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FL Corrections Officer Training Manual, FDLE, 2013

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Florida Basic Recruit Training Program:

CORRECTIONS
VOLUME 1

Florida CMS Correctional Basic Recruit Training Program: Volume 1
© 2013 by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE). All rights reserved.
ISBN 13: 978-1-58152-934-0
ISBN 10: 1-58152-934-1

Disclaimer
FDLE makes a sincere effort to ensure accuracy and quality of its published materials; however, no warranty, expressed or implied, is
provided. FDLE disclaims any responsibility or liability for any direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of the information in this
course or products described in it.
Mention of any product does not constitute an endorsement by FDLE of that product. All referenced persons, places, or situations are
intended to be fictional, unless otherwise stated. Any resemblance to real persons, places, or situations is coincidental.
The training in this course is provided to familiarize students with issues that may involve high liability and/or high stress. FDLE urges
students to ensure that their practices are correct in accordance with their agencies’ policies and procedures. Employing agencies are solely
responsible for guiding their employees’ actions in actual situations.

Acknowledgments
This project is a collaboration between the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Criminal Justice Standards and Training
Commission Certified Training Schools, other state and local agencies, and volunteers. We extend our sincere appreciation to the agencies
of the Florida Criminal Justice System that allowed their members to assist in the development of this Curriculum Maintenance System
(CMS) training program.

Effective Date
This textbook is effective for basic recruit training that begins on or after July 1, 2013, and no later than June 30, 2014.

Designed by Kessler Creative
Cover art by Saeedeh Posey, FDLE
Published by XanEdu Publishing, Inc., 530 Great Road, Acton, Massachusetts 01720.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Florida Basic Recruit Training Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Chapter 1 Introduction to Corrections
UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION
Lesson 1: Correctional Officer Training Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Lesson 2: Criminal Justice Values and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Lesson 3: Professionalism and Chain of Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

UNIT 2: LEGAL
Lesson 1: Criminal Justice System and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Lesson 2: Constitutional Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Lesson 3: Inmate Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Lesson 4: Legal Issues with Contraband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Lesson 5: Criminal Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Lesson 6: Use of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Lesson 7: Criminal and Civil Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Chapter 2 Communications
UNIT 1: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Lesson 1: Interpersonal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

UNIT 2: TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Lesson 1: Procedures and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

UNIT 3: INTERVIEWING
Lesson 1: Preparing for and Conducting an Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

UNIT 4: REPORT WRITING
Lesson 1: Note Taking and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Lesson 2: Organizing Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Lesson 3: Elements of Effective Report Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Lesson 4: Writing and Evaluating the Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Chapter 3 Officer Safety
LESSON 1: SAFETY AND SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
LESSON 2: IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
LESSON 3: MANIPULATION AND DECEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
LESSON 4: CONTRABAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
LESSON 5: SEARCHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66

Chapter 4 Facility and Equipment
UNIT 1: EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT
Lesson 1: Issuing, Receiving, and Documenting Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Lesson 2: Weapons in a Correctional Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

UNIT 2: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND SENSITIVE SUPPLIES
Lesson 1: Hazardous Materials and Sensitive Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

UNIT 3: ENTERING, EXITING AND MOVING WITHIN FACILITIES
Lesson 1: Security Equipment and Moving Within Secured Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

UNIT 4: INSPECTIONS
Lesson 1: Inspection Criteria and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

UNIT 5: SECURITY
Lesson 1: Security Standards and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Lesson 2: Perimeter Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

UNIT 6: FACILITY SAFETY CONCERNS
Lesson 1: Identifying and Resolving Safety Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

UNIT 7: SANITATION AND HEALTH
Lesson 1: Sanitation Standards and Environmental Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Chapter 5 Intake and Release
LESSON 1: INTAKE AND ASSESSMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
LESSON 2: SEARCHING AND INVENTORYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
LESSON 3: FINGERPRINTING AND PHOTOGRAPHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
LESSON 4: CLASSIFICATION AND HOUSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
LESSON 5: RELEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

Chapter 6 Supervision of Inmates
LESSON 1: OBSERVATION AND MONITORING OF INMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
LESSON 2: SUPERVISION OF THE REFERRAL PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
LESSON 3: INMATE DISCIPLINE PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
LESSON 4: INMATE COUNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
LESSON 5: INMATE DINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
LESSON 6: PROCESSING MAIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
LESSON 7: VISITATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
LESSON 8: ESCORTING INMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
LESSON 9: TRANSPORTING INMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
LESSON 10: WORK SQUADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
LESSON 11: HOSPITAL ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140

Chapter 7 Supervising Special Populations
UNIT 1: DIVERSITY IN THE CORRECTIONAL SETTING
Lesson 1: Inmate Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

UNIT 2: SECURITY THREAT GROUPS
Lesson 1: Gang and STG Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Lesson 2: STG Structures and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

UNIT 3: RECOGNIZING SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG INMATES
Lesson 1: Inmates with a History of Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

UNIT 4: MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH MENTAL RETARDATION
Lesson 1: Inmates with Mental Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Lesson 2: Inmates with Mental Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

UNIT 5: JUVENILE INMATES AND YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS
Lesson 1: Monitoring Juvenile Inmates and Youthful Offenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

UNIT 6: ELDERLY INMATES
Lesson 1: Monitoring Elderly Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

UNIT 7: FEMALE INMATES
Lesson 1: Female Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

UNIT 8: INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES
Lesson 1: Sexually Abused Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Lesson 2: Inmates with Sexuality Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

UNIT 9: PHYSICALLY DISABLED INMATES
Lesson 1: Monitoring Physically Disabled Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

UNIT 10: INMATES WITH MEDICAL NEEDS
Lesson 1: Characteristics of Inmates with Medical Needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

UNIT 11: INMATES IN CONFINEMENT
Lesson 1: Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

UNIT 12: DEATH ROW INMATES
Lesson 1: Monitoring Death Row Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Chapter 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies
UNIT 1: IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
Lesson 1: Responding to an Emergency Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Lesson 2: Emergency Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

UNIT 2: DETERMINING LEVEL OF RESPONSE ASSISTANCE
Lesson 1: Determining Level of Response Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

UNIT 3: TYPES OF EMERGENCIES
Lesson 1: Inmate Escapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Lesson 2: Medical Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Lesson 3: Riots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Lesson 4: Hostage Incidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Lesson 5: Outside Threats to a Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Lesson 6: Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Lesson 7: Hazardous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Lesson 8: Bomb Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Lesson 9: Man-Made or Natural Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

UNIT 4: INVESTIGATING CRIMES
Lesson 1: Crime Scene Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Lesson 2: Managing Victims, Witnesses and Suspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Lesson 3: Investigations and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Lesson 4: Chain of Custody for Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Court Case Index

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

FOREWORD
We are grateful for the many agencies and officers who contributed to making this textbook relevant to the job, practical,
and concise.
Florida Statutes defines correctional officers and provides that the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission, through
rule, specify certain conditions for basic recruits and certified officers. Florida Statute further requires that cultural diversity be
included in all officer basic recruit training programs (correctional, correctional probation, and law enforcement). Particularly
in Florida, a correctional officer may encounter a population very different from him- or herself. Training in how to relate to
people who are different than you is valuable. You will not find a lesson or chapter in this textbook called Cultural Diversity.
However, from the first chapter, Introduction to Corrections, to the last chapter, Responding to Incidents and Emergencies,
instruction on how to communicate, interact with and respond to inmates, staff, and visitors is included. Effective
communication is key to understanding others. Chapter 7 describes the wide range of populations and groups a Florida officer
may encounter and teaches appropriate communication responses.
It is hoped that your being a correctional officer is a long-term career. This training program will provide a clear picture of the
job requirements and work environment. Your training academy is encouraged to coordinate a field trip so you may observe a
correctional facility, preferably early on in your studies. You and your fellow students are encouraged to take full advantage of
the training to learn and prepare for the day that you will be depended on to maintain the care, control and custody of inmates
within Florida’s prisons and jails.

CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Corrections
UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION
LESSON 1: Correctional Officer Training Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
LESSON 2: Criminal Justice Values and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
LESSON 3: Professionalism and Chain of Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

UNIT 2: LEGAL
LESSON 1: Criminal Justice System and Components

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

LESSON 2: Constitutional Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
LESSON 3: Inmate Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
LESSON 4: Legal Issues with Contraband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
LESSON 5: Criminal Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
LESSON 6: Use of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
LESSON 7: Criminal and Civil Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Like a judge is to the court and police officers are to the streets, correctional officers are the most important
members of the correctional system. Correctional officers are responsible for their own safety and that of
others. An officer’s personal perspective, based on his or her culture, heritage, values, and ethics, affects his
or her decisions that, in turn, impact the well-being of others. This training program will expose students to
the most critical features of being a correctional officer in a Florida jail or state correctional institution.
This chapter provides an overview of the correctional officer training program and the requirements for
becoming a certified officer. This chapter will also help to provide a legal basis from which students may
begin to function as correctional officers and gives instruction on basic criminal justice values, ethics, and ways
to demonstrate professionalism when interacting with others. Students will also learn about the command
structure within a criminal justice agency. To act properly and effectively as correctional officers without
infringing on the rights of others, students must have a working knowledge of federal and state laws. Officers’
duties include a variety of responsibilities requiring a foundational knowledge of the law and the ability to
apply that law to specific incidents.

Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

UNIT 1 | INTRODUCTION

LESSON 1 |

Correctional Officer Training Program Overview

OBJECTIVES

CO1-1.1.1 Define correctional officer in
accordance with F.S. §943.10.
CO1-1.1.2 Summarize personal
characteristics supervisors look for
in new officers.
CO1-1.1.3 Explain the role of the
Criminal Justice Standards and
Training Commission established
by the Florida Statutes.
CO1-1.1.4 State the requirements to
become a correctional officer.

CO1-1.1.5 List the reasons the Criminal
Justice Standards and Training
Commission may take action
against an officer’s certification.
CO1-1.1.6 Identify the penalties that
may be imposed in the officer
discipline process.

Every person who enters this training program has one goal in mind: to become a
certified correctional officer in the State of Florida. This profession is governed by federal
and state law, state rules, local regulation (for county officers and facilities), and agency
and facility policies and procedures. The law defining correctional officers is found in
§943.10(2), Florida Statutes:

Correctional officer means any person who is appointed or employed full
time by the state or any political subdivision thereof, or by any private entity
which has contracted with the state or county, and whose primary
responsibility is the supervision, protection, care, custody, and control, or
investigation, of inmates within a correctional institution; however, the term
“correctional officer” does not include any secretarial, clerical, or professionally
trained personnel. (CO1-1.1.1)
In addition to the Florida Statutes (F.S.), other legal mandates concerning this profession
are found in rules enforced through the Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). Also,
county correctional officers and facilities are governed by the Florida Statutes and the
Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS).
There are governmental entities and many laws that provide oversight of correctional
officers. Even so, correctional officers are considered professionals in their field and much
is expected of them as they provide care, custody and control of inmates. Some of the
personal characteristics supervisors look for in new officers include those who are able to:
• work alone with little or no supervision
• perform tasks without letting distractions interfere
• independently make decisions and stand by decisions made
• learn new techniques and procedures
• adapt to change without incurring undue stress
• be attentive to their environment
• be responsible for actions taken as well as the consequences of inaction
(CO1-1.1.2)

Criminal Justice Standards and Training
Commission
The Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission was created to oversee the
certification, employment, training, and conduct of Florida law enforcement,
correctional, and correctional probation officers. The Commission meets quarterly and

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FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1

has as its purpose “to ensure that the citizens of the state of Florida are served by the most qualified, welltrained, competent and ethical criminal justice officers in the nation.”

Primary Responsibilities of the Commission
Florida Statute §943.12 explains the Commission’s duties as follows:
• establish uniform minimum standards for the employment and training of full-time, part-time, and
auxiliary law enforcement, correctional, and correctional probation officers
• establish and maintain officer training programs, curricula requirements, and certification of training
schools and training school instructors
• certify officers who complete a Florida Basic Recruit Training Program or who are diversely qualified
through experience and training and who meet minimum employment standards
• review and administer appropriate administrative sanctions in instances when an officer, instructor, or
training school is found to be in violation of Florida Statutes and Commission standards
• promulgate rules and procedures to administer the requirements of §943.085–943.255, F.S.
• conduct studies of compensation, education, and training for correctional, correctional probation, and
law enforcement disciplines
• maintain a central repository of records of all certified criminal justice officers
• develop, maintain, and administer the State Officer Certification Examination for criminal justice officers
The Criminal Justice Professionalism Program (CJPP) is statutorily created within the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement (FDLE) to support and assist the Commission in the execution, administration,
implementation, and evaluation of its powers, duties, and functions. The CJPP manages the administrative
functions involved in the certification and decertification of criminal justice officers in Florida. The CJPP
writes and keeps up to date each of the basic and post-basic training courses that certified officers receive in
Florida. The program also maintains the automated training system for all officer records. (CO1-1.1.3)

Officer Certification
Correctional officers, like all criminal justice personnel, are held to the highest standard. The knowledge and
skills that are learned during basic recruit training will prepare future officers for a rewarding and satisfying
career. The Commission, the training academy, and the employing agency are devoted to ensuring that each
recruit is fully trained and ready to assume the duties of a Florida correctional officer.
F.S. §943.13 sets the minimum requirements and standards that persons must meet before becoming certified
as officers. An officer must:
• be at least 19 years of age
• be a citizen of the United States
• be a high school graduate or its equivalent
• not have been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor which involves perjury or a false statement,
regardless of withholding of adjudication or suspended sentence
• not have received a dishonorable discharge from any of the Armed Forces of the United States
• have processed fingerprints on file with the employing agency

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Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

• have passed a physical examination by a licensed physician based on specifications established by
the Commission
• have a good moral character, as determined by a background investigation under procedures established
by the Commission
• submit an affidavit attesting to compliance (a signed document agreeing to abide by all Commission rules)
• satisfactorily complete a Commission-approved course of basic recruit training
• satisfactorily pass a state examination in the respective specialty
A recruit has four years from the starting date of the basic recruit training to complete the certification process.
In order to become certified as a correctional officer, a person must do all of the following:
• meet all the minimum requirements and standards
• complete the approved basic recruit training
• pass the State Officer Certification Examination
• become actively employed with a correctional facility in an auxiliary, a part-time, or a full-time
officer position
Simply completing the basic recruit training and passing the certification exam does not mean that a
person is a certified officer. For example, if Rob Recruit begins basic recruit training on July 1, 2012, he must
meet all the minimum requirements and standards, complete the approved basic recruit training, pass the
State Officer Certification Examination, and become actively employed with a correctional facility as a certified
officer by June 30, 2016. If Rob Recruit does not meet all these requirements by June 30, 2016, he will have
to repeat the basic recruit training, at which time a new four-year period begins.

State Officer Certification Examination
Upon completion of a basic recruit training program, an individual must pass the State Officer Certification
Examination (SOCE) to become certified as a correctional officer. An applicant must pass the SOCE within
three attempts.
Information concerning the SOCE can be found in the Applicant Information Handbook available online at
http://www.fdle.state.fl.us. Other information on the website includes SOCE schedules, registration
information, exam topics, and sample questions. (CO1-1.1.4)

Officer Compliance
When a recruit is being hired by a correctional facility, the agency will conduct a thorough background
investigation to determine his or her moral character prior to employment with the agency. If a recruit has
entered the academy prior to employment, the recruit is subject to the same moral character requirements as
active certified officers and may be denied certification by the Commission if evidence indicates noncompliance
with these standards.

