plays a critical role in the care, custody and control of inmate populations. Excessive use of force or withholding meals are examples of rights violations prohibited under this amendment. The Bill of Rights was originally intended to restrict actions of the federal government only. The Fourteenth Amendment expanded the application of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments as well. (CO1-2.2.1) Search and Seizure A search may be defined as governmental intrusion into a place where a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy. In a correctional setting, a search occurs as an effort to seek out and discover evidence and contraband in the possession of an inmate. The officer working in a correctional facility does not require probable cause to search an inmate (CO1-2.2.2). Probable cause is a fair probability or reasonable grounds to believe that a crime was committed, based on the totality of the circumstances. Seizure may be defined as the act of taking possession of contraband or evidence for a violation of rule or law. Inmates have a diminished expectation of privacy in a correctional setting due to the compelling interest to maintain order in the correctional system. When evidence or contraband is found during a search in a correctional setting, the correctional officer has the duty to seize the item. (CO1-2.2.3) Safety and security needs of a correctional facility include searching people entering a correctional facility. Types of searches may include pat search, K-9, drug, body scan, and metal detector. Unlike inmates, visitors have the right to refuse a search; however, refusal may result in denial or termination of current or future visits. (CO1-2.2.4) Application of Miranda Miranda warnings provide the protections of the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination when a suspect in custody is interrogated in a criminal investigation. Though the correctional officer is not a law enforcement officer and therefore does not issue Miranda warnings, Miranda still applies to inmates in a correctional setting. If a crime occurs within a correctional facility, interrogation of the individual should be completed by either a law enforcement officer or prison inspector. (CO1-2.2.5) The correctional officer may encounter information regarding an ongoing criminal case that occurred outside the facility. This may occur in a jail setting during the intake process or when inmates are awaiting trial. 12 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 The officer should not ask inmates about the circumstances under which they are charged. However, the correctional officer has a duty to report information concerning criminal acts. If an inmate provides information regarding facts of a criminal case, the officer must document this information in accordance with his or her agency policies or procedures. Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary Miranda probable cause search seizure UNIT 2 | LEGAL LESSON 3 | Inmate Rights Limitation of Inmate Rights Inmates retain certain rights; however, they are restricted within the correctional setting. These rights are limited by the need for safety and security of the facility. Some rights retained include freedom from excessive punishments; access to courts; legal counsel including help from other inmates in preparation of writs, petitions and other legal papers; and access to an adequate law library. Inmates have the right to freedom of expression; freedom from overcrowded conditions, freedom from unreasonable search and seizure; and freedom to worship and exercise religious beliefs. Also, inmates have the right to exercise and fresh air, adequate medical treatment, the ability to send and receive mail, including correspondence with the courts; and food that meets minimum nutritional standards. (CO1-2.3.1) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was established to standardize health records in the U.S. Within this act, privacy standards were developed to make it a violation to knowingly disclose protected health information. Individuals OBJECTIVES CO1-2.3.1 Explain the retention and limitation of inmate rights. CO1-2.3.2 Relate the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to a correctional setting. CO1-2.3.3 Define Baker Act as used in a correctional setting. CO1-2.3.4 Identify the correctional officers’ role in the provisions of the Baker Act. CO1-2.3.5 Define the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). CO1-2.3.6 Explain inmates’ rights to privileged communication. 13 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 employed by a “covered entity,” including correctional officers and staff, who knowingly violate HIPAA provisions may be fined, imprisoned, or administratively disciplined. As a covered entity, a correctional institution must reasonably safeguard protected health information to limit incidental uses or disclosures made pursuant to an otherwise permitted or required use or disclosure in accordance with HIPAA, 45 C.F.R. §164, F.S. However, correctional facilities are exempt from the general provision requiring a written waiver from the inmate if a health, safety, or security need has been determined. The correctional officer must remember that inmate health information should remain confidential and may be shared only with individuals that have a need and right to know. Additionally, correctional officers may not solicit inmate health information unless it is pertinent to their job. An officer may have limited access to information to protect him- or herself or others or to assign work. For example, a transport officer needs to know that an inmate has tuberculosis in order to obtain appropriate personal protective equipment and take additional precautionary measures. An inmate with diabetes requires a special meal and possibly a snack during work detail. Information disclosed is limited to only a particular incident or health and safety issue. The officer will not acquire complete inmate health information; however, relevant information for precautionary measures will be available. For example, a correctional officer injured after a fight with an inmate may receive information regarding the inmate’s bloodborne pathogens or transmittable disease status. The officer will not know if the inmate has high blood pressure; however, he or she may be told if the inmate has HIV, hepatitis, or other communicable diseases. (CO1-2.3.2) Baker Act The Baker Act, also known as the Florida Mental Health Act, provides for emergency services and temporary detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient treatment, if necessary. See §394.455(18), F.S. (CO1-2.3.3) Though correctional officers cannot diagnose psychological disorders under which the provisions of the Baker Act may be invoked, officers may play a vital role in the initiation of treatment. Officers must not ignore an inmate complaint or need for psychological assistance. The officer should identify a possible problem, document the observed behavior or concern, and refer the individual for medical assistance and evaluation. The officer must be professional and treat the inmate with dignity. Questionable behavior may be triggered by conditions that may not be obvious and are often unknown. Inmates exhibiting unusual behavior should be approached with caution. (CO1-2.3.4) Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA, P.L. 108-79) was enacted by Congress to address the problem of sexual abuse of persons in the custody of U.S. federal, state or local correctional agencies. There is a zero-tolerance standard for the incidence of rape in U.S. prisons. The purpose of PREA is to make rape prevention and awareness in a correctional setting a top priority. It develops and implements national standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape. PREA establishes policy or procedures for increasing the accountability of officials who fail to detect, prevent, reduce, and punish prison rape and protects the Eighth Amendment rights of federal, state, and local prisoners (CO1-2.3.5). The 14 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 increase of available data and information on the incidence of prison rape as a result of PREA improves the management and administration of correctional facilities. Officers should treat all allegations of prison rape seriously and take appropriate action when a complaint is made. Privileged Communication Although there is no expectation of privacy in a correctional facility, some relationships are considered more valuable than the evidence that may result from certain communications, such as between an inmate and an attorney. This communication may be considered privileged communication. Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary Baker Act Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) privileged communication Inmates maintain the right to certain confidential or privileged communication. The attorney-client privilege is applicable to the inmate due to the Sixth Amendment right to counsel. Attorney-client phone conversations may not be recorded, visits do not have to conform to normal visiting hours, and visits may be within the sight of the officer but out of hearing. Other types of communication generally considered privileged outside of a correctional facility may have a diminished expectation of privacy and may be recorded for safety and security concerns in a correctional setting. (CO1-2.3.6) 15 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 2 | LEGAL LESSON 4 | Legal Issues with Contraband OBJECTIVES CO1-2.4.1 Define contraband in a correctional setting. CO1-2.4.2 List common contraband articles found in correctional facilities. CO1-2.4.3 Relate the Florida Model Jail Standards to contraband in county correctional facilities. CO1-2.4.4 Define introduction of contraband. CO1-2.4.5 Explain the legal disposition of confiscated contraband. Contraband is defined as any unauthorized article or any authorized article in excessive quantities or altered from its intended purpose (CO1-2.4.1). Contraband may include anything, no matter how harmless it may appear. Contraband may be hidden in plain sight. For example, bed sheets may become contraband. A bed sheet is an authorized article that, in unauthorized quantities, becomes contraband. Additionally, a sheet ripped into strips may become a weapon or tool to aid escape. Officers may encounter contraband anywhere inside or outside a correctional facility. Even inmates in confinement may possess contraband. Items identified as contraband in correctional facilities by §944.47 and §951.22, F.S., include currency or coins, tobacco products, controlled substances, non-prescribed drugs of any kind or nature, articles of food or clothing altered or in excessive quantity, firearms or dangerous weapons, cell phones or portable communication devices, or any items used to aid or affect an escape (CO1-2.4.2). The purpose of limiting items in a correctional facility is to maintain internal order, security, and discipline. Florida Statutes §951.22 provides authority to county facilities in accordance with the Florida Model Jail Standards to establish policies and procedures relating to contraband. The Standards provide for a facility’s Officer in Charge to establish a list of articles or items which inmates may have in their possession. All other items in the possession of an inmate shall be considered contraband. Information about acceptable items is generally included in the inmate handbook. (CO1-2.4.3) The introduction of contraband is a crime punishable by F.S. §944.47 that designates the introduction, taking, or sending of articles defined as contraband into a correctional facility as a felony offense. The attempted introduction of contraband is also punishable under this statute. (CO1-2.4.4) Officers should be aware that anyone may introduce contraband into a facility. This may include attorneys, visitors, contractors, and even staff. Other law enforcement agencies may also introduce contraband either intentionally or inadvertently into a facility, for example during intake or while responding to the death of an inmate. Confiscated contraband may be destroyed, converted, or reused pursuant to §932.704, F.S., and §932.7055, F.S. Depending on agency policy or procedures, contraband may be destroyed by flushing, incinerating, or compacting. Consumable items such as food, drink, or any item that may be tampered with should be destroyed. Certain items may be converted for inmate trust fund or charity as designated by the agency. Reusable items will be only non-consumable items issued by the facility that may be returned to 16 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 supply, for example linens, clothing, books, pens, or mail supplies. The disposition of contraband must be documented. (CO1-2.4.5) Contraband may also be designated as evidence and require holding for use in a disciplinary hearing or criminal case. Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary contraband introduction of contraband UNIT 2 | LEGAL LESSON 5 | Criminal Acts Categories and Classes of Offenses A criminal act is a violation of the law. In Florida, a crime is designated as either a felony or misdemeanor according to §775.08(4), F.S. (CO1-2.5.1). A felony is any criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state by death or imprisonment in a state facility for a period exceeding one year. A misdemeanor is any criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state by a term of imprisonment for less than one year in a county correctional facility. It is possible for an inmate to spend an extended term of more than one year in a county facility if he or she receives consecutive sentences for multiple charges. All laws still apply in a correctional facility; therefore, inmates may still be charged with a criminal offense. Officers have the responsibility to protect themselves, inmates, staff, and visitors from harm and violations. Though the correctional officer does not determine a criminal charge, he or she must be able to determine when a crime has been committed, and distinguish a crime from a rule violation. Some crimes committed in a correctional setting may include petty theft, dealing in stolen property, assault, battery, sexual battery, battery on a facility employee, drugrelated crimes, criminal mischief, arson, possession of contraband, introduction of OBJECTIVES CO1-2.5.1 Define criminal act. CO1-2.5.2 List common crimes committed in a correctional setting. CO1-2.5.3 List common crimes committed by staff and visitors in a correctional setting. CO1-2.5.4 Identify elements of crimes. CO1-2.5.5 Define instrumentalities of a crime. CO1-2.5.6 Define fruits of a crime. CO1-2.5.7 Define evidence. CO1-2.5.8 Describe major types of evidence found in a correctional setting. 17 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections CO1-2.5.9 Define chain of custody. CO1-2.5.10 State the components of the chain of custody in a correctional setting. FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 contraband into a correctional facility, escape, lewd and lascivious behavior, bribery, security threat group (STG)-related crimes, gambling, vandalism, loan sharking, or homicide. (CO1-2.5.2) Examples of staff and visitor criminal acts may include introduction of contraband, sexual misconduct, and bribery. (CO1-2.5.3) Elements of Crimes There are two basic elements of a crime: proof that a crime has been committed, and proof the person being charged committed the crime. Generally, to prove that a crime has been committed it must be shown that an act is specifically prohibited by a criminal statute. It also must be shown that the person committing the act at the time did so knowingly or intentionally. By purposely doing what the law declares to be a crime, the person demonstrates criminal intent. (CO1-2.5.4) Instrumentalities of a crime Instrumentalities of a crime may be defined as anything used to commit a crime. (CO1-2.5.5) Instrumentalities may take varied forms: body fluids, a homemade weapon, cell phone, threatening letter, or recorded phone call. Often these items may become evidence. Fruits of a crime The fruits of a crime comprises anything gained or obtained by committing a crime (CO1-2.5.6). In a correctional setting this may often be money and canteen/commissary items. It should be noted that the person gaining from the crime may not be the subject or suspect committing the crime. For example, an inmate may steal to pay a debt to another inmate. The fruits of a crime may also become evidence. Evidence Evidence is anything that proves or disproves a fact in a judicial case or disciplinary hearing. (CO1-2.5.7) Major types of evidence found in a correctional setting Five types of evidence characteristically found in a correctional setting are direct, circumstantial or indirect, physical, testimonial, and documentary. • Direct evidence directly proves a fact without inference or assumption. For example an officer observes a stabbing; or DNA samples connect a suspect to a crime. • Circumstantial or indirect evidence is based on an inference not on personal knowledge through observation and is presumed to be true. For example, the inmate was searched prior to a visit and was searched again after an attorney visit, and a cell phone was discovered. The officer did not overhear the meeting because of the privileged communication exception; however, he or she can infer that the attorney gave the inmate the cell phone. 18 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • Physical evidence refers to material objects such as weapons, drugs, or money. • Testimonial evidence is verbal evidence solicited from a witness, victim, or suspect. • Documentary evidence is printed or written evidence such as a call out log, written property receipt, letter, or recording. (CO1-2.5.8) Chain of custody Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 Section Vocabulary chain of custody criminal act evidence The chain of custody is documentation of every individual who handled evidence as well as when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it (CO1-2.5.9). Chain of custody documentation is also issued to prove that the evidence submitted in court or at a disciplinary hearing is the same evidence that was collected at the crime scene. felony The responding officer must take steps to preserve the chain of custody to protect the integrity of the evidence. Items must be documented even if what is collected does not immediately appear to be relevant to the incident. Documentation can be in writing, by video, photograph or audio. Documentation must be clear and complete for understanding and testimony by another officer or individual. The components of the chain of custody for documentation or preservation are: misdemeanor fruits of a crime instrumentalities of a crime • Who—parties involved (inmate, visitor, staff); all who touched the evidence from the time the situation was identified • What—all materials used and secured • When—date and time the incident occurred and any time the evidence was handled thereafter • Where—location where the evidence was collected, transferred to, or stored • Why—reason the evidence or material was handled • How—proper methods for preservation; how evidence is collected is crucial to verifying its integrity and thus its usability in trial or hearing (CO1-2.5.10) 19 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 2 | LEGAL LESSON 6 | Use of Force OBJECTIVES CO1-2.6.1 Define reasonable force. CO1-2.6.2 List questions an officer will have to answer in any use of force situation. CO1-2.6.3 Identify factors used in the objective reasonableness standard for use of force. CO1-2.6.4 State the officer’s duty in the protection of self and others. CO1-2.6.5 Identify F.S. §776.07 as the authorization for the use of force to prevent escape. CO1-2.6.6 Explain when correctional officers can use force. CO1-2.6.7 Outline the liabilities and penalties for excessive use of force. CO1-2.6.8 Identify the liabilities and penalties for failure to report use of force. Laws for Use of Force Chapters 944 and 776, F.S., govern all use of force by a correctional officer. Additionally, officers must refer to agency policy and procedures in use of force situations. To be deemed justified, the use of force must be determined to be reasonable. Reasonable force may be defined as the type and amount of force that the officer reasonably believes to be necessary to overcome resistance (CO1-2.6.1). This is based on the totality of circumstances and the perception at the time of the event as to what force is reasonably required. Resistance may take two forms: resistance to a verbal command, and physical resistance. An example of resisting a spoken command may be an inmate refusing to leave a cell after being commanded by the officer. Physical resistance may take many forms including spitting or striking. In Graham v. Conner, 490 US 386 (1989), the U.S. Supreme Court held that all law enforcement use of force cases are to be judged by an objective reasonableness standard based upon the Fourth Amendment. The use of force is to be judged from the perspective of what a reasonable officer would do under the same circumstances without the benefit of hindsight. The Court clearly considered that officers are often required to make split second, sometimes deadly decisions, in circumstances that are “tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving.” The Court concluded that the objective reasonableness test is not a precise or clear rule but requires careful review of the facts and circumstances of each case, including the severity of the crime, whether the suspect posed an immediate threat to the safety of officers or others, and whether the suspect was actively resisting arrest or attempting to evade arrest by flight. The objective reasonableness test requires the officer to answer two questions about the level of force used in any situation: was the action reasonable and necessary, and was the amount of force applied reasonable and necessary? (CO1-2.6.2) U.S. Supreme Court case Hudson v. McMillan 503 US 1 (1992) established that intent determines reasonableness in use of force situations in correctional settings. The court recognized that correctional officers have to maintain order and discipline within a correctional setting; however, officers must be acting in a good faith manner, not for punishment or revenge, to raise a legal defense. Officers acting in a sadistic or malicious manner will negate the reasonableness standard. (CO1-2.6.3) Officer’s duty to protect self and others Correctional officers owe a duty of care to inmates, staff, visitors, and the general public. Officers may be required to act in defense of others in situations where the average citizen has no duty to intervene. Defense of self or others could include the 20 Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 use of reasonably necessary physical force up to and including deadly force. Florida Statute §944.35 provides for the following: An employee of the department is authorized to apply physical force upon an inmate only when and to the extent that it reasonably appears necessary: • To defend himself or herself or another against such other imminent use of unlawful force; • To prevent a person from escaping from a state correctional institution when the officer reasonably believes that person is lawfully detained in such institution; • To prevent damage to property; • To quell a disturbance; • To overcome physical resistance to a lawful command; or • To administer medical treatment only by or under the supervision of a physician or his or her designee… (CO1-2.6.4) Statutory authority for the use of force to prevent escape Florida law provides for correctional officers to use reasonable force including deadly force to prevent the escape of inmates. Florida Statute §776.07(2), states that “A correctional officer or other law enforcement officer is justified in the use of force, including deadly force, which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary to prevent the escape from a penal institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense” (CO1-2.6.5). This topic is also addressed in §944.35, F.S., for state correctional officers and §944.105(4), F.S., for private correctional officers. This may include escape from a correctional facility, work squad, hospital, and other areas of extended supervision. The officer must have a reasonable belief that the inmate is escaping. Though the officer can use deadly force by statutory authority, this does not allow him or her to disregard agency policy. (CO1-2.6.6) Liabilities and penalties for excessive use of force The amount of force used by a correctional officer must always be reasonable and justifiable. When an officer is justified in using reasonable force, he or she will be protected from prosecution. However, if force used is deemed to be excessive, the officer may face criminal, civil, and administrative penalties. Criminal, civil, and civil rights charges may be brought at both the state and federal level depending on the violation. The nature of injuries will determine the level of charge. The liabilities and penalties that are attached to the officer and agency through the use of force include: Liabilities Penalties criminal liabilities as addressed by Florida Statute civil liabilities lawsuits against the individual and/or the agency federal civil rights liabilities both civil and criminal administrative liabilities sanctions imposed by the employing agency and CJSTC 21 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections Section Vocabulary reasonable force FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Excessive use of force may also result in negative community reaction and loss of trust in the profession. (CO1-2.6.7) Liabilities and penalties for failure to report use of force All use of force must be documented in a timely, clear manner, pursuant to agency policy or procedure and statute. Florida Statute §944.35 imposes sanctions if an officer fails to document a use of force. If an officer uses, witnesses, or has reason to believe force was used, he or she must report the incident. A reportable incident may be as simple as a hand placed on the arm of an inmate. Even if force is completely justifiable, failure to document and report the incident may lead to officer discipline. The officer may be held criminally liable, such as if an inmate dies due to failure to report to medical, or civilly liable such as when an officer fails to perform a legal duty by inaction. Any person who coerces or threatens another person to alter either testimony or a written report where force was used commits a felony. In addition, an officer may suffer administrative sanctions such as those handed down by his agency or the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission. (CO1-2.6.8) 22 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 UNIT 2 | LEGAL LESSON 7 | Criminal and Civil Liability Liability, Torts and Negligence Correctional officers may be liable for damages or injuries if they improperly perform a job task or do not perform a job task that an officer reasonably should perform. The most recognized forms of liability are criminal and civil. Officers may also be subject to civil or criminal liability and prosecution for civil rights violations. Criminal liability occurs when an officer is found guilty of committing a crime (CO1-2.7.1). Civil liability is responsibility for a wrongful act or the failure to do an act that an officer has a duty to perform that injures another person or property and most often involves negligence (CO1-2.7.2). A civil wrong in which the action or inaction of an officer or entity violates the rights of another person is called a tort. (CO1-2.7.3) Torts may be intentional, such as battery or wrongful death, or unintentional, such as negligence. Negligence is failure to use due or reasonable care, in a situation where an officer has a duty to act, that results in harm to another (CO1-2.7.4). For example, an officer is taking a personal phone call while supervising a meal. He or she doesn’t see a fight break out resulting in injury to an inmate. Since the officer breached his or her duty to act with reasonable care, he or she and his or her agency could be held liable for damages caused by the incident. Additionally, if the officer knew or should have known that an act or failure to act could cause serious bodily injury or death, the officer may be charged with a crime due to “gross” negligence. To convict a defendant of a crime, the state must prove in criminal court that he or she committed all elements of a particular offense. In a civil action, the plaintiff/victim must prove a different set of elements to find the defendant/offender negligent. The elements of negligence are (1) a duty to act with care, (2) breach of that duty, (3) proof that the breach of duty caused damages and (4) actual damages. (CO1-2.7.5) An officer has a duty to provide care, custody and control of inmates while on the job to the best of his or her ability. Likewise, providing such care should be based on his or her training, education and experience. Two main categories of damages that may be awarded in a civil suit are compensatory and punitive. Compensatory damages arise when a victim is physically injured or suffers a property loss. He or she should be paid for the actual loss (e.g., lost wages, medical expenses, property damage, attorney’s fees, pain and suffering or mental anguish). Punitive damages may be awarded in addition to compensation to punish a defendant who acted with recklessness, malice or deceit and to discourage others from committing the same act. (CO1-2.7.6) OBJECTIVES CO1-2.7.1 Define criminal liability. CO1-2.7.2 Define civil liability. CO1-2.7.3 Define tort. CO1-2.7.4 Define negligence. CO1-2.7.5 List the elements of negligence. CO1-2.7.6 Specify the two main categories of damages. CO1-2.7.7 Define civil rights violation. CO1-2.7.8 Define color of law. CO1-2.7.9 Explain civil liability under federal laws. CO1-2.7.10 Identify the impact on an officer who is found civilly or criminally liable. CO1-2.7.11 Explain that agencies may be liable for the acts of a correctional officer. CO1-2.7.12 Identify the legal protections available if an officer is faced with potential civil or criminal liability. CO1-2.7.13 Define acting within the scope of employment. CO1-2.7.14 Identify the effect of the Sovereign Immunity Law, Section 768.28, Florida Statutes, in state civil actions. CO1-2.7.15 Explain the concept of qualified immunity. CO1-2.7.16 Identify legal defenses that protect an officer from civil and criminal liability. 23 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Civil Rights Violations A civil rights violation is an unlawful interference with the fundamental rights of another person, such as the right to due process and equal protection under the law (CO1-2.7.7). An example of a possible civil rights violation may be an officer placing an inmate in confinement repeatedly because medical will not care for the inmate. This may be seen as cruel and unusual punishment, and such an act intentionally deprives the person of a constitutional or other civil right. Federal law, 18 U.S.C. §242, prohibits an officer acting under color of law from violating an inmate’s civil rights. When an officer acts or purports to act in the performance of official duties under any law, ordinance, or regulation, he or she is acting under color of law (CO1-2.7.8). An officer’s use of force is often the basis for civil rights liability. For example, an inmate’s death due to a beating by an officer can result in civil rights violations and a federal criminal investigation under this law. In addition to criminal prosecution, an officer who violates an individual’s civil rights may be sued in federal court under 42 U.S.C. §1983. Before imposing liability, both sections require proof that the officer acted under the authority of the employing agency and intentionally violated the inmate’s civil rights. Therefore, negligence does not give rise to a 42 U.S.C. §1983 action under federal law, because the intent of the officer’s actions is key to liability. (CO1-2.7.9) The consequences of the officer being found criminally or civilly liable for actions taken can range from minor to catastrophic. The impact on an officer may include administrative discipline, suspension from work, and loss of certification and employment due to a criminal conviction, incarceration, and financial ruin from paying large sums in damages. (CO1-2.7.10) An employing agency can be held liable for the wrongful acts of an employee. If the plaintiff proves at trial that the officer committed a tort or violated civil rights as part of his or her duties, the employing agency is likely to be liable for damages through direct or vicarious liability. An employing agency’s negligent hiring, assignment, training or retention of a problem employee may raise direct liability. In addition, under the theory of vicarious liability, an agency might be found liable even if it is not directly responsible for the injury. For example, an agency may be required to pay damages if an officer is found guilty of sexual harassment. (CO1-2.7.11) Immunities There are federal and state laws that protect officers acting within the scope of their employment against civil and criminal liability. These provide for qualified immunity from prosecution including Chapter 111, F.S., (acting within the scope of employment), sovereign immunity, and qualified immunity, and defenses such as acting in good faith, acts done in a reasonable manner, acts justified under the law, and the emergency doctrine. (CO1-2.7.12) Chapter 111, F.S., protects officers charged with civil and criminal actions, provided those actions occurred within the scope and course of the officer’s employment. Acting within the scope of employment refers to the range of reasonable and foreseeable activities that an officer does while carrying out the agency’s business (CO1-2.7.13). If an officer acts outside the scope of employment, the officer may be held individually liable. An officer that intentionally violates agency policy and procedure may be deemed to be acting outside the scope 24 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Introduction to Corrections Ch 1 of employment. But, if it is shown that the officer was acting within the scope of employment, the officer will not be held financially responsible. Sovereign Immunity The sovereign immunity law, §768.28, F.S., provides one of the most important protections for state and county (governmental) correctional agencies and their employees. It includes a list of circumstances and requirements that must be met before the agency or any of its employees can be sued in a state tort action. It also protects individual officers and agency employees from personal liability and from being named as a defendant in a state civil lawsuit. This means that unless an officer or employee acts or fails to act with willful or wanton disregard of someone’s rights or property, the officer or employee must be dismissed from a state civil tort action. (CO1-2.7.14) Qualified Immunity Qualified immunity protects the officer from personal liability. Agencies may pay for compensatory damages up to a certain amount. The defense of qualified immunity protects “government officials…from liability for civil damages insofar as their conduct does not violate clearly established statutory or constitutional rights of which a reasonable person would have known.” See Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 US 800, 818 (1982). (CO1-2.7.15) Legal Defenses There are a number of established defenses available for an officer to defend against civil or criminal liability. Acts Done in Good Faith To act in good faith, officers must be faithful to their duty and honestly intend to avoid taking undue advantage of others. Acts done in good faith are without malice, ill will, or the intent to unjustly harm anyone. If the officer is performing his or her duties correctly the officer is acting in good faith; for example, accidentally giving the wrong snack bag to the wrong Inmate Doe: The officer followed agency policy and performed the appropriate distribution; however, the bag was assigned in such a way as to be confusing. Acts Done in a Reasonable Manner Officers must act in a reasonable manner when responding to any incident. Reasonableness involves acting professionally within the law and agency policies and procedures. It can range from the performance of first aid to knowing what level of force is needed in a given situation. Reasonableness is judged objectively (for example, would a reasonable officer in the same situation have acted the same way). Acts Justified Under the Law Some seemingly offensive officer actions can be justified under the law. This occurs in situations in which case law or statutory law provides a defense for an officer’s actions. For example, Chapter 776, F.S., provides that an officer may use deadly force in self-defense or defense of another from a threat of death or serious physical injury and to prevent escape; Chapter 870, F.S., provides for the use of force in riots. Emergency Doctrine When sudden peril requires spontaneous action, an officer is not required to use the same degree of care as when there is time to reflect. This is known as the emergency doctrine. An incident requiring an immediate 25 Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections Section Vocabulary acting within the scope of employment civil liability civil rights violation criminal liability negligence qualified immunity sovereign immunity tort 26 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 life or death decision resulting in the violation of agency policy in order to protect others from harm or death falls under this doctrine; for example, a facility fire. Limiting Liability Correctional agencies enact policies and procedures to help guide officers in performing their duties. These policies are carefully developed to ensure they comply with legal and ethical guidelines. Agency policies and procedures are developed and published for the officer’s benefit. By following such policies, officers may avoid liability for acts committed while on duty. Attending required and optional training lets officers stay current on the law and up to date practices. Awareness of changes in legal and practice guidelines also helps officers avoid liability. (CO1-2.7.16) CHAPTER 2 Communications UNIT 1: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION LESSON 1: Interpersonal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 UNIT 2: TELECOMMUNICATIONS LESSON 1: Procedures and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 UNIT 3: INTERVIEWING LESSON 1: Preparing for and Conducting an Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 UNIT 4: REPORT WRITING LESSON 1: Note Taking and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 LESSON 2: Organizing Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 LESSON 3: Elements of Effective Report Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 LESSON 4: Writing and Evaluating the Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Correctional officers use various forms of communication when managing inmates and interacting with others as part of their duties. Communication in a correctional setting includes verbal and nonverbal expression, written documentation, and radio, telephone, and computer usage. Unclear expressions and communication barriers can lead to miscommunication; this can create potential problems, especially when interacting with the diverse populations of a correctional facility. This chapter provides practical communication skills that will assist new correctional officers in managing and supervising inmates, giving directions, answering questions, and interacting with others in a professional and safe manner. The chapter covers interpersonal communication, telecommunications, interviewing, note taking, and report writing. Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 1 | INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION LESSON 1 | Interpersonal Communication OBJECTIVES CO2-1.1.2 List elements of effective communication. An important facet of a correctional officer’s job is to communicate with and manage a diverse inmate population. To achieve this, correctional officers use a variety of skills that include interpersonal verbal and nonverbal communication, situational awareness, verbal command, command presence, and courtesy. These skills not only demonstrate professionalism but also help create effective interpersonal relationships and reduce tension. For example, if an inmate is acting out, communicating properly with the inmate could de-escalate the situation. CO2-1.1.4 Illustrate nonverbal communication. The primary function of communication is to facilitate the interaction between persons to initiate some form of action. Interpersonal communication involves the exchange of ideas, messages or information between two or more people through speaking, writing or behavior to affect some kind of action. (CO2-1.1.1) CO2-1.1.6 List the barriers to effective communication. Communication should express thoughts precisely and accurately, and elicit a response or change in behavior from the person or persons being addressed. Mastering the basic skills of effective communication is a necessity for navigating the daily activities of the profession. An officer must plan his or her interactions by following these basic elements of communication: CO2-1.1.1 Describe interpersonal communication. CO2-1.1.3. Describe nonverbal communication. CO2-1.1.5 List examples of nonverbal cues. CO2-1.1.7 Explain how positioning and posture are used in communication. CO2-1.1.8 Describe how effective listening is used in communication. CO2-1.1.9 Identify elements of effective listening. CO2-1.1.10 Define verbal command in relation to communication. CO2-1.1.11 Provide examples of verbal command in relation to communication. CO2-1.1.12 Define command presence in relation to communication. CO2-1.1.13 Provide an example of command presence in relation to communication. CO2-1.1.14 Define courtesy. 28 • constructing the message • conveying the message via verbal, nonverbal, telecommunication, or written format to the person or group to whom it is intended • allowing time for the person or group to receive and understand the message • gauging whether one has received an appropriate response or change in behavior from the person or group to whom the message was addressed (CO2-1.1.2) As correctional officers gain experience and consistently practice effective interpersonal communication, they should continually improve their verbal and nonverbal skills. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication is a very important form of communication. When officers interact with inmates, visitors, and staff, they give and receive countless nonverbal signals. These behaviors may include gestures, facial expressions, and methods of eye contact, as well as postures, whether seated or standing, that send strong messages. An officer may observe that an inmate’s verbal expressions are inconsistent with his or her facial expression, posture or other nonverbal cues. These behaviors are extremely important for correctional officers to be aware of during face-to-face interactions. (CO2-1.1.3) FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communications Ch 2 For example, the following inmate’s verbal and nonverbal responses illustrate inconsistencies: An inmate’s verbal response to an officer: “I don’t have a problem!” The inmate’s nonverbal behavior to the officer: Avoids eye contact, looks anxious, and paces up and down with clenched fists. In the above example, the inmate’s nonverbal behavior speaks volumes about the inmate’s anger while his or her verbal message is completely opposite. (CO2-1.1.4) Nonverbal communication should reinforce or complement verbal communication. Recognizing these differences will enhance the officer’s awareness and safety. Interpreting an inmate’s nonverbal behavior keeps an officer alert to signs of stress, deception or aggression. The officer should be mentally and physically prepared to take immediate action should a threatening physical situation occur. Nonverbal Cues A nonverbal cue is the use of posture, facial expressions, and body movements to communicate as opposed to speaking or writing. Nonverbal cues will help an officer analyze an inmate’s responses. People interpret nonverbal cues in different ways. Some examples of nonverbal cues include the following: • Sweating, rapid breathing, fidgeting, blinking, or rocking back and forth may indicate nervousness. • Clenched fists, pacing briskly, clenched teeth, or a clear reluctance to communicate may indicate anger, rage or irritation. • Arms down by the side or comfortably placed in the lap may indicate friendliness or being at ease. • Frowning may indicate displeasure, uneasiness, or confusion. • Smiling may indicate pleasure or a failure to understand. • Lack of obvious emotion may indicate shock, fear, poor understanding, not being focused, or not hearing. (CO2-1.1.5) Each situation must be addressed individually, and various cultural and social considerations must be taken into account before interpreting nonverbal cues. Nonverbal gestures may have different cultural or social meanings to different persons or groups. Some examples of this could include lack of eye contact, shaking hands, bowing, hand gestures, and distancing (personal space). By understanding diverse populations, correctional officers will be able to communicate with others more effectively. Barriers to Effective Communication Communication between an officer and inmates or others is effective and successful when actual and potential barriers are recognized and addressed. The following barriers may result in miscommunication between the sender and receiver of a message: • use of profane, derogatory, or disrespectful language • stereotyping • use of derogatory hand gestures or body movements • stress and fatigue on the part of either party • inability to communicate in the same language 29 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • lack of cultural understanding • environmental distractions such as background noise (CO2-1.1.6) Positioning and Posture Proper positioning allows an officer to communicate with inmates and visitors effectively while paying attention to their verbal and nonverbal cues. The officer should communicate strength, confidence and interest through body language and demeanor when interacting with others, a technique sometimes called posture (CO2-1.1.7). Body position and posture will be discussed in greater detail in the next chapter. Effective Listening Officers should never allow personal judgment or bias to obscure their listening abilities. Effective listening requires giving full attention to what is being said and taking time to understand the message without interrupting. Good listening skills require a great deal of practice and are essential for effective communication. (CO2-1.1.8) The elements of effective listening include the following: • maintaining eye contact, facing the speaker, and leaning slightly forward to confirm attentiveness through body language • keeping an open mind and avoiding bias in order to hear all the facts • identifying key words that should alert the officer, such as “kill,” “suicide,” “getting out,” “hang” • identifying the intensity of speech in terms of voice volume, emotion, pitch, and tone • paraphrasing back what someone has said to reassure him or her of the message’s clarity • asking questions for clarification or more information (CO2-1.1.9) A verbal command is an authoritative statement used to direct, influence, or give orders to a person or group (CO2-1.1.10). Correctional officers should learn to use direct verbal commands to communicate to inmates in order to achieve the desired actions or behavior. Examples of verbal commands include the following: “Mop the floor.” “Move back to your bunks.” “Clean your cell before breakfast.” (CO2-1.1.11) Command Presence Command presence is the way an officer projects an image of authority and confidence and lets inmates know that he or she is in charge and in control (CO2-1.1.12). Characteristics of officer command presence include personal appearance (uniform, personal grooming, and upright posture), poise, confidence, and a professional demeanor. For example: Inmates Jones and Baldwin are having a verbal dispute in the C-dorm. An officer walks in and looks sternly at the two inmates without saying a word. After seeing the officer, both of the inmates immediately stop arguing and separate. (CO2-1.1.13) 30 Communications Ch 2 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Command presence is a valuable nonverbal tool for correctional officers and developing it is crucial for success. Courtesy Always treat inmates as you would any other human being. Just because inmates are confined does not mean they should be treated with disrespect. Courtesy is the act of being respectful when interacting with others and treating them in a dignified manner, regardless of their status, race, gender, appearance, or behavior (CO2-1.1.14). Maintaining a professional and courteous demeanor may help an officer defuse tension and respond appropriately. Section Vocabulary command presence courtesy effective listening interpersonal communication verbal command 31 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 2 | TELECOMMUNICATIONS LESSON 1 | Procedures and Equipment OBJECTIVES CO2-2.1.1 Identify general telephone procedures. CO2-2.1.2 Identify general radio procedures. CO2-2.1.3 Identify the primary components of a portable radio. CO2-2.1.4 Describe the purpose of a radio base station. Telephone Procedures Correctional officers use the telephone as a way to communicate with other staff members, supervisory personnel, and the public. Telephones give officers a way to hold relatively secure conversations. Generally, when using the telephone, officers should greet the caller, identify themselves and their location, and use a non-threatening tone. (CO2-2.1.1) Examples include the following: Receiving a telephone call: “Good morning, Officer Bales, C-Dorm, may I help you?” Making a telephone call: “This is Officer Adams, A-Dorm, may I speak to Lieutenant Smith?” Radio Procedures Officers use radios to send and receive vital information. Some examples of radio use include calling for assistance, general communication, identifying inmates and visitors, or notifying staff of an emergency situation. Proper knowledge and use of the radio is essential for a correctional officer. Upon being issued a radio, it is the responsibility of the officer to ensure that it is operational. When officers experience radio transmission difficulties, they should immediately use a landline telephone to report the malfunction. Officers should know their agency’s operating procedures, general orders, or policy on what to do if an assigned radio malfunctions. The portable radio is the primary method of communication for correctional officers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) prohibits all persons using radios, including correctional officers and base station personnel, from committing the following acts: • transmitting non-essential or excessive signals, messages, or communication • using profane, indecent, or obscene language • willfully damaging or permitting damage to radio apparatuses • maliciously interfering with another unit’s radio transmission • making unidentified transmissions • transmitting before the air is clear • transmitting a call signal, letter, or numeral not assigned to the agency or unit 32 Communications Ch 2 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • adjusting, repairing, or altering a radio transmitter (except by agency-authorized radio technicians) • using radio communications systems for illegal or personal business When using the portable radio system the officer should plan his or her message before transmission. The more a message is planned, the more coherent and professional the communication. Adjust the volume level based on the situation and surroundings. In stressful situations, an officer’s voice may crack or become distorted or high-pitched, thus making the radio message difficult to understand. Officers must be proficient on the radio, speaking slowly and distinctly, using an evenly modulated tone of voice, and avoiding the display of emotions. Before transmitting, listen to make sure there is no other radio traffic. Depress and hold the transmit button for approximately one second before speaking. Make sure your mouth is one to three inches in front of the microphone, and speak directly into it. (CO2-2.1.2) Types of Radio Equipment in Corrections Radio communications in corrections generally rely on three types of radios: • The handheld or portable radio which is carried by the officer. • The radio base station, normally located in the control room. • The mobile radio affixed in vehicles used for transporting inmates. Primary Components of a Portable Radio There are many brands, models, and types of radios for correctional officers’ use. The basic corrections radio is generally fitted with switches or buttons to control power, volume, squelch, and channel selection. Squelch is a circuit that suppresses the output of a radio receiver if the signal strength falls below a certain level. The portable radio unit may have an extended or built-in microphone. Agencies will train officers on the specific components and usage of a portable radio. The primary components of a portable radio include the following: • transceiver—receives and transmits messages • antenna—helps in sending or receiving clear electromagnetic waves • battery—powers the radio Components of a portable radio Figure 2-1 • microphone—spoken into by the sender • speaker—used to hear feedback transmission • push-to-talk button—allows the sender to transmit the message (CO2-2.1.3) Radio Codes Correctional signals and codes save airtime and convey precise meanings. Some agencies use the following types of radio codes: 33 Ch 2 Communications Section Vocabulary squelch FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Signals—a system of communication using numbers that are preceded by the word “signal” Phonetic-alpha codes—a system of verbal communication using the letters of the English alphabet only Ten or numeric codes—a system of communication by which “10” precedes numbers that represent specific activities Numeric-alpha codes—a system of communication that combines numbers and letters of the alphabet or the combination of some or all of the above to transmit messages Others agencies prefer plain English transmission. Plain English transmission is especially ideal during emergency situations due to inter-agency involvement and coordination. Officers should refer to their agency policy concerning appropriate radio language and adequate training. Radio Base Station Even though radio base stations are not found in all correctional facilities, they are typically associated with correctional control room operations or the command center in case of an emergency. The base station is used to receive and send messages to officers. It also has the ability to override the portable radio system in an emergency and monitors radio frequencies for all operational units. The radio base station operator, while receiving and sending messages, will continue to coordinate up-to-the-minute status of all units. (CO2-2.1.4) A radio base station 34 Figure 2-2 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communications Ch 2 UNIT 3 | INTERVIEWING LESSON 1 | Preparing for and Conducting an Interview Define Interview An interview is a conversation between a correctional officer and an interviewee (inmate, visitor) with the goal of obtaining factual information (CO2-3.1.1). An interview can take the form of informal questioning, as opposed to an investigation. After collecting such information there may not be any action required of the officer. If, however, it is determined in an interview that a crime has occurred, the officer must follow agency policy and procedures. Purpose of Interviewing Correctional officers should possess effective interviewing skills. These skills are used routinely in the officer’s daily formal and informal interactions with others. An interview may be used for conducting investigations, obtaining facts for incident reports, documenting routine activities, disciplinary actions, and use of force occurrences. (CO2-3.1.2) Factors that Influence the Success of an Interview OBJECTIVES CO2-3.1.1 Define interview. CO2-3.1.2 Identify the purposes of an interview. CO2-3.1.3 Describe factors that influence the success of an interview. CO2-3.1.4 Demonstrate basic questioning techniques. CO2-3.1.5 Define statement. CO2-3.1.6 Outline steps for obtaining a written statement from an interviewee. CO2-3.1.7 Describe common signs of deception during questioning. An officer responding to an incident should conduct questioning as soon as possible after securing the well-being of others and his or her own safety. The daily operations of a correctional facility can affect or determine when questioning can happen. Always follow agency policy and procedures when questioning persons after an incident. (CO2-3.1.3) Obtaining Information The location of the interview may be critical in obtaining the necessary information. Remove the interviewee from the scene of incident before conducting an interview. All parties involved in the incident should be kept separate to discourage discussion or rehearsal of their stories and avoid potential intimidation. The officer should ask non-threatening questions. If the interviewee feels threatened, he or she may be less likely to provide the necessary relevant information. The officer must also take care that the interviewee understands what is being asked. Additionally, an officer must be alert, safety conscious, and careful to strictly abide by agency policies and procedures at all times. Effective Questioning In an interview, the officer should take care to elicit as much information as possible about the event. 