Disciplinary Action
In addition to certifying criminal justice officers, the Commission has the authority to impose discipline on
an officer’s certification if the officer fails to maintain the required standards of conduct.

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The Commission may take action against an officer’s certification if the officer does
the following:
• pleads nolo contendere, pleads guilty, or is found guilty of any felony

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
correctional officer

• pleads nolo contendere, pleads guilty, or is found guilty of a misdemeanor involving
perjury or false statement
• fails to maintain good moral character as defined by the Florida Statutes and
Florida Administrative Code (CJSTC Rule 11B-27, F.A.C.)
• commits any act constituting a felony offense, regardless of criminal prosecution
• tests positive for controlled substances by a urine or blood test, in accordance
with the requirements for testing reliability and integrity set forth in Rule 11B27.00225, F.A.C.
• is found guilty of excessive use of force under color of authority under Rule 11B27.0011(4)(c)1, F.A.C.
• engages in sexual harassment involving physical contact or misuse of official
position
• misuses the official position, as defined by §112.313(6), F.S.
• engages in sex while on duty
• has unprofessional relationships with an inmate, detainee, probationer, parolee,
or community controlee; has written or oral communication that is intended to
facilitate conduct which is prohibited by Commission rule; engages in any
physical contact not required in the performance of official duties that is normally
associated with the demonstration of affection or sexual misconduct as defined in
section F.S. §944.35(3)
• makes false statements during the employment process
• commits conduct that subverts or attempts to subvert the state officer certification
examination process in accordance with rule 11B-30.009(3), F.A.C.
• commits conduct that subverts or attempts to subvert the CJSTC-approved
training examination process or an employing agency’s promotional examination
process in accordance with, but not limited to, acts described in rule 11B27.0011(4)(c)9, F.A.C. (CO1-1.1.5)
The Commission may impose discipline on an officer’s certification in keeping with an
established set of penalty guidelines that may be required during the officer discipline
process. The penalties include written reprimand, probation, suspension, or revocation
of certification. When the Commission revokes an officer’s certification in accordance
with F.S. §943.1395(6), the officer can no longer work as a certified correctional officer
in the state of Florida. (CO1-1.1.6)
While these guidelines are specific to certified officers, it is important to remember that
the Commission and the academy expect recruits to adhere to the standards of conduct
during basic recruit training. Violations may result in the denial of officer certification.

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UNIT 1 | INTRODUCTION

LESSON 2 |

Criminal Justice Values and Ethics

OBJECTIVES

CO1-1.2.1 Define values.
CO1-1.2.2 Define ethics.

Officer Code of Ethics
Values are principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable. They
are core beliefs or desires that guide or motivate a person’s attitude and actions. Values
are what people care about and what they think is important. Values determine how
people behave in certain situations. Values are based on family heritage, cultural
background, personal experiences, and beliefs. A variety of influences shape an
individual’s values including attitudes about work, respect, and responsibility. Honesty
is an important value for correctional officers and should be displayed on and off duty.
Some of the characteristics associated with honesty include truthfulness and fairness.
(CO1-1.2.1)

Ethics is defined as the principles of honor, morality, and accepted rules of conduct
that direct an individual or group. Ethics are derived from the principles of right and
wrong. Officers must always act within the boundaries of their authority and uphold the
recognized standards of their profession’s code of ethics. Ethics, values, and
professionalism are intertwined, and each element is essential in the correctional officer’s
personal and professional life.
Ethical behavior is value-based decision making, on a daily basis, for personal or
professional reasons. Correctional officers should behave ethically on and off duty and
avoid conflicts of interest. Other examples of ethical behavior are obeying all laws,
policies and procedures; protecting the civil rights of all inmates; respecting confidential
and privileged communication; and treating persons who may be different from you
with courtesy and fairness. (CO1-1.2.2)
Ethical violations can result in disciplinary action by your agency and the Criminal
Justice Standards and Training Commission up to and including termination of
employment and decertification.
Preamble: The American Correctional Association expects of its members unfailing
honesty, respect for the dignity and individuality of human beings and a
commitment to professional and compassionate service.
To this end, we subscribe to the following principles:
Members shall respect and protect the civil and legal rights of all individuals.
Members shall treat every professional situation with concern for the welfare
of the individuals involved and with no intent to personal gain.
Members shall maintain relationships with colleagues to promote mutual
respect within the profession and improve the quality of service.

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Members shall make public criticism of their colleagues or their agencies only
when warranted, verifiable and constructive.
Members shall respect the importance of all disciplines within the criminal
justice system and work to improve cooperation with each segment.

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
ethics
values

Members shall honor the public’s right to information and share
information with the public to the extent permitted by law subject to
individual’s right to privacy.
Members shall respect and protect the right of the public to be safeguarded
from criminal activity.
Members shall refrain from using their position to secure personal privileges
or advantages.
Members shall refrain from allowing personal interest to impair objectivity in
the performance of duty while acting in an official capacity.
Members shall refrain from entering into any formal or informal activity or
agreement which presents a conflict of interest or is inconsistent with the
conscientious performance of duties.
Members shall refrain from accepting any gifts, service, or favor that is or
appears to be improper or implies an obligation inconsistent with the free and
objective exercise of professional duties.
Members shall clearly differentiate between personal views/statements and
views/statements/positions made on behalf of the agency or Association.
Members shall report to appropriate authorities any corrupt or unethical
behaviors in which there is sufficient evidence to justify review.
Members shall refrain from discriminating against any individual because of
race, gender, creed, national origin, religious affiliation, age, disability, or any
other type of prohibited discrimination.
Members shall preserve the integrity of private information; they shall refrain
from seeking information on individuals beyond that which is necessary to
implement responsibilities and perform their duties; members shall refrain
from revealing nonpublic information unless expressly authorized to do so.
Members shall make all appointments, promotions, and dismissals in
accordance with established civil service rules, applicable contract agreements,
and individual merit, rather than furtherance of personal interests.
Members shall respect, promote, and contribute to a work place that is safe,
healthy, and free of harassment in any form.

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UNIT 1 | INTRODUCTION

LESSON 3 |

Professionalism and Chain Of Command

OBJECTIVES

CO1-1.3.1 Define professionalism.

Professionalism is behavior that demonstrates good character and is marked by pride
in self and career (CO1-1.3.1). Professionalism requires that an officer respect the people
he or she serves and maintain a personal commitment to the continued development of
his or her skills in the pursuit of excellence. Correctional officers are service oriented and
are trained to respond to needs in a timely and efficient manner. (CO1-1.3.2)

CO1-1.3.3 State that correctional
officers must be conscientious.

The officer should consider professionalism as a means of doing the right thing no
matter who is looking or whose back is turned. Thoughts and values help define
character and influence behavior. The officer should evaluate his or her behaviors,
strengths, and weaknesses. Assessing and overcoming weaknesses is especially important
to achieving professionalism and being conscientious. (CO1-1.3.3)

CO1-1.3.2 Explain that correctional
officers are service oriented and
must respond to needs in a timely
and efficient manner.
CO1-1.3.4 Explain that correctional
officers are dependable and fulfill
obligations.

CO1-1.3.5 Specify that correctional
officers must consistently perform
the best job possible.

CO1-1.3.6 State that correctional
officers must remain levelheaded
and react appropriately in stressful
situations.

CO1-1.3.7 Summarize that correctional
officers must avoid stereotypes.

CO1-1.3.8 State that correctional
officers respect self and others,
treating people fairly and with dignity.

CO1-1.3.9 State that correctional
officers must exhibit the self-control
to resist abuse of authority.

CO1-1.3.10 Define chain of command.

CO1-1.3.11 Illustrate how chain of
command facilitates communication
within the organization.

CO1-1.3.12 Summarize why chain of
command within a criminal justice
agency should be followed.

8

A correctional officer is to model professional behavior and perform his or her job to the
best of his or her ability. An officer should be dependable, strive at all times to work
efficiently and consistently, and fulfill his or her obligations (CO1-1.3.4). This includes
reporting to your shift on time, wearing the proper uniform, being neat and clean, and
consistently performing the best job possible. (CO1-1.3.5)
The work environment of a correctional officer can range from quiet to chaotic
throughout the course of a shift. The officer must be able to make quick, accurate
decisions and prioritize his or her responses. The officer must remain calm and
levelheaded in stressful situations, react appropriately, and gather as much information
as possible to make the best decisions. (CO1-1.3.6)
The need for professionalism at all times cannot be overstated; one unprofessional
behavior that should be avoided is stereotyping. Stereotyping is making a generalization
about a person or group. Stereotypes are characteristics projected onto a group of people
that do not fit some of its individuals. For example, not all little old ladies are good
cooks—many do not like to cook. Not all teenagers love to dance—some do not know
how. Both positive and negative stereotypes hurt because they represent an
oversimplified categorization of people. Most people can readily think of negative
stereotypes (e.g., all inmates are scumbags). They rarely stop to think of positive
information about a culture or race. In any case, neither positive nor negative stereotypes
are acceptable. Stereotyping takes your attention away from gathering factual
information about a person or situation. (CO1-1.3.7)
When you allow stereotypes to guide your behavior, you may respond unfairly and with
prejudice. Showing consideration for your coworkers and integrity as you work in a
correctional facility lets others see that you handle your job professionally. An officer is
expected to treat people fairly, with dignity and respect, regardless of their race, gender,
creed, national origin, religious affiliation, age, or disability. (CO1-1.3.8)

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

When considering your actions, think through your professional response, and recall
skills and information you received during training, and apply agency policies and
procedures in your decisions. A sense of professionalism instills correctional officers with
the self-control to resist abusing their authority. (CO1-1.3.9)

Chain of command is the order of authority within an organization. It provides the
linkage of authority and responsibility that joins one level of an organization to another
(CO1-1.3.10). Following a chain of command facilitates coordination, reduces
confusion, and enhances the efficiency of the organization. (CO1-1.3.11)

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
chain of command
insubordination
organization
professionalism

An organization is a group of two or more people who cooperate to accomplish an
objective or multiple objectives. An organizational chart is a diagram that visually
represents an agency, the connection between each position and its ranks. Rank structure
establishes boundaries between the different levels within the organization. In
correctional agencies, this rank structure might be as follows:
• Sheriff or Warden
• Undersheriff or Assistant Warden
• Colonels or Chief of Security
• Majors
• Captains
• Lieutenants
• Sergeants
• Corporals
• Deputies or Officers
Organizations use the chain of command to facilitate communication and make
decisions. Questions that subordinates might have are typically answered at the lowest
level possible of the chain of command. Officers should go to their immediate supervisor
for information and assistance. In some emergency situations, an officer’s direct
supervisor may not be available to answer an important question or meet an immediate
need. This is when it may be necessary to bypass the chain of command. If this happens,
contact your supervisor as soon as possible. For example, in a medical emergency, contact
medical or the communications center immediately and then notify your supervisor.
As part of the chain of command and the organizational structure the officer must be
aware of the importance of following orders. Failure to follow lawful orders from
supervisors is considered insubordination, a very serious offense. An order known to
be illegal must not be carried out; however, an officer refusing to follow an order must
be absolutely certain that it violates the law or the officer will be subject to charges of
insubordination. (CO1-1.3.12)

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UNIT 2 | LEGAL

LESSON 1 |

Criminal Justice System and Components

OBJECTIVES
CO1-2.1.1 Outline the role of the
correctional officer.
CO1-2.1.2 List the major components of
the Criminal Justice System.
CO1-2.1.3 Explain the function of the
corrections system.
CO1-2.1.4 Describe the components of
the corrections system.

Structure of the Criminal Justice System
A correctional officer is part of a large, complex interrelated group known as the
Criminal Justice System. Correctional officers play an important role in the Criminal
Justice System and interact regularly with other components. An officer’s ability to
interact effectively within the organizational network directly affects the officer’s job
performance. The correctional officer is responsible for the care, custody, and control of
inmates in a city or county jail, state correctional institution, or similar form of secure
supervision. (CO1-2.1.1)

Criminal justice refers to the structure, functions, and decision-making processes of
those agencies that deal with the management and control of crime and criminal
offenders. The three main components of the criminal justice system include law
enforcement, the court system, and corrections. (CO1-2.1.2)
As its name implies, law enforcement is responsible for enforcing and maintaining civil
order. The court system is responsible for the interpretation of laws—both federal and state.
Corrections is the part of the system responsible for enforcing penalties as defined by the
court system and for the care, custody and control of inmates and pretrial detainees.
(CO1-2.1.3)

Corrections
A general overview of the corrections systems in Florida includes the following components:
Prisons (federal and state): Prisons are correctional institutions maintained by federal
or state governments for the confinement of convicted felons.
County Jails: County jails are used for in-processing and temporary detention of
defendants awaiting trial or disposition on federal or state charges and of convicted
offenders sentenced to short-term detention (a year or less). County jails may also hold
convicted felons returned from prison for court appearances.
Treatment and Evaluation Centers: These facilities are designed to meet the special
needs of particular offenders. Treatment centers deal with alcohol/drug abusers or
mentally ill offenders. In addition to general processing procedures, various testing (e.g.,
medical, mental, educational aptitude) is performed at these facilities.
Probation, Parole, and Community Control: Probation, parole, and community
control are part of a community-based correctional system. Its purpose is to supervise
the enforcement of specific restrictions on individuals who have received an alternative
to incarceration.

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Probation is a court-ordered sentence that places a person under the supervision
of a probation officer under specified court ordered terms and conditions as an
alternative to supervision after incarceration.

Parole is the release of an inmate from a correctional institution prior to the
conclusion of the inmate’s court-imposed sentence.
Community control (house arrest) is a form of community supervision that is
closely monitored and is more restrictive than probation or parole.

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
community control
criminal justice
parole
probation

Juvenile Assessment/Detention Center: Juvenile suspects are taken to a center for
processing and possible pretrial detention. (CO1-2.1.4)

UNIT 2 | LEGAL

LESSON 2 |

Constitutional Rights

Bill of Rights
According to the U.S. Constitution, all people stand equal before the law and therefore
share certain rights. Many of these rights, such as freedom of speech, protection against
unreasonable searches and seizures, and prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment,
are described in the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution and are collectively
known as the Bill of Rights. Although many of these amendments focus on the courts
and legislation, some, such as the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments,
are of particular importance to correctional officers.
The First Amendment protects freedom of speech, the press, and religion, and
the right to peacefully assemble. In a correctional setting the First Amendment
is limited to access to religious practice and the press. An example of this
limitation is that while inmates cannot assemble and protest, they may maintain
the right to express their religious beliefs and communicate with the press.

OBJECTIVES

CO1-2.2.1 Describe the components of
the amendments to the U.S.
Constitution that relate to corrections.
CO1-2.2.2 Define search.

CO1-2.2.3 Define seizure.

CO1-2.2.4 Identify types of searches
used for visitors entering and exiting
a correctional setting.
CO1-2.2.5 Apply Miranda in a
correctional setting.