35 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Questioning is used to obtain the facts of the event in the interviewee’s own words. Types of questions to ask during an interview may include the following: Open-ended questions—encourage conversation and require the interviewee to think, reflect, and provide his or her opinion and feelings. The interviewee is likely to answer these types of questions with more detail. Never suggest a conclusion or supply information to fill gaps. Example: “What happened next?” Closed-ended questions—are asked with a specific yes or no answer in mind. Example: “Have you read your rules and regulations?” Answer: “Yes” or “No” Leading questions—are framed in such a way as to evoke a specific response from the individual being questioned. The questioner uses language that suggests a particular answer. Example: “You removed the packet of candy from the canteen, did you not?” Direct questions—are a combination of closed-ended and leading questions. Example: “Did you take the inmate’s shoes?” Forced choice questions—are asked to obtain a precise answer to an important fit or preference question by defining the range in which answers can be given. This format requires the questioner to rank a series of possible responses, often in order of desirability, to provide the interviewee with specific insight into his or her expectations. Example: “How many inmates were present when you hit inmate Jones on the head: 0–3 inmates; 4–6 inmates; 7–9 inmates; or 10+ inmates?” Using multiple questioning techniques in an interview helps the officer obtain additional information. Officers should project professionalism, understanding, and genuine concern when asking questions. Avoid judging the interviewee’s words, actions, or responses, and do not express doubt, anger, shock, disgust, or skepticism. (CO2-3.1.4) At the end of the interview, the officer should evaluate the information obtained for completeness. Ask the interviewee if he or she has anything more to say about the event. If the who, what, where, when, why, and how have been answered, then the interview has most likely been successful. Obtaining a Statement from the Interviewee A statement is a permanent record of a person’s account of an incident or occurrence, which may or may not be made under oath. Statements may be obtained as part of questioning for criminal or certain non-criminal incidents. (CO2-3.1.5) An officer may obtain a statement by having the interviewee write his or her account of the event. A written statement should be in the interviewee’s own words and not dictated by the interviewer. If an interpreter is used he or she should state exactly what is said. The interviewee should be instructed to provide as much detail as possible in his or her statement. Review the statement to ensure it relates to the event. (CO2-3.1.6) 36 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Signs of Deception During Questioning During questioning, the officer must be alert to common signs of deception. How the interviewee acts or reacts to a question may suggest deception. Verbal and nonverbal cues are essential in detecting deception when used in conjunction with various interviewing techniques. Communications Ch 2 Section Vocabulary interview statement Physiological signs of deception may include increased perspiration, flushed or pale skin, dry mouth, and an increased pulse rate or observable change in breathing rate. Behavioral signs of deception may include nervous movements, voice inflections, avoidance of eye contact, rehearsed answers, inconsistent responses, over-eagerness to help, and repeated insistence that simple questions are not understood. (CO2-3.1.7) 37 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING LESSON 1 | Note Taking and Reports OBJECTIVES CO2-4.1.1 Identify the basic steps in writing a report. Report writing of all types, such as filling out forms and writing report narratives, comprises a large share of the daily duties of a correctional officer. It is imperative that officers become skilled in writing reports since they reflect the level of competency, proficiency, and professionalism of the agency. CO2-4.1.2 Define note taking. Steps in Writing a Report CO2-4.1.3 Identify the purpose of note taking. There are five basic steps to follow when writing a corrections report: gathering, recording and organizing facts, writing, and evaluating the report. (CO2-4.1.1) CO2-4.1.4 Identify types of information to record in notes. Note Taking CO2-4.1.5 Define report. CO2-4.1.6 List uses of reports. CO2-4.1.7 Identify readers of reports. CO2-4.1.8 Describe common forms for documentation. CO2-4.1.9 Document specific rule, activity, or law violation committed when writing a report. Note taking consists of marking down brief observations and quotes from the interview (CO2-4.1.2). It is a way to ensure that pertinent information is recorded, as it is difficult to rely on memory alone to remember all the details of an incident or event. Note taking is used to provide detailed documentation for writing a report, information for further investigation, and, in some cases, as evidence in court. (CO2-4.1.3) The following list of important rules will help ensure that the officer takes the best notes he or she can: • Use a notebook (not loose pieces of paper) to record notes. • Write legibly and in ink. CO2-4.1.10 Describe types of information to include in a report. • Identify notes (by date). CO2-4.1.11 List types of activities that may need to be documented. • Check spelling and numbers (inmate name, cell or bunk number). • Record all relevant facts as soon as possible. • Use only common abbreviations. Types of Information to Record in a Note Types of information that should be recorded in an officer’s notes include the following: • Who: Names of victims, witnesses, suspects, etc. • When: Date and time incident occurred or timeline of events • Where: Location of incident • What: Details of incident such as illnesses, injuries, and behavioral descriptions of persons involved • Why: Reasons or causes of the incident • How: Means by which the incident occurred • Action taken: Steps taken to resolve the incident, such as disposition, confinement, medical treatment, verbal reprimand, etc. (CO2-4.1.4) 38 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communications Ch 2 Report A report is a permanent written account that communicates all available facts of an incident or event in a correctional setting (CO2-4.1.5). Reports document information about inmates’ behaviors, incidents or situations. A well-written, clear and concise report not only reflects competency and professionalism in an officer but also may reduce legal liability against the officer and his or her agency. Once a report is written, submitted, and approved, it becomes a permanent public record. Reports may be referred to many years later. The details in a report may prove critical to the success or failure of a lawsuit against an officer and his or her agency. In the event of an incident, the officer at the scene prepares the report. Certain incidents, such as use of force, may require the completion of additional documentation. Be familiar with and follow agency policies and procedures regarding the different types of forms to use for various reports, as well as required content, review, and storage of reports. Uses of Reports Reports are used for a variety of reasons, including: • recording facts of an incident, event, activity, or corrective action • informing authorized individuals, staff, management, or other criminal justice agencies or entities of incidents, events, or actions • documenting compliance with, and accountability for, standards, policies, and procedures • documenting the disciplinary process, investigation, or legal action • preparing court cases • evaluating correctional officers’ job performance • changing a policy or procedure • improving on-the-job safety and security • researching and compiling statistical data • serving as a source of reference material (CO2-4.1.6) Readers of Reports Reports are public records and can be read not only by persons in the facility but also by those outside of the corrections environment. The following people may read or review a report written by correctional officers: • Supervisors and administrators—in order to understand the details and review an incident • Correctional officers and other criminal justice employees—for investigative leads regarding an incident, updates, and general knowledge • Attorneys—for evidence and dispositions • Judges—for evidentiary value and court rulings • Media professionals—for facts, leads, and credible information dissemination 39 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • Citizens—for general information and precautionary measures • Victims or their families—for verifying that information given to the officer is correctly documented • Suspects or defendants—for making sure that the facts of the case as presented are what actually happened • Counselors/treatment professionals—for facts about patients • Governors, legislators, and parole commissions—for executive clemency, law making, victim restitution, or probation and parole hearings • City, county, or state officials—for intelligence gathering, investigative probes, and reviews (CO2-4.1.7.) Common Forms Used for Documentation Each agency creates its own personalized logs, forms, and computer entry format to document its various administrative and operational responsibilities. Laws and administrative rules dictate the use of some of these logs and forms but not necessarily their design or information content. Some of the commonly used logs and forms in a correctional facility include the following: Incident Report—used in many correctional facilities to report in detail all incidents involving inmates. Corrective Consultation (CC) Form—used for minor disciplinary infractions and details counseling and corrective actions taken. Disciplinary Report (DR)—provides a detailed account of the facts surrounding an inmate’s rule violation. This report sets in motion a series of events that ensure the inmate due process of reprimand. Use of Force Report—is completed any time force is used and is attached to an Incident or Disciplinary Report. Counts Form—used to record inmate counts as required by Florida State Statutes. Special Watch Form—used to record activities of inmates under any type of special watch, such as suicide watch, 15-minute watch, and direct observation. Equipment Check Form—used to record disposition of all equipment at each post. (CO2-4.1.8) Information in Reports Information included in a report depends upon the type of report being prepared. Officers will be trained in the use of their facility’s specific forms. The following information should generally be included in a typical narrative report: Who: • was involved (name, title and/or identification of persons/inmates) • are the victims, witnesses, suspects • reported it • is the reporting officer 40 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communications Ch 2 What: • happened; reported in chronological order • activity, rule violations or crimes, if any, were committed (CO2-4.1.9) • action was taken • items were lost, damaged, recovered, stolen • weapons or tools were used or recovered • evidence was collected Where: • did the incident occur; note the exact physical location • were all involved persons and officers at the time of incident When: • did the incident occur; use date and time (or approximate time) • did the officer arrive at the scene of the incident How: • did the incident start • did the incident progress • was the incident reported Why: • did the incident happen (verify reasons or motives of incident, submitted statements of fact) Action taken may include the following: • administration of first aid to the sick or injured • arrangement of transportation for the sick or injured to clinic, health center, or hospital • notification to supervisor or designated person of the incident, activity, or occurrence • method of collection and disposition of evidence • housing decision regarding inmates involved pending hearing • escort or transportation of inmates involved • other follow-up activities (CO2-4.1.10) Activities that May Need to be Documented At the start of each shift, agencies require correctional officers to start a log, which is a chronological timeline of activities performed during that shift. Specific activities, events or occurrences may require particular forms of documentation. Some activities that an officer may need to document include the following: 41 Ch 2 Communications Section Vocabulary note taking report FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • identifying inmates, staff, and visitors • searches (person—inmate, staff, visitor; cell, vehicle, and area) • inmate counts (work groups and their locations) • inmate movement • all safety and security checks and breaches • all crimes committed and disciplinary actions taken • inmate visitation • inmate counseling • confiscation and disposal of contraband • inventory of equipment and supplies issued to, and received from, inmates • inventory of officer’s equipment (flashlights, fire extinguishers, etc.) • all investigations • all emergencies, incidents, and unusual occurrences (CO2-4.1.11) Use of Computers in Writing Reports The use of computers is fast becoming an integral part of corrections. Using a computer to write reports allows officers to complete their reports in less time. Officers should therefore be familiar with basic computer skills and apply agency policies and procedures regarding the use of computers when writing reports. 42 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communications Ch 2 UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING LESSON 2 | Organizing Facts Incidents in a correctional facility are primarily documented in a narrative format. The officer collects information from victims, witnesses, possible suspects, and other sources. Relevant facts must be organized in order to ensure a report reflects the recorded incident accurately. Organize Facts for a Report An important step in writing a report is organizing all the information that has been collected about an incident. The officer may have interviewed several people and collected many facts. It is now time to arrange information in an orderly manner to produce an accurate and detailed report. Generally, there are two ways to organize facts for report writing that work in conjunction with each other: by category and chronologically. OBJECTIVES CO2-4.2.1 Sort information by category. CO2-4.2.2 Arrange information in chronological order. CO2-4.2.3 Organize facts for a report. CO2-4.2.4 State the importance of reviewing the facts prior to writing a report. Sorting information by category is the grouping of recorded facts into types such as informants, victims, witnesses, suspects, weapons, rule violations, evidence, and crime elements. This is especially helpful when information is collected from several sources. (CO2-4.2.1) Section Vocabulary Arranging information in chronological order is the grouping of recorded facts by date and timeline of event occurrence. This method of grouping information is especially useful when writing a narrative report as readers can easily tell what happened and in what order. (CO2-4.2.2, CO2-4.2.3) sorting information by category chronological order Review Facts for the Report Once the information has been organized and applicable forms and format selected, the officer is ready to write the report. Review the organized information regarding the incident to make sure that all the relevant facts are available. If pertinent facts are missing, for example, an inmate’s cell number, or time of incident, collect the additional information. (CO2-4.2.4) 43 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING LESSON 3 | Elements of Effective Report Writing OBJECTIVES CO2-4.3.1 Describe the format and content of a report. CO2-4.3.2 Describe ways to ensure accuracy of information. CO2-4.3.3 Define jargon. CO2-4.3.4 Define slang. CO2-4.3.5 Describe the elements of effective report writing. Writing an effective report is an important part of any officer’s duties. People read reports without ever seeing or knowing the officers who wrote them. Readers not only evaluate the officers but also their agencies by the caliber of the report they read. It is important for officers to write reports that reflect professionalism. Format and Content of a Report An effective report should be written in the proper format and contain all the important content associated with the incident. Format is the way information is organized and presented while content relates to the significant facts of the incident. Generally, a report format is arranged into the opening, body, and closing narrative sections. The opening section may include information such as the date and time, as well as the location of the incident, case number, and the officer’s assignment or location. The body section is the detailed chronological account of the incident. This section includes the actions taken by the officer on arrival at the scene, such as first aid, call for medical, interviews, elements of any rule violations or crimes committed, actions taken to obtain evidence, and call for backup if necessary. The closing section explains action taken or how the incident was resolved, how the information and evidence was handled including the need for further investigation, and recommendations for disciplinary action. The content of a report is extremely important, as it is expected to convey the important details of an incident. However, correct grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and spelling are equally important elements of a quality report. A poorly written report containing numerous errors will destroy the message and reflect badly on the writer’s professionalism. The content of a report should be easy to read and understand, and it should be free of jargon and slang. Someone reading the corrections report should be able to follow the events and comprehend exactly what happened without having been at the scene. (CO2-4.3.1) Effective Report Writing An effective report is factual, concise, accurate, clear, grammatically and structurally correct, and written in standard English. The report should be legible, timely, complete, and in accordance with agency policies and procedures. 44 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communications Ch 2 Factual: • Reports should never contain personal opinions from the writer, other officers, or witnesses. Incorrect: “I know Inmate Jones stole the book because he has a history of taking other people’s belongings.” Correct: “I saw Inmate Jones take the book from the table.” • Reports should not contain personal inferences or presumptions of the officer. Incorrect: “Inmate Jones said he did not steal the book, even though he was the only one in the area.” Correct: “Inmate Jones said he did not steal the book.” • Report all witnesses’ accounts of the incident. • Avoid irrelevant information (stick to the facts). Incorrect: “Officer Dodson set the book on the table. He turned his back and was discussing last night’s football game with Inmate Smith when Inmate Jones walked over to the table. It was about that time, maybe about a minute later, when Officer Dodson turned around in time to see Jones take the book.” Correct: “Officer Dodson saw Inmate Jones take the book off the table.” • Avoid humor and dramatic flourishes or words with emotional overtones. Incorrect: “Officer Dodson and Inmate Smith were having a discussion about last night’s football game when Inmate Jones slithered over to the table, real sneaky-like, and snatched up the book just like the sucker belonged to him.” Correct: “Jones took the book from the table while Officer Dodson and Inmate Smith were talking.” Concise: • Avoid wordiness. Incorrect: “Officer Williams and Officer Perez were walking down the hall going to get a Coke on their way to take their morning break when they came around a corner and saw two inmates huddled together and it looked to them like they were trying to hide something. They were standing outside the utility closet where lots of contraband can be hidden. They decided they had better pat them down just to make sure they didn’t have anything on them that they weren’t supposed to have.” Correct: “Officer Williams and Officer Perez searched two inmates, who were standing outside the utility closet in the hallway.” • Be brief, but do not leave out important information. Correct: “Officer Jones and Officer Barnes saw two inmates talking in low tones. The inmates stopped talking suddenly as they approached. The officers searched the inmates for contraband.” Accurate: Before submitting a report, make sure it is accurate by: • ensuring that it contains only what happened based solely on information, statements, and physical evidence collected. • verifying that all facts and names are recorded and spelled correctly, and that numbers written in the report match those in the notes. (CO2-4.3.2) 45 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Clear: • Words used should have only one interpretation. Correct: “Officer Sanders warned Inmate Garcia not to go into cell 104. Approximately 10 minutes later, Officer Sanders saw Garcia go into cell 104.” • Present events in logical order Correct: “Officer Roberts saw Inmate Williams take Inmate Brophy’s book. He saw a piece of paper fall from the book, and then asked Inmate Williams to hand the items to him.” Grammatically and structurally correct and in standard English: • The report should paint a picture of what happened in short, simple, and correct language, free of redundancy, jargon, and slang. Jargon is defined as words used by a particular trade or profession that are not commonly understood by the general public but have meaning to that trade or profession. It is also a term or specialized language that may include acronyms used by a profession, occupation, or other group, often meaningless to outsiders (CO24.3.3). Officers share common expertise and communicate quickly using jargon. Some jargon used by officers includes the following: Jargon Explanation Shakedown Cell/Pat-down/Strip Search PC Protective Custody Jit Juvenile DC Disciplinary Confinement 3 Hots and a Cot 3 Meals and a Bed CERT Correctional Emergency Response Team DR Disciplinary Report 52-Blocks Inmate Reference to 52 Months I-So/Hole Isolation Confinement Slang is an informal vocabulary composed of invented words, or arbitrarily changed words, that are often used by a specific group, region, trade, or profession. (CO2-4.3.4) Some slang used in correctional settings includes the following: 46 Communications Ch 2 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Section Vocabulary Slang Explanation Rabbit An escape risk inmate content Fish/New Jack New inmate or correctional officer format The Hole or Box Disciplinary confinement cell Chow Meal Shank Homemade weapon Buck Homemade alcohol Rip Tobacco 411 Information Kite Illegal note passed from inmate to inmate jargon slang The following is an example of an incorrect use of jargon and slang in report writing: Incorrect: “Yesterday after evening chow, Officer Jones while assigned as B-dorm supervisor, heard Inmate Coker state that he had the 411 on the fish who received a DR for the buck and a shank. He said that he sent out a kite from the box for some rip.” Correct: “Yesterday after evening meal, Officer Jones, B-dorm supervisor, heard Inmate Coker state that he had information on the new inmate who received a disciplinary report for homemade alcohol and a weapon. He said that he sent out a note from the disciplinary confinement for some tobacco.” Legible: • The report should be readable if written by hand. Timely: • Reports should be written without delay after an incident. This enables management to deal decisively with issues arising from the incident, event, or occurrence. A prompt report also helps the officer remember relevant facts. Complete: • Ensure a report is complete by: • checking that all pertinent information has been included. All the facts, whether favorable or unfavorable to any of the parties involved, should be part of the report. • answering the basic questions of who, what, when, where, why, how, and making sure the action taken is fully recorded. (CO2-4.3.5) 47 Ch 2 Communications FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING LESSON 4 | Writing and Evaluating the Report OBJECTIVES CO2-4.4.1 Describe methods of evaluating a report. CO2-4.4.2 Describe methods for checking a report for completeness. An officer should have a good vocabulary. As the officer encounters unfamiliar words and phrases, he or she should take time to find their meanings and proper usage. An improved vocabulary will enable an officer to be more efficient in describing accurately what needs to be documented. Evaluating the Report Once a report has been written, it must be evaluated in order to correct errors and ensure accuracy. This involves editing and proofreading. Editing is the process of ensuring that all pertinent facts have been included in a report in an organized and accurate manner. Proofreading is the checking of a report to ensure that all words are spelled correctly, punctuation is used accurately, appropriate words are capitalized, and proper grammar is used. During the editing and proofreading process, ensure that all pertinent facts have been included in an organized and accurate manner. If possible, ask another officer to read the report to see if it makes sense. Check the report to ensure that words are spelled correctly, proper punctuation is used, appropriate words are capitalized and the report is grammatically correct. The following methods will help an officer capture mistakes that might otherwise be overlooked: Begin by taking a break—allowing some time between writing and evaluating helps the officer return to the report with fresh eyes and makes finding errors easier. Read aloud—reading a written narrative aloud will encourage the officer to read every word. An alternative is having someone else read the report aloud, as a person often hears more errors than he or she can see. Read with a cover—sliding a blank sheet of paper down the page while reading the report will help the officer review the report in a detailed line-by-line manner. Know personal weaknesses—an officer should find out what his or her typical writing problems are and look for those specific errors. Check paired punctuation—ensure that both sides of paired punctuation (quotation marks or parentheses) are used. It is a common error to forget the closing punctuation. (CO2-4.4.1) The following is an example of a poorly written narrative report with improper grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. An improved version of the example with proper grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling is also provided. 48 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communications Ch 2 On May 16 2012 at approximately 1220 hours. I was on a routin patrol inside D Dorm when inmate Dennis Shaw, handled me a book and said “you’ll find that quotation we were talking about on page 24”. Since I had not discussed any quotation with Shaw, I decide to take the book to the officer and take a look at page 24. When I opened the book a folded piece of paper feel out. On the paper were the following words. “My roommate has some marijuana hidden inside a hole in his pillow.” I show the note to Corp Larson, the Dorm Supavisor, and since the dorm was skeduled to go to the rec yard that afternoon, we desided to wait until then to conduct a search. At approx. 1:30 p.m., the inmates were excorted too the recreation yard, an it was about that time Corporal Larson and I searched cell D-234, the cell assigned to Dennis Shaw; and his roommate, inmate Schneider, Jonathan. I examined Schneider’s pillow and I find a hole as described by Shaw. Inside the hole I find approx. two handfuls of a green leafy substance. I place the substance in a clear plastic bag and called a dual sworn officer, Corrections Deputy George Abrams, to test it it tested positive for maryjuana. Inmate Schneider was was brought in from the recreation yard and was question by Abrams. Schneider states, “That stupid roommate of mine set me up. He wants me out of their because I won’t have anything to do with his drug business.” Schneider was placed in Admin Confinement pending a investegation. Corporal Larson and I conducted a through search of the rest of the Dorm, however, no additional contruband is found. Narrative report of the above example with improved grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling On May 16, 2012, at approximately 1220 hours, I was on a routine patrol inside D Dorm when inmate Shaw, Dennis, handed me a book and said, “You’ll find that quotation we were talking about on page 24.” Since I had not discussed any quotation with Shaw, I decided to take the book to the office and take a look at page 24. When I opened the book, a folded piece of paper fell out. On the paper were the following words: “My roommate has some marijuana hidden inside a hole in his pillow.” I showed the note to Corporal Larson, the Dorm Supervisor, and since the dorm was scheduled to go to the recreation yard that afternoon, we decided to wait until then to conduct a search. At approximately 1330 hours, the inmates were escorted to the recreation yard, at which time Corporal Larson and I searched cell D-234, the cell assigned to inmate Shaw and his roommate, inmate Schneider, Jonathan. I examined Schneider’s pillow and found a hole as described by Shaw. Inside the hole, I found approximately two handfuls of a green leafy substance. I placed the substance in a clear plastic bag and called a dual sworn officer, Corrections Deputy George Abrams, to test it; it tested positive for marijuana. Inmate Schneider was brought in from the recreation yard and was questioned by Abrams. Schneider stated, “That stupid roommate of mine set me up. He wants me out of there because I won’t have anything to do with his drug business.” I placed Schneider in Administrative Confinement pending an investigation. Corporal Larson and I conducted a thorough search of the rest of D Dorm; however, no additional contraband was found. Finalizing the Report As part of the evaluating and finalizing process of a report, the officer must verify that the report is comprehensive by taking the following actions: • Again, ensure that all details, including who, when, what, where, how, why, and action taken, are fully answered. Include rule violations, if any. 49 Ch 2 Communications Section Vocabulary editing proofreading FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • Ask this question, “If I was not involved or did not witness this incident or event, would I have a clear picture of what happened after reading this report?” If the answer is yes, then you wrote a good report. • Ensure that you identified and corrected all errors. • Sign, date, and distribute the report according to agency policies and procedures. (CO2-4.4.2) Document all incidents or occurrences in a correctional facility by applying the proper elements and principles of effective report writing. The more an officer practices writing and evaluating reports, the more professional his or her reports will be. 50 CHAPTER 3 Officer Safety LESSON 1: Safety and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 LESSON 2: Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 LESSON 3: Manipulation and Deception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 LESSON 4: Contraband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 LESSON 5: Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Being a correctional officer is inherently stressful, dangerous, and possibly life threatening. Correctional officers are the first line of defense against violence, security breaches, and other safety hazards. It is the responsibility of correctional officers to provide this line of defense not only for themselves, but also for the public, facility staff, and inmates. Every aspect of these safety and security challenges must be managed at all times. Inmates have plenty of time to come up with ways to “beat the system,” violate rules, or commit criminal acts. This chapter provides an overview of safety and security concerns, identification, manipulation and deception, contraband, and searches. In order to mitigate these problems within a facility, correctional officers must be mentally present, persistent, and proactive in their duties. Ch 3 Officer Safety LESSON 1 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Safety and Security OBJECTIVES CO3-1.1.1 Describe safety hazards and security concerns for the officer. CO3-1.1.2 Describe the categories of stress that can influence officer safety. CO3-1.1.3 Define situational awareness. CO3-1.1.4 List the stages of situational awareness. CO3-1.1.5 Apply four basic skills the officer can use in evaluating a situation. CO3-1.1.6 Apply situational awareness to officer safety. Safety Hazards and Security Concerns Safety and security begins with a professional attitude. An officer who comes to work prepared creates a safe, professional work environment. An officer should come to work well-rested and physically ready to perform his or her duty. Officers should avoid missing work as much as possible. When an officer misses a shift, someone else will have to do the job. This means fewer officers will be available to watch inmates and respond to an emergency. Another aspect of an officer’s preparation is being in good physical shape. The duties of a correctional officer are often physically demanding. Officers should maintain good physical health by eating a balanced diet and exercising daily. Lack of stamina, agility and mobility can inhibit an officer’s ability to protect him- or herself as well as coworkers. For example, an officer may have to sprint long distances or climb flights of stairs and still be able to successfully control a combative inmate or assist in other emergency situations. Officers should always project a confident, competent and capable demeanor. This sends a message to inmates that an officer is capable of handling any situation. An officer should be willing to communicate and use good listening skills to avoid conflict as much as possible. Each inmate should be treated with respect. For example, if an inmate or visitor approaches with a request, keep in mind they are people and have needs. The officer must handle each situation fairly, firmly, and consistently, while remaining professional. Inmates may challenge an officer’s authority by committing minor infractions. The officer must address violations according to policy. Failure to do so may result in inmates’ behaviors escalating into a more serious problem and potential disciplinary actions against the officer and inmate. Complacency is an officer’s worst enemy. Complacency is a comfortable or relaxed state of mind, which lulls the officer into a false sense of safety and security. When an officer is complacent, he or she is not aware of what is happening or what could happen in any given situation. Officers must be aware that failure to be alert can jeopardize the safety of the officer, the general public, and the inmate. (CO3-1.1.1) Stress can affect an officer’s focus and attention to detail, which can negatively influence decision making. All officers will experience some level of job-related stress such as fear, intimidation, and anxiety. For example, being the only officer assigned to a dormitory which houses 80 inmates is a stressful situation. Stress can be minimized with proper training, knowledge of policy and procedures, and familiarity with various inmate behaviors. Not only will this knowledge reduce stress, it will also keep staff, visitors, and inmates safe. 52 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Officer Safety Ch 3 Four categories of stress an officer may experience are: a) Environmental—weather, noise levels, lighting conditions, crowded areas b) Personal—family issues, health, lack of sleep, poor eating habits, financial situation, and academic demands c) Work-related—shift work, supervisors, coworkers, contact with the general public, court appearances, and performance standards d) Self-induced—personal attitudes toward work, perception of others, and work or academic goals Personal stress can be particularly distracting, because a number of factors outside the facility can affect an officer’s focus. An officer should make an effort to leave his or her personal life at home when he or she begins a shift. This will ensure the officer is focused on the safety of the public, staff and inmates and on maintaining a secure facility. (CO3-1.1.2) Situational Awareness Situational awareness is an officer’s knowledge and understanding of the totality of circumstances, which helps facilitate effective decision making. (CO3-1.1.3) Situational awareness in a correctional setting can be described in three stages: 1) Being alert: Officers must be aware of what is going on around them at all times. Paying attention to sights and sounds helps with maintaining a high level of alertness. For example, when walking through a dormitory area, be aware of persons behind you as you take in your surroundings. Mentally visualize where a threat may appear and the options you have for responding to any potential threat. 2) Identifying a potential threat: Officers should concentrate on possible threats while remaining aware of their surroundings. This stage can occur several times during a shift. For example, while you are assigned to the recreation yard, a group of inmates suddenly and quickly approaches you for unknown reasons. The officer should observe body language, verbal tone, or any other threatening demeanor of the group. 3) Responding to a threat: Officers should focus their attention on potential threats while exhibiting intense concentration and avoiding tunnel vision, which is the narrowing of the attention field due to stress. In response to an actual threat, an officer should be mentally ahead of the threat and take appropriate action. Possible questions an officer may ask to evaluate a situation include the following: What does the inmate’s body stance, posture or positioning show? What does the inmate’s facial expression show? Is the inmate physically reaching for something or someone? Is there a communication barrier? What do the tone, volume, and pitch of the inmate’s voice show? What response is appropriate for the situation? 53 Ch 3 Officer Safety FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Could other inmates become involved? Is assistance available? Do I need backup from other personnel? How long will it take for backup to arrive? Is the area defensible? (CO3-1.1.4) Officers may use positioning, posture, observing, and listening when evaluating a situation. Positioning is placing yourself in a tactically advantageous location to observe what is occurring in an area. Positioning allows you to size up a situation while remaining in a safe place. Positioning includes the following: Keeping a safe distance—distance yourself far enough away to be safe but close enough to observe what is happening. What is considered a safe distance in a correctional setting will vary depending on the size of the location, and the demeanor and number of inmates. Assess the situation to determine a safe distance. Being familiar with your environment—know the layout of the facility and plan the best possible positioning and escape route before entering an area. Areas that are large or house large numbers of inmates may require you to change location throughout your shift. Avoid establishing a set pattern. If inmates can predict what position you will take, they may be able to gain a tactical advantage. Watching groups and individuals—place yourself in a position where you can see and hear what is going on around you. Being in a good position not only allows you to be more attentive to what is being said, but also allows inmates to know that you are paying attention to them. Always face inmates when speaking with them as it allows you to use your peripheral vision to monitor activities. When you watch them closely, inmates are less likely to commit rule violations or cause minor problems. By closely observing inmates, you can pick up on important nonverbal cues, body language and positioning. Constantly scan the area for potential threats even when watching inmates. Posture is holding your body in such a way as to show your strength, confidence, interest and control. Posture includes the following elements: Command presence—Your presence can determine whether a subject’s resistance escalates or deescalates. Command presence projects an image of confidence in your skills and abilities. If you appear to lack confidence, inmates will attempt to manipulate or deceive you. Controlled behavior—the officer demonstrates confidence and control by avoiding such distracting behaviors as foot tapping, nail biting, and fidgeting. Observing is another skill of situational awareness. Officers should be aware of any occurrence or activity, erratic mood changes, emotional outbursts, acting out, threatening behavior, and changes in inmate energy levels that may signify safety and security problems. Examples of things that may be observed include the following: an inmate uniform worn incorrectly—misplaced identification, shoe untied, belt hanging to the right or left, one pant leg rolled up physical condition of inmate—limping, bruises, bloody nose during inspection or search—broken window, graffiti on wall 54 Officer Safety Ch 3 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Active listening is a learned skill that officers use to quickly determine the context, threat, and relevance of events unfolding around them by paying attention to volume, pitch, tone, and inflection. Effective listening allows officers to pick out key and inflammatory words that could indicate trouble. Never allow personal judgment and prejudice toward an inmate to obscure your listening abilities. (CO3-1.1.5) By applying situational awareness, the officer will always be alert for potential threats, and rapidly respond to incidents before they escalate beyond control. For example, two inmates begin an argument, and the officer intervenes before a physical altercation begins, thus preserving safety. (CO3-1.1.6) Section Vocabulary active listening command presence controlled behavior observing positioning posture situational awareness 55 Ch 3 Officer Safety LESSON 2 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Identification OBJECTIVES CO3-1.2.1 Verify identity of inmate, staff, or visitor using information from photo identification or facility records. Verifying the identification of all persons entering, moving throughout, and exiting the facility is vital to safety and security. Systematic identification checks provide an accurate account of everyone entering and leaving a facility, which minimizes the potential for escapes, mistaken releases, and unauthorized entry. CO3-1.2.2 List common methods of identification. Access inside a facility is not limited to staff and inmates. Based on the facility’s entrance and identification requirements, visitors may be granted access. Visitors may include family, friends, attorneys, vendors, and volunteers. If a visitor is granted access without proper identification, a security breach has occurred. CO3-1.2.4 Describe features of personal identification documents. Agency records may be used to identify inmates, staff, visitors, or vendors. The verification process may include the use of automated or manual resources. Verifying a person’s identification may be confirmed by comparing photographs in facility records with the individual. (CO3-1.2.1) CO3-1.2.3 Specify types of valid personal identification. CO3-1.2.5 Differentiate between valid and altered or counterfeit identification. CO3-1.2.6 Compare physical appearance of inmate, staff, or visitor to their photo identification. CO3-1.2.7 List types of personal identifying marks (or physical features) that could be used to identify inmates. CO3-1.2.8 Document identity of inmate, staff or visitor. Valid Identification There are two main categories of valid identification: automated and manual. Personal knowledge or recognition of a person is not acceptable as an official method of identification. Automated Facial Recognition Software: recognizes distinct facial features and links to a database which may contain all information listed below in Types of Valid Personal Identification. Automated Visitor Registration (AVR) hand scanner: recognizes distinct fingerprint features and links to a database, which may contain identifying information for visitors and vendors. This system links authorized visitors to specific inmates they are allowed to visit. Automated Barcode Scanner: reads barcodes located on the wristband, armband or identification card and verifies information Rapid Identification System: fingerprint recognition system Biometric Identification Solution (BIS) (formerly known as AFIS) Manual Inmate Face Sheet (printed from the agency database) Inmate Gate Pass (authorizes supervised inmates to exit the secure perimeter) Inmate Files (contains all known information about the inmate) Agency Identification Card (issued to staff and visitors) Armband/Wristband (issued to inmates at intake or reception center) Government-issued cards (CO3-1.2.2) 56 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Officer Safety Ch 3 Types of Valid Personal Identification Some of the common information contained in the automated and manual identification systems includes photograph, identification number, height, weight, date of birth, Social Security number, address, race, gender, age, charge, aliases, identifying marks, receipt/release date, facility location, barcode and magnetic strip. Valid forms of identification can include the following: State driver’s license State identification card Criminal justice agency or correctional facility identification card/records U.S. military identification card U.S. passport Facility-issued inmate wrist band Birth certificate (for minors under 12 years of age) Student identification cards (CO3-1.2.3) For an identification card to be acceptable in a correctional facility, the card should contain several common features, which may include the following: photograph identification number signature personal information: -name -address -date of birth Physical features gender height weight hair color eye color scars, marks, tattoos Security features holograms—a hidden image that is visible when viewed at certain angles or with appropriate lighting, like on a driver’s license watermark—a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears lighter or darker when held up to the light raised seal—an embossed seal 57 Ch 3 Officer Safety FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 magnetic stripe or bar code—a dark stripe on the back of the identification card that contains all information on the card expiration dates—the date the identification is no longer valid (CO3-1.2.4) Valid identification is unexpired, unaltered, and may contain security features. Counterfeit identification appears to be valid, but may be missing some or all of the essential security features and information. A visitor may attempt to enter a facility using counterfeit or altered identification. Only original documents are accepted at most facilities to avoid such attempts. If, during the identification process, something appears suspicious, question the individual. Ask for information on the card that the individual should know, such as his or her date of birth or address. Examine the identification, looking for obvious alterations or inconsistencies, such as missing vital information, missing security features, raised lettering or photo re-lamination, use of different fonts, or variations in background. (CO3-1.2.5) In order to ensure a positive identification, compare the individual’s physical appearance to his or her photo identification. Features to compare include skin color, eye color, hair, facial structure, and any other distinctive features like scars or birthmarks (CO3-1.2.6). Tattoos, scars, marks or deformities can also be used to assist in identifying an individual. However, these identifiers can only be used if they have been previously documented (CO3-1.2.7). Once identification is confirmed, document the verification of the inmate, staff member, or visitor on the appropriate form or electronic record. (CO3-1.2.8) 58 Officer Safety Ch 3 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 3 | Manipulation and Deception Inmate manipulation is when an inmate attempts to get something he or she wants by influencing the officer or staff to do something they would not ordinarily do. Manipulation can be an isolated incident or an ongoing series of events. Manipulation may result in more severe consequences for the officer, staff or inmate. Deception is lying to, misleading, tricking, or fooling another person. Deception is usually more immediate or may be a habitual behavior. Manipulation and deception are difficult to distinguish, but the ultimate goal is for personal gain or to avoid disciplinary action. (CO3-1.3.1) Assume an inmate asks an officer one of the following: “Did you watch the game last night?” OBJECTIVES CO3-1.3.1 Contrast inmate manipulation and deception. CO3-1.3.2 List methods inmates use to manipulate and deceive. CO3-1.3.3 List behaviors officers should avoid to minimize inmate manipulation and deception. CO3-1.3.4 Identify visitor manipulation and deception. “Would you like a candy bar?” “Do you have a cigarette?” “You smell good, what cologne or perfume are you wearing?” While these questions might seem harmless, this could be the beginning of inmate manipulation and deception. The officer should know how to recognize and handle such questions. When manipulation and deception occur, the officer is being controlled. This jeopardizes the safety and security of staff, visitors and inmates. If the officer succumbs to inmate manipulation and deception, he or she may face disciplinary action, termination and criminal charges. Methods inmates use to manipulate and deceive correctional staff can range from subtle to extreme, such as: attempting to create bonds with staff members—an inmate going above and beyond expected job duties in an attempt to get a favor or special consideration circumventing or disobeying rules—testing the boundaries of the supervising officer using special circumstances or situations—using a disability or illness to gain preferential or special treatment distracting staff—creating a diversion to avert the officer’s attention attempting to engage staff in casual non-job related conversation—requesting personal information regarding staff, asking where the officer is from, what school the officer attended, the officer’s age or marital status, the number of children the officer has, or asking about the officer’s favorite ball team spreading rumors about staff or attempting to turn one staff member against another—discussing information about staff members with an officer. “I heard Sgt. Doe talking about you yesterday and he said that you were lazy.” 59 Ch 3 Officer Safety FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 over-familiarization with staff—knowing enough about an officer to notice a change in his or her routine attempting any illegal activity—bribery, blackmail, or offering sex Inmate manipulation and deception can also come in the form of an organized team. Inmates may coordinate and execute a plan to manipulate or deceive an officer or staff member. The participants of the team may consist of, but are not limited to, observers, contacts, runners, turners and pointmen. The following is the role of each participant: Observers observe correctional officers who use inmate jargon, ignore minor rule infractions, play favorites, enforce rules for some and not others, or are easily distracted Contacts supply information about the correctional officer’s work habits, likes and dislikes Runners usually the only paid members of the team because they must expose themselves to the correctional officer by asking for small items like candy, cigarettes, pencils, etc. Turners befriend the correctional officer and use the friendship to ultimately coerce the officer into engaging in rule infractions least suspected by the correctional officer Pointmen stand guard when the correctional officer is in the process of granting illegal favors, violating institutional rules, or being compromised or harmed Whether targeted individually or by a team, the officer will be subject to inmate manipulation and deception. Part of the officer’s job is to recognize when other staff is being manipulated and deceived as well. By staying alert and focused, officers can stop inmate manipulation and deception. (CO3-1.3.2) To avoid inmate manipulation and deception, an officer should refrain from being overly friendly or giving out personal information. Engaging in personal conversations and talking about other staff poses a serious safety and security risk. Officers should also avoid doing any personal favors for inmates such as bringing items in or removing items from the facility, or offering inmates items like food and drink. Another situation to avoid is giving one inmate authority over another inmate. This creates a power structure which then can be exploited and generates a hostile environment. Under no circumstances should an officer or staff member engage in sexual conversations or activities with inmates. Behaviors the officer should display to avoid inmate manipulation can include the following: Be part of the correctional team. Follow rules and procedures. Monitor remarks, gestures, and actions. 60 Officer Safety Ch 3 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Know your job and perform it properly. Section Vocabulary Learn to say “no” and mean it. inmate manipulation Communicate with supervisors/fellow workers when you suspect a problem. Document incidents. Address inmates by “inmate” or their last name. deception Restrict your relationship with inmates to activities and discussions that are part of your official duties. Be suspicious. Be truthful. Be professional. Be cautious. (CO3-1.3.3) Be aware of signs of manipulation and deception used by visitors. Visitors may bring gifts or offer favors to staff or use intimidation in an attempt to get staff to violate facility rules. For example, a visitor may threaten to harm staff members or their family, or to report the staff member to a supervisor. (CO3-1.3.4) 61 Ch 3 Officer Safety LESSON 4 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Contraband OBJECTIVES CO3-1.4.1 State the correctional officer’s duty to control contraband. CO3-1.4.2 Specify common categories of contraband. CO3-1.4.3 Define nuisance contraband. CO3-1.4.4 Describe nuisance contraband. CO3-1.4.5 Define hard or hazardous contraband. CO3-1.4.6 Describe hard or hazardous contraband. CO3-1.4.7 Describe common inmate weapons. CO3-1.4.8 Identify common methods of introducing contraband into correctional facilities. CO3-1.4.9 Explain methods of detecting contraband. CO3-1.4.10 Summarize common practices for collecting contraband. Correctional officers are tasked with the prevention, control, and disposal of contraband through regular and irregular searches (CO3-1.4.1). Contraband is any unauthorized article or any authorized article in excessive quantities or altered from its original state. This includes an inmate giving authorized items to another inmate. Drugs, firearms and knives are all obvious safety and security concerns. However, the presence of cell phones, unauthorized food, clothing or any contraband item poses a breach in security which endangers staff, visitors and inmates. If contraband finds its way into the facility, there is a great likelihood that other, more serious contraband may be introduced in the same way. Contraband can be categorized as either nuisance or hard/hazardous (CO3-1.4.2). Nuisance contraband is any authorized item found in excessive amounts or altered from its original state that does not pose an immediate threat to the safety or security of the staff, inmates and facility (CO3-1.4.3). Nuisance contraband includes excessive clothing, linen, laundry items, canteen and hygiene items, photos, reading materials, over-the-counter medication, or letters (CO3-1.4.4). Officers should be aware that some nuisance contraband can be used to create hard/hazardous contraband. Hard/hazardous contraband is any item that poses a serious threat to the safety and security of the staff, inmates and facility (CO3-1.4.5). Firearms, homemade knives (shanks), other weapons, drugs, intoxicating beverages, toxic materials, prescription medication, inhalants, cell phones and electronic devices that store or receive data are examples of hard/hazardous contraband. (CO3-1.4.6) CO3-1.4.11 Take possession of contraband. CO3-1.4.12 Determine when contraband is needed as evidence. CO3-1.4.13 List common types of contraband requiring chain of custody. CO3-1.4.14 Issue a receipt for confiscated contraband. CO3-1.4.15 Describe common storage methods for contraband. A homemade shank Figure 3-1 Inmates can be very creative and have ample time to think of ways to make weapons. Any item can be used as a weapon. Shanks are the most common inmate weapon and can be made from almost anything. Many common items can be turned into weapons. 