The Fourth Amendment prohibits unreasonable search and seizure. The purpose
of this amendment is to protect people from governmental intrusion in areas
where they have a reasonable expectation of privacy. For example, generally, a
search warrant signed by a judge is required to search a home. However, in a

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correctional setting there is a diminished expectation of privacy and there is no general requirement
for a search warrant.
The Fifth Amendment is best known for prohibiting compelled self-incrimination. It also requires grand
jury indictment for capital crimes and prohibits double jeopardy and deprivation of life, liberty, or
property without due process of law. Due process of law generally requires a notice and hearing when a
liberty interest is at stake. In a correctional setting this may take the form of a disciplinary hearing prior
to the loss of inmate gain-time.
The Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial, to counsel, to an impartial jury,
to be informed of the nature of the charges, and to confront witnesses. Access to legal counsel is a
significant activity affected by the Sixth Amendment in a correctional setting.
The Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive bails and fines, and cruel and unusual punishment. This
amendment plays a critical role in the care, custody and control of inmate populations. Excessive use of
force or withholding meals are examples of rights violations prohibited under this amendment.
The Bill of Rights was originally intended to restrict actions of the federal government only. The Fourteenth
Amendment expanded the application of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments as well. (CO1-2.2.1)

Search and Seizure
A search may be defined as governmental intrusion into a place where a person has a reasonable expectation
of privacy. In a correctional setting, a search occurs as an effort to seek out and discover evidence and
contraband in the possession of an inmate. The officer working in a correctional facility does not require
probable cause to search an inmate (CO1-2.2.2). Probable cause is a fair probability or reasonable grounds
to believe that a crime was committed, based on the totality of the circumstances.

Seizure may be defined as the act of taking possession of contraband or evidence for a violation of rule or law.
Inmates have a diminished expectation of privacy in a correctional setting due to the compelling interest to
maintain order in the correctional system. When evidence or contraband is found during a search in a
correctional setting, the correctional officer has the duty to seize the item. (CO1-2.2.3)
Safety and security needs of a correctional facility include searching people entering a correctional facility.
Types of searches may include pat search, K-9, drug, body scan, and metal detector. Unlike inmates, visitors
have the right to refuse a search; however, refusal may result in denial or termination of current or future visits.
(CO1-2.2.4)

Application of Miranda
Miranda warnings provide the protections of the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination when a
suspect in custody is interrogated in a criminal investigation. Though the correctional officer is not a law
enforcement officer and therefore does not issue Miranda warnings, Miranda still applies to inmates in a
correctional setting. If a crime occurs within a correctional facility, interrogation of the individual should be
completed by either a law enforcement officer or prison inspector. (CO1-2.2.5)
The correctional officer may encounter information regarding an ongoing criminal case that occurred outside
the facility. This may occur in a jail setting during the intake process or when inmates are awaiting trial.

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The officer should not ask inmates about the circumstances under which they are
charged. However, the correctional officer has a duty to report information concerning
criminal acts. If an inmate provides information regarding facts of a criminal case, the
officer must document this information in accordance with his or her agency policies
or procedures.

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
Miranda
probable cause
search
seizure

UNIT 2 | LEGAL

LESSON 3 |

Inmate Rights

Limitation of Inmate Rights
Inmates retain certain rights; however, they are restricted within the correctional setting.
These rights are limited by the need for safety and security of the facility. Some rights
retained include freedom from excessive punishments; access to courts; legal counsel
including help from other inmates in preparation of writs, petitions and other legal
papers; and access to an adequate law library. Inmates have the right to freedom of
expression; freedom from overcrowded conditions, freedom from unreasonable search
and seizure; and freedom to worship and exercise religious beliefs. Also, inmates have the
right to exercise and fresh air, adequate medical treatment, the ability to send and receive
mail, including correspondence with the courts; and food that meets minimum
nutritional standards. (CO1-2.3.1)

Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act (HIPAA)
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was established to
standardize health records in the U.S. Within this act, privacy standards were developed
to make it a violation to knowingly disclose protected health information. Individuals

OBJECTIVES

CO1-2.3.1 Explain the retention and
limitation of inmate rights.

CO1-2.3.2 Relate the requirements of
the Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act (HIPAA) to a
correctional setting.
CO1-2.3.3 Define Baker Act as used in
a correctional setting.

CO1-2.3.4 Identify the correctional
officers’ role in the provisions of the
Baker Act.

CO1-2.3.5 Define the Prison Rape
Elimination Act (PREA).

CO1-2.3.6 Explain inmates’ rights to
privileged communication.

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employed by a “covered entity,” including correctional officers and staff, who knowingly violate HIPAA
provisions may be fined, imprisoned, or administratively disciplined.
As a covered entity, a correctional institution must reasonably safeguard protected health information to limit
incidental uses or disclosures made pursuant to an otherwise permitted or required use or disclosure in
accordance with HIPAA, 45 C.F.R. §164, F.S. However, correctional facilities are exempt from the general
provision requiring a written waiver from the inmate if a health, safety, or security need has been determined.
The correctional officer must remember that inmate health information should remain confidential and may
be shared only with individuals that have a need and right to know. Additionally, correctional officers may not
solicit inmate health information unless it is pertinent to their job. An officer may have limited access to
information to protect him- or herself or others or to assign work. For example, a transport officer needs to
know that an inmate has tuberculosis in order to obtain appropriate personal protective equipment and take
additional precautionary measures. An inmate with diabetes requires a special meal and possibly a snack during
work detail.
Information disclosed is limited to only a particular incident or health and safety issue. The officer will not
acquire complete inmate health information; however, relevant information for precautionary measures will
be available. For example, a correctional officer injured after a fight with an inmate may receive information
regarding the inmate’s bloodborne pathogens or transmittable disease status. The officer will not know if the
inmate has high blood pressure; however, he or she may be told if the inmate has HIV, hepatitis, or other
communicable diseases. (CO1-2.3.2)

Baker Act
The Baker Act, also known as the Florida Mental Health Act, provides for emergency services and temporary
detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient treatment, if necessary.
See §394.455(18), F.S. (CO1-2.3.3)
Though correctional officers cannot diagnose psychological disorders under which the provisions of the Baker
Act may be invoked, officers may play a vital role in the initiation of treatment. Officers must not ignore an
inmate complaint or need for psychological assistance. The officer should identify a possible problem,
document the observed behavior or concern, and refer the individual for medical assistance and evaluation.
The officer must be professional and treat the inmate with dignity. Questionable behavior may be triggered
by conditions that may not be obvious and are often unknown. Inmates exhibiting unusual behavior should
be approached with caution. (CO1-2.3.4)

Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA)
The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA, P.L. 108-79) was enacted by Congress to address the
problem of sexual abuse of persons in the custody of U.S. federal, state or local correctional agencies.
There is a zero-tolerance standard for the incidence of rape in U.S. prisons. The purpose of PREA is to make
rape prevention and awareness in a correctional setting a top priority. It develops and implements national
standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape. PREA establishes policy
or procedures for increasing the accountability of officials who fail to detect, prevent, reduce, and punish
prison rape and protects the Eighth Amendment rights of federal, state, and local prisoners (CO1-2.3.5). The

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increase of available data and information on the incidence of prison rape as a result of
PREA improves the management and administration of correctional facilities.
Officers should treat all allegations of prison rape seriously and take appropriate action
when a complaint is made.

Privileged Communication
Although there is no expectation of privacy in a correctional facility, some relationships
are considered more valuable than the evidence that may result from certain
communications, such as between an inmate and an attorney. This communication may
be considered privileged communication.

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
Baker Act
Prison Rape Elimination Act
(PREA)
privileged communication

Inmates maintain the right to certain confidential or privileged communication. The
attorney-client privilege is applicable to the inmate due to the Sixth Amendment right
to counsel. Attorney-client phone conversations may not be recorded, visits do not have
to conform to normal visiting hours, and visits may be within the sight of the officer but
out of hearing.
Other types of communication generally considered privileged outside of a correctional
facility may have a diminished expectation of privacy and may be recorded for safety and
security concerns in a correctional setting. (CO1-2.3.6)

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UNIT 2 | LEGAL

LESSON 4 |

Legal Issues with Contraband

OBJECTIVES
CO1-2.4.1 Define contraband in a
correctional setting.
CO1-2.4.2 List common contraband
articles found in correctional
facilities.
CO1-2.4.3 Relate the Florida Model Jail
Standards to contraband in county
correctional facilities.
CO1-2.4.4 Define introduction of
contraband.
CO1-2.4.5 Explain the legal disposition
of confiscated contraband.

Contraband is defined as any unauthorized article or any authorized article in excessive
quantities or altered from its intended purpose (CO1-2.4.1). Contraband may include
anything, no matter how harmless it may appear. Contraband may be hidden in plain
sight. For example, bed sheets may become contraband. A bed sheet is an authorized
article that, in unauthorized quantities, becomes contraband. Additionally, a sheet ripped
into strips may become a weapon or tool to aid escape. Officers may encounter
contraband anywhere inside or outside a correctional facility. Even inmates in
confinement may possess contraband.
Items identified as contraband in correctional facilities by §944.47 and §951.22, F.S.,
include currency or coins, tobacco products, controlled substances, non-prescribed drugs
of any kind or nature, articles of food or clothing altered or in excessive quantity, firearms
or dangerous weapons, cell phones or portable communication devices, or any items
used to aid or affect an escape (CO1-2.4.2). The purpose of limiting items in a
correctional facility is to maintain internal order, security, and discipline.
Florida Statutes §951.22 provides authority to county facilities in accordance with the
Florida Model Jail Standards to establish policies and procedures relating to contraband.
The Standards provide for a facility’s Officer in Charge to establish a list of articles or
items which inmates may have in their possession. All other items in the possession of
an inmate shall be considered contraband. Information about acceptable items is
generally included in the inmate handbook. (CO1-2.4.3)
The introduction of contraband is a crime punishable by F.S. §944.47 that
designates the introduction, taking, or sending of articles defined as contraband into a
correctional facility as a felony offense. The attempted introduction of contraband is also
punishable under this statute. (CO1-2.4.4)
Officers should be aware that anyone may introduce contraband into a facility. This
may include attorneys, visitors, contractors, and even staff. Other law enforcement
agencies may also introduce contraband either intentionally or inadvertently into a
facility, for example during intake or while responding to the death of an inmate.
Confiscated contraband may be destroyed, converted, or reused pursuant to §932.704,
F.S., and §932.7055, F.S. Depending on agency policy or procedures, contraband may
be destroyed by flushing, incinerating, or compacting. Consumable items such as food,
drink, or any item that may be tampered with should be destroyed. Certain items may
be converted for inmate trust fund or charity as designated by the agency. Reusable
items will be only non-consumable items issued by the facility that may be returned to

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supply, for example linens, clothing, books, pens, or mail supplies. The disposition of
contraband must be documented. (CO1-2.4.5)
Contraband may also be designated as evidence and require holding for use in a
disciplinary hearing or criminal case.

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
contraband
introduction of contraband

UNIT 2 | LEGAL

LESSON 5 |

Criminal Acts

Categories and Classes of Offenses
A criminal act is a violation of the law. In Florida, a crime is designated as either a
felony or misdemeanor according to §775.08(4), F.S. (CO1-2.5.1). A felony is any
criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state by death or imprisonment in a
state facility for a period exceeding one year. A misdemeanor is any criminal offense
punishable under the laws of this state by a term of imprisonment for less than one year
in a county correctional facility. It is possible for an inmate to spend an extended term
of more than one year in a county facility if he or she receives consecutive sentences for
multiple charges.
All laws still apply in a correctional facility; therefore, inmates may still be charged with
a criminal offense. Officers have the responsibility to protect themselves, inmates, staff,
and visitors from harm and violations. Though the correctional officer does not
determine a criminal charge, he or she must be able to determine when a crime has been
committed, and distinguish a crime from a rule violation.
Some crimes committed in a correctional setting may include petty theft, dealing in
stolen property, assault, battery, sexual battery, battery on a facility employee, drugrelated crimes, criminal mischief, arson, possession of contraband, introduction of

OBJECTIVES

CO1-2.5.1 Define criminal act.

CO1-2.5.2 List common crimes
committed in a correctional setting.

CO1-2.5.3 List common crimes
committed by staff and visitors in a
correctional setting.

CO1-2.5.4 Identify elements of crimes.
CO1-2.5.5 Define instrumentalities of
a crime.
CO1-2.5.6 Define fruits of a crime.
CO1-2.5.7 Define evidence.

CO1-2.5.8 Describe major types of
evidence found in a correctional
setting.

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CO1-2.5.9 Define chain of custody.

CO1-2.5.10 State the components of
the chain of custody in a
correctional setting.

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

contraband into a correctional facility, escape, lewd and lascivious behavior, bribery,
security threat group (STG)-related crimes, gambling, vandalism, loan sharking, or
homicide. (CO1-2.5.2)
Examples of staff and visitor criminal acts may include introduction of contraband,
sexual misconduct, and bribery. (CO1-2.5.3)

Elements of Crimes
There are two basic elements of a crime: proof that a crime has been committed, and
proof the person being charged committed the crime. Generally, to prove that a crime
has been committed it must be shown that an act is specifically prohibited by a criminal
statute. It also must be shown that the person committing the act at the time did so
knowingly or intentionally. By purposely doing what the law declares to be a crime, the
person demonstrates criminal intent. (CO1-2.5.4)

Instrumentalities of a crime
Instrumentalities of a crime may be defined as anything used to commit a crime.
(CO1-2.5.5)
Instrumentalities may take varied forms: body fluids, a homemade weapon, cell phone,
threatening letter, or recorded phone call. Often these items may become evidence.

Fruits of a crime
The fruits of a crime comprises anything gained or obtained by committing a crime
(CO1-2.5.6). In a correctional setting this may often be money and canteen/commissary
items. It should be noted that the person gaining from the crime may not be the subject
or suspect committing the crime. For example, an inmate may steal to pay a debt to
another inmate. The fruits of a crime may also become evidence.

Evidence
Evidence is anything that proves or disproves a fact in a judicial case or disciplinary
hearing. (CO1-2.5.7)

Major types of evidence found in a correctional setting
Five types of evidence characteristically found in a correctional setting are direct,
circumstantial or indirect, physical, testimonial, and documentary.
• Direct evidence directly proves a fact without inference or assumption. For example
an officer observes a stabbing; or DNA samples connect a suspect to a crime.
• Circumstantial or indirect evidence is based on an inference not on personal
knowledge through observation and is presumed to be true. For example, the
inmate was searched prior to a visit and was searched again after an attorney visit,
and a cell phone was discovered. The officer did not overhear the meeting because
of the privileged communication exception; however, he or she can infer that the
attorney gave the inmate the cell phone.

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• Physical evidence refers to material objects such as weapons, drugs, or money.
• Testimonial evidence is verbal evidence solicited from a witness, victim,
or suspect.
• Documentary evidence is printed or written evidence such as a call out log,
written property receipt, letter, or recording. (CO1-2.5.8)

Chain of custody

Introduction to Corrections Ch 1
Section Vocabulary
chain of custody
criminal act
evidence

The chain of custody is documentation of every individual who handled evidence as
well as when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it (CO1-2.5.9). Chain of
custody documentation is also issued to prove that the evidence submitted in court or
at a disciplinary hearing is the same evidence that was collected at the crime scene.

felony

The responding officer must take steps to preserve the chain of custody to protect the
integrity of the evidence. Items must be documented even if what is collected does not
immediately appear to be relevant to the incident. Documentation can be in writing, by
video, photograph or audio. Documentation must be clear and complete for
understanding and testimony by another officer or individual. The components of the
chain of custody for documentation or preservation are:

misdemeanor

fruits of a crime
instrumentalities of a crime

• Who—parties involved (inmate, visitor, staff); all who touched the evidence from
the time the situation was identified
• What—all materials used and secured
• When—date and time the incident occurred and any time the evidence was
handled thereafter
• Where—location where the evidence was collected, transferred to, or stored
• Why—reason the evidence or material was handled
• How—proper methods for preservation; how evidence is collected is crucial to
verifying its integrity and thus its usability in trial or hearing (CO1-2.5.10)

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FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

UNIT 2 | LEGAL

LESSON 6 |

Use of Force

OBJECTIVES
CO1-2.6.1 Define reasonable force.
CO1-2.6.2 List questions an officer will
have to answer in any use of force
situation.
CO1-2.6.3 Identify factors used in the
objective reasonableness standard
for use of force.
CO1-2.6.4 State the officer’s duty in the
protection of self and others.
CO1-2.6.5 Identify F.S. §776.07 as the
authorization for the use of force to
prevent escape.
CO1-2.6.6 Explain when correctional
officers can use force.
CO1-2.6.7 Outline the liabilities and
penalties for excessive use of force.
CO1-2.6.8 Identify the liabilities and
penalties for failure to report use
of force.

Laws for Use of Force
Chapters 944 and 776, F.S., govern all use of force by a correctional officer. Additionally,
officers must refer to agency policy and procedures in use of force situations. To be
deemed justified, the use of force must be determined to be reasonable. Reasonable
force may be defined as the type and amount of force that the officer reasonably believes
to be necessary to overcome resistance (CO1-2.6.1). This is based on the totality of
circumstances and the perception at the time of the event as to what force is reasonably
required. Resistance may take two forms: resistance to a verbal command, and physical
resistance. An example of resisting a spoken command may be an inmate refusing to
leave a cell after being commanded by the officer. Physical resistance may take many
forms including spitting or striking.
In Graham v. Conner, 490 US 386 (1989), the U.S. Supreme Court held that all law
enforcement use of force cases are to be judged by an objective reasonableness standard
based upon the Fourth Amendment. The use of force is to be judged from the
perspective of what a reasonable officer would do under the same circumstances without
the benefit of hindsight. The Court clearly considered that officers are often required to
make split second, sometimes deadly decisions, in circumstances that are “tense,
uncertain, and rapidly evolving.” The Court concluded that the objective reasonableness
test is not a precise or clear rule but requires careful review of the facts and circumstances
of each case, including the severity of the crime, whether the suspect posed an immediate
threat to the safety of officers or others, and whether the suspect was actively resisting
arrest or attempting to evade arrest by flight.
The objective reasonableness test requires the officer to answer two questions about the
level of force used in any situation: was the action reasonable and necessary, and was the
amount of force applied reasonable and necessary? (CO1-2.6.2)
U.S. Supreme Court case Hudson v. McMillan 503 US 1 (1992) established that intent
determines reasonableness in use of force situations in correctional settings. The court
recognized that correctional officers have to maintain order and discipline within a
correctional setting; however, officers must be acting in a good faith manner, not for
punishment or revenge, to raise a legal defense. Officers acting in a sadistic or malicious
manner will negate the reasonableness standard. (CO1-2.6.3)

Officer’s duty to protect self and others
Correctional officers owe a duty of care to inmates, staff, visitors, and the general
public. Officers may be required to act in defense of others in situations where the
average citizen has no duty to intervene. Defense of self or others could include the

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FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

use of reasonably necessary physical force up to and including deadly force. Florida Statute §944.35
provides for the following:
An employee of the department is authorized to apply physical force upon an inmate only when and to the
extent that it reasonably appears necessary:
• To defend himself or herself or another against such other imminent use of unlawful force;
• To prevent a person from escaping from a state correctional institution when the officer reasonably
believes that person is lawfully detained in such institution;
• To prevent damage to property;
• To quell a disturbance;
• To overcome physical resistance to a lawful command; or
• To administer medical treatment only by or under the supervision of a physician or his or her designee…
(CO1-2.6.4)

Statutory authority for the use of force to
prevent escape
Florida law provides for correctional officers to use reasonable force including deadly force to prevent the
escape of inmates. Florida Statute §776.07(2), states that “A correctional officer or other law enforcement
officer is justified in the use of force, including deadly force, which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary
to prevent the escape from a penal institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully
detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense”
(CO1-2.6.5). This topic is also addressed in §944.35, F.S., for state correctional officers and §944.105(4),
F.S., for private correctional officers.
This may include escape from a correctional facility, work squad, hospital, and other areas of extended
supervision. The officer must have a reasonable belief that the inmate is escaping. Though the officer can use
deadly force by statutory authority, this does not allow him or her to disregard agency policy. (CO1-2.6.6)

Liabilities and penalties for excessive use of force
The amount of force used by a correctional officer must always be reasonable and justifiable. When an officer
is justified in using reasonable force, he or she will be protected from prosecution. However, if force used is
deemed to be excessive, the officer may face criminal, civil, and administrative penalties. Criminal, civil, and
civil rights charges may be brought at both the state and federal level depending on the violation. The nature
of injuries will determine the level of charge.
The liabilities and penalties that are attached to the officer and agency through the use of force include:
Liabilities

Penalties

criminal liabilities

as addressed by Florida Statute

civil liabilities

lawsuits against the individual and/or the agency

federal civil rights liabilities

both civil and criminal

administrative liabilities

sanctions imposed by the employing agency and CJSTC

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Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections
Section Vocabulary
reasonable force

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Excessive use of force may also result in negative community reaction and loss of
trust in the profession. (CO1-2.6.7)

Liabilities and penalties for failure to report
use of force
All use of force must be documented in a timely, clear manner, pursuant to agency policy
or procedure and statute. Florida Statute §944.35 imposes sanctions if an officer fails to
document a use of force. If an officer uses, witnesses, or has reason to believe force was
used, he or she must report the incident. A reportable incident may be as simple as a
hand placed on the arm of an inmate. Even if force is completely justifiable, failure to
document and report the incident may lead to officer discipline.
The officer may be held criminally liable, such as if an inmate dies due to failure to
report to medical, or civilly liable such as when an officer fails to perform a legal duty
by inaction. Any person who coerces or threatens another person to alter either
testimony or a written report where force was used commits a felony. In addition, an
officer may suffer administrative sanctions such as those handed down by his agency or
the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission. (CO1-2.6.8)

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Introduction to Corrections Ch 1

UNIT 2 | LEGAL

LESSON 7 |

Criminal and Civil Liability

Liability, Torts and Negligence
Correctional officers may be liable for damages or injuries if they improperly perform
a job task or do not perform a job task that an officer reasonably should perform. The
most recognized forms of liability are criminal and civil. Officers may also be subject to
civil or criminal liability and prosecution for civil rights violations.

Criminal liability occurs when an officer is found guilty of committing a crime
(CO1-2.7.1). Civil liability is responsibility for a wrongful act or the failure to do an
act that an officer has a duty to perform that injures another person or property and most
often involves negligence (CO1-2.7.2). A civil wrong in which the action or inaction of
an officer or entity violates the rights of another person is called a tort. (CO1-2.7.3)

Torts may be intentional, such as battery or wrongful death, or unintentional, such as
negligence. Negligence is failure to use due or reasonable care, in a situation where an
officer has a duty to act, that results in harm to another (CO1-2.7.4). For example, an
officer is taking a personal phone call while supervising a meal. He or she doesn’t see a
fight break out resulting in injury to an inmate. Since the officer breached his or her duty
to act with reasonable care, he or she and his or her agency could be held liable for
damages caused by the incident. Additionally, if the officer knew or should have known
that an act or failure to act could cause serious bodily injury or death, the officer may
be charged with a crime due to “gross” negligence.
To convict a defendant of a crime, the state must prove in criminal court that he or she
committed all elements of a particular offense. In a civil action, the plaintiff/victim must
prove a different set of elements to find the defendant/offender negligent. The elements
of negligence are (1) a duty to act with care, (2) breach of that duty, (3) proof that the
breach of duty caused damages and (4) actual damages. (CO1-2.7.5)
An officer has a duty to provide care, custody and control of inmates while on the job
to the best of his or her ability. Likewise, providing such care should be based on his or
her training, education and experience.
Two main categories of damages that may be awarded in a civil suit are compensatory
and punitive. Compensatory damages arise when a victim is physically injured or suffers
a property loss. He or she should be paid for the actual loss (e.g., lost wages, medical
expenses, property damage, attorney’s fees, pain and suffering or mental anguish).
Punitive damages may be awarded in addition to compensation to punish a defendant
who acted with recklessness, malice or deceit and to discourage others from committing
the same act. (CO1-2.7.6)

OBJECTIVES

CO1-2.7.1 Define criminal liability.
CO1-2.7.2 Define civil liability.
CO1-2.7.3 Define tort.

CO1-2.7.4 Define negligence.

CO1-2.7.5 List the elements of
negligence.

CO1-2.7.6 Specify the two main
categories of damages.

CO1-2.7.7 Define civil rights violation.
CO1-2.7.8 Define color of law.

CO1-2.7.9 Explain civil liability under
federal laws.

CO1-2.7.10 Identify the impact on an
officer who is found civilly or
criminally liable.

CO1-2.7.11 Explain that agencies may
be liable for the acts of a
correctional officer.

CO1-2.7.12 Identify the legal protections
available if an officer is faced with
potential civil or criminal liability.

CO1-2.7.13 Define acting within the
scope of employment.

CO1-2.7.14 Identify the effect of the
Sovereign Immunity Law, Section
768.28, Florida Statutes, in state
civil actions.

CO1-2.7.15 Explain the concept of
qualified immunity.

CO1-2.7.16 Identify legal defenses that
protect an officer from civil and
criminal liability.

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FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Civil Rights Violations
A civil rights violation is an unlawful interference with the fundamental rights of another person, such as
the right to due process and equal protection under the law (CO1-2.7.7). An example of a possible civil rights
violation may be an officer placing an inmate in confinement repeatedly because medical will not care for the
inmate. This may be seen as cruel and unusual punishment, and such an act intentionally deprives the person
of a constitutional or other civil right.
Federal law, 18 U.S.C. §242, prohibits an officer acting under color of law from violating an inmate’s civil
rights. When an officer acts or purports to act in the performance of official duties under any law, ordinance,
or regulation, he or she is acting under color of law (CO1-2.7.8). An officer’s use of force is often the basis for
civil rights liability. For example, an inmate’s death due to a beating by an officer can result in civil rights
violations and a federal criminal investigation under this law.
In addition to criminal prosecution, an officer who violates an individual’s civil rights may be sued in federal
court under 42 U.S.C. §1983. Before imposing liability, both sections require proof that the officer acted
under the authority of the employing agency and intentionally violated the inmate’s civil rights. Therefore,
negligence does not give rise to a 42 U.S.C. §1983 action under federal law, because the intent of the officer’s
actions is key to liability. (CO1-2.7.9)
The consequences of the officer being found criminally or civilly liable for actions taken can range from minor
to catastrophic. The impact on an officer may include administrative discipline, suspension from work, and
loss of certification and employment due to a criminal conviction, incarceration, and financial ruin from
paying large sums in damages. (CO1-2.7.10)
An employing agency can be held liable for the wrongful acts of an employee. If the plaintiff proves at trial
that the officer committed a tort or violated civil rights as part of his or her duties, the employing agency
is likely to be liable for damages through direct or vicarious liability. An employing agency’s negligent hiring,
assignment, training or retention of a problem employee may raise direct liability. In addition, under the
theory of vicarious liability, an agency might be found liable even if it is not directly responsible for the
injury. For example, an agency may be required to pay damages if an officer is found guilty of sexual
harassment. (CO1-2.7.11)

Immunities
There are federal and state laws that protect officers acting within the scope of their employment against civil
and criminal liability. These provide for qualified immunity from prosecution including Chapter 111, F.S.,
(acting within the scope of employment), sovereign immunity, and qualified immunity, and defenses such as
acting in good faith, acts done in a reasonable manner, acts justified under the law, and the emergency doctrine.
(CO1-2.7.12)
Chapter 111, F.S., protects officers charged with civil and criminal actions, provided those actions occurred
within the scope and course of the officer’s employment. Acting within the scope of employment refers
to the range of reasonable and foreseeable activities that an officer does while carrying out the agency’s business
(CO1-2.7.13). If an officer acts outside the scope of employment, the officer may be held individually liable.
An officer that intentionally violates agency policy and procedure may be deemed to be acting outside the scope

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Introduction to Corrections Ch 1

of employment. But, if it is shown that the officer was acting within the scope of employment, the officer will
not be held financially responsible.

Sovereign Immunity
The sovereign immunity law, §768.28, F.S., provides one of the most important protections for state and
county (governmental) correctional agencies and their employees. It includes a list of circumstances and
requirements that must be met before the agency or any of its employees can be sued in a state tort action. It
also protects individual officers and agency employees from personal liability and from being named as a
defendant in a state civil lawsuit. This means that unless an officer or employee acts or fails to act with willful
or wanton disregard of someone’s rights or property, the officer or employee must be dismissed from a state
civil tort action. (CO1-2.7.14)

Qualified Immunity
Qualified immunity protects the officer from personal liability. Agencies may pay for compensatory damages up
to a certain amount. The defense of qualified immunity protects “government officials…from liability for
civil damages insofar as their conduct does not violate clearly established statutory or constitutional rights of
which a reasonable person would have known.” See Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 US 800, 818 (1982). (CO1-2.7.15)

Legal Defenses
There are a number of established defenses available for an officer to defend against civil or criminal liability.

Acts Done in Good Faith
To act in good faith, officers must be faithful to their duty and honestly intend to avoid taking undue advantage
of others. Acts done in good faith are without malice, ill will, or the intent to unjustly harm anyone.
If the officer is performing his or her duties correctly the officer is acting in good faith; for example, accidentally
giving the wrong snack bag to the wrong Inmate Doe: The officer followed agency policy and performed the
appropriate distribution; however, the bag was assigned in such a way as to be confusing.

Acts Done in a Reasonable Manner
Officers must act in a reasonable manner when responding to any incident. Reasonableness involves acting
professionally within the law and agency policies and procedures. It can range from the performance of first
aid to knowing what level of force is needed in a given situation. Reasonableness is judged objectively (for
example, would a reasonable officer in the same situation have acted the same way).

Acts Justified Under the Law
Some seemingly offensive officer actions can be justified under the law. This occurs in situations in which case
law or statutory law provides a defense for an officer’s actions. For example, Chapter 776, F.S., provides that
an officer may use deadly force in self-defense or defense of another from a threat of death or serious physical
injury and to prevent escape; Chapter 870, F.S., provides for the use of force in riots.

Emergency Doctrine
When sudden peril requires spontaneous action, an officer is not required to use the same degree of care as
when there is time to reflect. This is known as the emergency doctrine. An incident requiring an immediate

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Ch 1 Introduction to Corrections
Section Vocabulary
acting within the scope of employment
civil liability
civil rights violation
criminal liability
negligence
qualified immunity
sovereign immunity
tort

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FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

life or death decision resulting in the violation of agency policy in order to protect others
from harm or death falls under this doctrine; for example, a facility fire.