62 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Officer Safety Ch 3 Sports equipment, food service equipment, office supplies, liquid substances (bleach, urine), toothbrushes, disposable razors, a heavy object placed in a sock, and writing utensils can all be used as weapons. (CO3-1.4.7) CO3-1.4.16 Photograph contraband. Contraband may enter correctional facilities by various means. Inmates, visitors, vendors, and even staff can conceal contraband in their clothing, on their person, or in other items. Other methods of introduction are through body cavities, mail, canteen or commissary items and deliveries (CO3-1.4.8). For example, an inmate may personally know one of the food delivery drivers and ask him or her to bring in contraband. The contraband is then introduced into the facility within the food items. Or, the inmate might ask the driver to take contraband out of the facility and deliver it to someone on the outside. CO3-1.4.18 Describe final disposition of contraband. Detection of Contraband Detecting and recognizing contraband is an important means of controlling and minimizing its introduction and presence in a facility. Some search methods used to detect contraband are: CO3-1.4.17 Document confiscation and disposal of contraband. CO3-1.4.19 Determine appropriate receptacles for contraband disposal. CO3-1.4.20 Describe contraband disposal methods. CO3-1.4.21 List contraband items that need special disposal. visual search—visually scanning for contraband items pat down—a physical frisk of a subject in a predetermined pattern to locate weapons or other types of contraband clothed search—utilizes the quadrant search approach in an institutional setting, by physically patting and squeezing the clothing of a person in a systematic pattern custodial search—used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured environment by physically patting and squeezing the clothing of a person in a systematic pattern cell/area search—visually and physically inspecting an area in a systematic manner metal detection—use of electronic devices to detect a metal object on or within a person or concealed within an item strip search—visually searching an unclothed person and physically searching their clothing vehicle search—visually and physically inspecting a vehicle to locate contraband body cavity search—visually and physically inspecting body openings; such searches are to be conducted by medical staff only (CO3-1.4.9) Collecting Contraband When contraband is located and identified, it is important that the items be removed or secured immediately. There are general practices that should be followed when collecting contraband. The officer should always use universal precautions and personal protective equipment (gloves, mask) when searching for and collecting contraband. The officer should never taste or smell any material found in a facility, or handle suspected 63 Ch 3 Officer Safety FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 contraband more than is absolutely necessary. Contraband could contain body fluids, communicable diseases, toxic chemicals, or filth. The officer will confiscate the contraband and store or dispose of it according to agency policy. (CO3-1.4.10) The way the item is removed depends on whether the contraband is nuisance or hard/hazardous. All contraband must be identified, confiscated, and documented. Confiscation of excessive supplies (such as extra clothing or sheets) is handled differently than confiscation of a weapon. (CO3-1.4.11) Contraband may be retained as evidence if it is part of an investigation, was used in the commission of a crime, or is required for disciplinary proceedings. The manner in which contraband is processed could determine the outcome of an investigation (CO3-1.4.12). Chain of custody is the witnessed written record of all individuals who have maintained unbroken control of the evidence since its collection. Common types of contraband stored as evidence may include weapons, illegal drugs, or items used in a serious incident or to commit a crime. Officers should take special care to follow the protocols of Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA), such as securing clothing of the victim and suspect, and DNA collection. (CO3-1.4.13) Chain of custody and inventory forms help ensure a complete and comprehensive contraband collection process. It may be necessary to issue a receipt to the appropriate individuals for confiscated unauthorized personal items not approved by the agency (CO3-1.4.14). Contraband is commonly stored in paper or plastic bags, boxes or storage bins in a secured, locked area inaccessible to inmates. Label the container with the inmate’s name and identification number, and document where it will be stored. (CO3-1.4.15) Documentation When hard or hazardous contraband is found, it may be necessary to photograph it prior to confiscation, storage, or disposal. Failure to photograph and properly document contraband could adversely impact the legal process and hinder disciplinary actions. Initiate the chain of custody for narcotics, weapons, and other dangerous items. These items should always be photographed for possible presentation in criminal proceedings. (CO3-1.4.16) When documenting the confiscation and disposal of contraband, the facility’s policy and procedure must be followed. Documentation may include an inventory of the contraband and an incident report. Include as many details as possible, such as where the contraband was found, descriptions of what was found, quantity, and method of disposal. (CO3-1.4.17) Disposition The final disposition of contraband includes either immediate disposal or storage for future inmate disciplinary action, case reference, or training purposes. Officers must document the final disposition of the collected contraband. In some instances, final disposition may involve outside investigators. For example, when a visitor attempts to introduce contraband into or remove contraband from a facility, disposition may be handled by local law enforcement. (CO3-1.4.18). Disposal The officer needs to obtain authorization prior to disposal of contraband. If nuisance contraband is found in common areas and cannot be linked to an inmate, confiscate and process according to agency policy. These items may be disposed of in receptacles, trash bins or incinerators not accessible to inmates. (CO3-1.4.19) 64 Officer Safety Ch 3 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Personal property considered contraband should be forwarded to the inmate property storage area. According to agency policy, these items may be released or mailed to the inmate’s family. Hard or hazardous contraband must be stored as evidence in a secure location. For example, with most agencies a tattoo gun may be photographed and stored (CO3-1.4.20). Officers should never be the recipient of, or take for personal use, any contraband. Section Vocabulary contraband hard/hazardous contraband nuisance contraband Items which require special disposal can include the following: Money—Although some facilities allow inmates to have money up to a specified amount, many do not allow it at all. Confiscated money should be counted in the presence of the inmate. A receipt shall be signed by staff and given to the inmate. The money may be deposited into the Inmate Welfare Fund or the inmate’s personal account. Money is not thrown away. Medication—Any unauthorized medication or authorized medication in excessive amounts will be confiscated. The facility’s medical staff or the issuing authority should become involved and determine the appropriate method of disposal. Illegal drugs—The discovery of illegal drugs in a correctional facility may lead to criminal charges. Illegal drugs should be held as evidence by the investigating agency. Weapons—Possession of a weapon may result in criminal charges, which requires the weapon to be held as evidence. Biohazardous materials—Materials such as a tattoo gun needle or soiled bed sheet may contain blood or body fluids. These items should be placed in the appropriate biohazard containers or bags and disposed of according to agency policy. (CO3-1.4.21) 65 Ch 3 Officer Safety LESSON 5 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Searches OBJECTIVES CO3-1.5.1 Describe techniques for examining visitor property. CO3-1.5.2 List types of areas to be searched. CO3-1.5.3 Conduct pat down of inmates. CO3-1.5.4 Conduct systematic search of an area. CO3-1.5.5 Describe area search methods. CO3-1.5.6 State the common search equipment used in a person search. CO3-1.5.7 Identify area search equipment. CO3-1.5.8 Document details of an area search. CO3-1.5.9 Conduct a vehicle search. Searches are vital in maintaining the safety of staff, visitors, inmates, and the security of the facility. Officers should always look for the out of place and unusual. People tend to conceal contraband wherever they think officers are least likely to look. A door that is usually locked is left ajar, dirt disturbed in the yard, or an inmate with bulging pockets: These are some indicators that a search should be initiated. Inmates may also provide information about other inmates, contraband coming in, or illicit officer activities. Searches prevent the spread of contraband, weapons and other dangerous items in a facility. A search can detect the manufacture of weapons or escape devices, or escape attempts. For example, during a fence inspection, an officer could notice a washed-out area under the fence line. This early detection could prevent an escape or possible injury. Damaged facility property and health hazards can also be discovered during a search. Universal precautions and personal protective equipment (PPE) should always be used when conducting a search to avoid exposure to biohazardous materials. Gloves can range from latex or non-latex to puncture or cut resistant, which provide varying levels of protection while conducting area and person searches. All persons entering a facility and their property, including vehicles and keys, are subject to search. When examining property, ensure all bags, briefcases, books, and papers are opened and searched for contraband. Be sure to inspect all clothing items. Check containers for hidden compartments and contraband. Officers may conduct pat down searches of visitors. Additionally some agencies may have other resources, such as scanning devices, to complement the search process. (CO3-1.5.1) Searches should be conducted in all facility areas including day rooms, cells, dormitories, recreation yards, kitchens and parking lots. Structures and furnishings also need to be searched, including bars, locks, windows, doors, bunks and chairs. Officers must search outside transport destinations, including work release sites, court rooms, or medical offices. (CO3-1.5.2) At the officer’s discretion, he or she may conduct a pat down of inmates to look for weapons and other contraband. This may include searching inmates as they enter and exit the housing area. These types of searches are intended to prevent the movement and introduction of contraband within the facility. (CO3-1.5.3) A typical dayroom in a correctional facility 66 Prior to the area search, subjects should also be searched and closely monitored. You should always ask the subject if there is any item present that would harm anyone during the course of the search, Figure 3-2 providing the subject the opportunity to divulge anything which Officer Safety Ch 3 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 may be concealed. This provides safety for the officer and prevents interference. Remove all persons from the area being searched. While visually scanning the area, make a mental plan of how the search will be conducted and select a starting point. Search in a thorough and systematic manner. Search one area or item completely before going to the next. If contraband is found, secure it and continue until the search is completed. Return property or furnishings to their original condition and position. An officer should never place his or her hands where his or her visibility is impaired. Avoid rubbing or sliding your hands over objects or clothing; a pat or pat-and-squeeze method is recommended instead. (CO3-1.5.4) Officers may use one or more of the following search patterns for outside or large areas and may use modified versions for smaller areas: Spiral search pattern—usually used by one person. The searcher begins at a central point and moves in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area. Strip/line search pattern—usually used in a predetermined area by several people. The search area is divided into lanes that are searched by one or more people in both directions until the entire area has been examined. Grid search pattern—a variation of the strip/line search pattern. It overlaps A typical cell a series of lanes in a cross pattern. Figure 3-3 Zone/quadrant search pattern—used for an area that is large. The area should be divided into four different sections and searched using one of the patterns above. (CO3-1.5.5) (See Figures 3.4-3.7, on this page and the next page.) Spiral search pattern Figure 3-4 Strip-line search pattern Figure 3-5 Spiral search pattern Figure 3-6 67 Ch 3 Officer Safety FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 While the techniques for conducting a search are important, it is also necessary to have the proper equipment. Equipment used during a person search includes gloves, metal detectors, ion and x-ray scanners, body imaging or a canine (CO3-1.5.6). Equipment for an area search includes flashlights, screwdrivers, mirrors, probing devices, collection bags or containers, and forms to record any contraband found. Various types of equipment and their uses: • Flashlights—used to illuminate dim or unlit areas. • Screwdrivers—used to remove panels or covers. Zone/quadrant search pattern Figure 3-7 • Mirrors—used for viewing areas not easily seen, such as under or behind bunks, sinks, toilets and other areas. Mirrors can also be used to search above and beneath vehicles (see Figures 3-8, 3-9 & 3-10). Using a mirror to search a transport vehicle before unloading an inmate A mirror used in searches Figure 3-8 Figure 3-9 Figure 3-10 • Probing devices—any item used to search holes, cracks, or hollow areas. One such method is using a wire to check grills, door tracks, faucets, and drains. • bags or containers used to collect contraband • notepads or forms used to record contraband found • Metal detectors (hand-held or walk through)—devices, often found at entrance and exit points of the facility, used to detect metallic objects or materials. When searching a bunk, the officer can scan the mattress instead of physically handling it. Using this method will protect the officer from possible injury and prevent the destruction of property (see Figure 3-11). • X-ray scanners—used to detect contraband in articles like shoes and clothes. • Canines and their handlers—specially trained to detect certain types of contraband such as drugs, other chemicals, and cell phones. (CO3-1.5.7) 68 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Officer Safety Ch 3 The officer should document the search details once the search is completed, using logs, electronic databases, checklists, or any other identified method. Details may include the subject’s names, locations, items confiscated, and officers who conducted the search. (CO3-1.5.8) All vehicles on facility property are subject to search, including visitors and staff vehicles. Inmate transport vehicles are of particular concern. They must be searched thoroughly before and after transport. Conduct these searches systematically. Ensure all compartments and areas are searched including above and below the vehicle, interior, exterior, engine, glove box, consoles, and tool box. (CO3-1.5.9) A hand-held metal detector used in searches Figure 3-11 Section Vocabulary grid search pattern spiral search pattern strip/line search pattern zone/quadrant search pattern 69 CHAPTER 4 Facility and Equipment UNIT 1: EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT LESSON 1: Issuing, Receiving and Documenting Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .72 LESSON 2: Weapons in a Correctional Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 UNIT 2: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND SENSITIVE SUPPLIES LESSON 1: Hazardous Materials and Sensitive Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 UNIT 3: ENTERING, EXITING AND MOVING WITHIN FACILITIES LESSON 1: Security Equipment and Moving Within Secured Areas . . . . . . .79 UNIT 4: INSPECTIONS LESSON 1: Inspection Criteria and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 UNIT 5: SECURITY LESSON 1: Security Standards and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 LESSON 2: Perimeter Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 UNIT 6: FACILITY SAFETY CONCERNS LESSON 1: Identifying and Resolving Safety Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 UNIT 7: SANITATION AND HEALTH LESSON 1: Sanitation Standards and Environmental Health . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Correctional officers are responsible for equipment and materials used to keep correctional facilities clean, safe, and secure. It is important for a correctional officer to have a basic knowledge of standard equipment used, including weapons, hazardous materials, and sensitive supplies. Officers must be very familiar with common problems found when managing equipment; this will help them complete their duty to support the safe and efficient operation of equipment, and to provide a safe environment for inmates, staff and visitors. Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 1 | EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT LESSON 1 | Issuing, Receiving, and Documenting Equipment OBJECTIVES CO4-1.1.1 List common equipment and accessories for issue. CO4-1.1.2 Describe reasons for inspection of equipment. CO4-1.1.3 Inspect equipment. CO4-1.1.4 Inspect equipment to be issued. CO4-1.1.5 Remove from service any substandard equipment. CO4-1.1.6 Describe the dangers of improperly handling equipment. CO4-1.1.7 Confirm identity of persons receiving equipment. CO4-1.1.8 Document issue of equipment. CO4-1.1.9 Document receipt of equipment. CO4-1.1.10 List common equipment and accessories requiring inventory. CO4-1.1.11 Illustrate a systematic approach for counting equipment. CO4-1.1.12 Document inventory of equipment. CO4-1.1.13 Verify equipment against written documentation. A correctional officer is responsible for identifying and properly accounting for inventory and issuing and storing equipment. Officers must properly account for all equipment under their control, and know how to safely and efficiently operate various types of equipment. Equipment is assigned for use in specific areas, such as inmate living quarters, food service areas, building maintenance, health care services, and security. Though some equipment may be assigned to specially trained staff, officers will be trained by their respective agencies to identify, manage, and inventory all common equipment used at their facility. Common equipment and accessories that can be issued to individuals include the following: • security equipment, such as radios, restraints, weapons, and chemical agents • housing equipment, such as search mirrors, restraints, and personal protective equipment (used while entering housing units for searches, to address disturbances, etc.) (CO4-1.1.1) Inspecting Equipment Inspecting equipment ensures the equipment will be available and ready for use when needed. Inspecting equipment is important for safety reasons, and to verify responsibility if something is broken. If not inspected periodically, equipment may be neglected. Neglect can result in damage, such as when poor vehicle maintenance causes mechanical problems. Likewise, poorly maintained or improperly inspected items such as electronic control devices can cause malfunctions, and even result in injury or death (CO4-1.1.2). Inspection involves confirming that the item works, that it has the correct serial number or property identification number, and that it has not passed its expiration date, if one is present. (CO4-1.1.3) Officers should inspect their own equipment to make sure it is sound, safe, and working properly. They should also inspect equipment before issuing it or receiving it back into the inventory (CO4-1.1.4). Additionally, before issuing or receiving equipment, the issuing officer must remove any substandard equipment from the inventory. (CO4-1.1.5). CO4-1.1.15 Secure equipment. Officers should use caution when inspecting items during issue and receipt. Mishandling equipment can hurt an officer or hurt others, or break the equipment. Mishandling may include incorrectly identifying equipment, not using equipment for its intended purpose, or using equipment without proper training. (CO4-1.1.6) CO4-1.1.16 Identify common secured storage areas in a correctional facility. Issuing Equipment CO4-1.1.14 Describe the consequences of improperly storing equipment. Each agency has its own identification system to ensure the person receiving or returning the equipment is authorized to handle the item. If one of the officer’s duties is to issue or receive equipment in the correctional facility, he or she will be involved in verifying 72 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 the recipient’s identity, and documenting the activity. Officers might check ID cards or a digital database to verify a person’s identity. (CO4-1.1.7) To ensure the correct equipment is issued and received, an officer should compare the item to be issued against information found in a database or log, such as appearance or serial numbers. The officer should document the time, date, item, item number, and the names of the issuing and receiving officers. Signatures or identification numbers may be required (CO4-1.1.8). The officer may also need to document the condition of equipment when items are received back into inventory and should always document their receipt. (CO4-1.1.9) Facility and Equipment Ch 4 CO4-1.1.17 Store equipment after inventory. CO4-1.1.18 Identify reasons for tool and equipment control. CO4-1.1.19 List tools considered hazardous in a correctional setting. Inventorying Equipment Inventorying is the process of compiling a complete list of tools or equipment on hand. Common equipment and accessories that should be inventoried include the following: • building equipment—including maintenance tools and materials used to complete common upkeep and repairs • sanitation equipment—used for inmate living areas, such as brooms, mops, cleaning carts, and cleaning supplies • health care equipment and accessories—such as medical supplies, dental tools, and restraints • food service equipment—including serving utensils, trays, dishes, and cookware (CO4-1.1.10) Counting equipment is a vital part of inventory procedures. To count equipment efficiently, organize the equipment so it is easy to see. You should have an orderly method or plan you follow to physically count items by hand, such as laying items out in order, or grouping similar items together before the count. Keep track of items that cannot be grouped together, such as heavy equipment or sensitive supplies. You may keep a mental or written list as you count to keep track of your progress before you enter in the official count. Be sure to compare the number of items previously listed in the inventory against the actual number of items you count. Some agencies use shadow boards to store items; an outline of each item is traced onto a board where the item is hung. When the item is not returned to the board, it is easy to see what is missing. (CO4-1.1.11) It is important to correctly identify what is in the inventory. Inventory control techniques for identification include the following: • Etch the inventory control number on the tool. • Compare the tool markings with recorded facility markings. • Color-code items by classification, e.g., restricted or non-restricted. • Use inventory lists with descriptions and numbers together. • Use prepared spaces on a shadow board for storage. 73 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Your agency will train you in the proper procedures for inventory control and documentation; the agency may use logs, inventory sheets, or an electronic database. Maintaining accurate logs during inventory is important for identifying the location of equipment. Reviewing logs is commonly done before, during and after shifts to verify what equipment has been issued. Logs allow you to identify when an item is missing, not in inventory, or when an item has been issued, replaced, or repaired (CO4-1.1.12). Each agency’s policies for inventory control will determine how responsibilities will be assigned, whether by shift, area, job assignment, or equipment type. Documentation used in inventory and storage processes should be cataloged and preserved. Forms or logs are archived and kept for a period of time in order to be made available for later review, and for public record. There may be a master inventory log or a daily inventory sheet to document items in the inventory that are issued or returned. (CO4-1.1.13). Storing Equipment A correctional officer is responsible for properly storing all equipment in his or her care and control. If the officer is not paying attention, items can be stolen and used to aid in an escape or assault. Types of equipment that can be used in escapes or assaults include tools, chemical agents, electronic control devices, restraint devices, or other nonlethal weapons. (CO4-1.1.14) Equipment must be stored in secure, designated areas. Equipment is considered secured when access is limited to authorized persons. Secured storage areas may be considered temporary or permanent (CO4-1.1.15). Secured storage areas commonly found in a correctional facility include an armory, a mini-arsenal, caustic chemicals locker, master tool room, a tool cage, an exterior building, or any designated room within the facility. (CO4-1.1.16) Equipment is stored in its proper area immediately after inventory to preserve the integrity of the inventory, to assure that equipment is ready for reissue, and for security reasons. Where an item is stored is based upon the type of equipment and agency resources. (CO4-1.1.17) Managing Hazardous Equipment Correctional officers will encounter times where they need to use hazardous equipment or tools. Inmates may also use hazardous tools while under staff supervision when completing work assignments. Tools are considered especially dangerous when they are automated, sharp, heavy, or awkward to manipulate. Correctional officers are responsible for tool and equipment control for safety reasons; these tools can be used by inmates to commit a crime, such as an assault on another person, to damage the facility, or to aid in an escape. (CO4-1.1.18) A list of tools considered hazardous in a correctional setting includes the following: • basic construction tools: hammer, screwdriver, pliers, shovel, ladder, and hoses • power tools: electric drill, jigsaw, chainsaw • cutting tools: band saw, handsaw, hacksaw • building and grounds maintenance equipment: painting supplies, lawn mower, pipe wrench • culinary instruments: knife, cleaver, cooking fork, spit, or skewer • medical/dental instruments with sharp points or cutting edges (CO4-1.1.19) 74 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 UNIT 1 | EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT LESSON 2 | Weapons in a Correctional Facility Weapons and Ammunition Each agency may choose to issue certain firearms and ammunition depending upon the correctional officer’s training and qualifications. Some agencies do not issue duty weapons and ammunition to their correctional staff. Some weapons, such as firearms, are lethal weapons (deadly force), and some weapons are considered nonlethal. The purpose of a nonlethal weapon is to incapacitate a person. Nonlethal weapons include electronic control devices, impact weapons, and chemical agents such as Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Spray. (CO4-1.2.1) Firearms are not carried by staff while on duty inside a correctional facility, but in an emergency, command staff may authorize issuance of firearms. If an agency permanently issues firearms and ammunition to staff, staff will be required to secure these in designated storage areas or secured lockers upon entering the facility. A correctional officer with a firearm secured at the facility must retrieve it upon leaving the facility. When being issued weapons and ammunition, the recipient’s identity must be verified. Each agency will have its own identification system, such as identification cards, weapons cards, or digital database checks (CO4-1.2.2). The officer issuing weapons and ammunition will need to process documents authorizing the transaction. The authorizing documentation will contain details of the firearm or weapon, e.g., serial number, physical characteristics, etc., and information on the receiving officer, authorizing his or her eligibility to receive the weapons and ammunition. Signatures may be required by your agency for each transaction (CO4-1.2.3). The issuing officer will document the time, date, make, model and serial number, total rounds of ammunition, and the name of the receiving officer (CO4-1.2.4). The officer in charge of equipment should perform a safety check when issuing or receiving any firearm. Inspecting firearms and other weapons for issue involves checking the physical parts of the weapon for operational soundness, completing a safety check, and making sure the ammunition is the proper type and is in good condition. The recipient of the firearm will also perform a safety check (CO4-1.2.5). After an officer has verified that an individual has been authorized to receive a weapon, and the weapon has been inspected, the weapon and ammunition can be given to the individual. The person receiving the items must properly record the transaction. Both individuals must use caution during this process because mishandling the firearm can result in injury or death. (CO4-1.2.6) OBJECTIVES CO4-1.2.1 Describe the different types of weapons that are issued in a correctional facility. CO4-1.2.2 Verify identification of persons authorized to receive weapons or ammunition. CO4-1.2.3 Interpret weapon and ammunition authorization documents. CO4-1.2.4 Document weapons or ammunition issued. CO4-1.2.5 Inspect weapons or ammunition to be issued. CO4-1.2.6 Provide weapon or ammunition to an authorized individual. 75 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 2 | HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND SENSITIVE SUPPLIES LESSON 1 | Hazardous Materials and Sensitive Supplies OBJECTIVES CO4-2.1.1 Define hazardous materials. CO4-2.1.2 Summarize information found on Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). CO4-2.1.3 Identify guidelines for control of hazardous materials. Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials are substances (solids, liquids, or gases) that when released may be capable of causing harm to people, the environment, and property (CO4-2.1.1). Safely managing dangerous, hazardous materials and sensitive supplies in a correctional facility requires an understanding of the proper care, storage and control of these items which will promote a safe working environment for staff and inmates. Hazardous materials include the following: • acids CO4-2.1.4 Record the identity of a person receiving sensitive supplies. • bleach CO4-2.1.5 Describe common sensitive supplies. • glue CO4-2.1.6 Identify food items that can be used to produce illegal substances. CO4-2.1.7 Describe the dangers of improperly handling sensitive supplies. CO4-2.1.8 Describe maintenance and care of sensitive supplies. • insecticides • gasoline A correctional officer needs to be able to read and understand the manufacturers’ guidelines and the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) in order to properly handle hazardous materials. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards require that all that MSDS documents are available to anyone who comes in contact with a potentially hazardous substance. Information found on the MSDS includes the following: CO4-2.1.9 List safe handling procedures for sensitive supplies. I. Product Description—identifying name, description and distributor CO4-2.1.10 Monitor the use of sensitive supplies. III. Hazardous Ingredients—chemical makeup II. Health Hazard Data—effects of exposure and first aid procedures IV. Special Protection and Precautions—hygiene, engineering controls (ventilation, etc.) and personal protective equipment V. Transportation and Regulatory Data—how to transport or store materials safely VI. Spill Procedures/Waste Disposal VII. Reactivity Data—Interactions with other chemicals VIII. Fire and Explosion Data—flammability IX. Physical Data—acidity, solubility and specific gravity (CO4-2.1.2) Properly managing hazardous materials includes inventory control, and monitoring the location and issue of these supplies. An officer must know how to control the inventory and have a general knowledge of the use of these items, and an understanding of how hazardous materials and supplies can become a danger when misused. 76 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 Guidelines for controlling hazardous materials require the correctional officer to do the following: • issue items only to authorized staff • record staff name, date, amount, description of material issued, when it is returned, and in what condition • supervise inmates using hazardous materials closely • perform frequent inventories • keep items in secured storage area • store items in original containers • store gasoline in approved safety cans (CO4-2.1.3) Sensitive Supplies Sensitive supplies refer to supplies used throughout the facility for health, sanitation, or housing maintenance. It is especially important to record the identity of any person receiving sensitive supplies (CO4-2.1.4). Common sensitive supplies include medical equipment, medicine, industrial strength cleaners, or other substances used for facility maintenance. These items can be easily misused or pose a hazard. These supplies may or may not be considered hazardous materials, and can be used for different purposes in the facility, such as maintaining vehicles, cleaning and maintaining buildings, addressing pest control problems, for laundry services, to clean firearms, or for medical purposes. Examples of sensitive supplies include, but are not limited to, paints, fuel, oil, cleaning solvents, wax, window cleaner, gun oils, solvents, thinners, and bleach. (CO4-2.1.5) Food service operations use sensitive supplies, such as cooking oils, vanilla, yeast, and nutmeg, which must be controlled at all times. Some items can be used to produce illegal substances, such as alcohol produced with yeast, sugar and fruit. Pepper can be used to incapacitate a person (CO4-2.1.6). It is important to use supplies only for the purpose for which they were intended. You need to follow instructions and follow any listed instructions and precautions. Improper handling of sensitive supplies can result in items becoming contaminated or dangerous, which may result in injury or death. Sensitive supplies may become volatile when in contact with other chemical substances, or when exposed to temperature changes or movement. (CO4-2.1.7). To properly maintain and care for sensitive supplies, an officer must be careful to do the following: • Issue and transport supplies according to the MSDS. • Use appropriate safety gear or protection, e.g., gloves, masks, eye protection. • Handle supplies only after receiving proper training. • Never mix cleaning supplies. • Be careful and thoughtful while moving supplies. • Ensure a well-ventilated area when necessary. • Close containers. • Properly dispose of used cleaning supplies and rags. • Appropriately supervise use of all supplies. (CO4-2.1.8) Sensitive supplies may become volatile when in contact with other chemical substances, or when exposed to temperature changes or movement. 77 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment Section Vocabulary hazardous materials FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Safe handling procedures for sensitive supplies involve the following: • Store sensitive supplies in proper containers, such as boxes (wooden, paper, plastic), drums (metal, plastic), cylinders (metal, plastic), and bags (multi-walled paper, multi-walled plastic). • Follow inventory processes. • Keep supplies clean and securely closed. • Remove any substandard items. (CO4-2.1.9) Facilities often receive sensitive supplies in a concentrated form. These supplies need to be diluted before use. You must be aware of possible allergic reactions when supplies are handled or mixed. Each agency will vary as to how it monitors the use of sensitive supplies and identifies and manages requests and purchases by using logs, charts, and electronic databases. (CO4-2.1.10) 78 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 UNIT 3 | ENTERING, EXITING AND MOVING WITHIN FACILITIES LESSON 1 | Security Equipment and Moving Within Secured Areas Security Equipment Security equipment is defined as any item or technology used to enhance or maintain OBJECTIVES protection, and to ensure safety (CO4-3.1.1). Security equipment can be electronic, such as a security camera. Gates or barriers are also a form of security equipment. This equipment may confine a person or allow an officer to watch the activities of inmates. The purpose of security equipment is to alert staff of any unauthorized activity, and to discourage unauthorized movement. (CO4-3.1.2) CO4-3.1.1 Define security equipment. Correctional officers need to identify proper handling procedures and be knowledgeable about approved methods for managing security equipment. Officers need to become thoroughly familiar with the different types of security equipment at the correctional facility and the process for issuing and authorizing the use of security equipment. Types of security equipment in a correctional facility include equipment for personal security, such as a body alarm system, or equipment used to preserve normal facility operations, such as radios, perimeter alert systems, perimeter lights, cameras, or microwave systems (movement detection). A perimeter is a secure area that surrounds a facility and is an element of security. Perimeters may be large walls, single or double fences, or any other barriers that prevent unauthorized exit or entry. CO4-3.1.4 Define sally port. Other types of institutional security equipment include the following: CO4-3.1.9 Identify precautions for operating manual and electronic gates and doors. • gates and sally port gates—entrances that open in sequence, one after the other to confine a person in the space in between CO4-3.1.2 Describe the uses for security equipment. CO4-3.1.3 Describe types of security equipment. CO4-3.1.5 State procedures for proper operation of a sally port. CO4-3.1.6 Operate manual and electronic doors. CO4-3.1.7 Describe types of manual and electronic locking systems. CO4-3.1.8 Operate remote control panels for gates and cell doors. • doors CO4-3.1.10 Secure gate or door. • locks CO4-3.1.11 Report presence of person(s) entering or exiting secure area. • surveillance devices which enable you to view others’ activities from a distance • internal alarm systems designed to alert staff when an unauthorized activity occurs • contraband or metal detection systems CO4-3.1.12 Confirm authorization of person(s) or vehicle(s) entering or exiting a secure area. • razor wire (CO4-3.1.3) Available security equipment and the application of security measures will differ according to each agency’s resources. Security measures and the application of security technology also depend upon the job duties which may require certain devices, e.g., electronic shields, restraint devices, chemical agents, detection systems, radios, etc. Agencies may apply security measures differently in confinement units, entrances, exits, or special areas. 79 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Entry and Exit Equipment Agencies can vary in the equipment, systems, and operational procedures they utilize for entering or exiting the correctional facility, or restricting movement throughout the facility. Movement into or out of a facility, or within secure areas, can be controlled at every entrance and exit through a variety of gates and doors. One special structure for controlling movement is a sally port gate. A sally port is a system of two openings (doors or gates) designed to open only one at a time. This is used to control the movement of either vehicles or pedestrians by creating a secure area between the two openings (CO4-3.1.4). Sally ports can be operated manually or by remote control. The following steps outline the operation of a sally port system: • Identify persons or vehicles to be admitted or released. • Verify authorization for admittance or release. • Report the activity/presence of persons or vehicles, if required. • Open the first gate of the sally port. • Once persons or vehicles have cleared that gate’s threshold, close the gate. • Search persons and vehicles when both gates are closed, if required. • Open the second gate after the first gate has closed completely. Never have both gates open at the same time, unless emergency situations dictate otherwise. • Close the second gate after persons or vehicles have cleared the threshold. • Report the movement of persons or vehicles. • Record the movement of persons or vehicles through the gates or sally port in a log. (CO4-3.1.5) Staff should be alert and attentive during the operation of doors and gates as they are opened and closed both for security and safety reasons. Doors or gates are opened either manually or electronically (CO4-3.1.6). Doors that allow one section of passage to be closed before opening another section 80 Figure 4-1 A sally port gate within an enclosed garage Figure 4-2 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 A transport van enters a sally port gate upon arrival at a correctional facility Figure 4-3 An exterior sally port gate large enough for vehicles to pass through Locking systems on doors and gates can be manual or electronic. Manual locking devices consist of doors, gates, or windows that are operated by keys, locks, chains, levers, or cranks. Electronic locking devices consist of doors, gates, or windows operated by a system of electronic switches, panels, buttons, and key cards (CO4-3.1.7). Remote control panel systems for gates and cell doors may differ in their function and operation. To operate these panels, you may need to push a button, flip a switch, turn a knob, or touch a screen (CO4-3.1.8). Injuries and escapes are major concerns during gate and door operations of sally port systems. Keep all items (vehicles, equipment, and extremities) clear of the gate’s moving parts during operation. You should know the location of the manual or operational safety overrides on the gate in case of an emergency (CO4-3.1.9). Staff should be alert and attentive during the operation of doors and gates when they are opened and closed for both security and safety reasons. Figure 4-4 Section Vocabulary perimeter sally port security equipment In order to prevent escapes, officers must make sure that doors are closed correctly and are not manipulated or tampered with. If the locking mechanism is not functioning appropriately, report it immediately so that it can be fixed as soon as possible. (CO4-3.1.10) The officer will notify appropriate personnel of the entry or exit of individuals by completing logs, and by making phone and radio calls (CO4-3.1.11). Using a person’s identification, it must be confirmed whether he or she is authorized to enter or exit an area. Information collected will usually include items such as the driver’s license, state identification information, tag number, make, model and color of vehicle, or other official documentation. (CO4-3.1.12) 81 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 4 | INSPECTIONS LESSON 1 | Inspection Criteria and Methods OBJECTIVES CO4-4.1.1 List criteria for performing facility inspections. CO4-4.1.2 Identify criteria for performing inspections. CO4-4.1.3 Describe common inspection equipment. CO4-4.1.4 List items needed to record inspections. CO4-4.1.5 Describe facility inspection techniques. Inspections Depending upon the type of inspection being conducted, an officer may follow a list, schedule, or check-off sheet. The type of equipment needed depends upon the purpose and location of the inspection. Inspections must be thorough, systematic, timely, and safe (CO4-4.1.1). Criteria may include confirming the presence and functionality of equipment assigned, and following a schedule for inspections. Inspections are generally done on a regular schedule, and also conducted before or after a specific activity, such as visitation, recreation, or inmate transports. (CO4-4.1.2) Common items are used for inspection, such as flashlights, mirrors, gloves, and probes (a probe can be as simple as a pencil) (CO4-4.1.3). Common items used to record inspections include logs, writing pads, inventory lists, and report forms. (CO4-4.1.4) To complete a basic inspection, the officer will do the following: CO4-4.1.6 Inspect facility for property damage. • Begin the inspection at a specific location. CO4-4.1.7 Inspect facility for structural deficiencies. • Make sure the equipment operates properly. • Inspect in an orderly sequence. • Record any deficiencies found during the inspection. • Make any possible on-the-spot corrections. • Leave the area the way it was found, never in disorder. Inspections must be done systematically. Identify starting and ending points, and then organize the inspection in a step-by-step process. Inspection techniques may also include taking notes and closing doors when finished. (CO4-4.1.5) To inspect a facility for structural or property damage, the officer will: • Schedule the inspection. • Consult the agency’s inspection guidelines for each type of inspection. • Be familiar with the structure. • Review safety procedures for the operation of equipment to be used for the inspection. • As determined by the type of inspection, the officer may search inmates, remove inmates from the area to be inspected, and place inmates under supervision until the conclusion of the inspection. • Check area for cleanliness, structural integrity, and safety. • Review documentation as available and appropriate to complete the inspection and ensure its accuracy. (CO4-4.1.6) 82 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 The officer should inspect for structural deficiencies by making sure that the structure has not been tampered with, and to confirm proper functioning of its components. Structural deficiencies generally refer to issues that affect normal operation or functionality of buildings, and their security. Officers should routinely examine their surroundings to make sure equipment such as gates, doors, and locks are operational. Some structural deficiencies require special equipment or special training to conduct an inspection. In these instances, special inspection methods are sometimes used. For example, inspecting windows on the second floor of a building at night may require a ladder and a flashlight. Another example would be inspecting fire fighting equipment or testing gas lines, both of which may require special training. (CO4-4.1.7) 83 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 5 | SECURITY LESSON 1 | Security Standards and Inspections OBJECTIVES CO4-5.1.1 Summarize institutional security standards. CO4-5.1.2 Identify the officer’s responsibility for providing security. CO4-5.1.3 Identify security concerns while inspecting a correctional facility. CO4-5.1.4 Perform security check. CO4-5.1.5 Initiate the correction of security deficiencies. Security Standards One of a correctional officer’s important duties is to provide security for the facility by enforcing security standards. Security standards are the checks and balances that exist to preserve the operational effectiveness of the facility. These standards ensure the care, custody and control of inmates and the supervision of visitors within the facility. Security standards ensure the health, safety and well-being of all persons in the facility and include definitions of contraband, preventing the introduction of contraband, and methods of confiscation. (CO4-5.1.1) A correctional officer is responsible for the security of the entire facility as well as his or her assigned work area. To ensure safety and security, the officer will conduct general security inspections throughout the day. Inspection methods and schedules are followed based upon the work assignment or assigned work area. The officer’s responsibility to provide security may involve reviewing the integrity of the perimeter, fencing, windows, doors, lighting elements, and furniture to make sure they are sound and operational (no loose nuts, bolts, broken furniture pieces, etc.), and the proper functioning of locks, keys, and microwave systems (motion detectors). The officer will need to apply situational awareness by observing activity and the surroundings for any potential problems, and be prepared to address any security concerns immediately. Officers should use four of their five senses: seeing, hearing, smelling, and touching—when performing security inspections. (CO4-5.1.2) Security levels must be maintained to support the normal operations of the facility and response during emergencies. Security measures require maintaining appropriate levels of supervision, securing and managing the environment, following basic facility rules, and enforcing proper behavior and conduct of inmates. This is accomplished by performing security inspections and security checks. Security inspections are done to verify “known” elements involved in security, whereas a security check is performed for the purpose of checking for “unknowns,” or the unexpected. Conducting security inspections serves to verify operational norms, or “knowns,” and may include the following: • Testing security casings, locks, and keys of all openings. • Checking for broken windows, cut screens, cracked skylights, defective hinges, loose or scarred bars, uplifted floor tiles, or holes in walls. • Checking compounds, warehouses, perimeter buildings, storage areas, work areas, service areas (libraries, training facilities), and fences for structural damage. • Checking audible alarms and microwave systems for proper function. 84 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 • Checking window bars, gates, fences, and emergency exits for free operation. • Testing communications and audiovisual monitoring devices for proper function. • Examining fire extinguishers and fire hoses to make sure they work. • Checking lights and other electrical systems. • Checking plumbing, heating, and ventilation systems. (CO4-5.1.3) Examples of locations where an officer needs to conduct more frequent security inspections are cell rooms, dorms, and day rooms. Officers should also frequently inspect medical areas or hospital rooms. Inmates who are temporarily housed in these locations will require extra supervision due to escape attempts at these types of facilities. Another example would be at a mental health clinic where inmates receive treatment. The mental health facility may not require or allow mechanical restraints. The lack of restraints can pose an increased security risk when new routines and requirements are introduced, and security is reduced. Inspections must be performed upon an inmate’s arrival to any clinic or hospital room, while they are there, and after they leave. How often a security check is performed will be based upon the security standards in place, the agency’s protocols, or in response to special conditions, such as an imminent escape. Security checks are varied in schedule so that inmates do not expect them. Checks will be done more frequently if the facility is in a lockdown status, or in a high security situation. An officer may initiate a security check based on an observation. The officer should inform staff of the intention to do a security check. An officer might complete security checks alone, or with another correctional officer. An officer should check all structures in the facility, such as doors, closets, windows, and locks. Cell doors should be opened to make sure they work. Security checks may also include monitoring video, either live camera feeds or recorded tapes. (CO4-5.1.4) You may be able to resolve a deficiency found during an inspection if available resources allow. Examples of deficiencies found as a result of inspections can include broken locks, bent or broken keys, malfunctioning hardware on doors and gates, inoperable camera or video surveillance equipment, and broken control panels. When you find a deficient item that poses a danger, you must notify your supervisor immediately and follow the supervisor’s directions to resolve the concern. When a deficiency is identified and addressed, a follow-up inspection will be conducted. In other cases, more formal action may be needed, in which trained personnel are called in to resolve the deficiency. (CO4-5.1.5) 85 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 5 | SECURITY LESSON 2 | Perimeter Security OBJECTIVES CO4-5.2.1 Describe methods of patrolling the perimeter. CO4-5.2.2 Describe common security perimeter discrepancies. CO4-5.2.3 Perform a communications check. CO4-5.2.4 Notify staff of the disposition of a security check. CO4-5.2.5 Document patrol of the perimeter. CO4-5.2.6 Secure impacted areas while resolving a perimeter deficiency. Perimeter Security Correctional officers are responsible for maintaining security levels of the perimeter for operational readiness. They must also be prepared to respond to perimeter security deficiencies. Perimeters are often monitored or patrolled on both a regular and an irregular basis, either on foot or with vehicles. The perimeter may also be monitored through video surveillance, armed observation towers, stationary posts or stationary vehicles (where correctional staff remain in the area for observation), or in roving vehicles patrolling a facility. (CO4-5.2.1) Discrepancies may be identified through inspections or during regular patrols. Security discrepancies of a perimeter can involve barrier failure, inoperable communications systems, or weather-related events which negatively impact the integrity or visibility of the perimeter and the facility. Security discrepancies can also occur as a result of staff negligence, or when a correctional officer is not paying attention to details. A security breach can be any of the following: unauthorized inmate activity either near the perimeter or in a usually unoccupied area, inmates with changed clothing attempting to approach a perimeter, items hanging in windows, broken windows, civilians or vehicles approaching the perimeter from the outside, or inmates approaching perimeters while persons are outside. (CO4-5.2.2) While patrolling the perimeter, an officer should regularly check in with the appropriate staff. This communications check should include the officer’s location and the perimeter status (CO4-5.2.3). Officers are responsible for following established protocols, such as notifying their supervisor when a perimeter check is completed. You should let staff know about any security concerns by using the radio or telephone, and keeping written or digital logs. (CO4-5.2.4) The officer must document perimeter patrols. Types of information to include in the perimeter report include the following: • condition of gates and fences, windows, lights, cameras • unfamiliar and unsecured vehicles in the parking lot (CO4-5.2.5) Razor wire tops a fence on the perimeter of a correctional facility 86 There is a heightened level of security and awareness when responding to an identified security deficiency. When taking steps to resolve a Figure 4-5 security discrepancy, the response could include immediately locking down the facility, performing a thorough security check, and formally counting the inmates. Additional staff may be assigned to the perimeter FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 to accommodate security needs while the deficiency is addressed. Other agencies may be requested to supplement staff as necessary. Depending on the severity of the deficiency, specially trained response teams may be called in to assist. (CO4-5.2.6) UNIT 6 | FACILITY SAFETY CONCERNS LESSON 1 | Identifying and Resolving Safety Concerns Safety Standards The correctional officer has a responsibility to maintain a safe environment for staff, visitors and inmates. This involves applying knowledge of basic facility rules, regulations and standards for operation. Providing a safe environment also involves providing appropriate levels of supervision, and communicating instructions to inmates for maintaining good behavior. (CO4-6.1.1) It is essential that a correctional officer be aware of hazards that influence safety. Areas of safety concern include all areas of the facility, such as grounds, dining halls, recreation areas, housing areas, work crews, medical areas, visitation areas, the control center, officer stations, sally ports, and the chapel (CO4-6.1.2). Some safety standards and guidelines are uniform throughout each agency, and other standards may depend upon the accrediting association of which the agency is a member. Safety standards reflect the mission of the facility, and can address equipment management, such as chemical labeling and equipment storage procedures. Operational safety standards for facilities include guidelines for inmate classification, lighting, space, temperature, air control, dietary concerns, and the ratio of inmates to staff. The safety standards each agency observes will depend upon accreditation guidelines from OBJECTIVES CO4-6.1.1 Summarize the officer’s responsibility for providing safety. CO4-6.1.2 Specify general areas of safety concern in a correctional facility. CO4-6.1.3 Identify guidelines related to institutional safety standards. CO4-6.1.4 List potential hazards in a correctional facility. CO4-6.1.5 Identify factors influencing safety in a correctional setting. CO4-6.1.6 Initiate the correction of safety deficiencies. 87 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 organizations that govern those standards. These organizations include Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Florida Correctional Accreditation Commission (FCAC), American Corrections Association (ACA), Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS), the National Detention Standards (NDS), and the Florida Administrative Codes (FAC) 33 and 64E-11 (food service operations). (CO4-6.1.3.) Potential hazards that could cause unsafe conditions include the following: • exits covered and not accessible, or exit light not operable or visible • cluttered walkways, which could potentially cause injuries from falls • water fountains leaking or overflowing • inadequate number of fire extinguishers • inmates smoking in bed or other unauthorized areas • frayed electrical cords • inadequate electrical grounding • loose items on floors • improper use of tools and equipment • failure to wear safety equipment • spills on floor surfaces • unattended cooking pots; scattered cooking utensils • grease build-ups in hood systems and around cooking surfaces • disorderly conduct in dining area • improperly maintained fire extinguishing equipment (CO4-6.1.4) Correcting Safety Deficiencies As a correctional officer, you should resolve safety concerns that influence safety in a correctional setting. These concerns deal with inmate housing and retaining proper visual and auditory surveillance. An officer must apply reasonable judgment when enforcing policies and addressing concerns. Factors that influence safety can involve deficiencies in equipment or the facility’s structure. Equipment such as fire alarms, emergency lights, fire extinguishers, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs), hand rails, and improperly stored equipment can pose a safety concern when it is deficient. Inspections may require that you touch or visually inspect items, compare components with manuals, compare an item’s normal functioning to its current status, look for expiration dates, and determine that it is serviceable. Other factors that can influence safety in the facility include structural deficiencies related to poor conditions, or facility layout or design that pose a potential for disruptions of normal facility operations. (CO4-6.1.5) An officer may be able to resolve a discrepancy during an inspection if available resources allow. When you find a dangerous item, you must notify your supervisor immediately and follow the supervisor’s directions 88 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 to resolve the safety concern. When a deficiency is identified and addressed, a followup inspection will be conducted. In other cases, more formal action may be needed, where trained personnel will be called in to resolve the deficiency. (CO4-6.1.6) UNIT 7 | SANITATION AND HEALTH LESSON 1 | Sanitation Standards and Environmental Health Sanitation Standards Sanitation standards are guided by F.S. §944.31, which refers to requirements for facilities to provide clean, orderly and safe surroundings for inmates and staff. How sanitation needs are addressed is determined by each agency’s resources and is guided by professional standards, such as the Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS), the Florida Administrative Codes (FAC), and through accreditation agencies. OBJECTIVES CO4-7.1.1 Identify institutional sanitation standards. CO4-7.1.2 Describe the elements of a sanitation plan. Institutional sanitation standards ensure that the facility environment is healthy, clean, and disease free. Maintaining good standards has a positive effect on the public, staff and inmates. (CO4-7.1.1) CO4-7.1.3 List components of a complete environmental health program. A correctional facility’s sanitation plan outlines the standards for and methods used to inspect and clean areas, including scheduled inspections and required documentation. Examples of standards may address heat requirements for laundry and food service by controlling water temperature for chemicals to be effective in destroying bacteria and germs. Sanitation equipment and supplies used as part of sanitation plans include soaps and cleaning compounds, detergent and scouring powders, mops, brooms, brushes, and cleaning cloths. Different levels of housing have their own special sanitation considerations. CO4-7.1.4 Summarize the role of the correctional officer with regard to an environmental health program. CO4-7.1.5 Initiate the correction of sanitation deficiencies. CO4-7.1.6 Identify health hazards within a facility. 