Limiting Liability
Correctional agencies enact policies and procedures to help guide officers in performing
their duties. These policies are carefully developed to ensure they comply with legal and
ethical guidelines. Agency policies and procedures are developed and published for the
officer’s benefit. By following such policies, officers may avoid liability for acts
committed while on duty.
Attending required and optional training lets officers stay current on the law and up to
date practices. Awareness of changes in legal and practice guidelines also helps officers
avoid liability. (CO1-2.7.16)

CHAPTER 2
Communications
UNIT 1: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
LESSON 1: Interpersonal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

UNIT 2: TELECOMMUNICATIONS
LESSON 1: Procedures and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

UNIT 3: INTERVIEWING
LESSON 1: Preparing for and Conducting an Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

UNIT 4: REPORT WRITING
LESSON 1: Note Taking and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
LESSON 2: Organizing Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
LESSON 3: Elements of Effective Report Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
LESSON 4: Writing and Evaluating the Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

Correctional officers use various forms of communication when managing inmates and interacting with
others as part of their duties. Communication in a correctional setting includes verbal and nonverbal
expression, written documentation, and radio, telephone, and computer usage. Unclear expressions and
communication barriers can lead to miscommunication; this can create potential problems, especially when
interacting with the diverse populations of a correctional facility.
This chapter provides practical communication skills that will assist new correctional officers in managing and
supervising inmates, giving directions, answering questions, and interacting with others in a professional and
safe manner. The chapter covers interpersonal communication, telecommunications, interviewing, note
taking, and report writing.

Ch 2 Communications

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

UNIT 1 | INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

LESSON 1 |

Interpersonal Communication

OBJECTIVES

CO2-1.1.2 List elements of effective
communication.

An important facet of a correctional officer’s job is to communicate with and manage a
diverse inmate population. To achieve this, correctional officers use a variety of skills that
include interpersonal verbal and nonverbal communication, situational awareness, verbal
command, command presence, and courtesy. These skills not only demonstrate
professionalism but also help create effective interpersonal relationships and reduce
tension. For example, if an inmate is acting out, communicating properly with the
inmate could de-escalate the situation.

CO2-1.1.4 Illustrate nonverbal
communication.

The primary function of communication is to facilitate the interaction between persons
to initiate some form of action. Interpersonal communication involves the exchange
of ideas, messages or information between two or more people through speaking, writing
or behavior to affect some kind of action. (CO2-1.1.1)

CO2-1.1.6 List the barriers to effective
communication.

Communication should express thoughts precisely and accurately, and elicit a response
or change in behavior from the person or persons being addressed. Mastering the basic
skills of effective communication is a necessity for navigating the daily activities of the
profession. An officer must plan his or her interactions by following these basic elements
of communication:

CO2-1.1.1 Describe interpersonal
communication.
CO2-1.1.3. Describe nonverbal
communication.

CO2-1.1.5 List examples of nonverbal
cues.

CO2-1.1.7 Explain how positioning and
posture are used in communication.
CO2-1.1.8 Describe how effective
listening is used in communication.

CO2-1.1.9 Identify elements of effective
listening.
CO2-1.1.10 Define verbal command
in relation to communication.

CO2-1.1.11 Provide examples of
verbal command in relation to
communication.

CO2-1.1.12 Define command presence
in relation to communication.

CO2-1.1.13 Provide an example of
command presence in relation to
communication.

CO2-1.1.14 Define courtesy.

28

• constructing the message
• conveying the message via verbal, nonverbal, telecommunication, or written
format to the person or group to whom it is intended
• allowing time for the person or group to receive and understand the message
• gauging whether one has received an appropriate response or change in behavior
from the person or group to whom the message was addressed (CO2-1.1.2)
As correctional officers gain experience and consistently practice effective interpersonal
communication, they should continually improve their verbal and nonverbal skills.

Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is a very important form of communication. When officers
interact with inmates, visitors, and staff, they give and receive countless nonverbal
signals. These behaviors may include gestures, facial expressions, and methods of eye
contact, as well as postures, whether seated or standing, that send strong messages. An
officer may observe that an inmate’s verbal expressions are inconsistent with his or her
facial expression, posture or other nonverbal cues. These behaviors are extremely
important for correctional officers to be aware of during face-to-face interactions.
(CO2-1.1.3)

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Communications Ch 2

For example, the following inmate’s verbal and nonverbal responses illustrate inconsistencies:
An inmate’s verbal response to an officer: “I don’t have a problem!”
The inmate’s nonverbal behavior to the officer: Avoids eye contact, looks anxious, and paces up and
down with clenched fists.
In the above example, the inmate’s nonverbal behavior speaks volumes about the inmate’s anger while his or
her verbal message is completely opposite. (CO2-1.1.4)
Nonverbal communication should reinforce or complement verbal communication. Recognizing these
differences will enhance the officer’s awareness and safety. Interpreting an inmate’s nonverbal behavior keeps
an officer alert to signs of stress, deception or aggression. The officer should be mentally and physically prepared
to take immediate action should a threatening physical situation occur.

Nonverbal Cues
A nonverbal cue is the use of posture, facial expressions, and body movements to communicate as opposed to
speaking or writing. Nonverbal cues will help an officer analyze an inmate’s responses. People interpret
nonverbal cues in different ways. Some examples of nonverbal cues include the following:
• Sweating, rapid breathing, fidgeting, blinking, or rocking back and forth may indicate nervousness.
• Clenched fists, pacing briskly, clenched teeth, or a clear reluctance to communicate may indicate anger,
rage or irritation.
• Arms down by the side or comfortably placed in the lap may indicate friendliness or being at ease.
• Frowning may indicate displeasure, uneasiness, or confusion.
• Smiling may indicate pleasure or a failure to understand.
• Lack of obvious emotion may indicate shock, fear, poor understanding, not being focused, or not
hearing. (CO2-1.1.5)
Each situation must be addressed individually, and various cultural and social considerations must be taken
into account before interpreting nonverbal cues. Nonverbal gestures may have different cultural or social
meanings to different persons or groups. Some examples of this could include lack of eye contact, shaking
hands, bowing, hand gestures, and distancing (personal space). By understanding diverse populations,
correctional officers will be able to communicate with others more effectively.

Barriers to Effective Communication
Communication between an officer and inmates or others is effective and successful when actual and potential
barriers are recognized and addressed. The following barriers may result in miscommunication between the
sender and receiver of a message:
• use of profane, derogatory, or disrespectful language
• stereotyping
• use of derogatory hand gestures or body movements
• stress and fatigue on the part of either party
• inability to communicate in the same language

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• lack of cultural understanding
• environmental distractions such as background noise (CO2-1.1.6)

Positioning and Posture
Proper positioning allows an officer to communicate with inmates and visitors effectively while paying attention
to their verbal and nonverbal cues. The officer should communicate strength, confidence and interest through
body language and demeanor when interacting with others, a technique sometimes called posture
(CO2-1.1.7). Body position and posture will be discussed in greater detail in the next chapter.

Effective Listening
Officers should never allow personal judgment or bias to obscure their listening abilities. Effective listening
requires giving full attention to what is being said and taking time to understand the message without
interrupting. Good listening skills require a great deal of practice and are essential for effective communication.
(CO2-1.1.8)
The elements of effective listening include the following:
• maintaining eye contact, facing the speaker, and leaning slightly forward to confirm attentiveness
through body language
• keeping an open mind and avoiding bias in order to hear all the facts
• identifying key words that should alert the officer, such as “kill,” “suicide,” “getting out,” “hang”
• identifying the intensity of speech in terms of voice volume, emotion, pitch, and tone
• paraphrasing back what someone has said to reassure him or her of the message’s clarity
• asking questions for clarification or more information (CO2-1.1.9)
A verbal command is an authoritative statement used to direct, influence, or give orders to a person or
group (CO2-1.1.10). Correctional officers should learn to use direct verbal commands to communicate to
inmates in order to achieve the desired actions or behavior.
Examples of verbal commands include the following:
“Mop the floor.”
“Move back to your bunks.”
“Clean your cell before breakfast.” (CO2-1.1.11)

Command Presence
Command presence is the way an officer projects an image of authority and confidence and lets inmates
know that he or she is in charge and in control (CO2-1.1.12). Characteristics of officer command presence
include personal appearance (uniform, personal grooming, and upright posture), poise, confidence, and a
professional demeanor.
For example:
Inmates Jones and Baldwin are having a verbal dispute in the C-dorm.
An officer walks in and looks sternly at the two inmates without saying a word. After seeing the officer,
both of the inmates immediately stop arguing and separate. (CO2-1.1.13)

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Command presence is a valuable nonverbal tool for correctional officers and developing
it is crucial for success.

Courtesy
Always treat inmates as you would any other human being. Just because inmates are
confined does not mean they should be treated with disrespect.

Courtesy is the act of being respectful when interacting with others and treating them
in a dignified manner, regardless of their status, race, gender, appearance, or behavior
(CO2-1.1.14). Maintaining a professional and courteous demeanor may help an officer
defuse tension and respond appropriately.

Section Vocabulary
command presence
courtesy
effective listening
interpersonal communication
verbal command

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UNIT 2 | TELECOMMUNICATIONS

LESSON 1 |

Procedures and Equipment

OBJECTIVES

CO2-2.1.1 Identify general telephone
procedures.

CO2-2.1.2 Identify general radio
procedures.

CO2-2.1.3 Identify the primary
components of a portable radio.

CO2-2.1.4 Describe the purpose of a
radio base station.

Telephone Procedures
Correctional officers use the telephone as a way to communicate with other staff
members, supervisory personnel, and the public. Telephones give officers a way to hold
relatively secure conversations.
Generally, when using the telephone, officers should greet the caller, identify themselves
and their location, and use a non-threatening tone. (CO2-2.1.1)
Examples include the following:
Receiving a telephone call: “Good morning, Officer Bales, C-Dorm, may I
help you?”
Making a telephone call: “This is Officer Adams, A-Dorm, may I speak to
Lieutenant Smith?”

Radio Procedures
Officers use radios to send and receive vital information. Some examples of radio use
include calling for assistance, general communication, identifying inmates and visitors,
or notifying staff of an emergency situation.
Proper knowledge and use of the radio is essential for a correctional officer. Upon
being issued a radio, it is the responsibility of the officer to ensure that it is operational.
When officers experience radio transmission difficulties, they should immediately use
a landline telephone to report the malfunction. Officers should know their agency’s
operating procedures, general orders, or policy on what to do if an assigned radio
malfunctions.
The portable radio is the primary method of communication for correctional officers.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) prohibits all persons using radios,
including correctional officers and base station personnel, from committing the
following acts:
• transmitting non-essential or excessive signals, messages, or communication
• using profane, indecent, or obscene language
• willfully damaging or permitting damage to radio apparatuses
• maliciously interfering with another unit’s radio transmission
• making unidentified transmissions
• transmitting before the air is clear
• transmitting a call signal, letter, or numeral not assigned to the agency or unit

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• adjusting, repairing, or altering a radio transmitter (except by agency-authorized radio technicians)
• using radio communications systems for illegal or personal business
When using the portable radio system the officer should plan his or her message before transmission. The
more a message is planned, the more coherent and professional the communication. Adjust the volume level
based on the situation and surroundings.
In stressful situations, an officer’s voice may crack or become distorted or high-pitched, thus making the radio
message difficult to understand. Officers must be proficient on the radio, speaking slowly and distinctly, using
an evenly modulated tone of voice, and avoiding the display of emotions.
Before transmitting, listen to make sure there is no other radio traffic. Depress and hold the transmit button
for approximately one second before speaking. Make sure your mouth is one to three inches in front of the
microphone, and speak directly into it. (CO2-2.1.2)

Types of Radio Equipment in Corrections
Radio communications in corrections generally rely on three types of radios:
• The handheld or portable radio which is carried by the officer.
• The radio base station, normally located in the control room.
• The mobile radio affixed in vehicles used for transporting inmates.

Primary Components of a Portable Radio
There are many brands, models, and types of radios for correctional officers’ use. The basic
corrections radio is generally fitted with switches or buttons to control power, volume,
squelch, and channel selection. Squelch is a circuit that suppresses the output of a radio
receiver if the signal strength falls below a certain level.
The portable radio unit may have an extended or built-in microphone. Agencies will train
officers on the specific components and usage of a portable radio.
The primary components of a portable radio include the following:
• transceiver—receives and transmits messages
• antenna—helps in sending or receiving clear electromagnetic waves
• battery—powers the radio

Components of a
portable radio

Figure 2-1

• microphone—spoken into by the sender
• speaker—used to hear feedback transmission
• push-to-talk button—allows the sender to transmit the message (CO2-2.1.3)

Radio Codes
Correctional signals and codes save airtime and convey precise meanings. Some agencies use the following
types of radio codes:

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Signals—a system of communication using numbers that are preceded by the
word “signal”
Phonetic-alpha codes—a system of verbal communication using the letters of the
English alphabet only
Ten or numeric codes—a system of communication by which “10” precedes numbers
that represent specific activities
Numeric-alpha codes—a system of communication that combines numbers and letters
of the alphabet or the combination of some or all of the above to transmit messages
Others agencies prefer plain English transmission. Plain English transmission is
especially ideal during emergency situations due to inter-agency involvement and
coordination. Officers should refer to their agency policy concerning appropriate radio
language and adequate training.

Radio Base Station
Even though radio base stations are not found in all correctional facilities,
they are typically associated with correctional control room operations or
the command center in case of an emergency. The base station is used to
receive and send messages to officers. It also has the ability to override
the portable radio system in an emergency and monitors radio frequencies
for all operational units. The radio base station operator, while receiving
and sending messages, will continue to coordinate up-to-the-minute
status of all units. (CO2-2.1.4)

A radio base station

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Figure 2-2

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Communications Ch 2

UNIT 3 | INTERVIEWING

LESSON 1 |

Preparing for and Conducting an Interview

Define Interview
An interview is a conversation between a correctional officer and an interviewee
(inmate, visitor) with the goal of obtaining factual information (CO2-3.1.1). An
interview can take the form of informal questioning, as opposed to an investigation.
After collecting such information there may not be any action required of the officer.
If, however, it is determined in an interview that a crime has occurred, the officer must
follow agency policy and procedures.

Purpose of Interviewing
Correctional officers should possess effective interviewing skills. These skills are used
routinely in the officer’s daily formal and informal interactions with others. An interview
may be used for conducting investigations, obtaining facts for incident reports,
documenting routine activities, disciplinary actions, and use of force occurrences.
(CO2-3.1.2)

Factors that Influence the Success
of an Interview

OBJECTIVES

CO2-3.1.1 Define interview.

CO2-3.1.2 Identify the purposes of an
interview.
CO2-3.1.3 Describe factors that
influence the success of an
interview.
CO2-3.1.4 Demonstrate basic
questioning techniques.

CO2-3.1.5 Define statement.

CO2-3.1.6 Outline steps for obtaining a
written statement from an
interviewee.
CO2-3.1.7 Describe common signs of
deception during questioning.