89 Ch 4 Facility and Equipment FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Part of a sanitation plan includes daily routines and schedules concerning the following items: • housekeeping, trash collection, cleaning floors • cells and housing areas cleaned • toilets, sinks, and showers cleaned and sanitized • activity and service areas cleaned • garbage cans emptied and cleaned • special areas cleaned after use • food service area cleaned after each meal • frequently laundered inmate clothing and linens (CO4-7.1.2) Environmental Health Program The components of a complete environmental health program should include the following: • sanitary food preparation area • effective elimination of rodents and pests • sanitary, adequate water supply that prevents scalding and has either a water fountain or disposable drinking cups • adequate amount of heat, cooling, electricity, and ventilation • adequate lighting and space • proper sewage and liquid waste disposal • measures to prevent the spread of communicable diseases • clean bedding and adequate laundry • maintenance of facility • facilities designed and constructed for minimum noise, to accommodate disabled people, and to minimize dangers of explosion, fire, and spread of fire • safe storage and accountability for drugs, poisons and flammable, caustic, toxic materials, and cleaning agents • sanitation inspections by governmental health officials • thoroughly trained inmates assigned to operate equipment in special cleaning tasks (CO4-7.1.3) The role of the correctional officer in an environmental health program is to be thoroughly familiar with the facility’s requirements, methods, and schedule. Officers should assign inmates sanitation tasks fairly and consistently, and inmates should be rotated through assignments so they learn all tasks. As the inmates perform cleanup duties, the officer should supervise and conduct regular and unpredictable inspections. Cleaning supplies and equipment should be issued, inventoried, and documented. The officer should look for unsanitary conditions and enforce housekeeping standards for cells and activity areas (CO4-7.1.4). To initiate correction of a sanitation deficiency, you may be able to resolve it independently if resources are available and abilities allow. For example, if an inmate overturns a bucket of 90 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Facility and Equipment Ch 4 dirty mop water, the situation may quickly be taken care of. In other cases more formal action may be required where trained personnel will be needed to resolve the deficiency, such as a HAZMAT spill. (CO4-7.1.5) Health Hazards The environment may pose health hazards for all who enter a facility. These hazards can include parasitic outbreaks (scabies, lice), and viral and bacterial illnesses, such as tuberculosis (TB), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA). Inspections can result in identifying health hazards, such as plumbing not working appropriately, broken pipes, unsanitary areas, wet floors, etc. If the health hazard poses an immediate danger, notify your supervisor immediately. Follow the direction of your supervisor to correct the hazard. When inspecting for health hazards, the officer will evaluate the environment for cleanliness, the presence of unusual odors, the extent of clutter, ventilation, hazardous conditions, and possible contagion from inmates. (CO4-7.1.6) 91 CHAPTER 5 Intake and Release LESSON 1: Intake and Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 LESSON 2: Searching and Inventorying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 LESSON 3: Fingerprinting and Photographing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 LESSON 4: Classification and Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 LESSON 5: Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 The intake, classification, and release processes used by county and state facilities differ in many ways. Each facility establishes guidelines and procedures based on Florida State Statutes, Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS), or Chapter 33 of the Florida Administrative Code (FAC). In the performance of their duties, correctional officers may be assigned to conduct the intake, classification, or release of inmates. An officer must have knowledge of facility policies and procedures, state laws, and legal guidelines as they pertain to each part of the process. In county detention facilities, admission to the facility is known as intake. In state facilities, admission to the institution is known as reception. Intake, classification, and release processes include verification of identity, required documentation, person and property searches, property inventory, issuing hygiene items, fingerprinting, photographing, assessing custody levels, assigning housing, and releasing of inmates. Ch 5 Intake and Release LESSON 1 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Intake and Assessment OBJECTIVES CO5-1.1.1 Verify the identity of an inmate during intake. CO5-1.1.2 Define arrest papers. CO5-1.1.3. Describe common features of arrest papers. CO5-1.1.4 Define commitment papers. CO5-1.1.5. Describe common features of commitment papers. CO5-1.1.6 Identify terminology used on arrest or commitment papers. CO5-1.1.7 Confirm the completeness of arrest or commitment papers. CO5-1.1.8 Document intake information. Intake Documentation During intake, the inmate’s identity is verified using various forms of identification, including the following: • driver’s license, military ID, or any other type of valid photo ID • fingerprinting (CO5-1.1.1) Identity is also verified when an inmate is moved, such as between correctional facilities, to and from court, or when moved to another area. Before an inmate can be admitted by a county or state facility, certain legal documents must be presented that support the arrest or commitment. Arrest papers are defined as the paperwork generated by the arresting officer that allows for the inmate to be arrested and taken to a county detention facility for admission. These papers may consist of arrest affidavits, warrants, and other court orders. (CO5-1.1.2) Common features of arrest papers include the following: • personal identifying information about the inmate (name, aliases, date of birth, sex, race, current address, phone number, Social Security number, height, weight, driver’s license state and number, and place of birth) • date and time of arrest CO5-1.1.9 Give inmate permitted documents during intake. • place of arrest CO5-1.1.10 Obtain medical clearance of inmate for intake. • charges, including the statute number(s) and the number of charges • agency-generated case number • name of arresting officer and arresting agency • probable cause affidavit • copies of warrants or court orders • victim contact notification, if required by Ch. 960, F.S. • copies of issued citations for traffic offenses (CO5-1.1.3) Commitment papers are defined as documents or orders generated by the court that confine an inmate to a correctional facility after he or she is found guilty of a crime. (CO5-1.1.4) Common features of commitment papers include the following: • judgment and sentence pages (signed by the judge) • court paperwork with sentencing information and any court recommendation • current criminal history printout from FCIC/NCIC • synopsis of inmate’s behavior and adjustment to a correctional setting from the sending agency noting disciplinary issues and housing assignment while in jail • medical transfer summary from sending facility (CO5-1.1.5) 94 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Intake and Release Ch 5 Common terminology on arrest or commitment papers may contain abbreviations for certain aspects of the arrest or commitment such as: • NTA—notice to appear. This summons or writ may have been issued in lieu of a physical arrest requiring a person to appear in court. • ROR––release on recognizance, sometimes called a signature bond, is the pretrial release of an arrested person who promises in writing to appear for trial at a later date. No monetary bond is required prior to release. • EOS—end (or expiration) of sentence. This date is determined by the court upon sentencing and can be reduced due to gain time. • DOB—date of birth as it appears on the inmate’s identification. • Either “subject” or “arrestee” to identify the individual, instead of inmate. (CO5-1.1.6) Confirming completeness of arrest or commitment papers is a critical part of the intake process and includes ensuring that: • all information is obtained • all paperwork needed to complete the arrest or commitment is present, such as victim notification, traffic citations, and copies of warrants • arrest paperwork is signed by the arresting officer and, if required, the inmate • commitment papers are signed by the sentencing judge (CO5-1.1.7) The inmate’s file is created once the arrest and intake documents are completed and are signed by the officer and inmate. The documents can be maintained electronically or by hard copy placed in the assigned location specific to that facility. (CO5-1.1.8) During intake, the inmate will be given the documents he or she is permitted to keep while in custody, including the following: • court documents • legal paperwork pertaining to the inmate’s case • copies of arrest papers • copies of property receipts • inmate handbook for the facility in which he or she is incarcerated • copy of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) (CO5-1.1.9) It is the inmate’s responsibility to ensure he or she does not misplace these documents. Pre-incarceration Medical Assessments County Detention Facility According to Florida Model Jail Standards, admitting unconscious, seriously ill, or injured persons into a county facility without medical clearance is prohibited. Each facility has established guidelines regarding medical and suicide screenings. The intake officer will observe the inmate for any visible injuries and drug or alcohol impairment. If injuries or impairment are present, medical staff will assess whether the subject can 95 Ch 5 Intake and Release Section Vocabulary arrest papers remain at the facility or must be transported by the arresting officer to a hospital emergency room. Upon return to the facility, the officer will provide written medical clearance from a physician. commitment papers State Facility intake Reception is a multi-faceted process that may take several days to complete. Reception is based on statewide rules and the policies of each reception center. During reception an inmate will be assigned a unique Department of Corrections number. A health screening will be completed to establish immediate medical or psychological needs. The inmate will be fingerprinted for the purpose of obtaining a current criminal history. Inmate evaluation and facility assignment will be based on such factors as the nature and severity of the offense, characteristics of the sentence, criminal history, age, and health status. (CO5-1.1.10) reception 96 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 2 | Intake and Release Ch 5 Searching and Inventorying Examining and Searching Inmate and Property Upon admission to a county or state facility, inmates and their property are searched thoroughly and systematically. Searches are essential to the safety and security of the facility and will be conducted according to policies or procedures. Searches of an inmate are gender specific (male officers will search male inmates; female officers will search female inmates) unless emergency situations dictate otherwise. Officers will not assume that a prior search was conducted by another officer and will search all inmates entering the facility at intake or reception. At county facilities strip searches are to be conducted only in accordance with §901.211, F.S. In state facilities strip searches may be conducted on inmates entering or exiting the facility and may be conducted at any time to discourage the introduction and movement of contraband. (CO5-1.2.1) Officers should employ a method of pat searching inmates to prevent the introduction of contraband. Wearing disposable gloves, search outerwear such as jackets or layered clothing, then remove and place the piece(s) of clothing out of the inmate’s reach before continuing the search. Check clothing carefully; systematically look for tears or hidden compartments in clothing and footwear in which small items or drugs could be hidden. Remove and inspect footwear insoles and the part of the shoe under the insole. Turn footwear upside down and shake or knock it against a hard object to dislodge any contraband that may be hidden inside. Remove and inspect all items from wallets, pocketbooks, backpacks, or any other articles associated with the inmate. Instruct the inmate to take off any jewelry including body piercings. Examine rings, necklaces, bracelets, and watches for disguised or concealed contraband. Check any prescription medication containers to ensure that the name on the container is the inmate’s. Loose medication or medication not in a labeled prescription container is considered contraband and should be handled according to facility policy. Also check that credit cards, bank cards, driver’s license, and ID cards match the inmate’s name. If not, these items should be brought to the attention of a supervisor. (CO5-1.2.2, CO5-1.2.3) Inventorying and Documenting Property Methods of documenting inmate property vary among facilities; however, all require some type of record keeping for items an inmate has in his or her possession. During intake it is important to inventory each item as well as note the exact number of every item. OBJECTIVES CO5-1.2.1 Search inmate during intake. CO5-1.2.2 Describe inmate property search methods. CO5-1.2.3 Conduct a thorough and systematic search of inmate property. CO5-1.2.4 Confirm the identity of an inmate before taking inventory of inmate property. CO5-1.2.5 List property items that may be retained by the inmate. CO5-1.2.6 Describe types of inmate personal property that may be stored. CO5-1.2.7 Document receipt of inmate property items. CO5-1.2.8 Inventory inmate property during intake. CO5-1.2.9 Deliver inmate personal property to designated area. CO5-1.2.10 Document delivery of inmate property to storage area. CO5-1.2.11 List types of hygiene items for issue to inmate. CO5-1.2.12 Verify hygiene items to be issued during intake/reception. CO5-1.2.13 Document issuance of hygiene items during intake/reception. CO5-1.2.14 Verify identity of inmate when issuing hygiene items. 97 Ch 5 Intake and Release FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 The inmate, whenever possible, should be present at the time his or her property is inventoried. When dealing with multiple inmates, take care to ensure the property being inventoried belongs to the correct inmate. (CO5-1.2.4) Check all non-clothing items to ensure that they are not tampered with and are in their original form. Make sure the item is not considered contraband by facility regulations. Dispose of contraband according to facility policy or procedure. In accordance with Florida Statutes additional criminal charges may be made against an inmate who introduces contraband into the facility. Inmates are limited as to what property they can retain at intake. Generally, facility policy or procedure only permits inmates to retain certain types of property upon intake: • religious materials • legal paperwork pertinent to the inmate’s case (search but do not read; remove paper clips, staples, and any other contraband before returning the paperwork) • medically necessary items as cleared by medical staff (prosthetics, wheelchairs, braces) • photographs (allowed but limited in quantity and content, as determined by facility policy or procedure) • personal hygiene items (CO5-1.2.5) Be as specific as possible when inventorying and describing property that may be stored until an inmate’s release. Be sure to: • List all clothing by type and color. • List jewelry by item, description and color; use terms such as “yellow” or “white metal with clear or colored stones;” avoid determining value. List watches by brand name, if known. Notate any missing stones, damage, or abnormalities to the property. • Note that all forms of identification (photo ID, Social Security card, etc.) are in the inmate’s name. • List credit/debit cards, bank cards, checks (may include check numbers but not account number), and other monetary instruments by name and issuing entity. • Record money by denomination and amount, e.g., 2 twenty dollar bills, 1 ten dollar bill, 2 five dollar bills, and 3 quarters for a total of 60 dollars and 75 cents. Some agencies require a second person to verify cash amount. Deposit money in the inmate’s account. • List the number of keys an inmate has in his or her possession and describe the key chain or key ring, if present. • List cell phones or other electronic devices by brand and note the overall condition. Turn off devices and remove the battery before storing. (CO5-1.2.6) After the inmate’s property is documented the officer may review the form with the inmate to ensure all items are accounted for. The inmate and officer should sign and date the property inventory form. If the inmate refuses to sign the property inventory form, note the refusal; a second officer will verify the inventory and sign the form. (CO5-1.2.7, CO5-1.2.8) Once an inmate’s personal property has been inventoried and documented, deliver it to a designated property room according to agency policies and procedures (CO5-1.2.9). Some facilities require inmates to release their property to a specific individual or mail it to a recipient away from the facility at the inmate’s own expense. Many facilities have assigned property officers who are responsible for the storage and final disposition of 98 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Intake and Release Ch 5 property. The property officer is accountable for storing all property, ensuring the property room is secured at all times, inventorying property, and documenting the delivery or release of all property. (CO5-1.2.10) Facility-Issued Items Hygiene items such as bath soap, toothpaste, a toothbrush, shampoo, comb and toilet paper are issued to inmates upon entry into a facility (CO5-1.2.11). The officer should review policy and procedure for the allowable types and amounts of agency-issued items. The items being issued must be checked for contraband before being provided to the inmate (CO5-1.2.12). Document the issuance of hygiene items in accordance with policy or procedure. (CO5-1.2.13) To stop inmate attempts to use other inmate’s identification to try to obtain additional hygiene items, check the inmate’s ID card, armband identification, or wristband identification to confirm that the photo matches the inmate being issued hygiene items. (CO5-1.2.14) 99 Ch 5 Intake and Release LESSON 3 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Fingerprinting and Photographing OBJECTIVES CO5-1.3.1 Identify the purposes of fingerprinting. CO5-1.3.2 List criteria for completing a fingerprint card. CO5-1.3.3 Specify methods of fingerprinting. CO5-1.3.4 Fingerprint inmates during intake. Fingerprinting and Photographing Fingerprints are taken upon intake or reception for the purpose of obtaining, verifying, and documenting both the identity and the past criminal history of the inmate (CO51.3.1). Fingerprints are submitted to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) electronically or by inked card. FDLE is the repository for all fingerprint submissions in Florida and, in turn, forwards fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Both FDLE and the FBI have established criteria when completing fingerprint cards that include the following: • visible and clear fingerprint patterns CO5-1.3.5 Describe fingerprinting equipment. • fingerprints in proper spaces CO5-1.3.6 List personal data required on a fingerprint card. • proper notations for special problems CO5-1.3.7 Identify signatures required on fingerprint card. CO5-1.3.8 Describe the relationship between FCIC and NCIC. CO5-1.3.9 Describe the information available through the Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC). CO5-1.3.10 List the information available through the National Crime Information Center (NCIC). CO5-1.3.11 Identify legal requirements regarding the use of FCIC/NCIC information. CO5-1.3.12 Describe requirements for photographing an inmate. CO5-1.3.13 Specify information to include when generating an inmate identification wristband or ID card. 100 • fingerprints on proper type of card (if inked) • the fingerprint should be free of smudges • the finger should be rolled from nail to nail to ensure completeness, then lifted up and away to avoid smudging • all information complete and accurate (CO5-1.3.2) There are two methods of fingerprinting. The most common is the electronic fingerprint system using the Biometric Identification Solution (BIS) (formerly known as Automated Fingerprint Identification System or AFIS). However, some facilities may still use inked fingerprints (CO5-1.3.3). Regardless of the way the fingerprints are taken, certain principles should always be followed. Fingers must be clean and dry before fingerprinting. The inmate being fingerprinted should be asked to stand in front of and a forearm’s length away from the fingerprinting device. Depending on the officer’s preference and the device used to take the fingerprints, the inmate should stand to the right and rear of the officer taking the fingerprints. Generally, the weight of the finger is enough to make an impression; the finger does not have to be pressed. Make sure the thumbs are rolled toward and the fingers are rolled away from the center of the individual’s body; this allows a natural motion from a hand position that is more difficult to hold to an easier, relaxed hand position. This process allows the hand to relax so smudges are less likely. (CO5-1.3.4) Intake and Release Ch 5 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Taking fingerprints electronically Figure 5-1 Figure 5-2 Figure 5-3 Biometric Information Identification Systems Solution (BIS) BIS is connected directly electronically to FDLE. The system receives submissions and generates responses automatically. The information generated by BIS is only as accurate as the data submitted by the officers. The fingers are rolled on a glass panel to obtain the prints. A touch screen allows the user to navigate from screen to screen as needed and a keyboard is used to type the identifying data related to the inmate. The dedicated printer holds blank cards on which the just-rolled prints are printed once confirmed. During the fingerprint process BIS attaches a grade to the fingerprint (A, B, or C) and will reject a fingerprint if it is not rolled properly. Additionally, many agencies in the state now obtain fingerprints using a biometric identification device known as Rapid ID. This device sends scanned fingerprints to FDLE’s BIS system. Inked Fingerprints The same principle of rolling the fingers applies when taking inked prints as when using BIS. Paper card submissions are either for the purposes of arrest or applicant or personal identification and are submitted to FDLE through the postal service. Materials used for taking manual (inked) fingerprints include the: • fingerprint card holder—usually a metal clip that secures the card in place while fingerprints are taken • fingerprint cards—preprinted white cardstock that features a boxed grid for rolled prints as well as space at the bottom for simultaneous or plain prints. There is a separate card for printing the edge of the hand (“writer’s palm”) and to allow for fingerprinting both palms (upper and lower). • fingerprint ink—special black fingerprint ink is usually packaged in tubes, although there are also inked pads available commercially • printer’s roller—round rubber tube with a handle used to spread fingerprint ink on the inking plate 101 Ch 5 Intake and Release FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • inking plate—usually a piece of clear plastic or metal on which ink is rolled to a thin film before transferring to the fingers • fingerprint table—may be stationary or portable and is usually at the height of an average person’s elbows (CO5-1.3.5) The officer will record personal information about the inmate, on the card, that could include name, race, sex, birth date, Social Security number, criminal charges, and the case number (CO5-1.3.6). Both the inmate and officer taking the fingerprints are required to sign the fingerprint card in the spaces provided: the inmate signs on the front; the officer will print and sign his or her name on the back. (CO5-1.3.7) Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC)/National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Fingerprints and criminal history submissions are entered electronically into the Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC) maintained by FDLE. This information is then forwarded to the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), the automated data system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. FCIC/NCIC maintains fingerprint information, providing accurate and current data to certified users (CO5-1.3.8). Since the information is originally generated at the local level, it is essential that arresting officers, county jails or detention facilities, and state institutions provide accurate information. The information generated by BIS is only as accurate as the data submitted by the officers. The primary function of the FCIC is to provide access to criminal histories of individuals arrested in Florida, including wanted persons (Florida warrants only), probation information, and offenders of special concern. FCIC assigns each subject a State Identification number (SID) unique to the individual that is used to obtain and maintain records of the following information: • demographics (name, race, sex, date of birth) • Florida arrest history (date of arrest, county in which the arrest(s) occurred, arresting agency) • disposition of arrest (convicted, adjudication withheld, etc. Note: this information is not always available on all arrests) (CO5-1.3.9) The primary function of the NCIC is to provide access to the criminal history of all subjects arrested in the United States and its territories including wanted persons’ information (warrants nationwide). NCIC assigns the arrestee an FBI number which, when entered into the system, provides information on a specific person such as: • demographics (name, race, sex, date of birth) • arrest(s) for a subject in the United States or its territories • location of arrest (county and state) • arresting agency • date of arrest • disposition of arrest (convicted, adjudication withheld, etc. Note: this information is not always available on all arrests) (CO5-1.3.10) 102 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Intake and Release Ch 5 Legal requirements regarding the use of NCIC/FCIC information include the following: • certification—all persons, officers or civilians using FCIC/NCIC must be certified. Unless certified, an individual cannot use or even access the FCIC/NCIC computer. • restriction—information obtained from FCIC/NCIC is for criminal justice purposes only and should not be used for personal reasons. Individuals cannot use the system to check on family, friends, or coworkers. • confidentiality—information obtained from FCIC/NCIC is confidential and is for criminal justice purposes only. Someone outside the agency may receive certain background information through a paid public records request, although they are not entitled to everything that appears on an FCIC/NCIC printout. (CO5-1.3.11) It is important to search both FCIC and NCIC when attempting to identify an inmate as he or she may have a criminal record in Florida and another state. When checking for an outstanding warrant or detainer on an inmate, it is best to provide as much information as possible. If an outstanding warrant is found, the FCIC operator will follow “hit” confirmation guidelines. The jurisdiction that generated the wanted person’s entry will confirm the warrant and may request a hold or detainer, if the pick-up status is met. Photographing Photographs taken at intake or reception provide a visual record of each inmate. Make sure that the inmate’s eyes are open and that his or her hair is not obstructing the full view of his or her face. Photographs should include front and side profiles. Other photographs may also include tattoos, distinguishing scars, or marks helpful in identifying an individual. Scars, marks or tattoos are also used to help identify members or affiliates of security threat groups (STGs). (CO5-1.3.12) Inmate photographs may be used to generate an identification wristband or ID card. Most IDs are printed from a computer and often have the inmate’s photo, sex, race, date of birth, and agency-generated identification number (CO5-1.3.13). Inmate identification will be displayed at all times the inmate is dressed. 103 Ch 5 Intake and Release LESSON 4 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Classification and Housing OBJECTIVES Classification Classification is defined as a management tool used by facilities to assign custody CO5-1.4.4 Define minimum security level. grades or security risk levels to inmates (CO5-1.4.1). Classification will be applied to all inmates admitted to a facility as soon as practical. Classification is an ongoing process as reassessments are conducted throughout an inmate’s incarceration. Reclassification may be necessary based on the inmate’s behavior or new criminal charges. Criteria for establishing custody grade or security risk levels during classification may include current charges, criminal history, age, sex, current and past behavior (discipline), medical and psychological needs, and degree of crime and length of sentence (CO5-1.4.2.). Classification screening and determination of custody risk levels differ between county and state facilities. CO5-1.4.5 Define medium security level. County Custody Risk Levels and Criteria CO5-1.4.6 Define maximum security level. Minimum, medium and maximum are county custody, or security risk levels as determined by facility policy or procedure. (CO5-1.4.3) CO5-1.4.1 Define classification. CO5-1.4.2 List the criteria for determining the types of classification assignments. CO5-1.4.3 Specify inmate security risk levels. CO5-1.4.7 Define community custody grade. CO5-1.4.8 Define minimum custody grade. CO5-1.4.9 Define medium custody grade. CO5-1.4.10 Define close management custody grade. CO5-1.4.11 Define maximum custody grade. CO5-1.4.12 Identify categories of initial segregation. CO5-1.4.13 Assign housing to inmate. Minimum security level is for inmates considered low risk: those who have adjusted well to being incarcerated, have a minimal criminal history with no violent charges in their history, or are currently charged with a nonviolent crime. (CO5-1.4.4) Medium security level is for inmates considered moderate risk: those who have adjusted to being incarcerated in the past and have limited violence in their criminal history. (CO5-1.4.5) Maximum security level is for inmates considered high risk: those who have serious and violent felony charges pending or pose a threat to the safety of staff and security of the facility. (CO5-1.4.6) State Custody Grades and Criteria Community, minimum, medium, close, and maximum are state custody grades as defined in Chapter 33-601.210, FAC. Community custody grade refers to inmates who are eligible for placement at a community residential facility. (CO5-1.4.7) Minimum custody grade refers to inmates who are eligible for outside work assignments but not for placement in a community residential center. (CO5-1.4.8) Medium custody grade refers to inmates who are eligible for placement at a work camp with a secure perimeter but who are not eligible for placement in an outside work assignment without armed supervision. (CO5-1.4.9) 104 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Close custody grade refers to inmates who must be maintained within an armed perimeter or under direct, armed supervision when outside a secure perimeter. (CO5-1.4.10) Intake and Release Ch 5 Section Vocabulary classification Maximum custody grade refers to inmates who are sentenced to death. (CO5-1.4.11) close custody grade Housing community custody grade Initially, inmates may be temporarily segregated from others in a holding cell, during intake, while awaiting a permanent housing assignment. Male and female inmates should be separated to prevent normal sight and sound contact. Juvenile offenders should be separated from adult inmates in the same manner. County facilities that process juveniles will follow guidelines provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). Juveniles detained in county facilities pending court disposition must have been direct filed, indicted, or waived. A juvenile is direct filed when he or she is charged as an adult and the cases is transferred out of the Juvenile Division. If this criterion has not been met, a juvenile must be transported to the nearest juvenile intake facility. (CO5-1.4.12) maximum custody grade maximum security level medium custody grade medium security level minimum custody grade minimum security level Housing assignments are based on an inmate’s potential or inherent risk and needs. Housing assignments will be provided to all inmates admitted to a facility as soon as practical. After an inmate has completed the intake/reception process he or she will be assigned to a housing unit based on facility guidelines. Restrictions may apply due to security concerns, high profile cases, or medical and psychological needs, such as suicidal tendencies. Officers should be aware that there is a high risk of suicide in inmates within the first twenty-four (24) hours of incarceration. The primary objective of classification is to place inmates in the type of housing that best meets their needs and to provide reasonable protection for all inmates. Most facilities have designated sworn or civilian classification personnel who will complete the appropriate housing assignment documentation. (CO5-1.4.13) 105 Ch 5 Intake and Release LESSON 5 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Release OBJECTIVES CO5-1.5.1 Define release. CO5-1.5.2 Explain DNA requirements for convicted or charged felons (§943.325, §925.11, F.S.) CO5-1.5.3 Check for an outstanding warrant or detainer on an inmate. CO5-1.5.4 Confirm identity when releasing inmate property. CO5-1.5.5 Identify inmate property to be released. CO5-1.5.6 Search inmate property for contraband prior to release. Releasing an Inmate Release is the process by which inmates are discharged from a county detention facility or state correctional institution. Release usually involves verification, authorization, documentation, transportation or arranging of transportation, and actual physical release of an inmate. (CO5-1.5.1) Releases are granted through a court order, posting of bond, pretrial release, or expiration of sentence (EOS). The posting of bond requires the arrestee to pay the court a designated fee to assure his or her appearance in court. Release on recognizance requires no payment for assurance. If the defendant does not appear, any money posted is forfeited and a warrant is issued. To verify release documentation the officer will review the order for accuracy and completeness, confirm that the release order was issued for a specific inmate, and verify that the release order was issued by the proper authority. Common procedures to follow before releasing an inmate may include the following: • checking to make sure any special conditions have been satisfied CO5-1.5.7 Release property to an inmate. • notifying others within the facility as required CO5-1.5.8 Define gratuity. • notifying any victim(s), if required CO5-1.5.9 Issue gratuity to an inmate upon release. • resolving any grievances or claims for damage or loss CO5-1.5.10 Return an inmate’s personal property upon release. CO5-1.5.11 Document details of property release. CO5-1.5.12 Document an inmate’s release. • notifying the inmate of his or her impending release • obtaining a DNA sample in accordance with Florida Statutes (§943.325, §925.11), which require that DNA be collected from persons convicted of or arrested for felony or attempted offenses and convicted of certain misdemeanor offenses. Additional offenses may be added each year subject to sufficient funding by the Legislature and approved by the Governor. (CO5-1.5.2) • completing any criminal registration process (county) • providing instructions for criminal registration reporting (state) Additionally, an officer should check for outstanding warrants or detainers. (CO5-1.5.3) Follow agency policy and procedure when releasing inmate property. Begin by verifying the inmate’s identity (CO5-1.5.4). Using the inmate’s ID, locate the inmate’s stored property and thoroughly search it for contraband in any stored property (CO5-1.5.5, CO5-1.5.6). Once the property is searched and confirmed it is released to the inmate. (CO5-1.5.7) Inmates released from a state facility may be entitled to certain monetary gratuities. A gratuity is money given to qualified inmates discharged from the custody of the Department of Corrections per 33-601.502, FAC (CO5-1.5.8). Document any gratuity issued to an inmate. (CO5-1.5.9) 106 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Prior to the inmate’s release, he or she will sign a receipt for returned money, personal property and release papers or certificate. Return the inmate’s personal property upon release according to agency policy or procedure. (CO5-1.5.10) Each agency has procedures for the actual physical release of inmates and their property, which includes documenting the details of the property release (CO5-1.5.11). The releasing officer will document all release information in the inmate’s file, close out the file, and store the file as required. (CO5-1.5.12) Intake and Release Ch 5 Section Vocabulary gratuity release 107 CHAPTER 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility LESSON 1: Observation and Monitoring of Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 LESSON 2: Supervision of the Referral Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 LESSON 3: Inmate Discipline Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 LESSON 4: Inmate Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 LESSON 5: Inmate Dining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 LESSON 6: Processing Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 LESSON 7: Visitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 LESSON 8: Escorting Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 LESSON 9: Transporting Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 LESSON 10: Work Squads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 LESSON 11: Hospital Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 The primary activity of a correctional officer is the care, custody, and control of inmates. By developing supervisory and observational skills, practicing officer safety, and following the policies and procedures of his or her agency, the officer will ensure the safe operation of a correctional facility while fulfilling his or her responsibilities. Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility LESSON 1 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Observation and Monitoring of Inmates Observation Skills OBJECTIVES CO6-1.1.1 List primary components of observation. CO6-1.1.2 Identify environmental factors to consider during the initial stage of observation in a correctional facility. CO6-1.1.3 Identify indicators of a possible escape attempt. A correctional officer’s application of observational skills is key to supervising inmates in a correctional facility. Observing is being aware of your surroundings and paying close attention to details. Inmates must be monitored at all times, such as when they are entering or exiting a housing area, which is critical to officer safety and security. Officers should be mindful of their surroundings in order to prevent potential threats and safety hazards to fellow officers, staff, inmates, and the public. Observe behavioral patterns of inmates to decide if the situation is normal or requires action. (CO6-1.1.1) CO6-1.1.7 State uses of surveillance equipment. The initial stage of observation is monitoring inmate behavior using the primary senses of seeing, hearing, touching, and smelling. Using these senses enables officers to observe environmental changes within the facility. Look for any alterations or damage to property or equipment, sudden changes in weather, and tension among inmates (CO61.1.2). An example would be smelling smoke, seeing a sudden flash of lightning, or feeling loose bricks or chipped tiles. Changes in inmate behavior could include hearing a variation in the noise level, observing improper contact between inmates or staff, or a violation of inmate conduct such as unauthorized attire, whistling, sexual comments, assaults, and escape attempts. Also, as the environment changes, maintain a heightened awareness. An officer will use his or her senses and awareness of surroundings to observe changes in inmate behavior and respond appropriately. CO6-1.1.8 Define an unusual occurrence in a correctional setting. Visual Skills CO6-1.1.4 Identify inappropriate inmate attire. CO6-1.1.5 Recognize suspicious noises or activity. CO6-1.1.6 Monitor inmates’ behavior in the housing area. CO6-1.1.9 Identify signs of a potential disturbance or riot. CO6-1.1.10 List usual and unusual occurrences that should be documented. CO6-1.1.11 Describe methods of recording inmate movement. Out of the five senses, the one most used for observation is sight. By watching the actions of inmates, officers should observe changes in their surroundings, and identify missing items or damage to equipment and property. Inmates gathering in a group that keeps an officer from seeing what is going on could be dangerous. Officers should take the necessary steps to disperse the group by making their presence known and giving the group verbal commands, such as telling them to break up and move on. Monitoring Inmate Behavior Paying attention to changes in the housing area can also alert officers to possible illegal activities, such as escape plans or attempts. Indicators of a possible escape include an inaccurate count, missing screws, broken windows, damaged toilets (such as a toilet being separated from the wall), evidence of digging through walls or floors, or loosening of security bars. Other signs of a potential escape may be inmates hoarding excessive sheets or towels, maps of facilities and the surrounding area drawn on walls, ground, or any paper products, coded messages in the mail, or finding visitors or other inmates in unauthorized areas (CO6-1.1.3). Incidents such as a fire or a medical emergency, grouping of inmates, or a staged fight might be used as distractions for escape attempts or other illegal activity. 110 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 When inmates enter or exit the housing area, identify the inmate by photo ID, arm band, or uniform color. Officers should compare the identification method with the housing roster. The color of the uniform may reveal the inmate’s classification, work assignment, or housing location. For example, an inmate’s ID tag will confirm whether the inmate is authorized to be in that area. Officers must observe that the inmates clean their living areas and practice personal hygiene to minimize health hazards. An inmate practicing poor personal hygiene can draw unwanted attention, causing conflict between inmates. Showers, toiletries, personal hygiene items, and uniforms are available to inmates. Ensure that inmates follow the established housing standards, showering schedules, and uniform guidelines. Inmates dressed according to agency policy will make it easier to see concealed contraband or identify signs of security threat groups (STGs). Inmates may modify their uniforms by rolling up a pant leg, tying their shoes in a specific pattern, writing graffiti on clothes, and wearing clothes backwards or inside out. An inmate’s appearance can also be an indicator of a potential security risk; for example, an inmate wearing seasonally inappropriate clothing may be concealing contraband. Inmates may alter their physical appearance with tattoos, different hairstyles, and body piercings (CO6-1.1.4). These security violations must be addressed and documented. Listening Skills Listening skills are an essential component of effective observation. Correctional officers should be aware of different noises and noise levels in the facility, which may indicate potential violations. It may be normal for noise levels to increase when inmates are watching sporting events or participating in activities, but an officer should nonetheless remain alert for signs of a threat. You should listen to inmate communications for key words, slang, or changes in voice inflection. During sleeping hours, excessive or unusual noise might indicate a potential problem. For example, a loud banging or scraping noise coming from a cell, screaming, crying, and repeated flushing of toilets must be investigated (CO6-1.1.5). These sounds could be a sign of a possible fight, sexual assault, the sharpening of a shank, or an escape attempt. Suspicious activities or behaviors, such as slamming a door or locker, yelling, fighting, or faking an injury could be an attempt to distract an officer in order to commit a violation. Unusual activity could be an indicator that a problem is occurring or about to occur. The officer should assess the situation and determine if additional resources are needed. If there is a threat, the officer should immediately contact a supervisor and take required action. After the situation has been resolved safely, officers should document it as required. Changes in inmate behavior, especially in the housing area, should be closely monitored. These changes could be the result of divorce, notification of a death in the family, loss of a work assignment, or receiving additional charges. (CO6-1.1.6) Surveillance Equipment Correctional facilities have blind spots. These are areas or locations that are difficult for officers to monitor for inmate activity and may pose a security or safety concern. Blind spots are locations within a facility that have limited visibility, such as corners, closets, doorways, and stairwells. Surveillance equipment such as video cameras, lighting, and concave wall mirrors enhance an officer’s ability to monitor daily operations within the facility. 111 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 This equipment helps officers reduce blind spots, monitor inmates, limit the introduction of contraband, observe illegal activities, and respond to incidents safely and quickly (CO6-1.1.7). Surveillance equipment can provide visual and audio evidence to support documentation for incident reports, investigations, or any additional needs. Observing Unusual Occurrences An unusual occurrence is any incident that is out of the ordinary and disrupts the normal operations of the facility. There are many incidents that could negatively impact the security of the facility. These may include: inmate or staff death serious injuries to inmate or staff suicide or attempted suicide escapes or attempted escapes criminal acts inability to clear count inmates fighting use of force power or water outages at the facility inmate strikes (refusal to eat or work) riots hostage situations bomb threats or detonation fire manmade and natural disasters sexual assault lost or missing equipment, particularly keys (CO6-1.1.8) Any incident can lead to a disturbance in a correctional setting, provoking a response from other inmates, and possibly escalating to major disturbances or riots. Officers should address minor incidents immediately to avoid inmates taking matters into their own hands. When inmates seek retribution, sympathetic participants could join in the conflict, and a small, containable incident could grow out of control. Signs of Potential Disturbances Officers should always be looking for indicators of an impending disturbance or riot and take proactive measures to prevent these incidents from occurring. Indicators of potential disturbances include the following: inmates gathering in a particular area inmates staying in their cells inmates requesting to be transferred or moved 112 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 increase of inmate-on-inmate violence inmates acting out in order to be placed in special protection or isolation low staff or inmate morale Section Vocabulary unusual occurrence inmates avoiding areas where large numbers of other inmates congregate inmates storing food inmates warning staff to stay home on particular days an increase in security threat group-related (STG) activities an increased number of weapons found in searches information from inmate informants increased separation along racial or ethnic lines inmates making specific demands (CO6-1.1.9) Documentation Logs, report forms, and video tapes are used to document the facility operations, daily activities, and unusual occurrences. Completing accurate documentation is essential for safety, security, and accountability. Examples of usual and unusual occurrences that need to be documented include the following: inmate counts fights sick call fire meals cell searches clinical visits security checks workgroup assignments court appearances visitation transports suicide attempts natural disasters riots escapes or attempted escapes sexual assaults use of force bomb threats medical and mental emergencies (CO6-1.1.10) Written reports keep the facility staff informed about developments and problem areas. It is particularly important to document inmate movement (such as moving inmates between dorms and the dining hall or to and from medical and visitation). This documentation helps verify counts and work assignments. Use forms and logs to document inmate movement, taking care to note any incidents. (CO6-1.1.11). 113 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility LESSON 2 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervision of the Referral Process OBJECTIVES CO6-1.2.1 List institutional referral services. CO6-1.2.2 Identify changes in inmate behavior which may indicate the need for a referral. It is critical that an officer effectively observes and recognizes an inmate in distress and in need of referral services. The officer must become familiar with the agency’s referral process to ensure the inmate receives the appropriate care. Referral Services in the Facility Cooperation and adequate communication between the officer and the service provider is vital to the proper care and treatment of inmates. Inmates may be referred to the following providers: CO6-1.2.3 Describe procedures needed for a referral. • medical CO6-1.2.4 Assess the safety risks of a referral. • psychiatric CO6-1.2.5 Describe steps to take when escorting inmates who have received a referral. CO6-1.2.6 Identify individuals to notify in the referral process. • dental • chaplain • substance abuse services • classification (e.g., housing location or work assignment) • Additional services may be provided, such as educational or legal services. (CO6-1.2.1) Being familiar with the referral process will allow for a prompt response by the officer, needed resources for the inmate, and safety and security of the facility. Identifying the Need for a Referral Sudden or unusual changes in behavior may indicate the need for referral. Being familiar with inmates under your supervision allows you to observe and recognize changes in behavior. Information used for a referral may include statements made by the inmate, observed behavior, or another reason, such as a personal crisis. This information may be helpful to the service provider in determining the treatment options. Some signs and symptoms of distress or need are illness, physical pain, odd movement, or unresponsiveness. Obvious signs or changes to observe in an inmate may include difficulty walking, low energy, screaming, crying, weight loss, a rash, or a severe cough. It is important to be aware of changes in behavior, especially when these changes happen suddenly. Behavioral changes include giving away belongings, wanting to be alone, changes in normal behavior, not eating, acting strangely, unusual interactions with others, restlessness, or lack of personal hygiene. Psychological symptoms may require more interaction to determine the severity of the need. These symptoms may include abrupt changes in demeanor, mood swings, depression, or suicidal thoughts. (CO6-1.2.2) Inmates may request a referral for services; treat this request as if you observed a need for a referral. Additionally, staff, friends, family members or other inmates may report strange inmate behavior. Cell searches also could allow officers to detect suicide notes or other evidence of referral needs. 114 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 The determination for referral is based on information obtained and the officer’s knowledge of the institution’s available services. After careful assessment, the inmate should be referred to the most appropriate service provider. For example, if the officer observes bizarre behavior, this will require a psychological referral. Illnesses and injuries require a medical referral. If the type of service the inmate needs is not obvious, the officer should contact his or her supervisor for further direction. Once the need for a referral is identified, the officer will gather relevant facts to explain the decision to refer. Personally observe the inmate, and interview the inmate, staff, or others. Tell the service provider about the inmate’s specific actions and behaviors while avoiding generalizations. Statements such as “acting weird” should be avoided; instead, use more specific language such as “the inmate was talking to the wall” or the inmate was “unresponsive and staring off into space.” It is imperative that the officer take good field notes to adequately relay the information to the service provider and later document the incident. There are several basic steps that must be followed in each referral: Identify the need for a referral. Interview the inmate, staff, or others. Contact service providers. Request an escort if necessary. Make the referral. Document the incident. Each agency may have different procedures for making referrals. It is the officer’s responsibility to know their agency’s requirements. (CO1.2.3) Officer Response to Inmate Need Once a determination for referral is made, the inmate should remain under close observation. Until the inmate is in the care of the service provider, the officer is responsible for taking necessary action so that no harm comes to the inmate or anyone else. For example, the officer will apply first aid as necessary or intervene to prevent a suicide. Universal precautions should be used as necessary. Threats to officer safety may exist when responding to inmates in distress. Be cautious; an inmate could feign medical distress to cause a distraction. An officer will assess the situation and determine that it is reasonably safe to respond to the inmate. From a security standpoint, an officer should recognize that inmates might try to assume the identity of another inmate. Confirm the identity of the inmate being referred. Regardless, always respond when an inmate reports or displays medical or psychological distress. (CO6-1.2.4) 115 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Notification to Service Provider, Inmate Movement and Documentation Movement of inmates who have received a referral inside a correctional facility is coordinated through the control room or a supervisor. When an escort is necessary, security considerations prior to movement include the inmate’s classification level, types of restraints used, and number of officers needed. Upon arrival at the destination, the control room or supervisor will be notified that the movement of the inmate is complete. (CO6-1.2.5) Any time an inmate has been referred, communicate with other appropriate staff. This communication is usually passed along verbally or through a daily log. Share details of the referral, follow-up requirements, and assessment with other shifts. (CO6-1.2.6). Documentation of an inmate referral varies among correctional agencies. This documentation is forwarded from the housing unit to the service provider. Typically, this documentation is a narrative report that addresses the need for the referral, the proper identification of the inmate being referred, and the service provider. 116 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 3 | Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 Inmate Discipline Process In a correctional facility, the disciplinary process is an administrative function that addresses minor and major rule violations and is not governed by rules of criminal procedures. The disciplinary process is sometimes called progressive discipline. It is designed to increase the penalty if the inmate does not correct his or her behavior. Officer discretion may be applied when determining the most appropriate course of action, considering the severity of the rule violation and violations of the law. If an inmate is involved in a disciplinary process, and a pending outside charge may apply, Miranda warnings must be given before questioning the inmate. A rule violation or infraction is an activity or behavior that is not permitted in the correctional facility. For example, an inmate has a radio that belongs to another inmate. While this is technically petty theft, the offending inmate may only be disciplined within the facility and not prosecuted in a court of law. Discipline is the enforcement of a penalty for a violation of established rules and is used to ensure compliance of those rules. The disciplinary process is designed to correct an inmate’s behavior (CO6-1.3.1). The goal of discipline is to maintain order and ensure the safety and security of the facility. Section 944.09, F.S., provides authority and guidelines for enforcing rules. It allows each facility the opportunity to expand the guidelines for establishing rules for disciplinary processes, and lets higher authorities tailor them to each situation. You can never deny due process, but you can restrict it to meet the safety needs of a facility. For example, mail is a right, but it may be held for the inmate until disciplinary confinement is complete, with the exception of legal mail. OBJECTIVES CO6-1.3.1 Define discipline as it relates to inmate misconduct. CO6-1.3.2 Define the authority of the disciplinary process. CO6-1.3.3 Identify the questions to ask inmates regarding a rule violation. CO6-1.3.4 Define minor rule violation. CO6-1.3.5 Define major rule violation. CO6-1.3.6 Describe methods of inmate isolation due to a major rule violation. CO6-1.3.7 Recognize staff to notify of a major rule violation. CO6-1.3.8 Describe the inmate discipline process. CO6-1.3.9 Describe the steps needed to document disciplinary action taken. CO6-1.3.10 Identify information to include in a Disciplinary Report (DR). The rules of prohibited inmate conduct and penalties for violations or infractions are defined in Rule 33-601.314, F.A.C. for state correctional facilities. There is a list of these rules in every inmate’s handbook. County facilities are governed by the Florida Model Jail Standards, and inmates are also given a copy of these standards in the inmate handbook. (CO6-1.3.2) To assess an observed or reported rule violation, an officer must collect all pertinent information. Ask the inmate and other observers open-ended questions. This is the best way to obtain more information regarding the violation. The officer should ask followup questions and take complete and accurate notes on the information obtained (CO6-1.3.3). During questioning, officers should look for inconsistencies in inmate responses, body language, or physical evidence. Minor and Major Rule Violations When an officer observes unacceptable inmate behavior, he or she should begin the documentation process of progressive discipline. Be familiar with and refer to your 117 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 facility’s inmate handbook or agency’s rules and regulations manual. After determining if it is a minor or major rule violation, the officer should respond based on the severity of the incident. Minor infractions are a violation of rules where no disciplinary report is necessary. Minor violations are any rule violation that goes beyond a verbal warning but would not warrant maximum disciplinary sanctions (CO6-1.3.4). Some unacceptable behaviors generally considered to be minor rule violations include improper wearing of uniform, rough horseplay, and gambling. Minor violations may result in receiving verbal counseling, a corrective consultation, or informal disciplinary sanctions. Some rule violations may be considered major or minor depending on the circumstances, the severity or the degree of the violation, and other considerations. Major rule violations are any disruption so significant that maximum disciplinary sanctions may be imposed (CO6-1.3.5). Incidents like disorderly conduct, disrespectful behavior, violence, use of a weapon, sexual activity, use of drugs or intoxicants, battery, and extortion are considered major rule violations. These should immediately result in a disciplinary report and could lead to additional criminal charges. Isolation of the inmate in a holding area may be necessary to maintain the order and security of the facility, and the safety of staff, visitors, and inmates. The steps you take to isolate an inmate who has committed a major rule violation include: • Contact a supervisor or control room. • Request backup if necessary. • Secure the inmate and separate him or her from other inmates. • Secure the scene (if there is a suspected crime scene). • Move the inmate to a holding cell. • Have medical perform a pre-confinement physical (depending on agency policy and procedure). • Move the inmate to confinement. • Document the incident. (CO6-1.3.6). In most agencies, officers must notify their supervisor of any major rule violations (CO6-1.3.7). The supervisor will evaluate the incident and ensure that any additional action is taken as needed. A higher authority (such as a duty warden or sheriff ) may also be notified, as well as outside agencies. There may be a crime scene, evidence may need to be preserved and protected, and coordination with other agencies may be required. Finally, the supervisor must approve any action taken, verify that proper documentation is completed, and ensure the disciplinary process is carried out in a fair and unbiased manner. Corrective Action Corrective action is defined as steps taken to eliminate the cause of inappropriate or unlawful behavior in order to prevent recurrence. Given the nature of a correctional facility and inmates in general, inappropriate inmate behavior will occur. Officer presence is an important deterrent in discouraging rule violations. When inappropriate conduct is observed, an officer should give verbal warning or counseling to the inmate to stop the behavior immediately. A majority of disciplinary issues will be handled at this level. If the inmate immediately corrects the behavior, no other action is required. If the behavior continues, the officer may escalate his or her response. 118 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 The discipline process involves: counseling verbal warning written warning (incident report or corrective consultation) disciplinary report (CO6-1.3.8) Counseling is an in-depth explanation of a rule violation, including suggestions on how the inmate can correct his or her behavior. Before counseling an inmate, the officer may refer to the inmate’s handbook or rules and regulations manual. Officers should separate the inmate from others during counseling and communicate professionally. Make sure the inmate has a clear understanding of the rules he or she has broken. The officer should explain the disciplinary process if the inmate’s behavior continues. This process could include a disciplinary report, possible loss of privileges, a change in custody level or work assignment, confinement, or loss of gain time. A verbal warning is a statement to the inmate that he or she has committed a rule violation and should correct the behavior immediately. The officer will explain his or her observations to the inmate and describe the unacceptable behavior, and steps to correct it. An inmate’s behavior is unacceptable if it clearly violates the facility rules. Verbal warnings can be documented in a variety of ways, including incident reports, contact cards, daily logs, computer logs or specific agency forms. A written warning is usually an agency-specific form that documents an inmate rule violation. The officer will counsel the inmate about the offense, and document it on the form. Document the corrective action as soon as possible. The corrective action should include the details of the incident including the officer’s name, the inmate’s name and identification number, and the date, time, and location of the violation. Basically, include the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the violation and the specific corrective actions taken by the officer (CO6-1.3.9). The officer and the inmate must sign the form. If the inmate refuses to sign the form, document the refusal on the form, and provide him or her with a copy. In a timely manner, a copy is provided to the inmate and the original is maintained on file. This documentation may serve as a basis for future reference or formal disciplinary action. Some agencies do not require written warnings and immediately issue a disciplinary report. A disciplinary report (DR) is a detailed report of the facts surrounding an inmate’s rule violation and sets in motion a series of events that ensures due process. A disciplinary report is normally reserved for major rule violations. However, depending on the frequency of minor rule violations, a disciplinary report can be issued. Prior documented rule violations should be included in the report. As soon as an officer becomes aware of a major rule violation, he or she should obtain approval from the shift supervisor to initiate the disciplinary process. A disciplinary report should include the following: officer name, inmate name and number (if applicable), place, date and time formal statement of the specific violation (charge) a narrative that contains a detailed explanation of the events and supports the specific violation statements from any known witnesses or participants a description of physical evidence and its disposition 119 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Section Vocabulary corrective action counseling disciplinary report (DR) discipline rule violation or infraction verbal warning written warning 120 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 action taken signature of involved staff supervisor’s approval (CO6-1.3.10) A disciplinary report must be written within 24 hours from when the incident is discovered. FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 4 | Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 Inmate Count One of the primary duties of correctional officers is counting inmates. Counts verify and account for every inmate within a facility or offsite area and are vital to the security and safety of the facility and the community. These counts will be conducted at housing or cell assignments, work details, and any other location an inmate may be, such as at the clinic, court, or dining hall. Types of Counts Informal Count: An informal count verifies the number of inmates in an area. These counts are done randomly by the supervisor of inmates who are on site or off site, such as medical, court, work details, or during transport. A body count is a type of informal count; this is a census check (body count) and is only reported when an inmate is missing. Formal Count: Formal counts are performed at least once per shift, and may be conducted at the beginning and end of the officer’s shift. Formal counts verify the total number of inmates at a facility, accounting for all gains and losses during the day. A computer-generated roster is used to determine the actual number of inmates in a specific unit or housing assignment. OBJECTIVES CO6-1.4.1 Describe the general types of inmate counts. CO6-1.4.2 Describe procedures for conducting an inmate count. CO6-1.4.3 Describe the inmate’s role in obtaining an accurate count. CO6-1.4.4 Demonstrate professionalism during an inmate count. CO6-1.4.5 Describe criteria for preparing a count slip. Out Count: This count provides accountability for the location of inmates outside their assigned housing area. Some examples are the canteen area, the dining area, workgroups (such as the laundry, kitchen, or warehouses), the hospital, and court. These inmates will be included in the formal count. Master Count: A master count is where positive identification of each inmate is verified through various items such as armband identification or photo identification cards that include the facility number, and the inmate’s name, date of birth, sex and race. This count is conducted a minimum of once a day at a specified time, and accounts for all inmates admitted, released, returned, or detained in the facility during the previous 24hour period. The officer will use a current computer-generated roster and compare it to the inmates’ personal identification cards or armbands. This information is recorded and documented according to agency policy. Emergency Count: Emergency counts are conducted when unusual situations arise, such as a possible escape, disturbances, an evacuation, or when the total number of inmates counted is not confirmed or verified with the facility total. Some agencies refer to a recount as an emergency count. (CO6-1.4.1) Count Procedures Depending on the design of the facility, count may require two officers. Counts are conducted at least once per shift. The count should be completed in a timely, systematic 121 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 and accurate manner as determined by the facility. With the exception of informal counts, all counts must be documented. Common count procedures inside the facility include the following: Count—receive start to count. Initiate count by an audible alarm system. Tell every inmate to go back to their assigned area. • Count may be initiated by the control room, on the facility schedule, or prompted by a supervisor. • The officer will instruct inmates to return to their assigned housing area. • The officer then physically counts each inmate. • The officer verifies armbands or ID cards against a computer-generated roster. • The officer then documents and reports totals. • The supervisor or assigned staff members (control room) verifies count. • A clear count is announced to staff and inmates. • Normal operations are resumed. (CO6-1.4.2) The inmates’ identity and presence is verified by cross referencing with facility documentation. The officer will physically count each inmate present. If an inmate is in his or her bunk with the covers pulled up, preventing the officer from seeing his or her face, the officer must verify that it is a live person. The inmates’ cooperation is required for an accurate count; however, there are occasions when inmates will try to disrupt the count. Some inmate behaviors that may interfere with proper count procedures include but are not limited to inmates talking, tapping on walls, not being at the assigned bunk, wearing inappropriate attire, going to the bathroom, listening to the radio, and switching identification cards. (CO6-1.4.3) While performing a count, the officer will enforce the rules and regulations in a firm, fair, and professional manner. He or she must stay alert and aware of the surroundings due to the close proximity of the inmates (CO6-1.4.4). The officer should maintain attention to detail to ensure an accurate count. If two officers are conducting a count together, they should ensure that their total numbers correspond. If there is a discrepancy, they should immediately recount the inmates in their count area before reporting the count. When their totals agree, the count should be reported. Once counts are reported from all areas in the facility, if a discrepancy is found, a recount will be conducted. If the recount does not resolve the discrepancy, an emergency master count procedure will be announced and initiated. Use extreme caution during a recount, as an inmate may be hiding or attempting an escape. A clear count may be announced via the communication system of the facility. Once the count is cleared, all information is reported to the appropriate personnel and the facility will resume normal operation. A count slip is a form used to document inmate counts. There may be two types of count slips: a dormitory count slip and a formal count slip. The dormitory count slip includes the total number of inmates in their housing area, and the officer’s signature. The formal count slip may include the following information: facility name, date, time, location, officer signature, total number of inmates counted, and time cleared. The results may be documented through either 122 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 a computerized format or hand written form and forwarded to appropriate personnel. The count slip will contain no erasures, strikeouts or alterations. Verifying count slips completes the inmate counting process. (CO6-1.4.5) LESSON 5 | Inmate Dining Pre-Dining Security Check The dining area should be inspected for cleanliness, proper sanitary practices, and to ensure health and safety. Designated inmate dining areas could include a dining hall, day room, cell, or workgroup areas. If inmates are served in cells or other common areas, a pre-mealtime security check is not necessary; regular searches will go on as usual. When serving meals in a dining hall, prior to opening the dining facilities to inmates, an officer should conduct a thorough and systematic security check. Document the results on the appropriate form. The security check includes examining locations where contraband can be concealed. These areas include tables and chairs, heaters, ceiling fans, beverage containers, and trash cans (CO6-1.5.1). Any equipment that poses a safety hazard should be documented and reported, and its use must be restricted until the equipment is repaired or replaced. Be aware that the dining area is a common location for inmates to obtain and distribute contraband. Some examples of contraband include food, utensils, drugs, and sensitive items (food such as sugar, yeast, and fruit that can be used to produce illegal substances). Thoroughly search concealable areas, such as jackets, any medical devices (casts, wheelchairs, or prosthetics), napkins, and containers. Make sure all OBJECTIVES CO6-1.5.1 Conduct security check of dining area prior to mealtime. CO6-1.5.2 Identify areas used for concealment during mealtime. CO6-1.5.3 Explain the monitoring of food distribution. CO6-1.5.4 Describe procedures for distributing meals for special diets. CO6-1.5.5 Maintain a count of inmates receiving meals and number of meals served. CO6-1.5.6 Monitor inmates in dining area. CO6-1.5.7 Conduct security check of dining area after mealtime. 123 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 issued utensils, glasses, and trays are accounted for (CO6-1.5.2). If contraband is located, it should be confiscated and processed. Inmate Monitoring During Mealtime Depending on the type of facility, meals may be served in a dining hall or in a housing area. If meals take place in a dining facility, when mealtime is announced, inmates will report directly to the dining hall. Other inmates may need to be escorted to the designated dining area. The type of escort will be determined by the security level of the inmate. In most facilities, meals are served by inmates. The officer should enforce all sanitation standards, making sure food handlers are properly attired in gloves, hairnets, and aprons. The officer will observe and ensure the proper distribution of food, making sure each inmate only receives one tray of food and the proper number of utensils. The officer should be aware of what foods are being served on a daily basis and ensure inmates receive the correct menu items. The officer will also document the number of inmates and food trays served. (CO6-1.5.3) There may be inmates who have special dietary requirements, for example, diabetics, those with religious restrictions, inmates with allergies, or inmates requiring additional portions. The officer should be aware of those differences and ensure that the proper prescribed meals have been received by the correct inmate. He or she will identify, address and correct any discrepancies. Facilities that house juveniles may have child-specific nutrition guidelines that must be followed. (CO6-1.5.4) Compare the number of inmates that received food trays during the distribution of meals with the number of meal trays returned. The mealtime process should be orderly to ensure compliance with safety, security, and sanitation standards. (CO6-1.5.5) Inmate Monitoring Disturbances and riots may occur in the inmate dining area. Officer positioning and patrolling is essential for effective observation of all inmate activity in the dining area. By walking around the dining area and making their presence known, officers will be able to observe the inmates’ behavior and prevent rule violations (CO6-1.5.6). Officers should monitor and supervise specific areas such as entrances, serving lines, the seating area, the tray return window, and exits. Each agency establishes a policy on dining procedures. This may include searching inmates entering and exiting the dining area. At the conclusion of a meal, the area should be cleared of inmates. A security check of the dining area is then conducted to ensure the security of the facility. A post-mealtime security check is performed in the same manner as a pre-mealtime security check. Additionally, this check includes serving utensils. Following these procedures ensures a safe and secure dining area. (CO6-1.5.7) 124 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 6 | Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 Processing Mail Types of Inmate Mail Inmates are allowed to receive three types of mail: routine, legal, and privileged. Routine mail: It is the most common type of mail in a correctional facility, and it comes directly through the postal service. Routine mail may consist of letters, magazines, newspapers, periodicals, and book subscriptions that have not been tampered with and were received directly from the publisher or supplier. (CO6-1.6.1) Legal mail: Legal mail contains confidential information concerning legal matters. It OBJECTIVES CO6-1.6.1 Define routine mail. CO6-1.6.2 Define legal mail. CO6-1.6.3 Define privileged mail. CO6-1.6.4 Identify security violations in mail. includes mail to and from municipal, county, state and federal courts, state attorneys, private attorneys, public defenders, and legal aid organizations. (CO6-1.6.2). CO6-1.6.5 Identify general mail procedures. Privileged mail: Privileged mail is defined as correspondence to and from public CO6-1.6.6 Identify legitimate sources of legal mail. officials, governmental agencies, and the news media. Privileged mail shall be delivered to a facility by the U.S. Postal Service or other mail provider. (CO6-1.6.3) Processing Mail There is no limit to the amount of mail that may be received by an inmate, but there is a limit to the amount of mail that an inmate may possess. When mail is received by the mail room or mail clerk, it must be logged. All mail is opened by designated staff and is examined for content and to prevent introduction of contraband. People inspecting mail should use personal protective equipment (PPE) to prevent exposure to contaminants such as fecal matter, blood, and body fluids or other hazardous materials that may be found inside or outside of mail. CO6-1.6.7 Describe the process of legal mail. CO6-1.6.8 Differentiate between inmate routine and legal mail. CO6-1.6.9 Describe institutional mail procedures. CO6-1.6.10 Describe steps to confiscate mail. The content of the mail is scanned for pornography, information about criminal activity, codes, threats to the facility, threats or evidence of extortion against staff or other inmates, and escape plans, including dates, times, or arrangements for clothing and transportation. Also scan to ensure victims or witnesses are not contacting the inmate. (CO6-1.6.4) When inspecting mail for contraband, officers will check the texture of the mail to determine if it is brittle or stained. An odd texture could indicate the presence of drugs, body fluids, or hidden messages. Stamps or stickers placed on paper and envelopes should be inspected to determine if any alteration has been made. These are potential concealment sites for contraband and can be laced with drugs such as LSD. Drugs or other substances can be concealed in the glue of the stamp and envelopes, in the folds of the paper, as watermarks, between two pieces of paper glued together, or in concealed areas within poly-bubble envelopes. No mail is delivered directly to the inmate prior to inspection. 125 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Once the mail is cleared, it is sent to the housing area. The identification of the inmate is verified and the mail is delivered. Delivery methods vary between agencies and must be handled according to agency policy and procedure. (CO6-1.6.5) Legal mail is handled differently than routine mail. While the officer may inspect the outside of the envelope, it must be opened in the presence of the inmate to whom it is addressed. To ensure that it is valid legal mail, the officer should confirm the letterhead has the proper return address, raised seal, or watermark, and verify that the correspondent is a legitimate legal source (CO6-1.6.6). While the officer may inspect the outside of the envelope or package, the officer will only inspect for contraband and must not read legal mail or its content. The officer will also document receipt by the inmate (CO6-1.6.7). Though routine mail may be withheld as a disciplinary action, legal mail may not be withheld. (CO6-1.6.8) Packages are only allowed to be received with special permission. All packages should be thoroughly and systematically examined for items such as drugs, cell phones, money, and inappropriate photographs. Outgoing Mail In the same manner as incoming routine mail, outgoing routine mail should be inspected for contraband and security violations. Mail should then be scanned for adequate postage and proper address format of sender and recipient. Scan mail to make sure the correspondence is allowed and that the address is legitimate. Mail may be held to make sure it is legitimate. Approved outgoing mail will be forwarded in accordance with agency policies and procedures for delivery by the USPS. Mail should only be processed through the USPS and never carried out of the facility. (CO6-1.6.9) Confiscation of Mail Any mail that violates agency policy or threatens security may be confiscated. If the mail contains unauthorized items (such as too many photographs), it may be returned to the sender with a copy of the mail rules. Confiscate any illegal items found in mail. Disciplinary action could follow. If the confiscated item may become evidence in a disciplinary hearing or criminal case, the officer should use proper evidence handling procedures. (CO6-1.6.10). If outgoing inmate mail is confiscated due to a rule violation, contact your supervisor. All mail, routine, legal, and privileged, must comply with facility rules. An inmate may only correspond with approved individuals. Special permission must be received for inmates to contact one another by mail. For example, a husband and wife who are both incarcerated must get permission before corresponding. However, correspondence between co-defendants, victims, witnesses, and security threat group members is prohibited. Depending on the circumstances, other legal restrictions may apply to inmate communication. A common method used by inmates to send illegal communications to another inmate is known as kickback or three-way mail. The sender uses the intended inmate’s location as the return address on the envelope and includes a deficiency such as insufficient postage, requiring the envelope to be returned. The envelope 126 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 is thus returned to the intended inmate instead of the sender. Officers should verify the return address prior to returning mail to an inmate and note if the return address is for another housing unit or facility. Section Vocabulary kickback or three-way mail legal mail privileged mail routine mail LESSON 7 | Visitation Visitation is a privilege and not a right for inmates and visitors in Florida per F.A.C. 33.601.714. Visitors and inmates can lose this privilege because of inappropriate conduct, rule violations, or introduction of contraband. Types of Inmate Visits Visitors may not understand the operation of a correctional facility. When subjecting visitors to security measures, the officer should speak clearly and courteously to ensure the visitor understands any direction given. All visits within a correctional facility can be classified as either contact or non-contact visits. Contact visits are defined as visits in which both the visitor and the inmate are in the same room, without a physical barrier, and can have limited physical contact. Non-contact visits are defined as visits in which the inmate and visitor are physically separated by some type of barrier or communicate through electronic means, such as an audio and video communication system. (CO6-1.7.1) An inmate may receive two types of visitors, social or professional. A social visitor may include friends and family. Some agencies require social visitors to be pre-registered and screened for criminal history or active warrants. Additionally, agencies may limit the number of social visitors an inmate may receive at one time or within a specified period of time. OBJECTIVES CO6-1.7.1 Define contact and non-contact visits. CO6-1.7.2 Confirm visitor identification and complete registration information. CO6-1.7.3 Describe security procedures provided for visitation. CO6-1.7.4 Determine the purpose of a visit. CO6-1.7.5 Obtain authorization for a visit from appropriate personnel. CO6-1.7.6 Conduct search of the visitation area. CO6-1.7.7 Search a visitor for contraband. 127 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility CO6-1.7.8 Describe methods for directing visitors to the visitation area. CO6-1.7.9 Notify an inmate of visitor arrival. CO6-1.7.10 Search an inmate for contraband prior to a visit. CO6-1.7.11 Direct an inmate to the visitation area. CO6-1.7.12 Identify monitoring techniques within a visiting area. CO6-1.7.13 Direct a visitor to leave the visitation area upon the completion of a visit. CO6-1.7.14 Document completion of visitation. CO6-1.7.15 Conduct search of the visitation area at conclusion of visitation. CO6-1.7.16 Upon completion of a visit, return an inmate to the designated housing area. CO6-1.7.17 Search an inmate for contraband after a visit. FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 A professional visitor may include attorneys and staff employed by attorneys, investigators, bail bondsmen, parole and probation officers, law enforcement officers, social service agency staff, clergy, and others. Professional visitors are processed in a manner similar to social visitors. Training academies, schools, or self-help or religious groups visiting a correctional facility may be subject to the same search procedures. These are usually pre-approved visits with staff escorts to a designated area or for a tour of the facility. Most visits are conducted at the correctional facility. However, occasionally inmates being treated at outside medical facilities could receive visitors. These visits are usually for inmates who are terminally ill receiving social visitors at the discretion of the correctional agency. Facility Security and Visitor Identification and Authorization Visitation and entry requirements vary considerably from state correctional institutions to municipal and county facilities. Confirmation of visitor identification is necessary for authorized entry into all facilities. All visitors must present valid photo identification. Valid forms of identification include government-issued photo identification, driver’s license or identification card, military identification, agency-issued identification, passport, or birth certificate. Officers should be aware that presenting a false ID per F.S. §944.39 is a crime. (CO6-1.7.2) Some visitors may receive security equipment upon arrival at a facility. Agencies may use closed-circuit television systems to monitor visitor movement, while others may issue personal body alarms that the visitor can activate in the event of an emergency, alerting security personnel to potential threats and the need to respond immediately. Any special equipment or requirement for professional visitors may vary from agency to agency such as body alarms (CO6-1.7.3). The purpose of the individual’s visit will dictate the types of security equipment issued. Some agencies provide security escorts for visitors throughout the facility. The officer will need to determine if the visit is social or professional as the procedures for processing each is different (CO6-1.7.4). Social visits are conducted on a specific schedule at designated times and days, whereas professional visits may be permitted at any time. When a visitor requests to meet with an inmate, the reason is either verified through a published schedule or authorized by a shift supervisor according to policy or procedure. Any question regarding the validity of the purpose for the visit will be directed to the supervisor (CO6-1.7.5). Once a visitor is approved, the officer will direct him or her to the visitor registration area. As part of the registration process, the visitor’s identification information will be recorded, along with date and time (entry and exit), and purpose and individual visited. 128 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 Visitors are required to sign in, and should be told what items are permitted in the visitation area. Visitor registration logs are maintained by correctional agencies as a permanent record. These logs are for accountability purposes to prove that an inmate’s rights have not been violated (attorney visits), and for emergency evacuation purposes. Officers will conduct a systematic search of the visiting area before allowing inmates or visitors access. The area should be free of contraband or any potentially dangerous or hazardous material. It is important to inspect the equipment and furniture in the visitation area to ensure it is in proper working order. The restrooms should be searched in the same manner. Any discrepancies need to be resolved prior to allowing visitation to occur. (CO6-1.7.6) Visitors are searched to control the introduction of contraband into the facility. This search is accomplished by various methods such as metal detectors, pat down searches, and visual inspection. All objects a visitor brings are subject to search, whether visually, with an x-ray machine, or other electronic means. (CO6-1.7.7) Contraband is commonly found on visitors. Not all items that are considered to be contraband in a correctional facility are criminal in nature or pose an immediate threat to the safety or security of the facility. For example, personal keys are not authorized in most facilities, and are considered contraband, since keys are sharp implements and could be dangerous. The visitor will likely be told to return the keys to his or her car or place them in a secure location until he or she leaves. If contraband that poses an immediate threat to the facility’s safety or security is found on a visitor, it will be confiscated and may be processed as evidence. Contraband of a criminal nature, such as unauthorized cell phones, weapons, drugs and intoxicants, will be confiscated. The visitor will then be subject to criminal prosecution and visitation privileges may be terminated. All confiscated property will follow the chain of custody. The officer should take necessary precautions to preserve evidence that would aid in an investigation. Upon completion of registration and search, visitors are either verbally directed or escorted by an officer to the visitation area. In either instance, the safety of the visitor and the security of the facility shall be maintained (CO6-1.7.8). Visits may occur in other designated areas as approved by the officer in charge. These may include medical or confinement. In such instances, it may be necessary to escort the visitor to the alternate location. Remember attorney-client visits are privileged and must follow approved guidelines. Inmate Notification of Visit and Search When visitors arrive at the facility and have been approved for visitation, the inmate is properly identified and informed of the visit. He or she may either accept or decline the visit. If the inmate declines the visit, it will be documented. The visitor registration area is advised and the visitor is informed and asked to leave. (CO6-1.7.9). (CO6-1.7.10) For inmates accepting visitors, the inmate will be searched for contraband prior to the visit. Inmates will be visually inspected to make sure they comply with the facility dress code (CO6-1.7.11). Depending on the facility layout and agency policy or procedure, the officer will verbally direct, monitor, or escort the inmate to the designated visitation area. (CO6-1.7.12) 129 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Section Vocabulary contact visits non-contact visits FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Monitoring the Visit Officers should continually observe the conduct of the inmate and visitor for general rule violations such as excessive noise, vulgarity, sexual misconduct, introduction of contraband, and altercations. The officer should take immediate action if a rule violation is observed. Even though all visitors are searched prior to entering the visitation area, contraband can still be introduced to the facility during visitation. For example, contraband may be smuggled through security checkpoints by “ballooning.” Ballooning is contraband placed in a sealed balloon and concealed in a body cavity or swallowed for later expulsion. Officers should pay particular attention to inmate and visitor activity after a visitor exits a restroom. While in the restroom, the concealed contraband could be retrieved and later passed to an inmate or hidden in the visitation area. If an officer observes a visitor with contraband, the visitor may be detained. Should an issue arise that the officer cannot control, or that is beyond his or her authority, the officer should call for backup. Actions which may be taken include termination of the visit, permanent restriction of the visitor from the facility, and disciplinary action against the inmate. All actions taken should be documented. During and after visitation, inmates should also be monitored for emotional reactions that require referral to service providers such as a mental health professional or chaplain. (CO6-1.7.13) Exiting the Visitation Area Upon the conclusion of visitation, the officer will ensure the inmates and visitors are separated. The officer will explain to the visitors where and how to exit the visitation area (CO6-1.7.14). The officer will verify that all visitors have left the visitation area, and the identity of each visitor will be confirmed prior to exiting the facility. The officer will then update the visitation log to reflect that the visitor has departed. (CO6-1.7.15) An officer should be aware that contraband could be concealed in the visitation area to be recovered by an inmate at a later time. The officer will systematically search the visitation area and restrooms upon conclusion of the visit. The area should be free of contraband or any potentially dangerous or hazardous material. If contraband is discovered, the officer should confiscate it, maintain chain of custody, and contact his or her supervisor. At the conclusion of the visit, the inmates will be segregated and monitored pending a thorough search. Inmates exiting a contact visit are searched to ensure no contraband enters the facility. Contraband found will be processed according to agency policies and procedures. Upon completion of the search, the inmate will be directed or escorted back to his or her assigned area and documented. (CO6-1.7.16) 130 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 8 | Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 Escorting Inmates Escorting inmates requires the use of officer safety procedures to ensure the safe and timely movement of an inmate from one location to another. Escort is defined as the movement of an inmate from one point to another accompanied by an officer or staff member (CO6-1.8.1). Escorting may be as simple as walking with a single unrestrained inmate from one location to another or as complex as accompanying a group of fully restrained inmates. An officer may conduct two types of escorts in a correctional setting. Internal escorts are conducted within the facility’s secure perimeter when moving one or more inmates from one location to another. External escorts occur outside the secure perimeter of the facility. Escort Considerations The officer will receive verbal or written instructions to escort inmates, including which inmates will be escorted and their destination. Inmates must be positively identified prior to departing. Officers will take an accurate count of the inmates and notify appropriate staff of the number of inmates to be escorted and their destination (CO6-1.8.2). The reason for escort, number of inmates, and inmate classification may determine the number of officers needed for the escort and the level of physical restraint required. Reasons for escort may include medical, workgroup assignments, mental health services, and visitation. Additional staff may also be necessary. (CO6-1.8.3) When preparing to escort an inmate, a frisk or pat search should be conducted. Some facilities require strip searches to be conducted when inmates are escorted outside of or returning to the facility (CO6-1.8.4). To ensure the safety of the inmates, officers should also consider limitations and physical condition of the inmate to be escorted, such as missing limbs, paralysis, obesity, prosthetic devices, crutches, or wheelchairs (CO61.8.5). All prosthetic devices or medical equipment will require a search for contraband. An officer should not, however, only pay attention to disabilities, as extraordinarily physically fit inmates should also be of concern. Inmates who have acute or chronic medical conditions or serious injury may require additional specialized equipment during an escort. Examples include inmates with respiratory illness, broken limbs, gunshot wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and inmates with mental illness. (CO6-1.8.6) OBJECTIVES CO6-1.8.1 Define escort. CO6-1.8.2 Count and notify staff of inmates to be escorted. CO6-1.8.3 Determine number of staff to perform escort. CO6-1.8.4 Search inmate to be escorted. CO6-1.8.5 Identify physical limitations of subject to be searched. CO6-1.8.6 Assess physical condition of inmate to be escorted. CO6-1.8.7 Apply escort techniques. CO6-1.8.8 Describe security issues during escort. CO6-1.8.9 Confirm count of inmates upon escort arrival. CO6-1.8.10 Notify staff of escort completion. It is critical that the officer be aware of his or her surroundings at all times while escorting an inmate. An officer will position him- or herself to the rear and slightly to one side of the inmate to control movement (CO6-1.8.7). Escorting officers should be familiar with diversionary tactics of inmates. During movement, contraband may be introduced, the inmate may commit battery, or the inmate may attempt to escape (CO6-1.8.8). Some equipment that may be used while escorting inmates includes handcuffs, leg-irons, waist chains, and restraint chairs. Escort techniques and equipment are further discussed in the Defensive Tactics portion of the curriculum. 131 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Section Vocabulary escort FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Upon the conclusion of the escort, the officer must confirm that the number and identity of inmates arriving at the destination matches the original record of inmates departing (CO6-1.8.9). The officer will then contact the appropriate staff member to notify him or her of the escort’s completion. (CO6-1.8.10) External escorts could be an outside work detail, a chase vehicle following an ambulance, or any other escort outside the security perimeter of the facility. Officers should follow agency policies and procedures with external escorts. 132 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 9 | Transporting Inmates Inmate transport is a routine operation for moving inmates outside the correctional facility. Transport is defined as moving an inmate from the confines of a secure facility to another location. The officer must be continually aware of his or her surroundings during inmate transport, including inmate behaviors, the public, the transport vehicle, other vehicles, traffic, and the security at the destination. Other potential security issues the officer may encounter may include vehicle accidents, mechanical failure, or interaction with the general public. (CO6-1.9.1) OBJECTIVES CO6-1.9.1 Define transport. CO6-1.9.2 Describe common reasons for transporting inmates. CO6-1.9.3 Describe common types of transport vehicles. Reasons for inmate transport include medical treatments at local facilities or offices, transfers, work assignments, confinement, STG affiliations, and required court appearances within and between jurisdictions. (CO6-1.9.2) CO6-1.9.4 Identify factors for selecting a proper transport vehicle. Choosing a Transport Vehicle CO6-1.9.5 Identify common transportation segregation requirements. There are several types of transport vehicles with specialized security or accommodation equipment. Some may include the following: a transport bus or van with cages, extra locks, and isolation seats CO6-1.9.6 Inspect transport vehicle for roadworthiness. a van with negative pressure ventilation and wheelchair accessibility CO6-1.9.7 Search transport vehicle for contraband. a car with cages (CO6-1.9.3) CO6-1.9.8 Position vehicle for transport. The officer will determine what type of transport vehicle is required by considering how many inmates are to be transferred, custody levels, gender, special needs, and the purpose of the transport. (CO61.9.4) The officer may need to segregate inmates in separate vehicles or separate compartments within the Interior of a transport van Figure 6-1 transport vehicle. The following groups of inmates must be transported in separate compartments: male and female inmates, juveniles and adults, high profile inmates, or violent inmates (who must be separated from others). Whenever possible, inmates will be transported in secure compartments without access to the driver. (CO6-1.9.5). CO6-1.9.9 Describe security restraint devices for transport. CO6-1.9.10 Describe transport vehicle security devices. CO6-1.9.11 Identify transport documentation. CO6-1.9.12 Count inmates to be transported. CO6-1.9.13 Secure inmate in transport vehicle. CO6-1.9.14 Identify issues that may impact inmate transport. CO6-1.9.15 Notify staff of transport. CO6-1.9.16 Document details of transport of inmate. Lower custody inmates, such as those assigned to workgroups or squads, may be transported in vehicles without cages and partitions. Certain custody levels require transport vehicles with secure cages and partitions; additionally, these types of transports may require trailing or chase vehicles. 133 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 A trailing or chase vehicle is an additional vehicle following or trailing a transport vehicle to provide additional security. These vehicles are often used when the transport is a high-level threat, such as when a death row inmate is transported. Transport Vehicle Inspection and Search It is the officer’s responsibility to systematically inspect the transport vehicle for mechanical deficiencies, possible security breaches, and to ensure the vehicle is properly equipped and in good working order. The officer should ensure that the vehicle is fueled, fluid levels are sufficient, and tires are properly inflated. The officer should ensure that all equipment works, such as the radio, issued cell phone, brakes, spare tire and jack, horn, lights, seat belts, wipers, mirrors, security equipment, and locks. Additionally, some agencies may require equipment such as safety reflectors, a fire extinguisher or a first aid kit (CO6-1.9.6). Upon conclusion of the inspection results should be documented on the designated agency-approved form. Note any deficiencies and submit a work order. The supervisor should be notified if further instructions are necessary. Any discrepancies should be corrected and the vehicle should not be used until repairs are performed. The officer will apply systematic area search techniques to the inside and outside of the transport vehicle. These searches are done to ensure there is no contraband present before and after inmate transport. Particular attention should be given to the secure compartments where the inmates will be or have been seated. The officer should understand that common components of the vehicle, such as bolts, screws, and parts of seat belts, can be removed quickly and without notice. Such items can be made into weapons or other contraband. (CO6-1.9.7) Example of typical transport vehicle with partitions and screens Examples of typical security restraint devices used on inmates during transport 134 Figure 6-2 Security Issues When the vehicle has entered the designated area such as a sally port, the officer will secure the inmates in the vehicle. When loading or unloading inmates from a non-secure area, such as a hospital, the officer will position the vehicle in a tactically advantageous way to prevent escape or ambush (CO6-1.9.8). If security concerns are observed, contact a supervisor or local law enforcement for assistance. Figure 6-3 Generally, all inmates will remain restrained during transport. However, inmates must not be restrained to the vehicle except by the use of standard seatbelts and shoulder harnesses. An inmate’s custody level will determine the level of restraint required during transport. Additionally the officer must take the limitations and physical attributes of the inmate into consideration when determining the types of restraints to be used. The various security restraint devices that can be used on an inmate when in transport include hand or ankle cuffs, waist chains/cuffs, black boxes (hard interlocking cover for handcuffs and waist chains), leg braces, and an electronic control belt (CO6-1.9.9). Transport vehicle security devices such as security cages, partitions and screens are all physical barriers installed in vehicles to segregate the various types of inmates as well as separate the inmates from the officers. (CO6-1.9.10) FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 Transport Documentation The officer must ensure they have the proper authorization and documentation to transport the inmate(s). These documents may include a court order, court docket, face sheet, transport request, or TWIX (a Department of Corrections computerized message). The officer will confirm the identity of each inmate and verify the inmate’s name, number and destination on the transport document by looking at the face sheet and comparing it to the inmate (CO6-1.9.11). A face sheet is defined as a document with a current picture of the inmate, name, inmate identification number, physical description, incarceration date, date of birth, end of sentence date, and custody level. Any discrepancy will be reported to the supervisor prior to departure. Upon verification of transport documents, the officer will confirm the identity and the total number of inmates. The count should be verified upon departure and again upon arrival (CO6-1.9.12). The officer must make certain that all required transport documentation accompanies the officer to the destination. Securing the Inmate and Staff Notification of Transport An important part of the transport process is to search the inmate. The inmates identified for transport will be removed from general population and moved to a secured area. The officer will verify proper attire, search each individual inmate before transport, and secure the inmates. Once security restraint devices have been properly applied, the inmate will be placed in the transport vehicle. The inmates will be placed in segregated compartments if required. Officers will apply seatbelts to all inmates. Officers and inmates will adhere to the Florida Safety Belt Law, and the number of inmates transported will not exceed the vehicle passenger capacity. (CO6-1.9.13) According to agency policies and procedures, the officer may be assigned a firearm and duty gear. The officer should ensure the firearm is in good condition and has the proper ammunition. Additionally, available body armor should be worn. A transport plan should include a primary and alternative route. The officer should be aware that diversions may be created to provide opportunity for escape. Therefore routine routes should be varied to reduce the risk of outside assaults. During transport, if an inmate becomes non-compliant, combative, disorderly, or complains of a medical condition, the officer will not stop the transport (CO6-1.9.14). Many doctors’ offices will not see disruptive inmates. The courts are also hesitant to hold legal proceedings with inmates who are unable to conform to courtroom decorum. The officer will immediately contact his or her agency with all appropriate information and follow instructions. If the transport vehicle encounters any unforeseen situations, such as a vehicle crash, mechanical failure, or a problem with the primary route, the officer will immediately ensure inmates are secure. In such cases the officer will contact local law enforcement for assistance and notify a supervisor for further instruction. When contacting local agencies the officer should provide as much information as possible. An officer will maintain communication with the facility and provide necessary information during transport, such as the direction of travel, primary and alternative routes, the number of inmates, time of departure, beginning and ending mileage, destination, and predicted time of arrival. The officer will provide status updates and time of arrival at the destination (CO6-1.9.15). Information provided by the transport officer will be documented by the agency’s control room. 135 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Section Vocabulary face sheet trailing or chase vehicle transport transfer 136 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 The officer should document any unusual occurrences on an agency form (incident report) and include all relevant information. (CO6-1.9.16) In some circumstances a transport could result in a transfer. A transfer is movement of an inmate from one housing location to another. For example, an inmate’s routine medical appointment could result in hospitalization. If this occurs the officer will contact their agency for specific instructions. Upon conclusion of the transport, the officer will once again perform a vehicle inspection noting any damage. The officer should check the vehicle’s fluids, and ensure the vehicle is clean, refueled, and parked in the designated area. The officer should also complete inspection documentation as required. FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 LESSON 10 | Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 Work Squads Many of the inmates who are incarcerated work within the correctional system. Classification is responsible for assigning inmates to a work detail. Medical will screen and approve the inmate for job assignments. These assignments could be inside or outside the correctional facilities. Work crews or squads that do not breach the security perimeter of a facility are considered inside. Anything that breaches the perimeter is considered an outside work squad. (CO6-1.10.1) Inside and Outside Work Squads Correctional facility work squads perform a variety of services, which provide a cost benefit to state and local government. Typically, inside work squads assist with maintenance, sanitation, food service, library, medical, laundry and other duties as assigned. Inmates on outside work squads usually perform road maintenance, grounds maintenance, sanitation, farming and other assigned duties. In certain circumstances some inmates are allowed to leave the facility without supervision for work. These inmates may be on a work release or continued employment program. Verifying an inmate’s identity on an inside or outside work squad is accomplished by comparing the inmate’s issued identification card with the work squad roster and the inmate (CO6-1.10.2). Officers assigned to outside work squads are required to verify each inmate’s identity prior to exiting the facility. The officer should inspect the identification for obvious signs of tampering, making reasonably sure that the identification card is valid. If the officer suspects that the identification card is altered or the inmate is concealing his or her actual identity, they should confiscate the card and immediately contact a supervisor for further instruction. Inmates should be searched for contraband prior to and at the completion of the work assignment. The type of search may be dependent on the type of work assignment, location, and equipment used during the work detail. The officer will perform a pat or strip search dependent on the agency’s policies (CO6-1.10.3). While the officer is conducting a search, he or she will make sure inmates are properly dressed for the work squad. Inmates who fail to comply with rules and regulations, such as dress codes, will be subject to disciplinary action. Should the inmate become unable to perform that assignment, the officer will notify his or her supervisor. OBJECTIVES CO6-1.10.1 Differentiate between inside and outside work squads. CO6-1.10.2 Verify inmate in work squad with the roster. CO6-1.10.3 Search inmates assigned to a work squad. CO6-1.10.4 Report the work squad count and location. CO6-1.10.5 Search work area for contraband. CO6-1.10.6 Issue equipment for inmate work assignment. CO6-1.10.7 Explain rules and procedures of work area to an inmate. CO6-1.10.8 Monitor inmates during work detail. CO6-1.10.9 Search work area for contraband upon completion of work detail. CO6-1.10.10 Search inmates upon completion of work detail. The officer supervising the work squad must maintain an ongoing count of the inmates under his or her supervision. This count begins when the officer takes custody of the inmates for the work assignment. Counting is particularly important when changing work locations. The specific reporting procedure varies from agency to agency. The officer should count, document, and report the number of inmates when leaving the facility, as the officer arrives at the destination, after any subsequent change in location, or the departure from the work site, and upon arrival back at the facility (CO6-1.10.4). 137 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 The officer should document the inmates’ names, numbers, work location and the total number of inmates assigned to the workgroup. A work area is searched to provide safety and security prior to allowing inmates access. The officer should vary the method and timing of searches conducted for regularly scheduled work locations so as not to set a pattern or routine. When searching, the officer should remove any potentially dangerous or hazardous material (CO6-1.10.5). Work areas outside the facility are potential contraband drop-off sites, especially when the work assignment extends beyond one workday. If a work assignment is regularly scheduled, inmates can arrange for contraband to be dropped off at a predetermined location. The inmate will then return to the site and retrieve the contraband. Instructions for Work Details Before each new job assignment the officer will conduct and document safety training for the inmates. He or she should ensure that all inmates assigned to the work detail are issued the proper work and safety equipment. Safety equipment may include safety goggles, hearing protection, or gloves. Prior to allowing the inmates to work, the officer should inspect equipment to ensure proper working order and verify the item has not been altered. This inspection should take place both before issuing the equipment to the inmate and after it has been returned (CO6-1.10.6). It is the work squad officer’s responsibility to maintain accountability for equipment used by inmates at all times. The officer will explain the boundaries of the work site and remind inmates in the work area of the rules regarding inmate behavior. The officer will demonstrate how to use any work equipment and answer any questions the inmates may have concerning the work to be accomplished. It is the officer’s responsibility to supervise work performance, maintain safety and security of the squad, notify their supervisor of any problems that arise, and document all training. (CO6-1.10.7) Monitoring Inmates During Work Detail While monitoring a work detail, the officer should ensure the inmates are doing the following: • completing the work assignment in a timely manner • operating the equipment as trained • not damaging or altering the equipment or other items in the work area • wearing issued safety equipment properly • not interacting with the public • wearing proper clothing • staying within the assigned work area Any deviation from the instructions given should be immediately corrected and documented as necessary (CO6-1.10.8). The officer should report any injuries or illness at the work site immediately and ensure the inmate receives appropriate treatment. In the event of a life-threatening emergency, the officer should immediately request local emergency medical services, notify their agency, and request additional support as needed. 138 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 The officer will allow for required rest periods, proper hydration, meal breaks, and restroom use. Restroom facilities will be searched prior to use and the locations will be varied to discourage possible escape attempts and introduction of contraband. During work periods or restroom breaks, the vehicle will be secured and constantly monitored to ensure no contraband is introduced. Should an inmate become non-compliant, combative, or disorderly during a work assignment, the officer will contact the control room or local law enforcement for assistance and use the amount of force necessary to control the inmate and protect the public. In the event of an escape, the officer will immediately assemble the remaining inmates and notify the facility that an escape has occurred. Under no circumstances will the officer abandon the remaining inmates in an attempt to apprehend the escaping inmate. Completion of Work Detail Upon completion of the work detail, the officer will instruct the inmates to secure all equipment used and thoroughly search the work area to ensure the inmates have not left any tools, materials, notes, or other contraband behind. (CO6-1.10.9) The ease and availability of obtaining contraband during a work assignment will require that the officer conduct a thorough search of each inmate upon return to the facility. The inmates will be removed from the transport vehicle, escorted into a secure area, and searched (CO6-1.10.10). Some facilities will require that returning inmates are strip searched. 139 Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility LESSON 11 | FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Hospital Assignments OBJECTIVES CO6-1.11.1 Review security concerns with medical staff. CO6-1.11.2 Describe officer responsibilities in a hospital setting. CO6-1.11.3 Describe the use of restraints in a hospital setting. CO6-1.11.4 Differentiate between clinical restraints and clinical seclusion. CO6-1.11.5 Identify the officer’s role when responding to inmate medical emergencies in a hospital setting. Security measures will continue for an inmate who is taken to a hospital outside of a correctional facility. The inmate will be separated from the general public as much as possible with heightened security. Communicating Security Concerns with Medical Staff Upon arrival at a hospital, the officer should give any accompanying medical records to hospital staff. The officer should speak with medical staff about security concerns that may impact the care of the inmate. These concerns may include the following: • unauthorized visitation • safety and suicide precautions • unauthorized phone access • access to items that are considered contraband in a correctional facility (CO6-1.11.1) Hospital staff may assist with moving the inmate throughout the facility. However, it is the officer’s responsibility to maintain security. General Officer Responsibilities When an inmate is hospitalized and the officer is assigned hospital duty, upon arrival or start of a shift, the officer should notify his or her supervisor or control room staff of the arrival, room number, and inmate’s condition. The officer should then survey the area in which the inmate is being held for potential security threats. Unnecessary medical equipment, furnishings, and hospital personnel should be removed from the immediate area if possible. Officers should conduct a visual search of the inmate, the room, and any adjacent rooms such as bathroom facilities that the inmate may use during his or her stay. All windows and secondary exits should be systematically inspected and secured if possible. All restraints used on the inmate should be inspected to ensure proper security. Any discrepancies should be corrected and reported to the officer’s supervisor immediately. The officer should be mindful of weapon retention techniques while in close proximity to the inmate when applying, removing, or checking restraints. The officer should stand strategically between the inmate and other people or the door. If the inmate is in isolation, the officer will be stationed outside the door. If the inmate is in the operating room or intensive care unit (ICU), the officer should follow the direction of hospital staff but not violate correctional agency policy or procedure. The officer should contact his or her supervisor immediately if a conflict occurs between hospital and agency policy. (CO6-1.11.2) The inmate should not be allowed to have contact with the public. If the security of the inmate is compromised due to public contact, the supervisor should be notified 140 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6 immediately to determine what additional security measures may be necessary. Inmate death bed visit requests by family members will be addressed by agency administration on a case-by-case basis. Section Vocabulary Restraint Issues clinical seclusion clinical restraints Security restraint devices, such as shackles, handcuffs, or flex cuffs, may be used to secure an inmate in the hospital. It is common practice for the officer to apply one leg restraint to the inmate and the other to the bed frame and not the bed rail, to prevent unauthorized movement. Security restraint devices may be removed temporarily, with the approval of the facility officer-in-charge, to conduct medical tests or procedures. Removing handcuffs and leg restraints at the same time is not recommended unless medically necessary; however, in such cases, additional security measures should be taken. Restraints must be re-applied once the test, procedure or examination has been completed. (CO6-1.11.3) Restraints may not be used on a prisoner who is known to be pregnant during the third trimester, or during labor, delivery, and postpartum recovery unless the officer makes a determination that the prisoner presents a substantial flight risk or some other extraordinary medical or security circumstance that dictates restraints to be used. There are restrictions on the types and placement of restraint devices on pregnant prisoners. Officers should follow their agency’s policy. If a licensed health care professional requests all restraints be removed, the officer should inform him or her of all pertinent security concerns regarding the inmate. Inmates may also be controlled through other methods. Clinical restraints are ordered by the attending physician and are used to keep the inmate from injuring him- or herself in a medical facility. Clinical seclusion is used to isolate the inmate from the general population at a medical facility for medical and safety reasons (CO6-1.11.4). This may include placing the inmate in a padded room or a straightjacket for his or her safety. The attending physician has sole discretion on the application or removal of clinical restraints and placement in or out of clinical seclusion based on specific medical needs. Inmate Medical Emergencies The officer will notify the nearest medical personnel for assistance if the inmate exhibits any of the following: • any signs of medical distress, such as difficulty breathing, extreme sweating, nausea, extreme bleeding, or paralysis • any dislodging of medical devices or equipment, such as intravenous (IV) lines or monitors • any medical situation beyond the officer’s training and abilities (CO6-1.11.5) Inmate medical emergencies are fluctuating events and multiple medical personnel may respond to the situation. Security measures must not interfere with medical life-saving intervention. The officer must monitor all activity and maintain a balance between security and medical treatment. Additionally, the officer must complete an incident report as soon as possible after the medical emergency has been resolved. 