An officer responding to an incident should conduct questioning as soon as possible
after securing the well-being of others and his or her own safety. The daily operations
of a correctional facility can affect or determine when questioning can happen. Always
follow agency policy and procedures when questioning persons after an incident.
(CO2-3.1.3)

Obtaining Information
The location of the interview may be critical in obtaining the necessary information.
Remove the interviewee from the scene of incident before conducting an interview. All
parties involved in the incident should be kept separate to discourage discussion or
rehearsal of their stories and avoid potential intimidation.
The officer should ask non-threatening questions. If the interviewee feels threatened, he
or she may be less likely to provide the necessary relevant information. The officer must
also take care that the interviewee understands what is being asked. Additionally, an
officer must be alert, safety conscious, and careful to strictly abide by agency policies and
procedures at all times.

Effective Questioning
In an interview, the officer should take care to elicit as much information as possible
about the event.

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Questioning is used to obtain the facts of the event in the interviewee’s own words. Types of questions to ask
during an interview may include the following:
Open-ended questions—encourage conversation and require the interviewee to think, reflect, and provide
his or her opinion and feelings. The interviewee is likely to answer these types of questions with more detail.
Never suggest a conclusion or supply information to fill gaps.
Example: “What happened next?”
Closed-ended questions—are asked with a specific yes or no answer in mind.
Example: “Have you read your rules and regulations?” Answer: “Yes” or “No”
Leading questions—are framed in such a way as to evoke a specific response from the individual being
questioned. The questioner uses language that suggests a particular answer.
Example: “You removed the packet of candy from the canteen, did you not?”
Direct questions—are a combination of closed-ended and leading questions.
Example: “Did you take the inmate’s shoes?”
Forced choice questions—are asked to obtain a precise answer to an important fit or preference question
by defining the range in which answers can be given. This format requires the questioner to rank a series of
possible responses, often in order of desirability, to provide the interviewee with specific insight into his or
her expectations.
Example: “How many inmates were present when you hit inmate Jones on the head:
0–3 inmates; 4–6 inmates; 7–9 inmates; or 10+ inmates?”
Using multiple questioning techniques in an interview helps the officer obtain additional information.
Officers should project professionalism, understanding, and genuine concern when asking questions. Avoid
judging the interviewee’s words, actions, or responses, and do not express doubt, anger, shock, disgust, or
skepticism. (CO2-3.1.4)
At the end of the interview, the officer should evaluate the information obtained for completeness. Ask the
interviewee if he or she has anything more to say about the event. If the who, what, where, when, why, and
how have been answered, then the interview has most likely been successful.

Obtaining a Statement from the Interviewee
A statement is a permanent record of a person’s account of an incident or occurrence, which may or may not
be made under oath. Statements may be obtained as part of questioning for criminal or certain non-criminal
incidents. (CO2-3.1.5)
An officer may obtain a statement by having the interviewee write his or her account of the event. A written
statement should be in the interviewee’s own words and not dictated by the interviewer. If an interpreter is used
he or she should state exactly what is said. The interviewee should be instructed to provide as much detail as
possible in his or her statement. Review the statement to ensure it relates to the event. (CO2-3.1.6)

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Signs of Deception During Questioning
During questioning, the officer must be alert to common signs of deception. How the
interviewee acts or reacts to a question may suggest deception. Verbal and nonverbal
cues are essential in detecting deception when used in conjunction with various
interviewing techniques.

Communications Ch 2
Section Vocabulary
interview
statement

Physiological signs of deception may include increased perspiration, flushed or pale
skin, dry mouth, and an increased pulse rate or observable change in breathing rate.
Behavioral signs of deception may include nervous movements, voice inflections,
avoidance of eye contact, rehearsed answers, inconsistent responses, over-eagerness to
help, and repeated insistence that simple questions are not understood. (CO2-3.1.7)

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UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING

LESSON 1 |

Note Taking and Reports

OBJECTIVES
CO2-4.1.1 Identify the basic steps in
writing a report.

Report writing of all types, such as filling out forms and writing report narratives,
comprises a large share of the daily duties of a correctional officer. It is imperative that
officers become skilled in writing reports since they reflect the level of competency,
proficiency, and professionalism of the agency.

CO2-4.1.2 Define note taking.

Steps in Writing a Report

CO2-4.1.3 Identify the purpose of
note taking.

There are five basic steps to follow when writing a corrections report: gathering,
recording and organizing facts, writing, and evaluating the report. (CO2-4.1.1)

CO2-4.1.4 Identify types of information
to record in notes.

Note Taking

CO2-4.1.5 Define report.
CO2-4.1.6 List uses of reports.
CO2-4.1.7 Identify readers of reports.
CO2-4.1.8 Describe common forms for
documentation.
CO2-4.1.9 Document specific rule,
activity, or law violation committed
when writing a report.

Note taking consists of marking down brief observations and quotes from the interview
(CO2-4.1.2). It is a way to ensure that pertinent information is recorded, as it is difficult
to rely on memory alone to remember all the details of an incident or event. Note taking
is used to provide detailed documentation for writing a report, information for further
investigation, and, in some cases, as evidence in court. (CO2-4.1.3)
The following list of important rules will help ensure that the officer takes the best notes
he or she can:
• Use a notebook (not loose pieces of paper) to record notes.
• Write legibly and in ink.

CO2-4.1.10 Describe types of
information to include in a report.

• Identify notes (by date).

CO2-4.1.11 List types of activities that
may need to be documented.

• Check spelling and numbers (inmate name, cell or bunk number).

• Record all relevant facts as soon as possible.
• Use only common abbreviations.

Types of Information to Record in a Note
Types of information that should be recorded in an officer’s notes include the following:
• Who: Names of victims, witnesses, suspects, etc.
• When: Date and time incident occurred or timeline of events
• Where: Location of incident
• What: Details of incident such as illnesses, injuries, and behavioral descriptions
of persons involved
• Why: Reasons or causes of the incident
• How: Means by which the incident occurred
• Action taken: Steps taken to resolve the incident, such as disposition,
confinement, medical treatment, verbal reprimand, etc. (CO2-4.1.4)

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Report
A report is a permanent written account that communicates all available facts of an incident or event in a
correctional setting (CO2-4.1.5). Reports document information about inmates’ behaviors, incidents or
situations. A well-written, clear and concise report not only reflects competency and professionalism in an
officer but also may reduce legal liability against the officer and his or her agency.
Once a report is written, submitted, and approved, it becomes a permanent public record. Reports may be
referred to many years later. The details in a report may prove critical to the success or failure of a lawsuit
against an officer and his or her agency.
In the event of an incident, the officer at the scene prepares the report. Certain incidents, such as use of force,
may require the completion of additional documentation. Be familiar with and follow agency policies and
procedures regarding the different types of forms to use for various reports, as well as required content, review,
and storage of reports.

Uses of Reports
Reports are used for a variety of reasons, including:
• recording facts of an incident, event, activity, or corrective action
• informing authorized individuals, staff, management, or other criminal justice agencies or entities of
incidents, events, or actions
• documenting compliance with, and accountability for, standards, policies, and procedures
• documenting the disciplinary process, investigation, or legal action
• preparing court cases
• evaluating correctional officers’ job performance
• changing a policy or procedure
• improving on-the-job safety and security
• researching and compiling statistical data
• serving as a source of reference material (CO2-4.1.6)

Readers of Reports
Reports are public records and can be read not only by persons in the facility but also by those outside of the
corrections environment.
The following people may read or review a report written by correctional officers:
• Supervisors and administrators—in order to understand the details and review an incident
• Correctional officers and other criminal justice employees—for investigative leads regarding an
incident, updates, and general knowledge
• Attorneys—for evidence and dispositions
• Judges—for evidentiary value and court rulings
• Media professionals—for facts, leads, and credible information dissemination

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• Citizens—for general information and precautionary measures
• Victims or their families—for verifying that information given to the officer is correctly documented
• Suspects or defendants—for making sure that the facts of the case as presented are what actually
happened
• Counselors/treatment professionals—for facts about patients
• Governors, legislators, and parole commissions—for executive clemency, law making, victim
restitution, or probation and parole hearings
• City, county, or state officials—for intelligence gathering, investigative probes, and reviews (CO2-4.1.7.)

Common Forms Used for Documentation
Each agency creates its own personalized logs, forms, and computer entry format to document its various
administrative and operational responsibilities. Laws and administrative rules dictate the use of some of these
logs and forms but not necessarily their design or information content. Some of the commonly used logs and
forms in a correctional facility include the following:
Incident Report—used in many correctional facilities to report in detail all incidents involving inmates.
Corrective Consultation (CC) Form—used for minor disciplinary infractions and details counseling and
corrective actions taken.
Disciplinary Report (DR)—provides a detailed account of the facts surrounding an inmate’s rule violation.
This report sets in motion a series of events that ensure the inmate due process of reprimand.
Use of Force Report—is completed any time force is used and is attached to an Incident or Disciplinary Report.
Counts Form—used to record inmate counts as required by Florida State Statutes.
Special Watch Form—used to record activities of inmates under any type of special watch, such as suicide
watch, 15-minute watch, and direct observation.
Equipment Check Form—used to record disposition of all equipment at each post. (CO2-4.1.8)

Information in Reports
Information included in a report depends upon the type of report being prepared. Officers will be trained in
the use of their facility’s specific forms. The following information should generally be included in a typical
narrative report:

Who:
• was involved (name, title and/or identification of persons/inmates)
• are the victims, witnesses, suspects
• reported it
• is the reporting officer

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What:
• happened; reported in chronological order
• activity, rule violations or crimes, if any, were committed (CO2-4.1.9)
• action was taken
• items were lost, damaged, recovered, stolen
• weapons or tools were used or recovered
• evidence was collected

Where:
• did the incident occur; note the exact physical location
• were all involved persons and officers at the time of incident

When:
• did the incident occur; use date and time (or approximate time)
• did the officer arrive at the scene of the incident

How:
• did the incident start
• did the incident progress
• was the incident reported

Why:
• did the incident happen (verify reasons or motives of incident, submitted statements of fact)

Action taken may include the following:
• administration of first aid to the sick or injured
• arrangement of transportation for the sick or injured to clinic, health center, or hospital
• notification to supervisor or designated person of the incident, activity, or occurrence
• method of collection and disposition of evidence
• housing decision regarding inmates involved pending hearing
• escort or transportation of inmates involved
• other follow-up activities (CO2-4.1.10)

Activities that May Need to be Documented
At the start of each shift, agencies require correctional officers to start a log, which is a chronological timeline
of activities performed during that shift. Specific activities, events or occurrences may require particular forms
of documentation. Some activities that an officer may need to document include the following:

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• identifying inmates, staff, and visitors
• searches (person—inmate, staff, visitor; cell, vehicle, and area)
• inmate counts (work groups and their locations)
• inmate movement
• all safety and security checks and breaches
• all crimes committed and disciplinary actions taken
• inmate visitation
• inmate counseling
• confiscation and disposal of contraband
• inventory of equipment and supplies issued to, and received from, inmates
• inventory of officer’s equipment (flashlights, fire extinguishers, etc.)
• all investigations
• all emergencies, incidents, and unusual occurrences (CO2-4.1.11)

Use of Computers in Writing Reports
The use of computers is fast becoming an integral part of corrections. Using a computer
to write reports allows officers to complete their reports in less time. Officers should
therefore be familiar with basic computer skills and apply agency policies and procedures
regarding the use of computers when writing reports.

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Communications Ch 2

UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING

LESSON 2 |

Organizing Facts

Incidents in a correctional facility are primarily documented in a narrative format.
The officer collects information from victims, witnesses, possible suspects, and other
sources. Relevant facts must be organized in order to ensure a report reflects the
recorded incident accurately.

Organize Facts for a Report
An important step in writing a report is organizing all the information that has been
collected about an incident. The officer may have interviewed several people and collected
many facts. It is now time to arrange information in an orderly manner to produce an
accurate and detailed report. Generally, there are two ways to organize facts for report
writing that work in conjunction with each other: by category and chronologically.

OBJECTIVES

CO2-4.2.1 Sort information by category.

CO2-4.2.2 Arrange information in
chronological order.

CO2-4.2.3 Organize facts for a report.

CO2-4.2.4 State the importance of
reviewing the facts prior to writing a
report.

Sorting information by category is the grouping of recorded facts into types such
as informants, victims, witnesses, suspects, weapons, rule violations, evidence, and crime
elements. This is especially helpful when information is collected from several sources.
(CO2-4.2.1)

Section Vocabulary

Arranging information in chronological order is the grouping of recorded facts by date
and timeline of event occurrence. This method of grouping information is especially
useful when writing a narrative report as readers can easily tell what happened and in
what order. (CO2-4.2.2, CO2-4.2.3)

sorting information by category

chronological order

Review Facts for the Report
Once the information has been organized and applicable forms and format selected,
the officer is ready to write the report. Review the organized information regarding the
incident to make sure that all the relevant facts are available. If pertinent facts are
missing, for example, an inmate’s cell number, or time of incident, collect the additional
information. (CO2-4.2.4)

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UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING

LESSON 3 |

Elements of Effective Report Writing

OBJECTIVES
CO2-4.3.1 Describe the format and
content of a report.
CO2-4.3.2 Describe ways to ensure
accuracy of information.
CO2-4.3.3 Define jargon.
CO2-4.3.4 Define slang.
CO2-4.3.5 Describe the elements of
effective report writing.

Writing an effective report is an important part of any officer’s duties. People read reports
without ever seeing or knowing the officers who wrote them. Readers not only evaluate
the officers but also their agencies by the caliber of the report they read. It is important
for officers to write reports that reflect professionalism.

Format and Content of a Report
An effective report should be written in the proper format and contain all the important
content associated with the incident. Format is the way information is organized and
presented while content relates to the significant facts of the incident. Generally, a report
format is arranged into the opening, body, and closing narrative sections.
The opening section may include information such as the date and time, as well as the
location of the incident, case number, and the officer’s assignment or location.
The body section is the detailed chronological account of the incident. This section
includes the actions taken by the officer on arrival at the scene, such as first aid, call for
medical, interviews, elements of any rule violations or crimes committed, actions taken
to obtain evidence, and call for backup if necessary.
The closing section explains action taken or how the incident was resolved, how the
information and evidence was handled including the need for further investigation, and
recommendations for disciplinary action.
The content of a report is extremely important, as it is expected to convey the important
details of an incident. However, correct grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and
spelling are equally important elements of a quality report. A poorly written report
containing numerous errors will destroy the message and reflect badly on the writer’s
professionalism.
The content of a report should be easy to read and understand, and it should be free
of jargon and slang. Someone reading the corrections report should be able to follow
the events and comprehend exactly what happened without having been at the scene.
(CO2-4.3.1)

Effective Report Writing
An effective report is factual, concise, accurate, clear, grammatically and structurally
correct, and written in standard English. The report should be legible, timely, complete,
and in accordance with agency policies and procedures.

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Factual:
• Reports should never contain personal opinions from the writer, other officers, or witnesses.
Incorrect: “I know Inmate Jones stole the book because he has a history of taking other people’s
belongings.”
Correct: “I saw Inmate Jones take the book from the table.”
• Reports should not contain personal inferences or presumptions of the officer.
Incorrect: “Inmate Jones said he did not steal the book, even though he was the only one in the area.”
Correct: “Inmate Jones said he did not steal the book.”
• Report all witnesses’ accounts of the incident.
• Avoid irrelevant information (stick to the facts).
Incorrect: “Officer Dodson set the book on the table. He turned his back and was discussing last
night’s football game with Inmate Smith when Inmate Jones walked over to the table. It was about
that time, maybe about a minute later, when Officer Dodson turned around in time to see Jones take
the book.”
Correct: “Officer Dodson saw Inmate Jones take the book off the table.”
• Avoid humor and dramatic flourishes or words with emotional overtones.
Incorrect: “Officer Dodson and Inmate Smith were having a discussion about last night’s football
game when Inmate Jones slithered over to the table, real sneaky-like, and snatched up the book just
like the sucker belonged to him.”
Correct: “Jones took the book from the table while Officer Dodson and Inmate Smith were talking.”