141 CHAPTER 7 Supervising Special Populations UNIT 1: DIVERSITY IN THE CORRECTIONAL SETTING LESSON 1: Inmate Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 UNIT 2: SECURITY THREAT GROUPS LESSON 1: Gang and STG Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 LESSON 2: STG Structures and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 UNIT 3: RECOGNIZING SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG INMATES LESSON 1: Inmates with a History of Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 UNIT 4: MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH MENTAL RETARDATION LESSON 1: Inmates with Mental Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 LESSON 2: Inmates with Mental Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 UNIT 5: JUVENILE INMATES AND YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS LESSON 1: Monitoring Juvenile Inmates and Youthful Offenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 UNIT 6: ELDERLY INMATES LESSON 1: Monitoring Elderly Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 UNIT 7: FEMALE INMATES LESSON 1: Female Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 UNIT 8: INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES LESSON 1: Sexually Abused Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 LESSON 2: Inmates with Sexuality Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 UNIT 9: PHYSICALLY DISABLED INMATES LESSON 1: Monitoring Physically Disabled Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 UNIT 10: INMATES WITH MEDICAL NEEDS LESSON 1: Characteristics of Inmates with Medical Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 UNIT 11: CONFINEMENT LESSON 1: Inmates in Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 UNIT 12: DEATH ROW INMATES LESSON 1: Monitoring Death Row Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 On a daily basis, a correctional officer interacts with a variety of individuals who have been grouped together. Special populations are part of this larger group. The officer may need to make considerations when supervising each of these groups of inmates. These special population groups have individual characteristics. The most common groups the officer will encounter are discussed in this chapter, from most prevalent to least. The officer should be aware of these special populations and respond appropriately when interacting with and supervising them. Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 1 | DIVERSITY IN THE CORRECTIONAL SETTING LESSON 1 | Inmate Societies OBJECTIVES CO7-1.1.1 Define special populations. CO7-1.1.2 Identify common types of inmate societies. CO7-1.1.3 Identify reasons for inmate societies. CO7-1.1.4 Describe common structures of inmate societies. Section Vocabulary special populations Special Populations Special populations are classifications of inmates an officer will encounter routinely, each of which requires different interactions or services from the officer. These encounters may happen in the general population where staff has not identified an inmate as having special needs, or the officer may work in a unit designated to handle inmates with special needs. (CO7-1.1.1) Societies By nature, humans are social beings, even in a correctional setting, and tend to gravitate toward people with similar beliefs and backgrounds. Inmate societies tend to form around race, religion, medical needs, geographical, ethnic or cultural background, and socio-economic standing. The inmate’s social and financial status, physical size, crimes committed, number of repeat offenses, and length of sentence can also play a part in these associations. These societies bond together because of a common background or interests, and sometimes for protection. Often individuals will align with inmates they think have power and will often imitate them, with the goal of becoming more like them. (CO7-1.1.2) • Racial societies are not absolute, are often hybrids of multiple racial groups, and often do not reflect a single race. • Groups focused on religious practice may guide the inmate’s daily activities; some examples are praying five times a day, carrying a rosary or fasting. Having knowledge of some of the characteristics of these religious groups will help the officer better understand the inmate population. • Inmates with similar medical issues, such as diabetes, HIV, and cancer often commiserate in their own social group, sharing medical experiences and hardships. • Geographical societies are coming to the forefront of inmate populations. Inmates from the same geographical region group together using identifiers such as the area code or name of the major city or county in which they lived. • Some inmates from similar socio-economic groups will cluster and sometimes control certain activities within the inmate population with money, contraband, and influence. Inmates on the lower end of the social ladder often struggle to gain protection from inmates with greater influence. (CO7-1.1.3) • Inmate societies may follow a hierarchical leadership where there is a clearly defined leader, sub-leaders, and followers. Elderly inmates typically do not have a leader. Youthful offender societies often do not maintain the discipline required to keep this type of structure. Different situations, such as fights, releases, intakes, changes in the availability of assets, or politics can erode the hierarchy on a regular basis. (CO7-1.1.4) 144 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 UNIT 2 | SECURITY THREAT GROUPS LESSON 1 | Gang and STG Characteristics Security Threat Group A security threat group (STG) is a criminal enterprise, an organization of a continuing nature that engages repeatedly in acts of crime, and individually or collectively poses a safety or security threat within, as well as outside of, a correctional facility. (CO7-2.1.1) Criminal Gang According to §874.03, F.S., a “criminal gang” is a formal or informal ongoing organization, association, or group that has as one of its primary activities the commission of criminal or delinquent acts. It consists of three or more persons who have a common name or common identifying signs, colors, or symbols, including, but not limited to, terrorist organizations and hate groups. (CO7-2.1.2) STG is a term used by officers to remove any glamour from being a member of these organizations and diffuse the power associated with being a “gang” member. Inmates idolize the lifestyle of a gang member and the term STG makes being a member less appealing. (CO7-2.1.3) STGs are a threat to the orderly operation of a correctional facility because the root of their operation is criminal; their numbers can influence inmate populations and threaten the safety and security of the operation of the facility. STG members usually control the bulk of the contraband flow because of their strength in numbers. STGs can commit the same crimes in the facility they commit outside of the facility, such as extortion, gambling, prostitution, battery, assault, money laundering, drug smuggling, escape plots, robbery, and murder. (CO7-2.1.4) OBJECTIVES CO7-2.1.1 Define security threat group (STG). CO7-2.1.2 Define “criminal gang” according to §874.03, F.S. CO7-2.1.3 Describe why officers refer to gangs as STGs in a correctional setting. CO7-2.1.4 List common criminal acts committed by STGs. CO7-2.1.5 Describe the differences between types of STGs. CO7-2.1.6 List commonly known STGs. CO7-2.1.7 Describe characteristics of STG members. CO7-2.1.8 Describe common STG symbols, graffiti, colors, signs, and tattoos. CO7-2.1.9 Identify inmate codes and the slang of STGs. STGs may be classified into many different types, such as: Traditional Traditional STGs have a documented history, a written set of laws or codes, and can have an organizational structure. Some examples include the Latin Kings, Bloods, Crips, Aryan Brotherhood, Ku Klux Klan, MS-13, and SUR-13. These STGs often have a leadership structure (implicit or explicit), codes of conduct, colors, special dress, signs, and symbols. A traditional STG may vary in characteristics of age, gender, community, ethnicity, or generation, as well as in the scope and nature of its criminal activities. 145 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Non-Traditional/Hybrid Non-traditional STGs that do not fall under the criteria of a traditional STG can be without laws or code, but still have an organizational structure. Some examples include Haitian gangs, Jamaican Posse, Asian Pride, and Taking Over Your Shit (TOYS). Hybrid STGs form within schools, neighborhoods, or regions, and in youthful offender, juvenile, and adult correctional facilities. They are composed of members from other STGs uniting to form a group, and the activity can be limited to specific geographic areas or neighborhoods. Examples include Money Over Bitches Boyz (MOB Boyz), 704 (or local area codes), Zoe Mafia, and Guatemalans Taking Over (GTO). Transitional Transitional gang members are individuals or a group of gang members that come to prison and realign themselves with traditional and non-traditional STGs, or they can be hybrid STG members recruited by larger, traditional STGs. Female Female STGs do exist, and females can be members of a typically male STG or members of an all-female STG. Female STGs can be similar to male STGs in structure. The female STG crime rate is currently low; however, female STGs are the fastest growing prison population. When a crime is committed, it is often violent. Prison Based Prison-based STGs originate within the prison system and predominantly base their operations from within the prison system. Some examples include Mexican Mafia/LA EME, Aryan Brotherhood, Black Guerilla Family, Ñeta, Texas Syndicate, and Nuestra Familia. Extremists Extremists may act solo or as a group, follow an extreme ideology, such as faith or belief-based, or antiestablishment, and can pose a significant security threat because they are usually very tight-knit, unpredictable, and exclusive. Some examples include Sovereign Citizens, Jihadists, and Posse Comitatus. (CO7-2.1.5) Common STGs in a Correctional Setting Noted STGs represented in a correctional setting can include the following: 5%er Aryan Brotherhood Aryan Nations Black Gangster Disciples Black Guerrilla Family Bloods Crips Folk Nation 146 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 Gangster Disciples Insane Gangster Disciples MS-13 Ñeta Sur-XIII or Sur-13 White Pride White Supremist Zoe Mafia (CO7-2.1.6) Common STG Characteristics, Symbols, Graffiti, Colors, Signs, and Tattoos People Nation Figure 7-1 Folk Nation Figure 7-2 Aryan Brotherhood Figure 7-3 Most facilities have an STG coordinator on site who can provide additional information related to characteristics of a specific population. The officer should refrain from using these symbols, gestures, graffiti, or alphabets as communication because they can potentially place the officer in a compromising or dangerous situation. Some characteristics may include the following: • forming hand signs with the left or right hand • wearing hats cocked or tilted to the left or right • rolling up one pant leg • untying one shoe • resting the hand in a specific pocket • wearing jewelry turned at an angle • color association (black/brown, blue/red, etc.) • identifiers or icons often appear in combination. For example, you may see a star and a crown, which may reveal both the person’s alliance and the specific gang to which the individual belongs. • using a common phrase, such as “All is one” or “All is well” • using hand signals or graffiti in a certain direction such as upside down or sideways denotes a sign of disrespect • using hand signals or graffiti properly is a sign of respect • using nonverbal communication, such as tugging on a shirt (CO7-2.1.7, CO7-2.1.8) 147 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations Nuestrã Familia FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Figure 7-4 Mexican Mafia Gang hand signals table (Right to left) Top: People’s Nation Alliance, Allport Lovers, Almighty Popes, Maniac Latin Disciples, Gangster Party People OR Party Players, Vice Lords Middle: Two Two Boys, Gangster Disciples, Insane Deuces, Latin Kings, Insane Dragons, Imperial Gangsters Bottom: Crazy Gangsters, Spanish Gangster Disciples, Latin Counts, Familia Stones, Latin Lovers, Bishops OR Almighty Brazers OR Insane Latin Brothers 148 Figure 7-5 Figure 7-6 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 Some Common STG Slang 187—to kill someone; California penal code for murder 13—sure or no 911—police B.K.—blood killer B.O.S.—Brothers of the Struggle bang/gang bangin’—being involved in gang activity banger—gang member beef—complaint, dispute behind the wall—in prison blade—knife bogart—to con or trick bolt—run book—run, get away, leave bounce—to leave an area buck, buck—sound of a handgun buck—prison made alcoholic beverage buck—to not comply C.K.—Crip Killer call the shots—give orders catch a V—punishment for breaking a gang rule or code cellie—person who shares a cell with another inmate check yourself—watch what you say or what you do check-in—an inmate that requests protection from staff or other inmates chief—gang leader chillin’—just hanging around, relax, mellow out, okay chill out—stop what you are doing claim—announce your gang affiliation, represent colors—specific color scheme used by the gang to represent crab—derogatory name for Crip members used by Bloods creepin’—a married or committed person going out to have an affair dissin’—disrespecting someone down—loyalty or allegiance to someone or something drop a dime—to snitch or tell on someone dropping the flag—leaving the gang 149 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations Section Vocabulary FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 false flaggin’—representing a gang that you don’t belong to fishing—sending small notes using fishing line by slinging under the door criminal gang flag—gang handkerchief security threat group (STG) kite—letter latching/jumped—placing a heavy object within a sock to use as a weapon rag—gang handkerchief set—group or gang that one is affiliated with shiv/shank—prison-made weapon, usually a knife shot caller—person in charge slob—derogatory name for Bloods used by Crips violation—the punishment given to a gang member who breaks a rule Inmates can deliver messages through sign language and written code sent by fishing (passing messages using a string) or the United States Postal Service. STG code is a form of cryptic communication using written symbols and letters. The officer can break the code by matching the letter with the symbol. The officer should notify the supervisor when these types of communications are found, explaining the circumstances under which they were found, from whom, and where they were found. (CO7-2.1.9) Bloods alphabet 150 Figure 7-7 Crips alphabet Figure 7-8 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 UNIT 2 | SECURITY THREAT GROUPS LESSON 2 | STG Structures and Activities STG Structures There are different structures associated with STGs, such as: The pyramid structure contains one individual, who is a strong leader, with at least two or more sublevels of command. The pyramid is usually the strongest and most organized structure and is common to the more traditional, national gangs. OBJECTIVES CO7-2.2.1 Describe common STG structure. CO7-2.2.2 Identify signs of the solo extremist. The linear structure contains a single leader representing each clique; however, the leaders do not answer to a higher command. The leaders will often meet to consult with one another, common to the more non-traditional or local street gangs. CO7-2.2.3 List the indicators of STG activity in a correctional setting. The flux or circular structure has a continually changing leadership. Stronger or more charismatic people enter this type of gang structure. These gangs will usually evolve into the linear or pyramid structure as they work toward establishing a strong leader; some examples of the flux or circular structure include school-based gangs and some hybrid gangs. CO7-2.2.5 Describe the indicators of STGs the officer may encounter during cell or area searches. Some STGs have an organization based on tenure. The STGs rule by committee, there is no leader, and all decisions are made by consensus. Should a member disagree with the group’s ideas, that member will not participate. When a member initiates a criminal activity, all of the participating members must commit the crime. These STGs have specialists (not leaders) in specific crimes who consult with members on how to carry out each crime. It is common for the formal leader of a street gang to control the gang while in prison, and this is the case for most of the national gangs. The leader, similar to other inmates, usually has phone and visitor privileges and will issue orders from inside the institution; the next in command carries these orders back to the street. (CO7-2.2.1) Extremists CO7-2.2.4 Describe indicators of active STGs. CO7-2.2.6 List the indicators of STG activity while monitoring mail. CO7-2.2.7 Describe signs of alliances or conflicts between STGs within the correctional setting. CO7-2.2.8 Discuss the importance of recognizing changes in inmate cliques or groupings. CO7-2.2.9 Observe inmate behavior related to STG activity. CO7-2.2.10 Seize material related to STG activity. CO7-2.2.11 Document STG activity. Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society. In democratic societies, individuals or groups that advocate the replacement of the democracy with an authoritarian regime are usually branded extremists. An extremist may be identified as an individual working alone or an individual working within a group. There are many indicators that an individual may be an extremist. One sign may include withdrawal into a solitary lifestyle. These individuals may see outsiders as a threat to their lifestyle. They might also withdraw from family members and friends. 151 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 In some cases, the individual may appear to fall off the radar for a length of time. These individuals may begin coveting and hoarding artifacts felt to be sacred or aligned with their cause. The officer should be aware of the similarities and differences between religious belief, and religious fanaticism and extremism. (CO7-2.2.2) Indicators Some of the indicators of STG activity in a correctional setting can be a change in the amount of crime, batteries, and taggings. A tagging is a marking on a wall, fence, or the ground that identifies STG territory. The officer should be aware of an increase in rule violations, differences in inmates congregating, new STG tattoos, and a noticeable increase in recruitment, fights, injuries, and requests for personal protection or housing reassignment. Often, an increase in confidential disclosures from the inmates to avoid association with the impending activity is the main way the officer will become aware of STG activity. (CO7-2.2.3, CO7-2.2.4) During cell or area searches, the officer should look for a shift in contraband items such as weapons, cell phones, gang literature, and a change in the amount of commissary items. STG leaders will often have the largest amount of commissary items without receipts, which they will pass along to other inmates. Look for an increase in the allowable items, such as an extra lock, a pair of shoes, and excessive amounts of facilityprovided items. (CO7-2.2.5) The mailroom should filter inappropriate items when monitoring inmate mail and look for gang-related symbols, codes, phrases, and photos. The officer should scan the mail for direct or indirect threats of STG activity and any hidden contraband. (CO7-2.2.6) Being Proactive Constantly observing inmate STG behavior is critical to the safe and secure operation of the facility as well as discouraging STG activity. This includes recognizing changes in inmate cliques or groupings as they may indicate a shift in alliances, authority, and influence over other STG inmates. Alliances and conflicts between STGs are constantly changing (CO7-2.2.7). A shift in alliances can result in an argument or a major fight that can spread throughout the compound (CO7-2.2.8). The officer’s awareness of imminent STG activity within the facility is the most effective tool to deter STG activity. Observation of STG activity can mirror gang activity that is happening or about to happen outside of the facility. Maintaining a flow of STG information to law enforcement outside of the facility can deter activity both inside and outside of the facility. The officer should not underestimate the ability of an STG member to get things done inside or outside of a facility. (CO7-2.2.9) Contraband An additional deterrent to STG activity is recognizing and seizing STG contraband. This process can be as simple as viewing the item, seizing the item, and then determining what to do with it. The officer may also encounter STG contraband that requires further review by the STG coordinator, supervisor, or investigating authority. It is critical that the officer recognize that what he or she is looking at is STG contraband. (CO7-2.2.10) 152 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 Documentation The officer should thoroughly document all suspected STG activity immediately after observation. Documenting STG activity provides additional information to contribute to STG databases. This information helps identify a person formally as a gang member, which increases the potential for enhanced penalties or change in classification and housing status. (CO7-2.2.11) Section Vocabulary tagging 153 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 3 | RECOGNIZING SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG INMATES LESSON 1 | Inmates with a History of Substance Abuse OBJECTIVES CO7-3.1.1 Define substance abuse. CO7-3.1.2 List symptoms of alcohol or drug abuse. CO7-3.1.3 List signs and symptoms of substance abuse withdrawal or detoxification. CO7-3.1.4 Describe common medical needs of the substance-abusing inmate. CO7-3.1.5 Summarize special considerations the officer needs to make when monitoring substanceabusing inmates. CO7-3.1.6 Explain the role of the officer in an inmate’s court-ordered treatment program. Definition Inmates can have substance abuse issues, making their behavior unpredictable. Substance abuse is the use of any substance, manmade or natural, that alters the mood or state of mind of the user. These substances can be inhaled, ingested, injected, or absorbed. Clinically, substance abuse is the long-term, pathological use of alcohol or drugs, characterized by daily intoxication, inability to reduce consumption, and impairment in social or occupational functioning. (CO7-3.1.1) Signs and Symptoms Some symptoms that inmates display when abusing substances, withdrawing from substance abuse, or going through the process of detoxification can be • unresponsiveness • breathing difficulty • abnormal pulse • fever • vomiting • convulsions or seizures • sweating • tremors • abnormal pupil reactions • blurred vision • slurred speech • muscle spasms • signs of illicit drug use (track marks, burns on fingers or lips) • combativeness • extraordinary strength • endurance without fatigue • sudden tranquility after frenzied activity • paranoia • memory loss • hallucinations • altered mental status or abnormal behavior (CO7-3.1.2, CO7-3.1.3) 154 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 Special Considerations The officer needs to make special considerations when monitoring inmates who have problems with substance abuse. If an inmate is withdrawing from addiction to alcohol or drugs in the “tranquilizer” group (Valium, Xanax), there may be a potential for seizures and respiratory arrest. The officer should immediately notify the supervisor and medical staff when this occurs. These inmates have critical medical needs. (CO7-3.1.4) Section Vocabulary substance abuse Inmates under the influence of controlled substances have a high potential to commit self-harm, such as banging their heads on hard objects, biting or hitting themselves, or attacking others. Their behavior can be completely unpredictable; they may be calm one moment and incredibly volatile the next. This may present a challenge to the officer as most standard physical control techniques may not apply in these situations. The officer should immediately request backup to control the situation. An officer needs to be aware that inmates identified as substance abusers will need increased monitoring and observation to ensure their safety. This may include a shift in housing or management in which staff places the inmate in an environment more conducive to preventing self-harm. A housing or management change may include the restriction of personal property and institutionally-provided items. The Florida Comprehensive Drug Abuse Control Act, §893.01, F.S., dictates that any individual who appears to be under the influence of alcohol or narcotics will be housed separately from the general population with close supervision. When a physician, designee, or medical personnel determines that the inmate is no longer posing a threat to him- or herself or others, staff may move the inmate to the general population. (CO7-3.1.5) In the event that an inmate is court-ordered into a substance abuse treatment program, the officer should allow every opportunity for the inmate to attend the program. The officer should also increase the number of searches to discourage introducing contraband into the housing area. Increased documentation accompanies an inmate’s refusal, denial, or lack of attendance of a substance abuse treatment program. (CO7-3.1.6) 155 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 4 | MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH MENTAL RETARDATION LESSON 1 | Inmates with Mental Illness OBJECTIVES CO7-4.1.1 Describe the symptoms of inmates with depression or who are at risk for suicide. CO7-4.1.2 Describe common medical needs of the mentally ill inmate. CO7-4.1.3 Describe the characteristics of a mentally ill inmate. CO7-4.1.4 List the symptoms of inmates with mental disorders. CO7-4.1.5 Describe elements of effectively communicating with the mentally ill inmate. CO7-4.1.6 State the use of force considerations used with the mentally ill. CO7-4.1.7 Explain the Baker Act as it relates to inmates with mental illness. There are many different mental health disorders; however, some are more common in the correctional setting than others, with personality disorders affecting the most inmates. An officer needs to be able to recognize the symptoms of each disorder when making decisions about how to deal with an inmate. Mental illness comes in a variety of forms; it is a person’s prominent behavior presented as odd or bizarre acts, which negatively impact the person’s life. Common mental illnesses that inmates may display include bi-polar disorder and schizophrenia. Each person with mental illness will have different symptoms. Categories Mental illness is typically divided into mood disorders, thought disorders, and personality disorders. An inmate can display one or multiple behaviors associated with these disorders. Having an awareness of these categories can make supervising these inmates less challenging. Mood disorders are illnesses an inmate can have for short periods or on a long-term basis. Some mood disorders can be corrected or reduced through prescribed medication. Typical mood disorders an officer will encounter are bi-polar disorder and depression, with depression being the most prevalent. Depression is often situational and not a longterm, chronic issue. Inmates can become depressed because of being incarcerated, a death of a family member, or other losses. Depression may worsen to the point where the inmate considers and even acts upon thoughts of self-harm or suicide. Signs and symptoms of an inmate considering self-harm or suicide can include unusual crying episodes, giving away personal belongings, wanting to be alone, outbursts, not performing normal activities, and changes in routine. Statistically, inmates who commit suicide often complete the act during the late night or early morning hours. This often occurs soon after being sentenced and incarcerated. It can also be brought on by receiving distressing news from outside the facility. Officers should closely monitor inmates during these times. The officer has a responsibility to notify the appropriate mental health professional if an inmate needs further evaluation. The officer should take the appropriate steps to prevent any suicide attempts; however, the officer is not liable for determining if an inmate will harm or kill him- or herself. (CO7-4.1.1) Thought disorders are typically illnesses that last a lifetime, but may be treated with medication. A typical thought disorder an officer will encounter is schizophrenia. 156 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 Inmates with thought disorders often present with odd behavior that is noticeable to both other inmates and officers. The inmate with a thought disorder may appear preoccupied and distracted most of the time. He or she may present with very poor hygiene with no regard for personal appearance. The inmate may express bizarre ideas such as the CIA implanting a listening device in his or her brain, being hunted by the Mafia, or that newscasters hide special messages in their broadcast that only the mentally ill inmate can decipher. Personality disorders are illnesses causing the inmate to exhibit a long-term pattern of distress and impairment in his or her life. Typical personality disorders an officer will encounter include narcissistic personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and adjustment disorder. Maintaining a consistent medication regimen is critical to keeping mentally ill inmates stable; a missed dose of certain medications could have a detrimental effect on the inmate’s mental status. The officer should always direct inmates to the appropriate staff for their medication. Mentally ill inmates who have medical needs are most often bi-polar, schizophrenic, or depressive. These inmates require daily medication to manage their symptoms. (CO7-4.1.2) Inmates will often manipulate the officer and fellow inmates to obtain services beyond those normally received through regular channels. (CO7-4.1.3) Symptoms The officer will encounter behaviors that may be out of the ordinary and will need to use his or her best judgment to determine whether the inmate suffers from mental illnesses or is exaggerating behavior in order to obtain unwarranted attention and contraband. The officer should be aware of the following symptoms of mental illness that may appear in the inmates’ actions and speech: • delusional thoughts • hallucinations, auditory or visual • paranoia • hypersexuality • depression or manic episodes • antisocial behavior, even during visitations • impulsive behavior • active and passive acts of self-harm • extreme energy followed up by extreme lethargy • incoherent or tangential thoughts and talk • extreme demand for admiration • constant refusal to make decisions • high egotistical behavior • lack of self-identity • great difficulty adjusting to new or novel situations (CO7-4.1.4) 157 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Communication The officer should communicate with the mentally ill inmate as with any inmate in the general population. Should the communication take place during a crisis, the officer should extend efforts to use active listening skills. The officer should remain composed to de-escalate the situation, which should calm the inmate enough for him or her to understand and follow orders. (CO7-4.1.5) Special Considerations Inmates with thought or mood disorders do not react the same way other inmates do when an officer gives them orders. Psychotic inmates (those hearing voices, etc.) are sometimes preoccupied with internal voices, do not hear the officer, and are unable to follow commands. Inmates often lie about their status; however, the officer should not try to diagnose whether the inmate is faking a mental health disorder. If an officer has any doubts about an inmate’s mental status, the officer should refer or escort the inmate to the mental health clinic and fully explain to the mental health clinician what he or she has observed. Use of Force The officer should handle use of force situations on a case-by-case basis. If the inmate is displaying selfdestructive behavior, the officer should call for backup and use the minimum amount of force necessary to gain control of the situation. When an inmate with a mental disorder is among the general population, use of force guidelines are consistent as with the general population. (CO7-4.1.6) The Baker Act In a detention setting, the officer or health professional may apply the Baker Act at the end of the inmate’s sentence should the inmate display behavior(s) indicating the need for evaluation. The Baker Act provides for emergency service and temporary detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient treatment, if necessary. The criteria for a Baker Act/Involuntary Examination Response, according to §394.463, F.S., is that a person may be taken to a receiving facility for involuntary examination if there is reason to believe that he or she has a mental illness, and because of his or her mental illness, the person is unable to care for him- or herself, or to protect the inmate from harming him- or herself or others. (CO7-4.1.7) 158 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 UNIT 4 | MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH MENTAL RETARDATION LESSON 2 | Inmates with Mental Retardation Characteristics Inmates with mental retardation may have a significantly reduced intellectual ability; specifically, they will have an IQ of less than 70. These inmates may also have other deficits or impairments that affect their ability to function in life. Most of these inmates have difficulties with problem solving, have high anxiety levels, and are easily frustrated by simple tasks. Inmates with mental retardation are more comfortable with routines and become agitated when routines vary. Often, they display self-soothing behaviors such as rocking or clicking their fingers, and may become upset when interrupted. Each inmate with mental retardation is an individual with his or her own skills and abilities. The inmate might be educable, trainable, or may be incapable of learning. (CO7-4.2.1) OBJECTIVES CO7-4.2.1 Describe the characteristics of an inmate that has mental retardation. CO7-4.2.2 Differentiate between mental illness and mental retardation. CO7-4.2.3 Describe elements of effectively communicating with inmates that have mental retardation. Mental illness is the result of biological diseases or chemical imbalances in which brain chemistry does not work normally and requires medication to compensate for the imbalance. In contrast, mentally retarded inmates do not benefit from taking psychiatric medication. (CO7-4.2.2) Communication The officer should communicate just the same with an inmate with mental retardation as with any inmate in the general population. Should the communication take place in a crisis, the officer should extend efforts to use active listening skills. Instead of shouting, the officer should remain calm to de-escalate the situation, which should help the inmate understand orders. Sometimes, using simple words and single-step commands is an effective way to communicate with an inmate with mental retardation. (CO7-4.2.3) 159 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 5 | JUVENILE INMATES AND YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS LESSON 1 | Monitoring Juvenile Inmates and Youthful Offenders OBJECTIVES CO7-5.1.1 Define juvenile adjudication. CO7-5.1.2 Define juvenile inmate. CO7-5.1.3 Define youthful offender. CO7-5.1.4 List the characteristics of the juvenile inmate and youthful offender. CO7-5.1.5 Describe disciplinary issues associated with the juvenile inmate and youthful offender. CO7-5.1.6 Describe special considerations when monitoring juvenile inmates and youthful offenders. CO7-5.1.7 List the legal requirements for incarcerating juvenile inmates and youthful offenders. CO7-5.1.8 List types of services available to juvenile inmates and youthful offenders. Definitions Juvenile adjudication occurs when the court charges, sentences, adjudicates as delinquent (including nolo contendere), and commits a juvenile under the age of 18 years to the Department of Juvenile Justice (CO7-5.1.1). A juvenile inmate is an inmate who is not legally an adult or adjudicated as an adult and whom the court may assign to the Department of Juvenile Justice. (CO7-5.1.2) Sometimes, an adjudicated juvenile is unsuccessfully incarcerated within the juvenile justice system and the placement is not appropriate for their rehabilitation program. When this happens, the court remands the juvenile to the Department of Corrections as a youthful offender. A youthful offender is any offender younger than the age of 24 years, who has either been sentenced as an adult by the judge or assigned youthful offender status by the Department of Corrections. According to §958.03(5), F.S., a youthful offender means any person who is sentenced as such by the court or is classified as such by the Department of Corrections pursuant to §958.04, F.S. and can be: Court-declared—a youthful offender cannot be sentenced to prison for more than six (6) years. He or she must have been younger than 21 years of age on the date the sentence was imposed for offenses committed on or after 10/01/2008 and cannot have previously been classified as a youthful offender. Department-designated—a youthful offender’s total length of prison sentence cannot exceed 10 years. The age of the offender cannot exceed 24 years and the individual cannot have previously been classified as a youthful offender. Department-declared—not a youthful offender, but housed at a youthful offender facility by virtue of mental or physical vulnerability. The inmate’s mental or physical vulnerability would significantly jeopardize his or her safety in a non-youthful offender facility. Young Adult Offender—not a youthful offender, but an offender housed at a youthful offender facility by virtue of age at time of crime and time of admission to prison. (CO7-5.1.3) Characteristics The officer should not assume that all young inmates have the following characteristics and should treat each inmate as unique with individual personalities. However, these are some characteristics that officers might find in young inmates: 160 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 • tend to be more impulsive and unpredictable • act first and think about the consequences later • are often unable to accept responsibility for their behavior; they may blame others for their inappropriate behavior • are often oppositional, defiant, and resentful of authority • may join gangs in an attempt to find an identity and for personal safety • can cave to peer pressure, be easily manipulated, and be concerned about what other inmates think about them • may come from households with generations of gang members, a history of abuse and criminal activity, and whose value systems clash with common social norms • may have few positive adult role models • may not have graduated from high school; may not have a formal education, but may have street smarts • if diagnosed with learning disabilities, they may continue to have those challenges, which may also impact their ability to respond appropriately in a variety of situations • tend to have a lot more sexual curiosity issues and can have an increased incidence of lewd and lascivious behavior • tend to have no moral compass • often depersonalize other inmates, corrections officers, and people on the outside • can be insensitive, lack remorse for what they do, and do not see their behavior as anti-social or criminal (CO7-5.1.4) Juvenile inmates and youthful offenders may frequently need disciplining to correct inappropriate behavior. Juvenile inmates and youthful offenders are in confinement more often than adult inmates. Minor infractions can include an unmade bunk or failure to wear ID or follow proper dress code. Major infractions can include fighting, battery, STG activity, rioting, setting fires, theft, and lewd and lascivious behavior. (CO7-5.1.5) Proactive, Professional Officer Behavior The officer should be a positive role model for young inmates. The officer should demonstrate professional behavior by being consistently firm and fair. These young inmates need a structured, predictable environment that is consistent from one shift to another. Young inmates will constantly test a new officer, looking for weakness and vulnerability. It is important that officers new to the facility understand policy and procedures, enforce them, and appear competent. The officer should avoid being distracted by long conversations, as this could be a diversion for inappropriate behavior in another area. Proactive intervention begins with being aware of surroundings and changes in inmate behaviors, dress, and social groupings that may include but are not limited to the following: • inmates wearing boots during showers and at night time may indicate there will be an incident • magazines under shirts indicate an inmate anticipates being stabbed or hit • an inmate hoarding items from the commissary may indicate he or she anticipates being placed in lock-down • an increase in requests for protection or “check-in” • increase or decrease in the normal activity or sounds of the facility 161 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 The officer should immediately report these behaviors to his or her shift supervisor, call for backup if appropriate, and take immediate action to isolate the impending incident. (CO7-5.1.6) Legal Requirements Federal law mandates different nutritional requirements for young inmates and juvenile offenders than for adult inmates. Juvenile inmates and youthful offenders cannot be housed with adult offenders and require additional supervision. According to §985.265(5)(b), F.S., juveniles shall be housed separately from adult inmates to prohibit sight and sound contact with incarcerated adults, including trustees. Separation of juveniles from adults permits no more than random or accidental contact. The receiving facility shall contain a separate section for juveniles and have adequate staff to supervise and monitor the juvenile’s activities at all times. Supervising and monitoring juveniles includes physical observation and documented checks by facility supervisory staff at intervals of no more than 15 minutes. This subsection does not prohibit placing two or more juveniles in the same cell. Under no circumstances shall a juvenile be placed in the same cell with an adult. (CO7-5.1.7) Services and Programs Available Juvenile offenders are required to participate in physical activity. Youthful offenders are also required to participate in the Extended Day Program (EDP). The EDP operates 16 hours each day, Monday through Saturday. It provides a minimum of 12 hours per day for work, academic, and vocational education, counseling, personal development and self-betterment. Juvenile inmates are required to attend General Equivalence Diploma (GED) classes. Programs that may be available for juvenile inmates and juvenile offenders can include academic and vocational programs, such as: • wellness programs • work programs • faith- and character-based programs • substance abuse programs • betterment programs • pre-release, transition programs • counseling programs • tutoring programs • correspondence courses • education and trade programs Referral resources available to juvenile inmates and youthful offenders include the following: • medical • psychology 162 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • dental • chaplain or other religious leader • classification Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 Section Vocabulary juvenile adjudication • security juvenile inmate • education youthful offender • library and law library (CO7-5.1.8) 163 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 6 | ELDERLY INMATES LESSON 1 | Monitoring Elderly Inmates OBJECTIVES CO7-6.1.1 Define elderly inmate. CO7-6.1.2 Describe the characteristics of an elderly inmate. CO7-6.1.3 Summarize the elements of effectively communicating with an elderly inmate. CO7-6.1.4 Describe special considerations the officer needs to make when monitoring elderly inmates. CO7-6.1.5 Describe situations in which the officer needs to make special considerations for an elderly inmate with physical limitations. CO7-6.1.6 List the types of services available to the elderly inmate. Florida’s Elderly Inmates Elderly inmates are 50 years of age and over. Some elderly inmates are docile and more apt to follow the rules. They are less apt to play games; however, if they do intentionally manipulate the system, they are very good at it, and maximize the outcomes. Elderly inmates can be good at manipulating officers through sympathy. (CO7-6.1.1) Elderly inmates’ life experiences prior to and while in prison can contribute to a lower life expectancy. Almost every elderly inmate experiences normal physical and physiological changes, and can develop certain medical conditions as they get older. They may experience changes in their eyesight and hearing. These changes may limit the inmate’s mobility, increase the likelihood of accidents, or lead to fear, isolation, and victimization by other inmates. Older inmates may also experience a change in their sense of touch. Damage to nerves may make them less likely to feel surface pain and therefore less likely to notice injuries. They are more prone to rips, tears, and bruising to their skin from everyday activities. They are more likely to suffer loss of balance, which increases the risk of falls. Because older people often experience an increased sensitivity to weather, officers should be aware that they are more susceptible to heat stroke, heat exhaustion, and hypothermia. Another result of aging is the loss of muscle flexibility and strength, which makes performing daily tasks more difficult. Joints may stiffen due to arthritis, making movement extremely painful. Older inmates may also lose some cognitive ability, which is the ability to think, learn, and remember. They may experience slowness in thinking, finding the right words, or identifying objects. Officers should be patient when supervising elderly inmates because it may take them longer than younger inmates to explain themselves. Medical Issues Some elderly inmates suffer from chronic medical conditions, such as dementia or Alzheimer’s disease, requiring long-term management or care. Dementia and Alzheimer’s are organic, progressive mental disorders characterized by loss of memory, impairment of judgment and abstract thinking, and changes in personality. These inmates appear confused, and may also use violent behavior as they experience progressive declines in mental functions. Due to the onset of Alzheimer’s and dementia, another condition known as Sundowner’s Syndrome may set in. This condition is most notable after dinner hours after sundown. Inmates who exhibit Sundowner’s Syndrome become active after dark, have a tendency 164 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 to wander, and may exhibit mood swings or become demanding, suspicious, or disoriented. Not all inmates with Alzheimer’s or dementia will exhibit Sundowner’s Syndrome. Elderly inmates may also experience a variety of mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and depression. Physical conditions that tend to affect the elderly more than other population groups include incontinence, bedsores, and dehydration. (CO7-6.1.2) Communicating with Elderly Inmates When communicating with an elderly inmate, the officer should always treat him or her with dignity, respect, and patience. The officer should speak directly to the inmate, establishing and maintaining eye contact, and speaking loudly only if necessary. In addition, the officer should include the person in all discussions concerning his or her welfare and should adjust communication based on any disabilities or limitations. (CO7-6.1.3) Monitoring Elderly Inmates Increase the number of rounds when monitoring elderly inmates. The officer should observe if the inmate is moving around, or if in bed, that their chest is rising and falling, and that they are breathing. Monitor the restrooms and showers more often as some elderly inmates have difficulty using the facilities and can be injured. Some elderly inmates tend to hoard food beyond the expiration date and then get sick after eating it. When conducting searches, an officer may find elderly inmates have items in their locker that will be different from the general population such as: • hearing aid batteries • varicose vein socks • adult diapers, catheters • prostheses (i.e., an artificial arm or leg) (CO7-6.1.4) Inmates with Physical Limitations Job assignments will vary based on the physical limitations of an elderly inmate and are based on their medical grade and classification. Some elderly inmates will need adapted eating and drinking utensils. Non-ambulatory inmates will require durable medical equipment to decrease the incidence of bedsores and to manage complications from existing medical conditions. An officer will encounter elderly inmates with physical limitations that may include, but are not limited to, missing appendages, the inability to move about due to physical defects or malformations, deafness, and blindness or near blindness. The officer should give the elderly inmate additional time to get where they need to be because of mobility challenges. The officer encountering an elderly inmate with physical limitations should make an effort to reasonably accommodate the inmate when asking him or her to perform tasks or follow directions. The officer should be aware that instances might arise where standard physical control measures, tactics, and even verbal directions 165 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations Section Vocabulary elderly inmate FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 used with younger populations may not work for elderly inmates. For example, an inmate who has a prosthesis that restricts movement of the knee will not be able to kneel down on his or her knees when getting into a “prone” position. Another example is an inmate with a visual or hearing deficiency that affects the inmate’s ability to understand verbal directions, and which may make the inmate appear to refuse to obey an order. The officer should also be aware that an elderly inmate might falsely claim to have a physical limitation in an attempt to avoid following commands or to elicit sympathy from the officer. These elderly inmates claim they cannot perform the actions as directed or will refuse to comply with the direction. The officer should give the inmate another action or task which will achieve a similar result. (CO7-6.1.5) Services Elderly inmates receive the same services as any other inmate from the general population. (CO7-6.1.6) 166 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 UNIT 7 | FEMALE INMATES LESSON 1 | Female Inmates Emotional Characteristics The courts incarcerate the majority of female inmates because of drug-related charges and economic crimes such as passing worthless checks, forgery, fraud, and other nonconfrontational crimes; however, the incidence of younger females committing violent crimes is on the rise. Female inmates are the fastest growing criminal population. Women, especially older inmates, are less likely to join STGs; they do, however, tend to form surrogate families. These surrogate families take the place of their families on the outside and form hierarchies with mother, father, child, and grandparent figures. Female inmates tend to form relationships based more on companionship than for sexual reasons. OBJECTIVES CO7-7.1.1 Describe the emotional characteristics of the female inmate. CO7-7.1.2 Describe common methods of manipulation officers may encounter when supervising female inmates. CO7-7.1.3 List the types of services available to female inmates. They tend to struggle more with depression, guilt, and worry about their children. They freely express their fear, anger, and affection on a verbal level, while men tend to express their feelings physically. Female inmates tend to base their self-esteem on what others think about them rather than what they think about themselves. Female inmates can have a lower self-esteem than male inmates do because of issues related to sexual abuse and domestic violence. Female inmates have higher instances of relieving stress through self-mutilation and selfharm than male inmates. Many female inmates have a higher tolerance for others entering their personal space until an unwelcome person attempts to put his or her hands on the inmate. This can lead to a physical fight. Female inmates are frequently more concerned than male inmates with cleanliness and having a neat environment. (CO7-7.1.1) Female inmates have a high tendency to manipulate staff. Common methods of manipulation include using the enticement of sex to form a relationship with a staff member or another inmate. Officers must remain professional at all times and avoid this type of contact. Female inmates tend to be more inclined than male inmates to provide false information to achieve an agenda. (CO7-7.1.2) Programs and Services Generally, female inmates are more willing to participate in programs than males because it presents additional opportunities to bond and socialize with other inmates. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings are typical of the programs available to female inmates. Programs can include education, vocation, crafts, computer support services, equine care, small gas engine repair, HIV awareness, fitness, intramural sports, stress reduction, parenting, and wellness education. 167 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Types of gender-specific services available to female inmates are gynecology, obstetric, pre-natal, and family planning classes. (CO7-7.1.3) UNIT 8 | INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES LESSON 1 | Sexually Abused Inmates OBJECTIVES CO7-8.1.1 Define sexual abuse. CO7-8.1.2 Describe the characteristics of an inmate who is a sexual abuse victim. CO7-8.1.3 Identify housing issues for the inmate who is a sexual abuse victim. CO7-8.1.4 Describe methods to prevent sexual abuse of at-risk inmates. CO7-8.1.5 Describe disciplinary issues of inmates who are sexual abuse victims. 168 Characteristics Sexual abuse is engaging in or attempting to engage in a sexual act with another person through the use of threats, intimidation, inappropriate touching, or other actions and communications aimed at coercing or pressuring another person to engage in a sexual act. Sexual abuse is also the intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of any person’s genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttock with the intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or gratify the sexual desire of any person. (CO7-8.1.1) Victims of sexual abuse may display self-esteem issues, depression, and self-destruction. A victim may believe his or her only worth is sexual, and may therefore act out. Male victims typically do not self-report as often as female victims do. (CO7-8.1.2) Applying the PREA The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) was signed into federal law in 2003. The PREA establishes a zero tolerance standard for the sexual abuse of inmates. It addresses the safety and treatment of inmates who have been victims of nonconsensual sex acts, and disciplines and prosecutes those who perpetrate these acts. The PREA provides guidelines for the first responding officer and the investigator of a suspected sexual abuse FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 incident, as well as for housing the involved inmates before, during, and after the initial investigation. Typically, the victim is segregated or isolated and put under increased observation. (CO7-8.1.3) Section Vocabulary sexual abuse Methods to prevent sexual abuse of at-risk inmates can include accurate classification of offenders, staff and inmate education, and a zero tolerance policy for sexual abuse. The officer should treat all sexual abuse allegations seriously and should not make any assumptions or their own determination of the reported events. Officers are required to report and document all sexual abuse incidents. The officer should not re-victimize an abused inmate by blaming the victim for what happened or making light of the incident. (CO7-8.1.4) In some circumstances, a victim may act out if he or she is ashamed of or does not want others to know about what happened. The victim may not bring to light the actual reason for acting out but will act in such a way as to get him- or herself immediately removed from the area. After the incident, the victim may try to get back at the victimizer. Sometimes the accusation is not true, and staff may discipline the inmate for falsely reporting the crime. (CO7-8.1.5) 169 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 8 | INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES LESSON 2 | Inmates with Sexuality Issues OBJECTIVES CO7-8.2.1 Define institutional homosexuality. CO7-8.2.2 Describe characteristics of institutional homosexuality within the correctional setting. CO7-8.2.3 Define transgender. CO7-8.2.4 Identify housing issues for the transgender inmate. Section Vocabulary institutional homosexuality transgender Institutional Homosexuality Homosexuality is a sexual orientation in which people of the same sex are attracted to each other emotionally and physically. Institutional homosexuality is the changing of an inmate’s sexual preference from heterosexuality to homosexuality only while incarcerated (CO7-8.2.1). The inmate may be heterosexual outside the facility, and forced into homosexual acts, or perceives homosexuality as a situational necessity while incarcerated. It is not uncommon for heterosexual male inmates to enter into a homosexual relationship strictly for sexual gratification. Male inmates with long sentences will sometimes have homosexual relationships with just one inmate partner in a monogamous relationship. Some male inmates may court several inmate partners. Heterosexual female inmates enter into female relationships more for companionship and bonding than for sexual gratification. An increase in opposite-gender behavior may be part of an inmate’s response to institutional homosexuality. (CO7-8.2.2) Transgender Inmates Transgender as defined by the American Psychological Association: “Transgender is an umbrella term used to describe people whose gender identity (sense of themselves as male or female) or gender expression differs from that usually associated with their birth sex. Many transgender people live part-time or full-time as members of the other gender. Broadly speaking, anyone whose identity, appearance, or behavior falls outside of conventional gender norms can be described as transgender. However, not everyone whose appearance or behavior is gender-atypical will identify as a transgender person.” (CO7-8.2.3) Transgender and transsexual inmates that are in any stage of the gender changing process can cause housing issues. Sometimes the inmate can be in the middle of the process of changing gender and it can be confusing to the officer as to how to determine the gender of the inmate. These inmates should not be treated differently from any other inmate related to monitoring and security. (CO7-8.2.4) 170 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 UNIT 9 | PHYSICALLY DISABLED INMATES LESSON 1 | Monitoring Physically Disabled Inmates A disabled person is someone who may have one or more medical or mental impairments causing disability and substantially limiting one or more of their major life activities. A major life activity refers to an activity that an average person can perform without assistance with little or no difficulty under normal circumstances. These activities can include walking, standing, hearing, speaking, seeing, and performing manual tasks. OBJECTIVES Inmates may become disabled prior to or during incarceration. There are several types of disabilities that may affect inmates, including the following: CO7-9.1.3 Describe common methods of manipulation used by physically disabled inmates. • paraplegia • back injuries or pain • amputation • stroke • obesity • renal failure • cancer • heart disease CO7-9.1.1 Define disabled person. CO7-9.1.2 Identify Americans with Disabilities Act provisions that apply to physically disabled inmates. CO7-9.1.4 Describe special considerations the correctional officer needs to make when monitoring physically disabled inmates. CO7-9.1.5 List types of services available to the physically disabled inmate. • cardio-pulmonary conditions • late stage HIV disease • diabetes • mental retardation • mental illness • visual, speech, and hearing impairments • mobility challenges (CO7-9.1.1) Apply the ADA The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 provides provisions for inmates with disabilities and defines health care appliances as: • orthopedic prostheses, braces, or shoes • crutches, canes, walkers • wheelchairs (gloves if needed for wheelchair use only) • hearing aids • prescription eyeglasses 171 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • artificial eyes • dental prostheses • breathing devices Trained medical staff will determine the existence of an inmate’s disability. The officer should ensure the disabled inmate remains in compliance with facility or institutional rules while providing for reasonable accommodations for the inmate’s disability. A reasonable modification or accommodation request should be resolved in accordance with the ADA, to provide for the impaired inmate’s participation in the facility’s or institution’s services, programs or activities, such as wellness (recreation), library services, visitation, and going to required appointments by special transport vehicles when necessary. (CO7-9.1.2) Methods of Manipulation Inmates may try to use medical conditions or disabilities to manipulate staff by requesting additional health care appliances beyond their personal needs, avoiding undesirable job assignments, or receiving superfluous medications. Exaggerating illness or disability is difficult to prove; however, it is a common method of manipulation. When denied unnecessary supplies, an inmate may go to such extremes as exaggerating an existing disability or illness and creating frivolous lawsuits, or even self-injury to achieve desired results. The disabled inmate may use his or her assigned medical appliance (wheelchair, cane, etc.) to transport contraband from one location to another, or sell medications or portable accessories to other inmates. (CO7-9.1.3) Monitoring Disabled Inmates The officer should use the same search techniques and frequency with disabled inmates as with the general population, including searching their property and specially issued medical appliances. Some of the medical appliances have detachable parts, which a disabled inmate can use as a weapon. The officer should frequently verify the validity of medically-issued passes that allow inmates to have medical appliances and additional medical supplies, such as diapers and catheters. If applicable, the officer should verify and ensure that the inmate assigned as a personal care attendant is performing his or her duties within the allowable scope, such as pushing a wheelchair, changing linens, providing bowel care and hygiene assistance, and feeding. The assigned personal care attendant is not responsible for handling or having access to medical devices such as needles, medications, surgical instruments, or other health care (HIPAA) activities or records. (CO7-9.1.4) Programs and Services Within the scope of administering services, under the guidelines of the ADA, the following services and programs for disabled inmates include, but are not limited to the following: • interpreter and or TDD (telephone communication for the deaf ) • handicapped accessible dining, housing, and bathroom facilities • legal and general library services including access to Braille materials or talking books • property storage or key locks for the visually impaired • restraint devices to accommodate various disabilities • disabled accommodations for visitation 172 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 Section Vocabulary • wellness • chaplains • education (CO7-9.1.5) Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) disabled person UNIT 10 | INMATES WITH MEDICAL NEEDS LESSON 1 | Characteristics of Inmates with Medical Needs Inmates who have an underlying or prominent medical need may or may not verbally express their medical concern to the officer. It is the officer’s responsibility to be able to recognize changes in an inmate’s physical demeanor or behavior indicating there is a need for medical intervention from a professional. Inmates have the same medical needs as someone who is not incarcerated and display the same behaviors that indicate they are in need of medical care. (CO7-10.1.1) Maintaining a high level of cleanliness in housing units containing inmates with medical needs is important to reduce the spread of communicable diseases. The officer should increase use of universal precautions because an inmate with certain medical needs or diseases may be contagious. In some facilities, medical passes are available to make the officer aware that an inmate has a medical issue. The officer should make sure the pass is valid and follow the procedures outlined in the pass, while maintaining officer safety. For example, situational awareness of certain medical conditions may require additional meals, snacks, and supplements. Inmates with other diagnosed medical conditions may require additional observation to prevent unintentional self-injury, such as seizures or dizziness. OBJECTIVES CO7-10.1.1 Identify changes in an inmate’s behavior that may indicate a medical need. CO7-10.1.2 Describe special considerations to employ when monitoring inmates with medical needs. CO7-10.1.3 Differentiate the use of force considerations between an inmate with medical needs and the general population inmate. CO7-10.1.4 Describe special considerations to employ when monitoring a terminally ill inmate. CO7-10.1.5 Describe special visitation considerations for a terminally ill inmate. 173 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 If an inmate has an obvious medical need, the officer should immediately seek backup, request support staff, refer the inmate to medical services, or accommodate his or her medical need where authorized. (CO7-10.1.2) Use of force with an inmate with medical needs is not different from the use of force with a general population inmate. The officer should use only the amount of force necessary to control the situation. During situations like this, the officer may have to physically help the inmate into the prone position or assist the inmate in placing his or her arms in the proper position. (CO7-10.1.3) Terminally ill inmates may be at a higher risk for suicidal thoughts or attempts. The officer should increase the frequency of security checks to ensure that the inmate has not decided to attempt or committed suicide. (CO7-10.1.4) Administration may permit the family, clergy, or authorized visitor of a terminally ill inmate for whom death is imminent to visit the inmate under close, isolated supervision. (CO7-10.1.5) 174 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Supervising Special Populations Ch 7 UNIT 11 | INMATES IN CONFINEMENT LESSON 1 | Confinement Disciplinary confinement is a type of formal punishment in which the officer segregates an inmate for a length of time to an individual cell because a disciplinary committee has found him or her guilty of committing a violation of agency rules. The officer should house inmates with other inmates of like status or segregate them within their own housing unit. Inmates may also incur personal property and privilege restrictions. There is no visitation or phone calls. The inmate’s behavior can determine the allowable privileges. (CO7-11.1.1) Administrative confinement is the temporary removal of an inmate from the general population to provide for safety and security until a more permanent inmate management process is in place. When an inmate commits an infraction, the inmate can be placed in administrative confinement until a determination of guilt or innocence is established. Inmates placed in administrative confinement may also be participating in an investigation as a witness or victim. (CO7-11.1.2) Protective management is a form of confinement where an inmate is placed into segregated housing because of concerns for his or her safety. Safety concerns may be mentioned by the inmate or noticed by the staff. The inmate can request protective management. The validity of this request will be determined by the agency on a caseby-case basis. The inmate can appeal the disposition if denied. An inmate can be temporarily placed into administrative confinement pending a protective management review. Protective management inmates are housed with inmates of similar status or by themselves. When staff approves the request for protective management, staff relocates either the inmate requesting protection or the threatening inmate. (CO7-11.1.3) An officer needs to be professional while using clear and direct communication with confined inmates as they would with any other inmate. Confinement officers need to adhere to a formal inmate request process to avoid being manipulated by the inmate. (CO7-11.1.4) OBJECTIVES CO7-11.1.1 Define disciplinary confinement. CO7-11.1.2 Define administrative confinement. CO7-11.1.3 Define protective management. CO7-11.1.4 Identify the requirements for communicating with inmates in confinement. CO7-11.1.5 Identify the requirements for increased monitoring of inmates in confinement. Section Vocabulary administrative confinement disciplinary confinement protective management The officer needs to be aware of how inmates in confinement communicate with each other through hand signals, fishing, kites, or talking through air ducts connecting the cells. The officer should decrease and vary the time between intervals of monitoring inmates in confinement, not to exceed 15 or 30-minute rounds. Specific support staff are assigned to routinely evaluate inmates in confinement. Inmates may not obstruct the officer’s visibility of their cell or housing unit and should allow the officer visual access at all times to conduct security checks. The officer will document all daily activities of an inmate in confinement, whether the activity is a right or a privilege. (CO7-11.1.5) 175 Ch 7 Supervising Special Populations FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 12 | DEATH ROW INMATES LESSON 1 | Monitoring Death Row Inmates OBJECTIVES CO7-12.1.1 Define death row inmate. CO7-12.1.2 Describe the psychological characteristics of a death row inmate. CO7-12.1.3 Describe various security issues when monitoring death row inmates. CO7-12.1.4 Describe special considerations to employ when monitoring death row inmates. Section Vocabulary death row inmate A death row inmate is a person whom, upon conviction of guilt or adjudication of a capital felony, the court has sentenced to death. A death row inmate is housed in an administrative confinement status until the death warrant is carried out or until the sentence is overturned to a lesser penalty. (CO7-12.1.1) Psychological Issues A death row inmate’s psychological issues can range from depression, to paranoia, to high levels of anxiety, not unlike inmates in the general population. What is different is the intensity of their psychological issues. These inmates may not have learned to control their impulses or manage their anger. Some inmates cannot be housed safely on death row, as their psychological issues become so intense that they are admitted to an intensive mental health treatment program. However, the majority of death row inmates can manage their psychological issues with mental health appointments as needed. (CO7-12.1.2) Security Issues Security measures for monitoring death row inmates differ from those for monitoring the general population inmate, as security is heightened based on the court-ordered penalty. When inside the facility, the death row inmate is handcuffed prior to being removed from his or her cell and before an unclothed search. Often, an increased number of officers should be present and an increased number of restraints used when escorting a death row inmate. Death row inmates may have different property privileges that officers should be aware of when conducting cell searches. They have an increased amount of legal work, among which the inmate will often hide contraband. (CO7-12.1.3) The officers supervising death row inmates should work together to monitor each inmate housed on death row and should report any noticeable odd behavior to the mental health specialist. Often death row inmates will refuse mental health services, making it difficult for the officer to notice any issues until the inmate is in extreme distress. The officer should monitor death row inmates every 15 to 30 minutes. Officers need to be aware that inmates housed in death row, where they do not have many privileges, have a heightened awareness of their surroundings. (CO7-12.1.4) 176 CHAPTER 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies UNIT 1: IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS LESSON 1: Responding to an Emergency Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 LESSON 2: Emergency Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 UNIT 2: DETERMINING LEVEL OF RESPONSE ASSISTANCE LESSON 1: Determining Level of Response Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 UNIT 3: TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 1: Inmate Escapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 LESSON 2: Medical Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 LESSON 3: Riots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 LESSON 4: Hostage Incidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 LESSON 5: Outside Threats to a Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 LESSON 6: Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 LESSON 7: Hazardous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 LESSON 8: Bomb Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 LESSON 9: Man-Made or Natural Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 UNIT 4: INVESTIGATING CRIMES LESSON 1: Crime Scene Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203 LESSON 2: Managing Victims, Witnesses and Suspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 LESSON 3: Investigations and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206 LESSON 4: Chain of Custody for Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 One of the most important duties of a correctional officer is to apply knowledge, training, and reasonable judgment during an emergency. An officer’s first priority is the safety and security of all individuals. Any incident can develop into an emergency; the officer is expected to be effective in the use of equipment, crime scene control, chain of custody procedures, and documentation of involvement. The officer should be aware of agency policies, procedures, and emergency plans, as well as post orders, which are job-specific documents that outline how to handle daily responsibilities and operations. Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 1 | IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS LESSON 1 | Responding to an Emergency Situation OBJECTIVES CO8-1.1.1 Identify staff to notify during an emergency situation. CO8-1.1.2 Describe evacuation guidelines. CO8-1.1.3 List the steps needed to resolve an emergency situation. An officer who is knowledgeable and prepared during emergencies is able to fulfill his or her responsibilities for the care, custody and control of inmates, and the safety and security of staff and visitors. Properly responding to an incident or emergency requires a variety of procedures, techniques, and equipment. An emergency is characterized by an increase in magnitude of an incident that requires strict, urgent, and immediate response. When an emergency happens, an officer must use good judgment. In order to respond effectively to an emergency, individuals and organizations must remain flexible, and be able to adapt to necessary changes without having a negative impact on facility operations. Emergencies often occur because of a disturbance or an escape attempt. Escape attempts often occur during work details inside or outside the correctional facility, during transports, and during recreational activities. When an emergency disrupts the normal operations within a facility, it is important that an officer know the details of the agency’s emergency plan, facility layout, evacuation routes, and the locations of emergency exits, equipment and keys so that he or she may respond properly. Tasks assigned during an emergency could include forming perimeters, using a radio to communicate, executing evacuations, and applying use of force. Verify the Incident or Emergency Responding to an emergency situation requires officers to accurately assess the emergency, effectively isolate or evacuate people, and aid in resolution. When verifying the type of emergency, an officer needs to assess the threat properly and use discretion and caution when approaching the scene. While identifying the type of emergency, the officer should communicate with control room staff, command post personnel, and supervisory staff to coordinate a response in line with the emergency plan. Assess the severity of the emergency from minor to major. As an officer communicates with the control room, he or she should be prepared to describe the nature and location of the emergency, give the number of people involved, describe the nature of any injuries, and report if hazardous materials or weapons are involved. (CO8-1.1.1) Setting up a Perimeter Officers should secure and isolate the situation so that it does not spread to other areas. Limit movement of the inmates, such as locking down the cell block or dorm. Contain the isolation to a limited space if possible, depending on the severity of the incident. For example, an inmate suicide may require a facility-wide lock down, with correctional 178 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 officers ordering all inmates to return to their individual cell areas or bunks. An officer may need to begin the process of setting up a perimeter by using structures, such as internal gates, sally ports, roll gates, doors, and cross fences. He or she may also need to evacuate all individuals present, including non-essential personnel, as soon as it is safe to do so. Evacuations Evacuation routes should take evacuees as far away from the threat as necessary, and be accessible by the quickest and easiest route possible. Evacuations may not always be possible due to time constraints or other factors. Officers may not have enough time to properly restrain inmates or may need to group inmates together that are not normally combined. In such cases, it may be necessary to wait to begin an evacuation. Evacuating or isolating individuals from a threat may involve a lock down. Lock down can differ from agency to agency as it relates to the level of restricting movement or use of security measures. Each agency’s emergency plan includes evacuation instructions for emergency situations and anticipated events, such as a hurricane. Alerting the Incident Command System (ICS) to the emergency may be part of the agency’s emergency plan. ICS is a nationwide system that conveys emergencies to designated individuals; it is a system or protocol that will be followed depending on the nature of the emergency. Emergency plans formed through an ICS may require specific training. The ICS will identify levels of responses and certain teams that will respond to different types of emergencies. Guidelines to follow during an evacuation include: • Upon direction of a supervisor, move people in an orderly fashion to a safe, secure area. • Obtain copies of inmate rosters for identification and counting. • Give clear and concise commands. • Close or open windows and doors, if so directed, along evacuation routes if time permits. • Do not use elevators for evacuation. • Conduct an inmate count when reaching the evacuation area. • Account for everyone who was in the facility. (CO8-1.1.2) To maintain safety and security and preserve possible evidence, do not leave an inmate who may be a victim or perpetrator unsupervised. As conditions escalate, inmates who were not participating may be drawn to the incident and become involved. Officers must therefore maintain focus on proper procedures and execute the emergency plan quickly and efficiently. Resolve the Incident or Emergency Resolving an incident or emergency involves defusing the situation, and returning the facility to normal operations. Although the resolution of an emergency is usually the responsibility of supervisory staff or specialized response teams, any staff member involved in an emergency incident can play a part in these efforts. In response to an emergency, an officer may be called on to transport, escort and supervise persons; use physical force or control; provide first aid; record events; serve as a witness in investigations; and debrief. (CO8-1.1.3) 179 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Section Vocabulary Incident Command System (ICS) 180 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Each agency will determine the roles and responsibilities of its staff members and provide an emergency plan. Any emergency presents inherent dangers and, therefore, liabilities exist in the actions and choices an officer makes to keep all individuals safe and secure. To reduce liability while resolving emergencies, an officer must observe his or her surroundings, take note of activities as they occur, respond within the scope of his or her training, and use reasonable judgment in responding, all the while practicing officer safety. It is important to review report details and confirm information for further investigation during the deactivation and debriefing process. FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 1 | IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS LESSON 2 | Emergency Plans Chain of Command Chain of command defines the order of authority and responsibility that joins one level of an organization to another, and which outlines the coordination of resources in an emergency situation. Different agencies use different titles to identify personnel in the chain of command, such as command post staff or incident command post staff, control center personnel, or supervisors. The emergency plan, which can include an ICS, will determine the protocols for chain of command. OBJECTIVES CO8-1.2.1 Describe the chain of command in an emergency. CO8-1.2.2 Describe details to include in documenting an emergency. An agency’s emergency plan identifies the person in charge. As the first person on the scene, you begin the chain of command. The officer must make decisions and is considered the person in charge until relieved by command staff (CO8-1.2.1). Officers should strive to operate within the chain of command at all times and keep supervisors informed of their activities. During an emergency, it may become necessary to set up a command post at a strategic point away from the emergency. Some control rooms or central towers may move if there is an emergency. People in the command post may use radio bands or other communication devices designated specifically for them, separate from the non-emergency devices. The person in command on the scene will be responsible for keeping staff members updated about the status of the emergency. The command post staff will receive all communications and make all major decisions during an incident or emergency. Document the Emergency Although officers may not be directly involved in a particular emergency, they must submit a report about what was observed. It is important that reports are complete and accurate as they may be needed for reference during an investigation or for other purposes. When documenting an emergency response, an officer should include details of the date, time, place, people involved, when they arrived and left, what time outside agencies such as emergency services were contacted, and the scope, nature, and status of the emergency. Each agency will determine the proper report format, and should include guidelines for writing the report in a clear and concise manner. (CO8-1.2.2) 181 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 2 | DETERMINING LEVEL OF RESPONSE ASSISTANCE LESSON 1 | Determining Level of Response Assistance OBJECTIVES CO8-2.1.1 Identify the type and severity of an emergency. CO8-2.1.2 Determine the level of emergency assistance needed. CO8-2.1.3 Request assistance for emergency response. CO8-2.1.4 Identify resources available for emergency response. Determining the Level of Response Assistance An officer should attempt to correctly identify the type of an emergency, such as medical, fire, HAZMAT, or criminal act. The severity of an incident determines what type and level of response is needed, such as invoking PREA (Prison Rape Elimination Act) for a sexual assault. An officer should examine the facts, and practice good situational awareness and officer safety. (CO8-2.1.1.) An officer must not engage in unsafe behavior when approaching a dangerous situation, such as investigating suspicious items by touching or smelling them. If an incident poses a security threat, it is important to respond to the threat appropriately and notify a supervisor. Emergencies can involve more than one type of incident. Emergencies can also be intentional distractions planned by inmates so they can accomplish other objectives. For example, inmates could use a fight as a distraction during an escape attempt or as a cover for other illegal acts. The officer needs to request additional assistance if there is a possibility of being overpowered in the situation. The level of additional assistance is determined by the level of threat (CO8-2.1.2). The officer should request additional assistance if a situation is not successfully being resolved. When requesting additional assistance, it is important to use protocol and chain of command, and document the details of the emergency and any actions taken to resolve it. (CO8-2.1.3). Each agency will have specific equipment for different emergency responses, such as different types of communication devices, vehicles, medical equipment, and fire equipment. An officer should know where needed equipment is located, and maintain certifications for using equipment. (CO8-2.1.4) 182 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 1 | Inmate Escapes One of the responsibilities of an officer is preventing escapes. Escapes commonly occur during participation in work-release programs outside the correctional facility, or during transport. While a violation, an inmate in an unauthorized area is not necessarily considered an escape. An escape occurs when an inmate has illegally removed him- or herself from custody (CO8-3.1.1). Indicators that an escape is likely include an inmate not in his or her designated area, suspicious behavior, odd phone conversations, finding maps or civilian clothes, an inmate creating tools, or finding alterations to the facility’s structure. (CO8-3.1.2) Officers can directly affect whether escape attempts occur by taking preventive measures. Some measures are conducting constant surveillance, keeping an unpredictable schedule, using mobile or stationary posts, and using regular and irregular searches. Searches should include body searches, searches of cells and all general facility areas, and should include identifying and counting inmates. Officers need to observe their surroundings and take note of irregular or unusual behavior. They must also monitor areas where inmates can escape, whether through ventilation access routes, doors taken off the hinges, or windows broken with projectiles. (CO8-3.1.3) OBJECTIVES CO8-3.1.1 Describe an inmate escape. CO8-3.1.2 Identify indicators of involvement in an escape. CO8-3.1.3 Describe measures to prevent an escape attempt. CO8-3.1.4 List equipment needed when responding to an escape or attempted escape. CO8-3.1.5 Identify standard procedures in the event an escape occurs. Equipment Necessary equipment used to intervene in, and resolve, an escape or escape attempt may vary by agency. The following is a list of common equipment used in escape attempts: • canine teams • communication equipment • cameras or video equipment • vehicles • face-sheets (identification of inmates, e.g., pictures, alias, or tattoos) • information about known associates • mechanical restraints • manual inmate counting and electronic identification devices • flashlights • local maps of the area • weapons (CO8-3.1.4) 183 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Standard Procedures When an escape is believed to have happened, or is in progress, an officer or group of officers will verify the location of the escape and escape routes. It is important to communicate effectively with supervisors and other staff members. Escaped inmates are considered dangerous; therefore, take extreme caution. Standard procedures in the event of an escape are as follows: • Secure all inmates as quickly as possible. • Lock down the facility, when appropriate, to aid in searches and investigations. Different actions may be taken depending upon the agency and location. • Conduct a master roster count of the inmates to confirm an escape has occurred. • Relay information that an escape has occurred to the control center or supervisors as soon as possible including the number of escaped inmates, their name(s), clothing, and direction of travel. • Secure and isolate the surrounding area and remove all inmates and uninvolved personnel from the suspected escape location. Keep the area clear of contaminants, because it is considered a crime scene. • After the escaped inmates have been identified, collect articles of their clothing without contaminating them. These articles will be used as scent items for canines. Review mail and phone communications in an effort to determine possible destinations. • If the escape happens outside the facility, such as during a work squad or transport, the officer will secure the remaining inmates and follow standard procedures. (CO8-3.1.5) 184 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 2 | Medical Emergencies A medical emergency is an event in which an individual experiences medical or psychological distress, a severe illness, or injury (CO8-3.2.1). Signs and symptoms of a medical emergency may be indicated by unusual or excessive bleeding, pain, medical distress (e.g., sweating, nausea, shortness of breath, paralysis), or loss of or altered consciousness (CO8-3.2.2). If the inmate uses medical devices (e.g., intravenous (IV) lines or monitors), this equipment may become dislodged. Equipment All emergency situations are different; each officer must assess the situation to determine the proper equipment to use. The officer should refer to first aid or other pertinent training to correctly use medical equipment and supplies during a medical emergency. Resources used to address a medical emergency include staff, onsite medical personnel, or outside Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (CO8-3.2.3). Equipment available during a medical emergency may include personal protective equipment (PPE), e.g., gloves and masks, an automated external defibrillator (AED), and a first aid kit (CO8-3.2.4). Medical equipment must be used according to training and agency policy. Officers need to observe universal precautions to avoid contact with a person’s body fluids and treat every person as if he or she is infected, to minimize risk of infection when rendering aid. OBJECTIVES CO8-3.2.1 Describe a medical emergency. CO8-3.2.2 Identify signs and symptoms of medical distress. CO8-3.2.3 Describe medical resources available in an emergency response. CO8-3.2.4 List equipment needed when responding to a medical emergency. CO8-3.2.5 Identify standard procedures to resolve a medical emergency. Standard Procedures To resolve a medical emergency, follow these standard procedures: 1. Identify the severity of the medical emergency to determine the level of response. If the inmate is conscious, ask “Are you declaring a medical emergency?” 2. Ensure that the area is secure and safe. Enforce crowd control by removing all inmates and uninvolved personnel from the area. 3. Notify medical staff and supervisors—inform staff of the number of affected persons, their location, and the nature of the emergency. 4. Render aid using PPE to observe universal precautions. Provide assistance only within the scope of officer training. a. Administer first aid as appropriate until medical help arrives. b. Protect inmates against self-inflicted injury or death; if an inmate has attempted hanging, call for assistance as the situation dictates. Proceed according to agency policy whether the inmate is injured or deceased. c. Wait for assistance as necessary. 5. Transport to a medical facility, or if applicable, designate staging areas for outside agencies. (CO8-3.2.5) 185 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 3 | Riots OBJECTIVES CO8-3.3.1 Describe a disturbance in a correctional setting. CO8-3.3.2 Differentiate between riot and disturbance. CO8-3.3.3 Describe conditions that prompt a riot or disturbance. CO8-3.3.4 Describe indicators preceding a riot or disturbance. CO8-3.3.5 List equipment needed when responding to a riot or disturbance. CO8-3.3.6 Identify procedures used to respond to and contain a disturbance or riot. Any incident that disrupts the normal operations within a facility is a disturbance. A food strike, inmates refusing to return to a work squad, or a fight between two inmates in a dorm could be considered minor. Such disturbances can usually be handled with minimal staff. However, disturbances can escalate into a riot very quickly (CO8-3.3.1.). A riot is uncontrolled violence by inmates, usually directed at the administration. An example of a riot could be fights breaking out in several locations at once, significant property damage, or hostage situations. External support, such as local law enforcement, may be needed to contain or control a riot. (CO8-3.3.2) Conditions that may lead to a riot or disturbance can include overcrowding, racial tension, poor living conditions, STG activity, dissatisfaction with food, mail, or medical service, policy changes, loss of privileges, and fights (CO8-3.3.3). Officers should be aware of indicators that precede a riot, such as changes in the behaviors of inmates, food hoarding, weapons manufacturing, unusual groupings of inmates, and an elevation in fights and requests for protective custody. An inmate may also share specific information about an impending riot or disturbance with officers, or suggest the officers take a day off. Staff should exhibit a heightened sense of awareness when the normal routine changes and inmates seem tense. Abrupt changes within the correctional facility (e.g., it gets too quiet or too loud) may be an indicator that a disturbance or riot is pending. (CO8-3.3.4) Equipment Officers need to be aware of post orders and emergency procedures, and be prepared to use any equipment necessary to resolve a riot or disturbance. Equipment will vary according to each agency’s resources, but can include restraints, chemical agents, electronic control devices (ECDs), firearms, nonlethal and impact weapons, shields, emergency keys, and communication devices. (CO8-3.3.5) Standard Procedures Officers handle disturbances or riots in similar ways; the level of response will be reduced for a disturbance. The officer needs to make quick decisions regarding immediately exiting the area or directing any non-certified staff to safety. Techniques for responding to a disturbance or riot include increasing communications among staff, or freeing up additional personnel and resources to respond simultaneously to the threat with appropriate use of force. Due to the nature of riots, the emergency can move into other areas. Procedures to contain a riot may involve the use of structures, such as internal gates, roll gates, doors, and cross fences and posting of additional security personnel. During a riot or disturbance, the officer should provide the control 186 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 room with as much information as possible. Include the location, status and scope, approximate number of inmates and bystanders involved, and if weapons are observed. (CO8-3.3.6) Post-riot procedures may include the following: • accounting for all on-duty staff and visitors • checking security of the facility • administering first aid to the injured • separating ringleaders and agitators • performing a strip search of all involved inmates according to agency policy • conducting an institutional inmate count • debriefing staff • conducting a thorough investigation of the riot • repairing damage 187 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 4 | Hostage Incidents OBJECTIVES CO8-3.4.1 Describe a hostage situation. CO8-3.4.2 List equipment needed when responding to a hostage situation. CO8-3.4.3 Identify general hostage situation procedures. CO8-3.4.4 Describe procedures to follow if taken hostage. A hostage situation can occur with or without warning when one or more individuals are held against their will by another person or group with the purpose of achieving a specific goal. Any person can be held hostage, including inmates, civilians, officers, visitors, and staff. When officers respond to an incident or a riot, they may be taken hostage. (CO8-3.4.1) Equipment Equipment available for use during a hostage incident may vary according to each agency’s resources. It can include restraints, chemical agents, lethal and nonlethal impact weapons, emergency keys, and monitoring equipment such as camcorders and closedcircuit televisions, or cameras. Building blueprints and floor plans could be required. Officers will use communication devices, such as radios, megaphones, or cell phones (CO8-3.4.2). Additional equipment and technical assistance may vary among agencies and departments and will be based upon the conditions encountered and decisions made during the incident. Standard Procedures The goal in any hostage situation is to resolve the conflict without injury or loss of life. In a hostage situation, response varies depending on agency resources, policies and procedures. The steps taken during a hostage crisis change according to its circumstances, status, and severity. Different teams may be involved, such as tactical and negotiation teams. General hostage situation procedures include the following: • notifying a supervisor immediately, following the chain of command • containing the subject(s) in the smallest area possible • restricting the movement of the subject if possible, always keeping officer safety in mind • gathering information, such as taking pictures or recording the situation • moving non-participants as far from the hostage situation as possible—inmates may be locked down • providing assistance and support to specialized teams as needed (CO8-3.4.3) When initially responding to a hostage incident, contain the situation to prevent more hostages from being taken and try to stabilize it. Be careful not to agitate the hostage taker; build rapport and actively listen. Gather as much information as possible, including the location, the names and number of hostages, the names and numbers of hostage takers, if known, injuries, weapons involved, and demands of the hostage takers. 188 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 A staff member being held hostage is not viewed as having rank or authority in the incident. If you are taken hostage, recognize that you have no authority to make any decisions. Do not interfere with discussions being conducted between response teams and the hostage taker. Do not try to be a hero. Procedures to follow if you are taken hostage include: • cooperate with, but do not enable, the hostage taker • recognize that staff will respond as soon as possible • avoid using insults, trigger or hot words (words that may empower the hostage taker), such as prisoner, guns, or police • avoid being confrontational by keeping a low profile • if possible, avoid giving up your uniform • keep your face down or avoid eye contact • remain calm, rest when possible, and try to only eat food provided by the negotiating team • cooperate fully with any response team member (CO8-3.4.4) 189 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 5 | Outside Threats to a Facility OBJECTIVES A facility assault is a physical attack from outside the facility, by an individual or individuals, or any other assault that creates physical damage to the correctional facility. Attackers may be on foot, or the assault may include a speeding vehicle approaching the perimeter and failing to yield, gun shots, or an aircraft flying in close proximity. CO8-3.5.2 List equipment needed when responding to a facility assault. CO8-3.5.4 Describe measures to resolve a facility assault. Indicators of a facility assault may include an outside threat on a person’s life or someone coordinating an escape attempt. Correctional officers should be aware of any threats to the security of the facility, including demonstrators, media, or high-profile inmates (inmates associated with a drug cartel or death row inmates) (CO8-3.5.1). Known associates of high-profile inmates may use technology to see the layout of the prison. Be cautious of unknown individuals around the outside of the facility. Another threat to security is the arrest and transfer of high-profile inmates. CO8-3.5.5 Identify standard procedures in the event of a facility assault. Facility Assault—Equipment CO8-3.5.1 Describe indicators of a facility assault. CO8-3.5.3 Describe measures to prevent a facility assault. Common equipment used for responding to a facility assault includes barriers, nonlethal and impact weapons, electronic control devices, firearms, shields, vehicles, megaphones, restraints, chemical agents, and communication devices. Correctional officers may need to use recording devices or cameras (CO8-3.5.2). Correctional officers also may need to call external law enforcement, such as SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics Team). Standard Procedures Facility assault incidents are very rare. To prevent a facility assault, it is very important to have high-quality, effective and visible security measures, alert systems, perimeter controls, or appropriate warning techniques. Be aware of people who have permission to be on the facility grounds. Notify correctional staff of impending protests, staging areas for protestors or media, or the presence of outside agencies (CO8-3.5.3). To contain an assault, some agencies may approve an officer’s use of force. Staff assignments may vary according to agencies’ resources or policies and procedures. There may also be a show of force (a visible presence of authority). Correctional officers maintain order and safety of the inmates within the facility, which may include locking down inmates. Local law enforcement may be contacted to contain incidents outside of the facility. The Incident Commander may deploy specially trained teams, such as CERT (Correctional Emergency Response Team) in an assault (CO8-3.5.4). Incidents can escalate into emergencies during a facility assault, such as a hostage situation, an escape, or a medical emergency. 190 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 The following standard procedures should be followed in the event of a facility assault: • Notify the appropriate staff and communicate with the response teams. Communication should include the area of the compound or perimeter affected, the nature of the assault, extent of the damage to the perimeter, the number of assailants and weapons, and direction of travel. • Follow evacuation protocols according to the agency’s emergency plan. Move inmates and staff members to a safe location. Be aware that the assailant may change tactics or methods that result in blocking or damaging planned evacuation routes. It is very important to pay attention to radio communications, including updates on the situation. • Set up barricades. • Establish perimeter security including surveillance. • Maintain safety and security procedures, such as moving to cover and relocating to a tactically advantageous position. • Debrief after the incident. This may involve reviewing report details for further investigation. (CO8-3.5.5) 191 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 6 | Fires OBJECTIVES CO8-3.6.1 List major components of a fire. CO8-3.6.2 List indicators of a fire. CO8-3.6.3 Describe five classes of fire. CO8-3.6.4 Describe use of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). CO8-3.6.5 Describe the use of fire hoses. CO8-3.6.6 List equipment needed when responding to a fire. CO8-3.6.7 Describe types of fire extinguishers. CO8-3.6.8 Identify uses of different types of fire extinguishers. CO8-3.6.9 Apply techniques for extinguishing a fire in a correctional facility. CO8-3.6.10 Demonstrate use of fire extinguishers. CO8-3.6.11 Identify inmate control issues while responding to a fire. The potential for fire exists in all areas of the facility. Though rare, fires are extremely dangerous because they can spread very quickly and can be difficult to contain. The kitchen is the most common area where fires occur. However, fire also could occur anywhere throughout the facility grounds, such as in a laundry area or dormitory. Staff should always be vigilant and cautious of fire hazards, including cooking grease, dryer lint, improperly stored cleaning agents, and lightning strikes. Maintaining the safety of staff and inmates is the first priority in the event of a fire. The major components of a fire are heat, fuel, oxygen, and chemical chain reactions (CO8-3.6.1). Indicators of a fire include the smell of smoke, alarm notifications, and heat, light and flame (CO8-3.6.2). The type of fire determines which extinguishing agent to use. For example, using water on a flammable liquid will increase the fire. Likewise, using water on an electrical fire can create great danger of electrical shock. There are five classes of fire. Fire Classes: • Class A: ordinary combustibles; e.g., wood, cloth, paper • Class B: flammable liquids; e.g., gasoline and diesel fuels, kerosene, propane, butane, alcohol, motor oil, paint, paint thinners • Class K: subcategory of Class B (kitchen fires; cooking oils or fats) • Class C: electrical; e.g., appliances, panels, switches • Class D: combustible metals; e.g., magnesium, titanium, potassium, sodium (CO8-3.6.3) Equipment Each agency will determine the availability of specialized equipment to use during a fire. Equipment needed to respond to a fire may include: • portable extinguishers • fire alarms • fire suppression systems (fire extinguishers set into the wall that run into piping when the system is activated, sprinklers, and smoke detectors) • Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) (used during a fire to help prevent smoke inhalation, with proper training) (CO8-3.6.4) • facility map • emergency keys 192 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 • restraint devices • fire hydrants • fire hoods • fire hoses (staff must be specially trained to use this equipment) (CO8-3.6.5) (3.6.6) The type of fire will determine which fire extinguisher will be used. Types of commonly used, portable fire extinguishers include the following: • ABC (used for ordinary combustibles, flammable liquids, and electrical) • ABCD (used for metal fires, such as magnesium fires. If a class D extinguisher is not available, you can use sand or dirt to extinguish a class D fire) • K (used for kitchen fires; easier to clean up than other extinguishing agents) • water-based (used for ordinary combustibles) • CO2 (used for class B and C fires such as flammable liquid and electrical fires; useful to protect electrical equipment because these extinguishers leave less residue and displace oxygen. After using them, you need to exit the room quickly, especially in confined areas.) (CO8-3.6.7, CO8-3.6.8) The portable fire extinguisher may be all that is necessary to extinguish a small fire. Basic procedures for using a fire extinguisher in a correctional facility include performing a safety check, which should be done during every shift. This involves checking the gauge on the extinguisher to see if the charge is adequate. If it is adequate, the needle will be in the green area. If the charge is not adequate, do not use that extinguisher. Notify the control room immediately if the fire extinguisher fails. The safety check should also include the hose and nozzle to confirm that they are free of cracks or obstructions. (CO8-3.6.9) The basic steps for using a portable fire extinguisher are: 1. Pull the pin. 2. Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire from a distance, usually about 10 feet. 3. Squeeze the handle. 4. Sweep the base of the flame (from side to side and front to back). (CO8-3.6.10) Standard Procedures If you see fire or smell smoke, assess the situation. Notify the control room immediately with the exact location and size of the fire; activate the agency’s emergency plan. Pull the manual fire alarm in the officer’s station; there may also be an automatic fire alarm. Attempt to extinguish the fire if it is small enough. Begin evacuation procedures if the fire is out of control. Follow posted evacuation routes. You will be required to maintain control of inmates during an evacuation. During inmate movement, it may not be possible to group inmates according to their classification and custody levels. Use a sufficient number of officers, especially when moving high-risk inmates or large groups. Conduct and continuously update an inmate count (CO8-3.6.11). Account for everyone in the area, including staff and visitors. Make sure the perimeter is intact and secure. Be alert; fires can also be used as a distraction during escape attempts and assaults. 193 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 It is extremely important to become thoroughly familiar with the posted evacuation routes. Available routes change according to the location of the fire and the volume of smoke. Time permitting, doors and windows should be shut along the way. Ideal evacuation routes would be those that allow everyone to get as far away as possible and upwind from the threat (CO8-3.6.12). A count should be conducted prior to evacuation, if time allows. Evacuate all inmates and staff in the vicinity as soon as it is safe to do so. If there is a discrepancy with the count, call your supervisor; it will be treated as an escape until further notice. Immediately notify your supervisor if someone is trapped or not accounted for. If the fire is substantial and someone is trapped, rescue will be delegated to the local fire department or staff with proper training. (CO8-3.6.13) 194 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 7 | Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials are used throughout a correctional facility or work details. They include cleaning agents, such as floor wax, bleach, laundry detergent, fuels, pesticides, or fertilizer. A hazardous materials incident also could occur during a fire. A hazardous material emergency occurs when a substance capable of causing harm to people, the environment, and property is released—or not properly controlled (CO8-3-7.1).While inmates are on work details, they could accidentally combine common chemicals such as bleach and ammonia, creating a hazardous environment. Inmates could use containers to transport hazardous materials or bio-hazardous materials, such as urine. Urine or other body fluids, including contaminated blood, could be considered hazardous materials. Be diligent in your searches when inmates return from work assignments. A group of inmates could deliberately work together and separately take items that are hazardous when combined. People can be contaminated with hazardous materials through inhalation, ingestion, absorption, and injection. Hazardous materials can pose immediate and long-term health hazards, such as asphyxiation, chemical burns, tissue destruction, cancer, or death. They can also cause harm to the environment, such as water, air, and land pollution, as well as death or serious injury to wildlife and domestic animals. Hazardous materials may have certain smells, but not all hazardous materials have an odor. There may be no warning of a hazardous materials emergency. Never check a container by smelling or tasting it. You can rotate a closed container to test its weight and consistency; a shampoo bottle filled with bleach will be more fluid. Because of their nature, hazardous materials emergencies: • are more likely to cause a need for outside assistance • require multiple agency response • may be long lasting OBJECTIVES CO8-3-7.1 Describe a hazardous material emergency in a correctional setting. CO8-3-7.2 Identify the Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard classes of hazardous materials. CO8-3-7.3 Explain dangers associated with each class of hazardous materials. CO8-3-7.4 Identify hazardous materials information on Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). CO8-3-7.5 Describe indicators of hazardous materials. CO8-3-7.6 List equipment needed when responding to hazardous materials. CO8-3-7.7 Evacuate an area affected by hazardous materials. CO8-3-7.8 Contain emergency to the affected area. CO8-3-7.9 Restrict access to the affected area. CO8-3-7.10 Resolve a hazardous materials emergency. • may involve unseen hazards During a HAZMAT incident, the Department of Transportation (DOT) Emergency Response Guide (ERG) is a resource used as a guide. A first responder’s initial actions include the identification of hazardous materials, areas of personal protection, and initial safety plan. The following is a list of the classes of hazardous materials and the dangers associated with each class, according to the DOT ERG, a copy of which will be available to all staff. 195 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • Class 1 explosives: exposure to heat, shock or contamination could result in thermal and mechanical hazards • Class 2 gases: container may rupture violently under pressure (or as a result of a fire); may become flammable, poisonous, a corrosive, an asphyxiate, and an oxidizer; may cause frostbite • Class 3 flammable and combustible liquids: container may rupture violently from heat/fire; may be corrosive, toxic, and thermally unstable • Class 4 flammable solids: some are spontaneously flammable; may be water reactive, toxic, and corrosive; may be extremely difficult to extinguish • Class 5 oxidizing substances: supports its own combustion through using oxygen; sensitive to heat, shock, friction, and contamination • Class 6 poisons and infectious substances: toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin and eye absorption; may be flammable • Class 7 radioactive substances: may cause burns and biologic effects; can cause contamination of surroundings • Class 8 corrosives: causes disintegration of contacted tissues; may be fuming, water reactive, and destructive to metals • Class 9 Other Regulated Materials (ORM): miscellaneous (CO8-3-7.2, CO8-3-7.3) A material safety data sheet (MSDS) is required for any hazardous substance shipped to and from a correctional facility, and must be located where a potentially hazardous material is stored or used. Officers must be aware of all hazardous materials in their assigned area and what they are used for. MSDSs are essential for identifying and understanding information regarding a hazardous material and must be made available to staff and inmates. Officers are responsible for consulting the MSDS. The MSDS aids in interpreting safety hazards and precautions, as well as health hazards, by including the following: • manufacturer’s name • product name (chemical or generic name) • hazardous ingredients • physical data • toxicological information • health hazard data • reactivity data • spill and leak procedures • special protection information (CO8-3-7.4) Hazardous materials are indicated by placards, markings, shipping papers, MSDSs, or storage containers. Refer to the DOT ERG for exact information. Use extreme caution when using your senses at a hazardous materials incident, including the following: 196 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 • vision—officers may use their vision to see indicators of the presence of hazardous materials, smoke, fire, vapor or gas clouds; when light or visibility is poor, these signs are harder to see. For example, green smoke is a particularly dangerous sign. Also, watch out for hazardous material placards. • hearing—important, especially when interacting with witnesses or identifying unusual sounds, such as hissing from a gas leak or a tanker spill, or a bubbling sound from mixing chemicals • taste, touch, or smell—use of these senses risks exposure to the substance; they therefore should not be used intentionally in an incident (CO8-3-7.5) Equipment Each agency will determine the availability of equipment to use during a hazardous materials incident. Some of the equipment may include PPE to observe universal precautions, such as a face mask, protective gloves, masks and gowns; a hazmat suit; SCBA; a bloodborne pathogens clean up kit, and barriers (CO8-3-7.6). Refer to the ERG for a detailed description of, and instructions for, appropriate use of equipment related to hazardous materials incidents or emergencies. It is important to have a current version of all reference guides. Equipment, informational guides, and hazardous materials references may be managed by a supervisor. Standard Procedures Due to the inherent dangers associated with hazardous materials incidents, the officer should be aware of his or her surroundings and take note of activity, practice officer safety, and follow special precautions at all times. Each agency’s policies, procedures, and emergency plan will dictate the roles and responsibilities of each staff member. An officer may be the first person on the scene, but the resolution of a hazardous materials incident is usually the responsibility of supervisory staff and specialized response teams. As an officer, you should only respond within the scope and level of your training. When looking for hazards and investigating an incident, an officer needs to maintain constant awareness and be prepared to relay information. Even when assisting in clean up, an officer must follow officer safety, universal precautions, and the MSDS. An officer should avoid tunnel vision and be aware of the variety of complications that might arise, since hazardous materials situations can be dynamic and evolving. For example, do not immediately run over to assist if you suspect a hazardous materials incident. Consider all hazardous materials a life or death situation. Remain calm and focus on a resolution. Resolving a hazardous materials situation involves the following: • Locate and verify the nature of the hazardous materials emergency. - Observe from a safe distance. - If the spill is minor, respond according to the MSDS guidelines. For example, dilute a bleach spill and ventilate the area. • Refer to the posted MSDS for the hazardous materials. Make sure a copy of the MSDS is readily available for any emergency personnel. 