Concise:
• Avoid wordiness.
Incorrect: “Officer Williams and Officer Perez were walking down the hall going to get a Coke on
their way to take their morning break when they came around a corner and saw two inmates huddled
together and it looked to them like they were trying to hide something. They were standing outside
the utility closet where lots of contraband can be hidden. They decided they had better pat them
down just to make sure they didn’t have anything on them that they weren’t supposed to have.”
Correct: “Officer Williams and Officer Perez searched two inmates, who were standing outside the
utility closet in the hallway.”
• Be brief, but do not leave out important information.
Correct: “Officer Jones and Officer Barnes saw two inmates talking in low tones. The inmates
stopped talking suddenly as they approached. The officers searched the inmates for contraband.”

Accurate:
Before submitting a report, make sure it is accurate by:
• ensuring that it contains only what happened based solely on information, statements, and physical
evidence collected.
• verifying that all facts and names are recorded and spelled correctly, and that numbers written in the
report match those in the notes. (CO2-4.3.2)

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Clear:
• Words used should have only one interpretation.
Correct: “Officer Sanders warned Inmate Garcia not to go into cell 104. Approximately 10 minutes
later, Officer Sanders saw Garcia go into cell 104.”
• Present events in logical order
Correct: “Officer Roberts saw Inmate Williams take Inmate Brophy’s book. He saw a piece of paper
fall from the book, and then asked Inmate Williams to hand the items to him.”
Grammatically and structurally correct and in standard English:
• The report should paint a picture of what happened in short, simple, and correct language, free of
redundancy, jargon, and slang.

Jargon is defined as words used by a particular trade or profession that are not commonly understood by the
general public but have meaning to that trade or profession. It is also a term or specialized language that may
include acronyms used by a profession, occupation, or other group, often meaningless to outsiders (CO24.3.3). Officers share common expertise and communicate quickly using jargon.
Some jargon used by officers includes the following:
Jargon

Explanation

Shakedown

Cell/Pat-down/Strip Search

PC

Protective Custody

Jit

Juvenile

DC

Disciplinary Confinement

3 Hots and a Cot

3 Meals and a Bed

CERT

Correctional Emergency Response Team

DR

Disciplinary Report

52-Blocks

Inmate Reference to 52 Months

I-So/Hole

Isolation Confinement

Slang is an informal vocabulary composed of invented words, or arbitrarily changed words, that are often used
by a specific group, region, trade, or profession. (CO2-4.3.4)
Some slang used in correctional settings includes the following:

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Section Vocabulary

Slang

Explanation

Rabbit

An escape risk inmate

content

Fish/New Jack

New inmate or correctional officer

format

The Hole or Box

Disciplinary confinement cell

Chow

Meal

Shank

Homemade weapon

Buck

Homemade alcohol

Rip

Tobacco

411

Information

Kite

Illegal note passed from inmate to inmate

jargon
slang

The following is an example of an incorrect use of jargon and slang in report writing:
Incorrect: “Yesterday after evening chow, Officer Jones while assigned as B-dorm
supervisor, heard Inmate Coker state that he had the 411 on the fish who received
a DR for the buck and a shank. He said that he sent out a kite from the box for
some rip.”
Correct: “Yesterday after evening meal, Officer Jones, B-dorm supervisor, heard
Inmate Coker state that he had information on the new inmate who received a
disciplinary report for homemade alcohol and a weapon. He said that he sent out
a note from the disciplinary confinement for some tobacco.”

Legible:
• The report should be readable if written by hand.

Timely:
• Reports should be written without delay after an incident. This enables
management to deal decisively with issues arising from the incident, event, or
occurrence. A prompt report also helps the officer remember relevant facts.

Complete:
• Ensure a report is complete by:
• checking that all pertinent information has been included. All the facts,
whether favorable or unfavorable to any of the parties involved, should be
part of the report.
• answering the basic questions of who, what, when, where, why, how, and
making sure the action taken is fully recorded. (CO2-4.3.5)

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FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

UNIT 4 | REPORT WRITING

LESSON 4 |

Writing and Evaluating the Report

OBJECTIVES
CO2-4.4.1 Describe methods of
evaluating a report.
CO2-4.4.2 Describe methods for
checking a report for completeness.

An officer should have a good vocabulary. As the officer encounters unfamiliar words
and phrases, he or she should take time to find their meanings and proper usage. An
improved vocabulary will enable an officer to be more efficient in describing accurately
what needs to be documented.

Evaluating the Report
Once a report has been written, it must be evaluated in order to correct errors and ensure
accuracy. This involves editing and proofreading. Editing is the process of ensuring
that all pertinent facts have been included in a report in an organized and accurate
manner. Proofreading is the checking of a report to ensure that all words are spelled
correctly, punctuation is used accurately, appropriate words are capitalized, and proper
grammar is used.
During the editing and proofreading process, ensure that all pertinent facts have been
included in an organized and accurate manner. If possible, ask another officer to read
the report to see if it makes sense. Check the report to ensure that words are spelled
correctly, proper punctuation is used, appropriate words are capitalized and the report
is grammatically correct.
The following methods will help an officer capture mistakes that might otherwise
be overlooked:
Begin by taking a break—allowing some time between writing and evaluating
helps the officer return to the report with fresh eyes and makes finding errors easier.
Read aloud—reading a written narrative aloud will encourage the officer to read
every word. An alternative is having someone else read the report aloud, as a person
often hears more errors than he or she can see.
Read with a cover—sliding a blank sheet of paper down the page while reading the
report will help the officer review the report in a detailed line-by-line manner.
Know personal weaknesses—an officer should find out what his or her typical
writing problems are and look for those specific errors.
Check paired punctuation—ensure that both sides of paired punctuation
(quotation marks or parentheses) are used. It is a common error to forget the closing
punctuation. (CO2-4.4.1)
The following is an example of a poorly written narrative report with improper grammar,
punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. An improved version of the example with
proper grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling is also provided.

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Communications Ch 2

On May 16 2012 at approximately 1220 hours. I was on a routin patrol inside D Dorm when inmate
Dennis Shaw, handled me a book and said “you’ll find that quotation we were talking about on page
24”. Since I had not discussed any quotation with Shaw, I decide to take the book to the officer and take
a look at page 24. When I opened the book a folded piece of paper feel out. On the paper were the
following words. “My roommate has some marijuana hidden inside a hole in his pillow.” I show the note
to Corp Larson, the Dorm Supavisor, and since the dorm was skeduled to go to the rec yard that
afternoon, we desided to wait until then to conduct a search. At approx. 1:30 p.m., the inmates were
excorted too the recreation yard, an it was about that time Corporal Larson and I searched cell D-234,
the cell assigned to Dennis Shaw; and his roommate, inmate Schneider, Jonathan. I examined Schneider’s
pillow and I find a hole as described by Shaw. Inside the hole I find approx. two handfuls of a green leafy
substance. I place the substance in a clear plastic bag and called a dual sworn officer, Corrections Deputy
George Abrams, to test it it tested positive for maryjuana. Inmate Schneider was was brought in from the
recreation yard and was question by Abrams. Schneider states, “That stupid roommate of mine set me
up. He wants me out of their because I won’t have anything to do with his drug business.” Schneider was
placed in Admin Confinement pending a investegation. Corporal Larson and I conducted a through
search of the rest of the Dorm, however, no additional contruband is found.
Narrative report of the above example with improved grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling
On May 16, 2012, at approximately 1220 hours, I was on a routine patrol inside D Dorm when inmate
Shaw, Dennis, handed me a book and said, “You’ll find that quotation we were talking about on page 24.”
Since I had not discussed any quotation with Shaw, I decided to take the book to the office and take a
look at page 24. When I opened the book, a folded piece of paper fell out. On the paper were the following
words: “My roommate has some marijuana hidden inside a hole in his pillow.” I showed the note to
Corporal Larson, the Dorm Supervisor, and since the dorm was scheduled to go to the recreation yard
that afternoon, we decided to wait until then to conduct a search. At approximately 1330 hours, the
inmates were escorted to the recreation yard, at which time Corporal Larson and I searched cell D-234,
the cell assigned to inmate Shaw and his roommate, inmate Schneider, Jonathan. I examined Schneider’s
pillow and found a hole as described by Shaw. Inside the hole, I found approximately two handfuls of a
green leafy substance. I placed the substance in a clear plastic bag and called a dual sworn officer,
Corrections Deputy George Abrams, to test it; it tested positive for marijuana. Inmate Schneider was
brought in from the recreation yard and was questioned by Abrams. Schneider stated, “That stupid
roommate of mine set me up. He wants me out of there because I won’t have anything to do with his drug
business.” I placed Schneider in Administrative Confinement pending an investigation. Corporal Larson
and I conducted a thorough search of the rest of D Dorm; however, no additional contraband was found.

Finalizing the Report
As part of the evaluating and finalizing process of a report, the officer must verify that the report is
comprehensive by taking the following actions:
• Again, ensure that all details, including who, when, what, where, how, why, and action taken, are fully
answered. Include rule violations, if any.

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Section Vocabulary
editing
proofreading

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

• Ask this question, “If I was not involved or did not witness this incident or event,
would I have a clear picture of what happened after reading this report?” If the
answer is yes, then you wrote a good report.
• Ensure that you identified and corrected all errors.
• Sign, date, and distribute the report according to agency policies and procedures.
(CO2-4.4.2)
Document all incidents or occurrences in a correctional facility by applying the proper
elements and principles of effective report writing. The more an officer practices writing
and evaluating reports, the more professional his or her reports will be.

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CHAPTER 3
Officer Safety
LESSON 1: Safety and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
LESSON 2: Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
LESSON 3: Manipulation and Deception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
LESSON 4: Contraband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
LESSON 5: Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66

Being a correctional officer is inherently stressful, dangerous, and possibly life threatening. Correctional
officers are the first line of defense against violence, security breaches, and other safety hazards. It is the
responsibility of correctional officers to provide this line of defense not only for themselves, but also for the
public, facility staff, and inmates. Every aspect of these safety and security challenges must be managed at all
times. Inmates have plenty of time to come up with ways to “beat the system,” violate rules, or commit
criminal acts. This chapter provides an overview of safety and security concerns, identification, manipulation
and deception, contraband, and searches. In order to mitigate these problems within a facility, correctional
officers must be mentally present, persistent, and proactive in their duties.

Ch 3 Officer Safety

LESSON 1 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Safety and Security

OBJECTIVES

CO3-1.1.1 Describe safety hazards and
security concerns for the officer.
CO3-1.1.2 Describe the categories of
stress that can influence officer
safety.

CO3-1.1.3 Define situational awareness.

CO3-1.1.4 List the stages of situational
awareness.
CO3-1.1.5 Apply four basic skills the
officer can use in evaluating a
situation.

CO3-1.1.6 Apply situational awareness
to officer safety.

Safety Hazards and Security Concerns
Safety and security begins with a professional attitude. An officer who comes to work
prepared creates a safe, professional work environment. An officer should come to work
well-rested and physically ready to perform his or her duty. Officers should avoid
missing work as much as possible. When an officer misses a shift, someone else will
have to do the job. This means fewer officers will be available to watch inmates and
respond to an emergency.
Another aspect of an officer’s preparation is being in good physical shape. The duties of
a correctional officer are often physically demanding. Officers should maintain good
physical health by eating a balanced diet and exercising daily. Lack of stamina, agility
and mobility can inhibit an officer’s ability to protect him- or herself as well as
coworkers. For example, an officer may have to sprint long distances or climb flights of
stairs and still be able to successfully control a combative inmate or assist in other
emergency situations.
Officers should always project a confident, competent and capable demeanor. This sends
a message to inmates that an officer is capable of handling any situation. An officer should
be willing to communicate and use good listening skills to avoid conflict as much as
possible. Each inmate should be treated with respect. For example, if an inmate or visitor
approaches with a request, keep in mind they are people and have needs. The officer
must handle each situation fairly, firmly, and consistently, while remaining professional.
Inmates may challenge an officer’s authority by committing minor infractions. The
officer must address violations according to policy. Failure to do so may result in inmates’
behaviors escalating into a more serious problem and potential disciplinary actions
against the officer and inmate.
Complacency is an officer’s worst enemy. Complacency is a comfortable or relaxed state
of mind, which lulls the officer into a false sense of safety and security. When an officer
is complacent, he or she is not aware of what is happening or what could happen in any
given situation. Officers must be aware that failure to be alert can jeopardize the safety
of the officer, the general public, and the inmate. (CO3-1.1.1)
Stress can affect an officer’s focus and attention to detail, which can negatively influence
decision making. All officers will experience some level of job-related stress such as fear,
intimidation, and anxiety. For example, being the only officer assigned to a dormitory
which houses 80 inmates is a stressful situation. Stress can be minimized with proper
training, knowledge of policy and procedures, and familiarity with various inmate
behaviors. Not only will this knowledge reduce stress, it will also keep staff, visitors, and
inmates safe.

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Four categories of stress an officer may experience are:
a) Environmental—weather, noise levels, lighting conditions, crowded areas
b) Personal—family issues, health, lack of sleep, poor eating habits, financial situation, and
academic demands
c) Work-related—shift work, supervisors, coworkers, contact with the general public, court appearances,
and performance standards
d) Self-induced—personal attitudes toward work, perception of others, and work or academic goals
Personal stress can be particularly distracting, because a number of factors outside the facility can affect an
officer’s focus. An officer should make an effort to leave his or her personal life at home when he or she begins
a shift. This will ensure the officer is focused on the safety of the public, staff and inmates and on maintaining
a secure facility. (CO3-1.1.2)

Situational Awareness
Situational awareness is an officer’s knowledge and understanding of the totality of circumstances, which
helps facilitate effective decision making. (CO3-1.1.3)
Situational awareness in a correctional setting can be described in three stages:
1) Being alert: Officers must be aware of what is going on around them at all times. Paying attention to
sights and sounds helps with maintaining a high level of alertness.
For example, when walking through a dormitory area, be aware of persons behind you as you take in
your surroundings. Mentally visualize where a threat may appear and the options you have for
responding to any potential threat.
2) Identifying a potential threat: Officers should concentrate on possible threats while remaining aware
of their surroundings. This stage can occur several times during a shift.
For example, while you are assigned to the recreation yard, a group of inmates suddenly and quickly
approaches you for unknown reasons. The officer should observe body language, verbal tone, or any
other threatening demeanor of the group.
3) Responding to a threat: Officers should focus their attention on potential threats while exhibiting
intense concentration and avoiding tunnel vision, which is the narrowing of the attention field due to
stress. In response to an actual threat, an officer should be mentally ahead of the threat and take
appropriate action.
Possible questions an officer may ask to evaluate a situation include the following:
 What does the inmate’s body stance, posture or positioning show?

 What does the inmate’s facial expression show?

 Is the inmate physically reaching for something or someone?
 Is there a communication barrier?