197 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 • Communicate with control room staff and supervisors, who may coordinate response activities. Relay the following information: - types of substances or hazards (Do not attempt to smell or taste the substance.) - areas affected - any medical emergencies or injuries - wind direction (for example, is any vapor or smoke blowing towards the dining hall) • Enter the area only when it is safe to do so. - Use PPE immediately, such as a face mask, protective gloves and gown. Use disposable equipment as much as possible. • Provide first aid for the injured. - Separate contaminated persons. • Evacuate areas affected by hazardous materials. - All persons should be evacuated as soon as it is safe to do so. - Ideal evacuation routes will take people as far away from the incident as possible, and be upwind and uphill from the threat. - Follow the posted evacuation diagrams. There may be instances in which evacuation may not be possible. (CO8-3-7.7) • Isolate the situation so that it does not spread to unaffected areas. Shut down air conditioning units and close doors and windows. - Stay as far away as practical (a minimum of 500 feet if possible), and keep others away. - Use binoculars or video surveillance if available, or approach from upwind. - Don’t take an ignition source into the affected area (a vehicle can be an ignition source). • Create a barrier or perimeter around, and restrict access to, the affected area. - Use signs, warning tape and physical barriers, such as a mound of dirt, or officers stationed outside a secured area. Structures such as internal gates, roll gates, doors, and cross fences can greatly aid in accomplishing these efforts. (CO8-3-7.8) Observe special precautions when dealing with decontamination efforts. • Make sure that contaminated victims and equipment are decontaminated prior to your contact with them. - If you become contaminated, make sure that you and your clothing are fully decontaminated as soon as possible. Restrict or control access to the affected area, until the area is declared safe by emergency personnel. • Supervisors will issue a direct order for no one to enter the area, except for emergency personnel. (CO3.7.9) • Keep a record of the events and complete follow-up documents as directed by the agency. (CO8-3-7.10) 198 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 Assistance during a hazardous materials/waste spill can be obtained by contacting the Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC) at 1-800-424-9300. CHEMTREC has the capability to contact the shipper, manufacturer, or other sources for more detailed assistance and follow-up support. For example, if a spill occurs in the area where the MSDS is located, and you are not able to access the information on or identify the substance, an officer can contact CHEMTREC for immediate help. Section Vocabulary Emergency Response Guide (ERG) hazardous material (HAZMAT) material safety data sheet (MSDS) UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 8 | Bomb Threats A bomb threat is any threat of an explosive device, whether mechanical, incendiary or chemical. Every threat must be taken seriously. A supervisor may determine how a threat should be handled. All personnel need to maintain a heightened sense of awareness during a bomb threat. Bomb threats could be used as a distraction for an escape attempt. Indicators of a bomb threat may be the discovery of a suspicious device or package, or a bomb threat delivered by mail, phone, electronically, or in person. (CO8-3.8.1) OBJECTIVES Equipment CO8-3.8.3 List equipment restrictions when responding to a bomb threat. During routine inspections, searches, or facility checks, an officer may find a suspicious device. Do not touch, inspect, or remove it. An officer needs to be alert and use good observational skills; look for something out of the ordinary. When responding to a bomb threat, an officer may use the following equipment: mounted long-range cameras, or non-electrical communication devices, such as landline phones, or pens, pencils, and paper (CO8-3.8.2). Contact your supervisor, but do not use cell phones, radios, or any other electronic device that could emit electro-magnetic signals, as these may create a spark (CO8-3.8.3). Outside agencies may use bomb-detecting dogs or explosive ordinance devices (bomb-defusing robots). CO8-3.8.4 Identify standard procedures to follow in the event of a bomb threat. CO8-3.8.1 Describe indicators of a bomb threat. CO8-3.8.2 List equipment needed when responding to a bomb threat. 199 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Standard Procedures If a suspected bomb or suspicious package is discovered, it should not be touched or tampered with in any way whatsoever. Each agency will determine when to call 911, or when to contact a specialized response team. Correctional facility staff should communicate verbally, in writing, or by using a landline phone. It is important to remain calm and communicate clearly so that control room and supervisory staff may coordinate response activities. When writing, use legible handwriting. Standard procedures for responding to a bomb threat may include the following: • Notify the supervisor or command staff of the exact location of the device and its description, or if a bomb threat is received. • Supervisors or command staff will give an order to stop using all electronic devices including microwaves, radios, phones, car alarms, or remote keys for cars. • If a device is found, officers should establish a secure perimeter around the device. If a threat is received, lock down the inmates and conduct a controlled search of the facility. • Follow evacuation protocols according to the agency’s emergency plan. • The officer who receives a bomb threat via phone must follow protocol, such as using a checklist while talking, keeping the caller on the line as long as possible, and if appropriate, using the telephone tracer feature on the phone. (CO8-3.8.4) 200 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES LESSON 9 | Man-Made or Natural Disasters A man-made disaster is an event caused by people that brings great damage, loss, or destruction to the facility, such as chemical spills, a water main breaking, a plane crash, a train derailment, or a fire (CO8-3.9.1). It may be intentional or accidental. OBJECTIVES A natural disaster is an event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences, such as a hurricane, earthquake, tornado, flood, lightning, or wild fire (CO8-3.9.2). It is unpredictable and unplanned. CO8-3.9.2 Define a natural disaster. Equipment The equipment used to address a man-made or natural disaster will depend upon the type of event and its severity. Each agency may have resources identified for different emergencies. Outside agencies may also be called upon to assist. Properly identifying the type of disaster and methods of communication plays a vital role in responding to the emergency. Equipment needed in a natural or man-made disaster includes: • backup communications equipment • backup power source • flashlights with batteries • emergency food supplies (non-perishable) CO8-3.9.1 Define a man-made disaster in a correctional facility. CO8-3.9.3 List equipment needed when responding to a man-made disaster. CO8-3.9.4 List equipment needed when responding to a natural disaster. CO8-3.9.5 Describe use of equipment needed when responding to a manmade disaster. CO8-3.9.6 Describe use of equipment needed when responding to a natural disaster. CO8-3.9.7 Identify standard procedures to resolve a man-made or natural disaster. • stored water • medical supplies • tents or temporary shelters • additional bedding or linens • vehicles • weapons (CO8-3.9.3, CO8-3.9.4) An officer must be properly trained and familiar with the equipment he or she may use during an emergency. Each agency will determine the focus and level of training for equipment use in emergency situations. If communications are disrupted, use backup communication systems such as a temporary or mobile command center. You may also need to use secondary radio systems. Officers may need to render first aid to ill or injured staff or inmates. Distribute drinkable water and emergency food supplies. The facility may only be operating off of generators, and not at full power. If necessary, erect temporary shelters. If an evacuation is necessary, multiple vehicles will be used. (CO8-3.9.5, CO8-3.9.6) 201 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Section Vocabulary man-made disaster natural disaster FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Standard Procedures The nature and extent of the man-made or natural disaster will determine what procedures to follow. An emergency plan addresses the procedures for enhanced security measures and transportation needs that could arise. Standard procedures to resolve a natural or man-made emergency are as follows: • Verify and communicate the emergency by notifying the control room or a supervisor of the event. • Conduct an institution inmate count, accounting for all inmates and staff. • Inspect for structural damage, making sure there is no breach in the perimeter. • Activate the emergency plan. • Evacuate all persons to a safe place. • Provide first aid and medical treatment. • Document the incident. • Debrief after the incident. (CO8-3.9.7) 202 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES LESSON 1 | Crime Scene Control Some crimes in the facility will be crimes against persons, such as assault or battery. Different crimes require different responses. For example, an inmate stealing another inmate’s property might result in an incident report. An inmate stealing keys will result in a facility-wide lock down and thorough search. A sexual assault will require activation of PREA; all PREA guidelines must be followed. You need to isolate any sexual assault victim to prevent loss of evidence by putting the victim in a dry cell (a cell where they cannot clean themselves). If a crime has been committed, inform your supervisor and any additional personnel needed. If known, include the type of crime, as well as the severity, any injuries, and the location. If necessary, make requests for assistance or backup. Provide the names of the inmates who were in the area. Mention any details, such as blood spatter or weapons. (CO8-4.1.1) When a crime occurs, there may or may not be a crime scene. If the officer determines that a crime scene exists, notify the appropriate staff. Notify a supervisor, medical staff, or control room staff. Inform them of the location of an established crime scene area using a radio, phone, or verbal communication (CO8-4.1.2). Be aware that authorities and divisions, such as medical staff, may be informed simultaneously. Outside agencies, such as law enforcement, may be contacted. A crime scene should be immediately cleared of aggressors and all other unauthorized persons. Take note of all actions taken. Monitor the area; give verbal commands to inmates to return to their cells for a lock down (CO8-4.1.3). Control access and isolate the crime scene by restricting access to unauthorized personnel. (CO8-4.1.4, CO8-4.1.5). The officer should determine if the crime scene is safe prior to entering by visually scanning the area and listening for hazards, and using other senses. (CO8-4.1.6) OBJECTIVES CO8-4.1.1 Notify staff that a crime has occurred. CO8-4.1.2 Notify staff of a crime scene area. CO8-4.1.3 Remove unauthorized persons from a crime scene area. CO8-4.1.4 Control access to the crime scene. CO8-4.1.5 Isolate the crime scene area. CO8-4.1.6 Determine whether a crime scene is safe to enter. CO8-4.1.7 Assess physical condition of inmate, staff, or visitor at an emergency scene. CO8-4.1.8 Protect a crime scene. CO8-4.1.9 Establish a perimeter around the crime scene. CO8-4.1.10 Create a crime scene barrier. CO8-4.1.11 Record activities at a crime scene. If an officer must enter a crime scene to render aid, do not rearrange or move anything. Be very careful not to disturb evidence, such as bloody prints or possible objects used to commit the crime. Once backup arrives, and if it is safe to do so, officers should conduct a medical assessment. You will learn more about conducting medical assessments in First Aid. Continue rendering aid until specialized personnel, such as EMTs, firefighters or trained medical personnel, arrive. (CO8-4.1.7) Once a crime scene has been cleared of any victims, witnesses, or suspects, secure the area and make sure no one enters that area. Protect the scene by preserving the area as well as possible evidence to minimize contamination. (CO8-4.1.8) 203 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 In order to secure the crime scene, tape off the area or create a perimeter or barrier. A perimeter should be established with the use of physical barriers, such as fences, barrels, or crash gates (which separate the different parts of an institution that is all under one roof ). Personnel that act as a barricade should be stationed far enough away from the crime scene so that other individuals cannot contaminate the scene. (CO8-4.1.9, CO8-4.1.10). Each agency may have its own procedures for documenting a crime scene including photographs, images from cameras, standard forms, and items moved, removed or altered. The on-scene officer needs to keep a continuous log of the activities happening at the crime scene, which should include which authorized personnel enter and exit the scene, along with date and time. (CO8-4.1.11) 204 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES LESSON 2 | Managing Victims, Witnesses, and Suspects An officer may be the first responder when a crime is committed in a facility and should know how to manage victims, witnesses, and suspects until a supervisor or agency investigator arrives. OBJECTIVES Isolate and restrain any inmates who look suspicious, are breathing hard as if they’d been in a fight, are bleeding, have abrasions, or have torn or missing clothes. Even after being ordered to be quiet, inmates may talk amongst themselves and reveal information about the crime. However, do not begin questioning inmates. The investigator will conduct a formal interview later. CO8-4.2.2 Identify victims, witnesses, and suspects of an incident. Conduct an inmate count as soon as possible. The officer should separate the individuals involved before trying to determine who the victims, witnesses, and suspects are (CO8-4.2.1). Potential victims, witnesses, or suspects may be identified through initial observation and questioning of individuals in the area (CO8-4.2.2). Each person should be separated from the others in order to preserve evidence and information, and for clarity in dealing with and assessing the situation. Separating individuals will minimize possible threats and collaboration that may confuse the investigation. (CO8-4.2.3) CO8-4.2.1 Separate victims, witnesses, and suspects. CO8-4.2.3 Explain the purpose of separating victims, witnesses, and suspects. CO8-4.2.4 Secure victims, witnesses, and suspects. CO8-4.2.5 Determine role of those involved in an incident. CO8-4.2.6 Identify physical indicators of inmate involvement. The officer should also restrain individuals if appropriate and place them in secure areas in order to provide a safe environment for the interview process. Due to liability issues, do not put victims out of sight and sound, because of the possible need for medical or psychological support (CO8-4.2.4). Follow the investigator’s or supervisor’s instructions while dealing with victims. Do not leave the individual alone—evidence may be removed or purposely contaminated. Determining the role of persons suspected of being involved in criminal activity is done by obtaining statements from others, employing interviewing techniques, and making observations based upon physical evidence (CO8-4.2.5). Physical indications that an inmate may have been involved in a crime include suspicious activity, injuries, labored breathing, possession of weapons, or presence of contraband. (CO8-4.2.6) 205 Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES LESSON 3 | Investigations and Reporting OBJECTIVES Learning the components of an investigation will help you to participate in an investigation, follow proper protocol, and avoid contaminating evidence. Participating in or having any type of involvement in an investigation will be directed by a supervisor or lead investigator. CO8-4.3.2 Document details of investigation. An officer may be asked to take statements from victims, witnesses or suspects, and then give the information to an investigator. If you are tasked with making a report, carefully question the individual; you may empathize by verbally comforting the individual, but do not touch him or her (this includes hugs or pats on the back). If you are not directly questioning an individual, it is nonetheless appropriate to let them talk on their own if you are in their presence. Document what you hear, but do not encourage the individual to interact with you. You may also be called upon to testify in court. Investigation techniques may include collecting and preserving evidence, taking statements, taking photographs or video recordings, and working with other agencies or departments to process evidence or investigate facts (CO8-4.3.1). Maintain awareness of the chain of command, and proceed only within the scope of instructions given to you in the investigative process. CO8-4.3.1 Apply basic investigative techniques. CO8-4.3.3 Write an incident report. Documenting an incident could involve filling out a template, or writing a standard incident report of the details of an incident for an investigation. Each agency will determine the criteria and methods required for writing a clear and concise report, as well as the timeline for submitting reports. It is important to clarify the details you write in a report, representing details as either approximate or absolute, such as “I entered at approximately 9:00 a.m.,” as opposed to, “I went in at 9:00 a.m.” (CO8-4.3.2). Always keep copies of reports you submit, and refer to your written report when recalling facts during questioning in an investigation. Your reports will be helpful during legal matters and issues regarding investigations of incidents. Referring to them will also help you maintain consistency with your own account. If you intentionally give false information during an investigation you may be terminated. (CO8-4.3.3) 206 FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8 UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES LESSON 4 | Chain of Custody for Evidence Inmates may try and destroy evidence. In order to aid future investigations, it is important to use caution and tact while securing the scene. Each agency may determine the methods and materials to use for proper evidence gathering. Evidence at a crime scene is any item or fact that may exonerate a person from guilt or may be considered proof that a crime has been committed, such as clothing, sheets, body fluids, or any other item that could be related to, or affected by the crime (CO8-4.4.1). Use the techniques determined by your agency to collect and preserve evidence, and be careful not to contaminate the evidence or the crime scene. This involves properly bagging items, taking pictures or videos according to instructions, and initiating proper chain of custody procedures. (CO8-4.4.2) Elements to properly handle evidence may include the following: • Use personal protective equipment (PPE), which must be put on outside of the crime scene. OBJECTIVES CO8-4.4.1 Identify evidence of a crime scene. CO8-4.4.2 Gather evidence of an incident. CO8-4.4.3 Demonstrate evidence handling techniques. CO8-4.4.4 Identify the main components of chain of custody procedures. • Properly document and secure the item through appropriate chain of custody. CO8-4.4.5 List information necessary to establish the chain of custody. • Correctly identify the type of bag or container to use for the type of evidence being gathered. (CO8-4.4.3) CO8-4.4.6 Apply chain of custody procedures. Chain of custody is documentation of how evidence is handled and preserved in order to ensure the integrity of the evidence. The chain of custody also proves that any evidence submitted in court or at a disciplinary hearing is the same evidence that was collected at the crime scene (CO8-4.4.4). Information necessary to establish a chain of custody may include what the evidence consisted of, who handled the evidence, where the evidence was found, when the evidence was discovered, and how it was handled, transferred, and preserved (CO8-4.4.5). Your agency may require a detailed account of the chain of custody for evidence that may be part of an investigation or incident. This involves employing methods to track and verify evidence as it is handled using charts, logs, and electronic databases. Some agencies may require that information involved in chain of custody procedures remain confidential. (CO8-4.4.6) CO8-4.4.7 Describe safeguards to maintain the chain of custody. Following the agency’s chain of custody policy or procedure is vital for evidence preservation as it may be years before evidence is examined. Established safeguards include following specific protocols for handling and storing evidence. Designated personnel will be in charge of evidence storage areas, and specific protocol must be followed for accessing the areas where evidence is stored. Interagency collaboration may involve addressing different procedures for chain of custody protocol to transfer evidence. This activity should be directed by a corrections supervisor. (CO8-4.4.7) A suspected crime scene, or an area where a disruption may have occurred, is not to be cleaned up until it is ruled out as a crime scene. The lead investigator dictates all action within it and will release the crime scene. 207 GLOSSARY A acting within the scope of employment: the range of reasonable and foreseeable activities that an officer does while carrying out the agency’s business (Introduction to Corrections) clinical restraints: restraints used to keep the inmate-patient from injuring him- or herself in a medical facility (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) active listening: a learned skill that allows officers to quickly determine the context, threat, and relevance of events that may be unfolding around them (Officer Safety) clinical seclusion: isolation of the inmate-patient from the general population at a medical facility for medical and safety reasons; may include placing the inmate in a padded room for his or her safety (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) administrative confinement: temporary removal of an inmate from the general population to provide for safety and security until a more permanent inmate management process is in place (Supervising Special Populations) close custody grade: state custody grade that refers to inmates who must be maintained within an armed perimeter or under direct, armed supervision when outside a secure perimeter (Intake and Release) Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): provides provisions for inmates with disabilities (Supervising Special Populations) command presence: body language that projects an image of confidence in your skills and abilities (Officer Safety) arrest papers: paperwork generated by an arresting officer that allows for a subject to be arrested and taken to a county detention facility for admission (Intake and Release) commitment papers: paperwork, documents or orders generated by the court that confine an inmate to a correctional facility after being found guilty of a crime (Intake and Release) B community control (house arrest): a form of community supervision that is closely monitored and is more restrictive than probation or parole (Introduction to Corrections) Baker Act: provides for emergency services and temporary detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient treatment (Introduction to Corrections) C chain of command: the order of authority within an organization (Introduction to Corrections) chain of custody: documentation of everyone who handled evidence as well as when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it (Introduction to Corrections) chronological order: the grouping of recorded facts by date and timeline of event occurrence, usually from the first event to the last (Communications) civil liability: responsibility for a wrongful act or the failure to do an act that an officer has a duty to perform, which results in injury to another person or property and most often involves negligence (Introduction to Corrections) civil rights violation: an unlawful interference with the fundamental rights of another person, such as the right to due process and equal protection under the law (Introduction to Corrections) classification: a management tool used to assist facilities in defining inmate custody or security levels (Intake and Release) community custody grade: a state custody grade that refers to inmates who are eligible for placement at a community residential facility (Intake and Release) contact visits: visits in which both the visitor and the inmate are in the same room without a physical barrier, and can have limited physical contact (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) content: the significant facts of an incident or occurrence in a report (Communications) contraband: any unauthorized article or any authorized article in excessive quantities or altered from its intended purpose (Introduction to Corrections) controlled behavior: avoiding such distracting behaviors as foot tapping, nail biting, and fidgeting, which demonstrates the officer is confident and in control (Officer Safety) correctional officer: any person who is appointed or employed full time by the state, county, or contracted private entity, whose primary responsibility is the supervision, protection, care, custody, control, or investigation of inmates within a correctional institution; does not include any secretarial, clerical, or professionally trained personnel (Introduction to Corrections) 209 correctional setting: any location where inmates are managed and supervised (Communications) corrective action: steps that are taken to eliminate the cause of inappropriate or unlawful behavior in order to prevent recurrence (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) counseling: an in-depth explanation of a rule violation including suggestions for the inmate to correct his or her behavior (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) courtesy: behavior that involves showing consideration, respect, and cooperation when interacting with others (Communications) criminal act: a violation of the law; in Florida, a crime is designated as either a felony or misdemeanor according to §775.08(4), F.S. (Introduction to Corrections) criminal gang: a formal or informal ongoing organization, association, or group that has as one of its primary activities the commission of criminal or delinquent acts (Supervising Special Populations) criminal justice: the structure, functions, and decision-making processes of the agencies that deal with the management and control of crime and criminal offenders (Introduction to Corrections) criminal liability: when an officer is found guilty of committing a crime (Introduction to Corrections) D death row inmate: a person who has been convicted by the court and has been sentenced to death (Supervising Special Populations) effective listening: the giving of full attention to what is being said and taking time to understand the message without interruption (Communications) elderly inmate: an inmate 50 years of age or over (Supervising Special Populations) Emergency Response Guide (ERG): a resource used to guide a first responder’s initial actions to a HAZMAT incident including the identification of hazardous materials, areas of personal protection, and initial safety plan (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies) escort: a correctional officer or staff member accompanying the movement of an inmate from one point to another (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) ethics: the principles of honor, morality, and accepted rules of conduct that direct an individual or group (Introduction to Corrections) evidence: anything tangible that proves or disproves a fact in a judicial case or disciplinary hearing (Introduction to Corrections) F face sheet: a document that has a current picture of the inmate, name, inmate identification number, physical description, incarceration date, date of birth and end of sentence date (EOS) and inmate’s classification/custody level (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) felony: any criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state by death or imprisonment in a state facility for a period exceeding one year (Introduction to Corrections) deception: misleading, tricking, or fooling another person (Officer Safety) format: the way information is organized and presented in a report (Communications) disabled person: someone who may have one or more medical or mental impairments causing disability and substantially limiting one or more of their major life activities (Supervising Special Populations) fruits of a crime: anything gained or obtained by committing a crime (Introduction to Corrections) disciplinary confinement: formal punishment in which the officer segregates an inmate for a length of time to an individual cell because a disciplinary committee has found him or her guilty of committing a violation of agency rules (Supervising Special Populations) G gang: a formal or informal ongoing organization, association, or group that has as one of its primary activities the commission of criminal or delinquent acts (Supervising Special Populations) disciplinary report (DR): a detailed report of the facts surrounding an inmate’s rule violation (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) gratuity: money given to qualified inmates discharged from the custody of the Department of Corrections in accordance with 33-601.502, FAC (Intake and Release) discipline: the enforcement of a penalty or consequence for a violation of established rules used to ensure compliance and obedience to established rules (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) grid search pattern: a variation of the strip/line search pattern; it overlaps a series of lanes in a cross pattern, making the search more methodical and thorough (Officer Safety) E H editing: the process of ensuring that all pertinent facts have been included in a report in an organized and accurate manner (Communications) 210 hard/hazardous contraband: any item that poses a serious threat to the safety and security of the staff, inmates, and facility (Officer Safety) hazardous material (HAZMAT): a substance capable of causing harm to people, the environment, and property (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies) I Incident Command System (ICS): an advanced emergency response plan (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies) inmate manipulation: when an inmate attempts to get something he or she wants by influencing the officer to do something the officer ordinarily would not do (Officer Safety) institutional homosexuality: the changing of an inmate’s sexual preference from heterosexuality to homosexuality only while incarcerated (Supervising Special Populations) insubordination: failure to follow lawful orders from supervisors (Introduction to Corrections) intake: the process in which an inmate is admitted to a county detention facility (Intake and Release) interpersonal communication: the exchange of thoughts, messages or information between two or more people through speaking, writing, or behavior to effect some kind of action (Communications) interview: a conversation between a correctional officer and an interviewee (inmate, visitor) with the goal of obtaining factual information (Communications) introduction of contraband: any attempt to bring or send contraband into a correctional facility (Introduction to Corrections) instrumentalities of a crime: anything used to commit a crime (Introduction to Corrections) J jargon: the technical vocabulary of a particular profession that has meaning specific to people who work in that field (Communications) juvenile adjudication: occurs when the court charges, sentences, adjudicates as delinquent (including nolo contendere), and commits a juvenile under the age of 18 years to the Department of Juvenile Justice (Supervising Special Populations) juvenile inmate: an inmate that is not legally an adult or adjudicated as an adult; may be assigned to the Department of Juvenile Justice (Supervising Special Populations) K kickback or three-way mail: a method used by inmates to try to send unauthorized communications to other inmates within the same facility or other institutions (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) L law enforcement: an organization responsible for the enforcement of laws and civil order (Introduction to Corrections) legal mail: a category of mail that includes mail to and from municipal, county, state and federal courts, and state attorneys, private attorneys, public defenders, legal aid organizations, and agency clerks (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) M man-made disaster: an intentional sabotage or an accident resulting in structural failure or damage to utilities (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies) material safety data sheet (MSDS): required for any hazardous material shipped to and from a correctional facility; it includes the manufacturer’s name, the product name, and spill and leak procedures (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies) maximum custody grade: a state custody grade that refers to inmates who are sentenced to death (Intake and Release) maximum security level: county custody, or security risk levels for inmates considered high risk: those who have serious or violent felony charges pending or who pose a threat to the safety of staff and security of the facility (Intake and Release) medium custody grade: state custody grade that refers to inmates who are eligible for placement at a work camp with a secure perimeter but who are not eligible for placement in an outside work assignment without armed supervision (Intake and Release) medium security level: county custody, or security risk levels for inmates considered moderate risk (those who have adjusted to being incarcerated in the past and have limited violence in their criminal history) (Intake and Release) minimum custody grade: state custody grade that refers to inmates who are eligible for outside work assignments but not for placement in a community residential center (Intake and Release) minimum security level: county custody, or security risk levels for inmates considered low risk (those who have adjusted well to being incarcerated, have a minimal criminal history with no violent charges in their history, or are currently charged with a nonviolent crime) (Intake and Release) Miranda warnings: provide protection by the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination when a suspect in custody is interrogated in a criminal investigation (Introduction to Corrections) misdemeanor: any criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state by a term of imprisonment for less than one year in a county correctional facility (Introduction to Corrections) 211 N natural disaster: an event that causes structural failure or damage to utilities as a result of a weather or a geological incident (e.g., hurricane, earthquake, tornado, flood, or wild fire) (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies) negligence: failure to use due or reasonable care in a situation where an officer has a duty to act, and which results in harm to another (Introduction to Corrections) non-contact visits: visits in which the inmate and visitor are physically separated by some kind of barrier or communicate using electronic equipment (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) note taking: the brief written notations by an officer concerning the many aspects of his or her usual and unusual job occurrences (Communications) nuisance contraband: includes excessive clothing, linen, laundry items, canteen and hygiene items, photos, reading materials, medication and letters (Officer Safety) privileged communication: inmate communications that are given special privacy considerations, such as between an inmate and attorney (Introduction to Corrections) privileged mail: a mail category that includes mail to and from public officials, governmental agencies and the news media (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) probation: a court-ordered sentence that places a person under the supervision of a probation officer under specified court-ordered terms and conditions as an alternative to or supervision after incarceration (Introduction to Corrections) probable cause: a fair probability or reasonable grounds to believe that a crime was committed, based on the totality of the circumstances (Introduction to Corrections) professionalism: behavior that demonstrates good character and is marked by pride in self and career (Introduction to Corrections) O proofreading: the checking of a report to ensure that all words are spelled correctly, punctuation is used accurately, appropriate words are capitalized, and proper grammar is used (Communications) observing: an awareness of any occurrence or activity, erratic mood changes, emotional outbursts, acting out, threatening behavior, and changes in inmate energy levels that may signify safety and security problems (Officer Safety) protective management: a form of confinement where an inmate is placed into segregated housing because of concerns for his or her safety (Supervising Special Populations) organization: a group of two or more people who cooperate to accomplish an objective or multiple objectives (Introduction to Corrections) P Q qualified immunity: protects the officer from personal liability (Introduction to Corrections) R parole: the release of an inmate from a correctional institution prior to the conclusion of the inmate’s court-imposed sentence (Introduction to Corrections) reasonable force: the type and amount of force that the officer reasonably believes to be necessary to overcome resistance (Introduction to Corrections) perimeter: a secure area that surrounds a facility and is an element of security (Facility and Equipment) reception: a multi-faceted process in which an inmate is admitted to a state institution (Intake and Release) person with disabilities: someone who may have one or more medical or mental impairments that causes their disability and substantially limits one or more of their major life activities (Supervising Special Populations) release: the process in which an inmate is discharged from a county detention facility or state correctional institution (Intake and Release) posture: holding the body in such a way as to show strength, confidence, interest, and control to the inmates (Officer Safety) positioning: placing yourself in a tactically advantageous location to observe what is occurring in an area (Officer Safety) Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA): a law enacted by Congress to address the problem of sexual abuse of persons in the custody of U.S. federal, state or local correctional agencies; implemented to make rape prevention and awareness in a correctional setting a top priority (Introduction to Corrections) 212 report: a written document prepared by a correctional officer that gives information about an incident, event, situation, or person encountered by the officer (Communications) riot: any incident that disrupts the normal operations within a facility and which involves multiple inmates on a broad scope; a riot is not necessarily localized (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies) routine mail: all mail received by inmates including publications, except legal mail and priveleged mail (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) rule violation or infraction: an activity or behavior that is not permitted in the correctional facility (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) S sally port gate: is a system of two openings (doors or gates) designed to open only one at a time (Facility and Equipment) search: defined as governmental intrusion into a place where a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy (Introduction to Corrections) security equipment: any item or technology used to enhance or maintain protection, and to ensure safety (Facility and Equipment) security threat group (STG): a criminal enterprise, an organization of a continuing nature that engages repeatedly in acts of crime, and individually or collectively poses a safety and/or security threat within as well as outside of a correctional facility (Supervising Special Populations) seizure: the act of taking possession of evidence or contraband for a violation of rule or law (Introduction to Corrections) sexual abuse: engaging in or attempting to engage in a sexual act with another person or the use of threats, intimidation, inappropriate touching, or other actions or communications aimed at coercing or pressuring another person to engage in a sexual act (Supervising Special Populations) situational awareness: an officer’s knowledge and understanding of the totality of circumstances, which helps facilitate effective decision making (Officer Safety) slang: informal vocabulary composed of invented words, or arbitrarily changed words, that are often used by a specific group, region, trade, or profession (Communications) sort by category: the grouping of recorded facts into types of collection sources (Communications) sovereign immunity law: a list of circumstances and requirements that must be met before the agency or any of its employees can be sued in a state tort action; provides protection for state and county (governmental) correctional agencies and its employees as per §768.28, F.S. (Introduction to Corrections) special populations: different classifications of inmates that an officer may encounter in their day-to-day routines that require different interactions or services from the officer (Supervising Special Populations) spiral search pattern: begins at a central point and traverses in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area (Officer Safety) squelch: a circuit that suppresses the output of a radio receiver if the signal strength falls below a certain level (Communications) statement: a permanent verbal or written record of a person’s account of an incident or occurrence that may or may not be made under oath (Communications) strip/line search pattern: usually used in a predetermined area by several people; the search area is divided into lanes that are searched by one or more people in both directions until the entire area has been examined (Officer Safety) substance abuse: the use of any substance, manmade or natural, that alters the mood or state of mind of the user (Supervising Special Populations) T taggings: markings of an security threat group (STG) territory on a wall, fence, or ground (Supervising Special Populations) tort: a civil wrong in which the action or inaction of an officer or entity violates the rights of another person (Introduction to Corrections) trailing or chase vehicle: an armed escort vehicle utilized during transport to follow an inmate transport vehicle and to provide additional security (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) transgender: “…an umbrella term used to describe people whose gender identity (sense of themselves as male or female) or gender expression differs from that usually associated with their birth sex” (as defined by the American Psychological Association) (Supervising Special Populations) transport: when an inmate is removed and escorted from the confines of a secure facility to another location (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) U unusual occurrence: an incident that is out of the ordinary and disrupts the normal facility operations and routine daily activities (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) V values: principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable; core beliefs or desires that guide or motivate a person’s attitude and actions (Introduction to Corrections) verbal command: the authoritative statement used to direct, influence, or give orders to a person or group (Communications) verbal direction/warning: a statement directed to the inmate that he or she has committed a rule violation and should stop the behavior immediately (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) W written warning: an agency-specific form that documents an inmate rule violation (Supervising in a Correctional Facility) 213 Y youthful offender: any offender younger than the age of 24 years, who has either been sentenced as an adult by the judge or assigned youthful offender status by the Department of Corrections (Supervising Special Populations) Z zone/quadrant search pattern: used for an area that is large; the area should be divided into four different sections (Officer Safety) 214 U.S. COURTS AND CODE INDEX CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Corrections 18 U.S.C. §242, p. 24 (civil rights) 42 U.S.C. §1983, p. 24 (civil rights) 45 CFR §164 F.S., p. 14 (HIPAA; Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) Graham v. Connor 490 U.S. 386 (1989), p. 20 (use of force) Hudson v. McMillan 503 U.S. 1 (1992), p. 20 (use of force) Harlow v. Fitzgerald 457 U.S. 800, 818 (1982), p. 25 (immunity) Miranda v. Arizona 384 U.S. 436, 86 S. Ct. 1602 (1966), p. 12–13 PREA, P.L. 108–79, p. 14 (Prison Rape Elimination Act) CHAPTER 7 Supervising Special Populations 42 U.S.C. 126 §12101, pp. 171 (Americans with Disabilities Act) FLORIDA STATE STATUTES AND ADMINISTRATIVE CODE INDEX CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Corrections CHAPTER 4 Facility and Equipment 11B-27 F.A.C., p. 5 (standards of moral character) 33 F.A.C., p. 88 (food service operations) 11B-27.0011(4)(c)1 F.A.C., p. 5 (excessive use of force) 64E-11 F.A.C., p. 88 (food service operations) 11B-27.0011(4)(c)9 F.A.C., p. 5 (subverting exam and promotion process) §944.31 F.S., p. 89 (sanitation) 11B-27.00225 F.A.C., p. 5 (controlled substances) 11B-30.009(3) F.A.C., p. 5 (subverting exam process) CHAPTER 5 Intake and Release Ch. 111 F.S., p. 24 (qualified immunity) 33-601.210 F.A.C., p. 104 (custody grades) §112.313 (6) F.S., p. 5 (misuse of position under color of law) 33-601.502 F.A.C., p. 106 (gratuity) §394.455(18) F.S., p. 14 (Baker Act) §901.211 F.S., p. 97 (strip searches) §768.28 F.S., pp. 25 (sovereign immunity) §925.11 F.S., p.106 (DNA) §775.08(4) F.S., p. 17 (felony and misdemeanor) §943.325 F.S., p. 106 (DNA) Ch. 776 F.S., pp. 20, 25 (use of force) Ch. 960 F.S., p. 94 (victim contact notification) §776.07(02) F.S., p. 21 (inmate escape) Ch. 870 F.S., p. 25 (use of force in riots) CHAPTER 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility §932.704 F.S., p. 16 (destruction of contraband) 33-601.714 F.A.C., p. 127 (visitation) §932.7055 F.S., p. 16 (destruction of contraband) 33-601.314 F.A.C., p. 117 (prohibited inmate conduct) §943.085–943.255 F.S., p. 3 (correctional officer certification requirements) §944.09 F.S., p. 117 (inmate contact) §943.10(2) F.S., p. 2 (defining a correctional officer) §944.39 F.S., p. 128 (visitation and identification) §943.12 F.S., p. 3 (CJSTC duties) §943.13 F.S., p. 3 (standards of officer certification) CHAPTER 7 Supervising Special Populations §943.1395(6) F.S., p. 5 (revocation of officer certification) §874.03 F.S., p. 145 (definition of criminal gang) Ch. 944 F.S., p. 20 (use of force) §893.01 F.S., p. 155 (Florida Comprehensive Drug Abuse Control Act) §944.105(4) F.S., p. 21 (inmate escape from private correctional facilities) §958.03(5) F.S., p. 160 (youthful offender) §944.35(3) F.S., p. 5 (relationships of a sexual nature) §958.04 F.S., p. 160 (youthful offender) §944.35 F.S., p. 21 (use of force) §985.265(5)(b) F.S., p. 162 (housing juveniles) §944.47 F.S., p. 16 (contraband) §951.22 F.S., p. 16 (contraband) 215 INDEX A active listening, 55 AFIS (see Biometric Identification Solution) Amendments: First, 11 Fourth, 11 Fifth, 12 Sixth, 12 Eighth, 12 Fourteenth, 12 American Correctional Association, 6 Code of Ethics, 6–7 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 171–172 arrest papers, 94 assignment, facility, 94 automatic external defibrillator (AED), 185 B Baker Act, 14, 158 ballooning, 130 base station, radio, 33, 34 Bill of Rights (see Rights, Bill of ) Biometric Identification Solution (BIS), 100, 101 C chain of command, 9 chain of custody, 19, 64, 207 Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC), 199 civil rights, see rights, civil control, 11 community custody grade, 104 confinement administrative, 175 disciplinary, 175 protective management, 175 conflict of interest and ethics, 7 contraband, (see also §944.47 and §951.22 in Court and Statutes Indexes), 16–17, 62–65 as evidence, 17 (see also §932.704 in Court and Statutes Indexes) collecting, 63–64 disposition of, 64 documenting, 64 escort, 131 facility issued items, 99 hard/hazardous, 62 inmate release, 106 intake, 97 medication, 65 nuisance, 62 photographing, 64 STGs, 152 security, 84 transport, 134 visitors, 130 work squads, 139 controlled behavior, 54 corrective action, 118–119 counseling inmates, 119 clinical restraints, 141 counts, inmate, 121–123 procedures, 121–122 roster, 184 types of, 121 work squads, 137 classification, 104 objective of, 105 personnel, 105 clinical seclusion, 141 county jail, 10 close custody grade, 105 court system, 10 command presence, 30, 54 safety and security, 54 courtesy, 31 ethics, 6 command, verbal, 30 crime, elements of, 18 commitment papers, 94 features of 94–95 crime, fruits of, 18 communication barriers to effective, 29 interpersonal, 28–31 nonverbal, 28–29 telecommunication, 28 written, 28 verbal, 28 crime scene control, 203–204 communication, privileged, 15 216 crime, instrumentalities of, 18 crimes investigating and reporting, 206 victims, witnesses, and suspects, 205 criminal act (see also §775.08(4) in Court and Statutes Indexes), 17–19 Criminal Justice Professionalism Program (CJPP), 3 Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission (CJSTC) (see also §943.12 in Court and Statutes Indexes), discipline, 4–5 ethics, 6–7 scope, 2–3 use of force, 21–22 hazardous, 74 HAZMAT, 197 inspection, 72 inventorying, 73–74 issuing, 72–73 management of, 72–74 security, 79 storage, 74 surveillance, 111–112 visitation security, 128 criminal justice system, components 10–11 cues, nonverbal, 29 custody, chain of, 19, 207 custody grades and levels, 104–105 D damages, 23 death row, 176 escape (see emergencies, types of ) escort, 131 ethics, 6–7 evacuation, 179 defensive tactics, 131 evidence, 18–19 contraband as, 64 crime scene, 205 gathering, 207 integrity of, 19 dining, inmate, 123–124 Extended Day Program (EDP), 162 disabled inmates, 171 services for, 172–173 extremism, 151–152 disciplinary action, ethics, 6–7 interviews, 35 officer, 4–5 F disciplinary report, 46, 119 facts, organizing, 43 discipline, inmate, 117 (see also inmates, discipline) FCIC/NCIC, 102–103 discrimination, 7 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 100, 102 deception during questioning, 37 inmate, 59 face sheets, 135 facility assault, (see emergencies, types of, and see equipment) disturbances, signs of, 112–113 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 32 diversity, 144 felony, 17 duty of care, 20 fingerprinting, 100–102 E first aid, 185 editing, 48 Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.), (see F.A.C. Index) elderly, 164–166 Florida Comprehensive Drug Abuse Control Act, 155 fire, (see emergencies, types of, and see equipment) emergency doctrine, 25 Florida Correctional Accreditation Commission (FCAC), 88 Emergency Medical Services (EMS), 185 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), 105 Emergency Response Guide (ERG), 195, 197 Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), 3 and fingerprinting, 100–102 Florida Mental Health Act (see Baker Act, see also §394.455(18) in Court and Statutes Indexes) emergency situations, 181 emergencies, types of bomb threats, 199–200 escape, 183–184 fires, 192–194 HAZMAT, 195–199 hostage incidents, 188–189 man-made disasters, 201 medical, 185 natural disasters, 201 outside threats, 190–191 riot, 186–187 equipment facility assault, 190 fire, 192–193 Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS), 2, 88, 89, 93 Florida Safety Belt Law, 135 Florida Statutes (see Court and Statutes Indexes) force reasonable, 20 use of, 20–22, 35 deadly, 20–21 (see also §944.35 in Court and Statutes Indexes) to prevent escape, 21 (see also §776.07, §944.35, and §944.105 in Court and Statutes Indexes) excessive use of, 21 failure to report, 22 (see also §944.35 in Court and Statutes Indexes) inmates with medical needs, 174 217 G gang(s), (see Security Threat Groups) gestures, nonverbal, 29 gratuity, 106 interview, 35–36 inventory (see equipment, and see property) J jargon, 46 H harassment, 7 hazardous materials (HAZMAT), 77, 91 classes of, 195–196 emergency, 195 visitation, 130 health, environmental, 90–91 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (see also 45 CFR §164 in Court and Statutes Indexes), 13–14 juvenile adjudication, 160 Juvenile Assessment / Detention Center, 11 juveniles, 160–163 intake, 105 offenders, 105 L law enforcement, 10 legal defenses, 25 homosexuality, institutional, 170 liability, 23–26 hospital assignments, 140–141 listening, 30 hostage, (see emergencies, type of ) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), 91 M mail, inmate, 125–127 I manipulation, inmate, 59–61 identification inmate, 56–58 visitor, 125, 128–129 maximum custody grade, 105 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), 76, 196 maximum security level, 104 immunity, 24–25 medical assessments, 96 Incident Command System (ICS), 179 medical emergency (see emergencies, types of ) incident commander, 190 medium custody grade, 104 incident reports, 40 medium security level, 104 inmate rights, 13–15 mental illness, inmates with, 156–158 inmates counts (see counts) dining (see dining) discipline, 117 death row (see death row) escort (see escort) female, 167–168 in distress, 115 juvenile, 160–163 mail (see mail) monitoring and observing, 110–113 medical issues, 141, 164–165 mental illness among (see mental illness) mental retardation (see mental retardation) notification of visit, 129 physical disabilities, 171 search before visit (see search) sexual abuse of, 168–169 sexuality issues, 170 transgender, 170 transport (see transport) mental retardation, 159 inspection, 82–83 insubordination, 9 Methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), 91 minimum custody grade, 104 minimum security level, 104 Miranda, 12–13 (see also Court Index) misconduct, sexual, 5 misdemeanor, 17 MSDS (see Material Safety Data Sheet) N National Detention Standards (NDS), 88 negligence, 23 note taking, 38–39 O observing, 54 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 76 offenses, classes of, 17–19 officer, correctional (see also §943.10 in Court and Statutes Indexes), 2–6 certification, 3–4 (see also §943.13 in Court and Statutes Indexes) revocation, 5 intake, 94–95 oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray, 75 interpersonal communication (see communication, interpersonal) organization, 9 218 P parole, 11 penalties, 10 perimeter, 79 crime scenes, 204 emergencies, 178–179, 190 patrols, 86 security, 86 rights, civil (see also U.S. CODE 18 U.S.C. §242 and see also 42 U.S.C. §1983), ethics, 6 violations, 24 riots, (see emergencies, types of ) rule violations, 117–118 S prison, 10 safety and security, 52–55 identification and, 56 in emergencies, 179–180 manipulation and deception and, 59 medical staff and, 140 officer stress and, 52–53 perimeter security and, 86 security deficiency and, 82–83, 85, 86 security standards and, 84–85 situational awareness and, 53–54, 84 standards, 87 Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA), 14–15, 64, 95, 168–169 sally port gate, 80 probation, 11 sanitation, 89–91 professionalism, chain of command and, 8–9 communication and, 28 ethics, 6 interviews, 36 report writing, 44 scope of employment, 24–25 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), 66, 125, 185, 198, 207 photographing, contraband, (see contraband, photographing) intake, 103 positioning, 30, 54 posture, 30, 54 precautions, universal (see universal precautions) prejudice (see stereotype) proofreading, 48 property, inmate, 97–99 R radio (see also telecommunications), 32–34 rape (see PREA) reasonable force (see force) referral, 114–115 release, 106–107 report, 39 common forms used in, 40 computers in, 42 content, 44 editing, 48–49 efficacy, 44–47 elements, 44–47 evaluating, 48 finalizing, 49–50 format, 44 information in, 40–41 jargon in, 46 readers of, 39–40 slang in, 46 steps, 38 uses of, 39 writing, 38–50 response assistance, 182 Rights, Bill of, 11–12 search, 12 before visit, 129 end of visit, 130 equipment for, 68 escort and, 131 inmate transport and, 134 pat, 97 patterns, 67–68 safety and security and, 66 scanning devices and, 66, 68 strip, 97 types of, 13, 66–69 transport vehicle, 134 visitors, 66 work squads and, 138 security (see safety and security) security equipment (see equipment, security) Security Threat Groups (STGs), 145–153 activity and emergencies, 186 contraband and, (see contraband, STG) search and seizure (see Amendment, fourth, and see also search, and see also seizure) seizure, 12 Self–Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), 192, 197 sensitive supplies (see supplies, sensitive) shank (see weapons, inmate) situational awareness, 53 (see also safety and security) slang, 46 societies, inmate, 144 squelch, 33 State Officer Certification Examination (SOCE), 4 statement, 36 stereotype, 8 substance abuse, 154–155 219 suicide inmates with medical needs and, 174 inmates and, 105 screening, 95 supplies, sensitive, 77–78 T tagging, 152 telecommunications, 32–34 torts, 23 transgender (see inmates, transgender) transport, inmate, 133–136 Treatment and Evaluation Center, 10 tuberculosis (TB), 91 U universal precautions, 63 HAZMAT, 197 inmates with medical needs and, 173 medical emergencies, 185 unusual occurrence (see also disturbances) 112–113 use of force (see force) V values, 6–7 verbal command (see command, verbal) verbal warning, 119 visitation, 127–130 W weapons correctional facility, in a, 75 inmate, 62–63 work squads, 137–139 written warning, 119 Y youthful offender, 160 220 REFERENCES Chapter 1 Introduction to Corrections American Correctional Association. (1994). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aca.org/ Florida Sheriffs Association. Florida model jail standards. Retrieved from http://www.flsheriffs.org/ Garner, B. A. (Ed.). (1999). Black’s Law Dictionary. (7th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing CO. Chapter 2 Communications FCC Portable Radio Rules. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_6831218_fcc-portable-radio-rules.html Goodman, D. J. (2007). Report It in Writing. 4th Edition. Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hunter, R. D., Barker, T. (2011). Police-Community Relations and the Administration of Justice. 8th Edition. Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hurst, C. H. (2005). Self-Talk—Keep the Arrows Up. Booksurge LLC. (Amazon.com). New Jersey Department of Corrections. (2004). Basic Course for State Corrections Officers, Report Writing for Corrections. State of Connecticut Department of Correction, Pre-service Correctional Training. (2002). Report Writing. Chapter 4 Facility and Equipment Florida Department of State, Division of Library and Information Services. (2012). Florida Administrative Weekly and Florida Administrative Code - county and municipal jails. Tallahassee, Florida: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=63G-2 Florida Department of State, Division of Library and Information Services. (2012). Florida Administrative Weekly and Florida Administrative Code—Department of Corrections. Tallahassee, Florida: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/Division.asp?DivID=404 Florida Sheriffs Association. (2012). Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS): http://www.flsheriffs.org/our_program/floridamodel-jail standards/?index.cfm/referer/content.contentList/ID/408/ United States Department of Transportation (DOT). (2012). Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). Washington D.C. Chapter 5 Intake and Release Garner, B. A. (Ed.). (1999). Black’s Law Dictionary. (7th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing CO.