 What do the tone, volume, and pitch of the inmate’s voice show?
 What response is appropriate for the situation?

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 Could other inmates become involved?

 Is assistance available? Do I need backup from other personnel?
 How long will it take for backup to arrive?
 Is the area defensible? (CO3-1.1.4)

Officers may use positioning, posture, observing, and listening when evaluating a situation.

Positioning is placing yourself in a tactically advantageous location to observe what is occurring in an area.
Positioning allows you to size up a situation while remaining in a safe place. Positioning includes the following:
Keeping a safe distance—distance yourself far enough away to be safe but close enough to observe
what is happening. What is considered a safe distance in a correctional setting will vary depending on
the size of the location, and the demeanor and number of inmates. Assess the situation to determine a
safe distance.
Being familiar with your environment—know the layout of the facility and plan the best possible
positioning and escape route before entering an area. Areas that are large or house large numbers of
inmates may require you to change location throughout your shift. Avoid establishing a set pattern. If
inmates can predict what position you will take, they may be able to gain a tactical advantage.
Watching groups and individuals—place yourself in a position where you can see and hear what is
going on around you. Being in a good position not only allows you to be more attentive to what is being
said, but also allows inmates to know that you are paying attention to them. Always face inmates when
speaking with them as it allows you to use your peripheral vision to monitor activities. When you watch
them closely, inmates are less likely to commit rule violations or cause minor problems. By closely
observing inmates, you can pick up on important nonverbal cues, body language and positioning.
Constantly scan the area for potential threats even when watching inmates.

Posture is holding your body in such a way as to show your strength, confidence, interest and control. Posture
includes the following elements:
Command presence—Your presence can determine whether a subject’s resistance escalates or deescalates. Command presence projects an image of confidence in your skills and abilities. If you appear
to lack confidence, inmates will attempt to manipulate or deceive you.

Controlled behavior—the officer demonstrates confidence and control by avoiding such distracting
behaviors as foot tapping, nail biting, and fidgeting.

Observing is another skill of situational awareness. Officers should be aware of any occurrence or activity,
erratic mood changes, emotional outbursts, acting out, threatening behavior, and changes in inmate energy
levels that may signify safety and security problems.
Examples of things that may be observed include the following:

 an inmate uniform worn incorrectly—misplaced identification, shoe untied, belt hanging to the right
or left, one pant leg rolled up
 physical condition of inmate—limping, bruises, bloody nose

 during inspection or search—broken window, graffiti on wall

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Active listening is a learned skill that officers use to quickly determine the context,
threat, and relevance of events unfolding around them by paying attention to volume,
pitch, tone, and inflection. Effective listening allows officers to pick out key and
inflammatory words that could indicate trouble. Never allow personal judgment and
prejudice toward an inmate to obscure your listening abilities. (CO3-1.1.5)
By applying situational awareness, the officer will always be alert for potential threats,
and rapidly respond to incidents before they escalate beyond control. For example, two
inmates begin an argument, and the officer intervenes before a physical altercation
begins, thus preserving safety. (CO3-1.1.6)

Section Vocabulary
active listening
command presence
controlled behavior
observing
positioning
posture
situational awareness

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LESSON 2 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Identification

OBJECTIVES

CO3-1.2.1 Verify identity of inmate,
staff, or visitor using information
from photo identification or facility
records.

Verifying the identification of all persons entering, moving throughout, and exiting the
facility is vital to safety and security. Systematic identification checks provide an accurate
account of everyone entering and leaving a facility, which minimizes the potential for
escapes, mistaken releases, and unauthorized entry.

CO3-1.2.2 List common methods of
identification.

Access inside a facility is not limited to staff and inmates. Based on the facility’s entrance
and identification requirements, visitors may be granted access. Visitors may include
family, friends, attorneys, vendors, and volunteers. If a visitor is granted access without
proper identification, a security breach has occurred.

CO3-1.2.4 Describe features of
personal identification documents.

Agency records may be used to identify inmates, staff, visitors, or vendors. The
verification process may include the use of automated or manual resources. Verifying a
person’s identification may be confirmed by comparing photographs in facility records
with the individual. (CO3-1.2.1)

CO3-1.2.3 Specify types of valid
personal identification.

CO3-1.2.5 Differentiate between valid
and altered or counterfeit
identification.
CO3-1.2.6 Compare physical
appearance of inmate, staff, or
visitor to their photo identification.
CO3-1.2.7 List types of personal
identifying marks (or physical
features) that could be used to
identify inmates.

CO3-1.2.8 Document identity of inmate,
staff or visitor.

Valid Identification
There are two main categories of valid identification: automated and manual. Personal
knowledge or recognition of a person is not acceptable as an official method of
identification.
Automated
 Facial Recognition Software: recognizes distinct facial features and links to a
database which may contain all information listed below in Types of Valid
Personal Identification.

 Automated Visitor Registration (AVR) hand scanner: recognizes distinct
fingerprint features and links to a database, which may contain identifying
information for visitors and vendors. This system links authorized visitors to
specific inmates they are allowed to visit.

 Automated Barcode Scanner: reads barcodes located on the wristband, armband
or identification card and verifies information
 Rapid Identification System: fingerprint recognition system

 Biometric Identification Solution (BIS) (formerly known as AFIS)

Manual
 Inmate Face Sheet (printed from the agency database)

 Inmate Gate Pass (authorizes supervised inmates to exit the secure perimeter)

 Inmate Files (contains all known information about the inmate)
 Agency Identification Card (issued to staff and visitors)

 Armband/Wristband (issued to inmates at intake or reception center)
 Government-issued cards (CO3-1.2.2)

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Types of Valid Personal Identification
Some of the common information contained in the automated and manual identification systems includes
photograph, identification number, height, weight, date of birth, Social Security number, address, race, gender,
age, charge, aliases, identifying marks, receipt/release date, facility location, barcode and magnetic strip.
Valid forms of identification can include the following:
 State driver’s license

 State identification card

 Criminal justice agency or correctional facility identification card/records
 U.S. military identification card
 U.S. passport

 Facility-issued inmate wrist band

 Birth certificate (for minors under 12 years of age)
 Student identification cards (CO3-1.2.3)

For an identification card to be acceptable in a correctional facility, the card should contain several common
features, which may include the following:
 photograph

 identification number
 signature

 personal information:
-name
-address
-date of birth
Physical features
 gender
 height

 weight

 hair color
 eye color

 scars, marks, tattoos
Security features

 holograms—a hidden image that is visible when viewed at certain angles or with appropriate
lighting, like on a driver’s license

 watermark—a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears lighter or darker when held up
to the light

 raised seal—an embossed seal

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 magnetic stripe or bar code—a dark stripe on the back of the identification card that contains
all information on the card
 expiration dates—the date the identification is no longer valid (CO3-1.2.4)

Valid identification is unexpired, unaltered, and may contain security features. Counterfeit identification
appears to be valid, but may be missing some or all of the essential security features and information. A visitor
may attempt to enter a facility using counterfeit or altered identification. Only original documents are accepted
at most facilities to avoid such attempts. If, during the identification process, something appears suspicious,
question the individual. Ask for information on the card that the individual should know, such as his or her
date of birth or address. Examine the identification, looking for obvious alterations or inconsistencies, such
as missing vital information, missing security features, raised lettering or photo re-lamination, use of different
fonts, or variations in background. (CO3-1.2.5)
In order to ensure a positive identification, compare the individual’s physical appearance to his or her photo
identification. Features to compare include skin color, eye color, hair, facial structure, and any other distinctive
features like scars or birthmarks (CO3-1.2.6). Tattoos, scars, marks or deformities can also be used to assist in
identifying an individual. However, these identifiers can only be used if they have been previously documented
(CO3-1.2.7). Once identification is confirmed, document the verification of the inmate, staff member, or
visitor on the appropriate form or electronic record. (CO3-1.2.8)

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LESSON 3 |

Manipulation and Deception

Inmate manipulation is when an inmate attempts to get something he or she wants
by influencing the officer or staff to do something they would not ordinarily do.
Manipulation can be an isolated incident or an ongoing series of events. Manipulation
may result in more severe consequences for the officer, staff or inmate.
Deception is lying to, misleading, tricking, or fooling another person. Deception is
usually more immediate or may be a habitual behavior. Manipulation and deception are
difficult to distinguish, but the ultimate goal is for personal gain or to avoid disciplinary
action. (CO3-1.3.1)
Assume an inmate asks an officer one of the following:
“Did you watch the game last night?”

OBJECTIVES

CO3-1.3.1 Contrast inmate
manipulation and deception.

CO3-1.3.2 List methods inmates use to
manipulate and deceive.

CO3-1.3.3 List behaviors officers should
avoid to minimize inmate
manipulation and deception.
CO3-1.3.4 Identify visitor manipulation
and deception.

“Would you like a candy bar?”
“Do you have a cigarette?”
“You smell good, what cologne or perfume are you wearing?”
While these questions might seem harmless, this could be the beginning of inmate
manipulation and deception. The officer should know how to recognize and handle
such questions. When manipulation and deception occur, the officer is being controlled.
This jeopardizes the safety and security of staff, visitors and inmates. If the officer
succumbs to inmate manipulation and deception, he or she may face disciplinary action,
termination and criminal charges.
Methods inmates use to manipulate and deceive correctional staff can range from subtle
to extreme, such as:
 attempting to create bonds with staff members—an inmate going above and
beyond expected job duties in an attempt to get a favor or special consideration

 circumventing or disobeying rules—testing the boundaries of the supervising officer

 using special circumstances or situations—using a disability or illness to gain
preferential or special treatment
 distracting staff—creating a diversion to avert the officer’s attention

 attempting to engage staff in casual non-job related conversation—requesting
personal information regarding staff, asking where the officer is from, what school
the officer attended, the officer’s age or marital status, the number of children
the officer has, or asking about the officer’s favorite ball team

 spreading rumors about staff or attempting to turn one staff member against
another—discussing information about staff members with an officer. “I heard
Sgt. Doe talking about you yesterday and he said that you were lazy.”

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 over-familiarization with staff—knowing enough about an officer to notice a change in his or her routine

 attempting any illegal activity—bribery, blackmail, or offering sex

Inmate manipulation and deception can also come in the form of an organized team. Inmates may coordinate
and execute a plan to manipulate or deceive an officer or staff member. The participants of the team may
consist of, but are not limited to, observers, contacts, runners, turners and pointmen. The following is the role
of each participant:
Observers

 observe correctional officers who use inmate jargon, ignore minor rule infractions, play favorites, enforce
rules for some and not others, or are easily distracted

Contacts

 supply information about the correctional officer’s work habits, likes and dislikes

Runners

 usually the only paid members of the team because they must expose themselves to the correctional
officer by asking for small items like candy, cigarettes, pencils, etc.

Turners

 befriend the correctional officer and use the friendship to ultimately coerce the officer into engaging in
rule infractions
 least suspected by the correctional officer

Pointmen

 stand guard when the correctional officer is in the process of granting illegal favors, violating institutional
rules, or being compromised or harmed

Whether targeted individually or by a team, the officer will be subject to inmate manipulation and deception.
Part of the officer’s job is to recognize when other staff is being manipulated and deceived as well. By staying
alert and focused, officers can stop inmate manipulation and deception. (CO3-1.3.2)
To avoid inmate manipulation and deception, an officer should refrain from being overly friendly or giving
out personal information. Engaging in personal conversations and talking about other staff poses a serious
safety and security risk. Officers should also avoid doing any personal favors for inmates such as bringing
items in or removing items from the facility, or offering inmates items like food and drink. Another situation
to avoid is giving one inmate authority over another inmate. This creates a power structure which then can be
exploited and generates a hostile environment. Under no circumstances should an officer or staff member
engage in sexual conversations or activities with inmates.
Behaviors the officer should display to avoid inmate manipulation can include the following:
 Be part of the correctional team.
 Follow rules and procedures.

 Monitor remarks, gestures, and actions.

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 Know your job and perform it properly.

Section Vocabulary

 Learn to say “no” and mean it.

inmate manipulation

 Communicate with supervisors/fellow workers when you suspect a problem.
 Document incidents.

 Address inmates by “inmate” or their last name.

deception

 Restrict your relationship with inmates to activities and discussions that are part
of your official duties.
 Be suspicious.
 Be truthful.

 Be professional.

 Be cautious. (CO3-1.3.3)

Be aware of signs of manipulation and deception used by visitors. Visitors may bring gifts
or offer favors to staff or use intimidation in an attempt to get staff to violate facility
rules. For example, a visitor may threaten to harm staff members or their family, or to
report the staff member to a supervisor. (CO3-1.3.4)

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LESSON 4 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Contraband

OBJECTIVES

CO3-1.4.1 State the correctional
officer’s duty to control contraband.
CO3-1.4.2 Specify common categories
of contraband.

CO3-1.4.3 Define nuisance contraband.
CO3-1.4.4 Describe nuisance
contraband.

CO3-1.4.5 Define hard or hazardous
contraband.

CO3-1.4.6 Describe hard or hazardous
contraband.

CO3-1.4.7 Describe common inmate
weapons.

CO3-1.4.8 Identify common methods of
introducing contraband into
correctional facilities.

CO3-1.4.9 Explain methods of detecting
contraband.

CO3-1.4.10 Summarize common
practices for collecting contraband.

Correctional officers are tasked with the prevention, control, and disposal of contraband
through regular and irregular searches (CO3-1.4.1). Contraband is any unauthorized
article or any authorized article in excessive quantities or altered from its original state.
This includes an inmate giving authorized items to another inmate. Drugs, firearms
and knives are all obvious safety and security concerns. However, the presence of cell
phones, unauthorized food, clothing or any contraband item poses a breach in security
which endangers staff, visitors and inmates. If contraband finds its way into the facility,
there is a great likelihood that other, more serious contraband may be introduced in the
same way.
Contraband can be categorized as either nuisance or hard/hazardous (CO3-1.4.2).
Nuisance contraband is any authorized item found in excessive amounts or altered
from its original state that does not pose an immediate threat to the safety or security
of the staff, inmates and facility (CO3-1.4.3). Nuisance contraband includes excessive
clothing, linen, laundry items, canteen and hygiene items, photos, reading materials,
over-the-counter medication, or letters (CO3-1.4.4). Officers should be aware that some
nuisance contraband can be used to create hard/hazardous contraband.

Hard/hazardous contraband is any item that poses a serious threat to the safety
and security of the staff, inmates and facility (CO3-1.4.5). Firearms, homemade knives
(shanks), other weapons, drugs, intoxicating beverages, toxic materials, prescription
medication, inhalants, cell phones and electronic devices that store or receive data are
examples of hard/hazardous contraband. (CO3-1.4.6)

CO3-1.4.11 Take possession of
contraband.

CO3-1.4.12 Determine when
contraband is needed as evidence.

CO3-1.4.13 List common types of
contraband requiring chain of
custody.

CO3-1.4.14 Issue a receipt for
confiscated contraband.

CO3-1.4.15 Describe common storage
methods for contraband.

A homemade shank

Figure 3-1

Inmates can be very creative and have ample time to think of ways to make weapons.
Any item can be used as a weapon. Shanks are the most common inmate weapon and
can be made from almost anything. Many common items can be turned into weapons.

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Officer Safety Ch 3

Sports equipment, food service equipment, office supplies, liquid substances (bleach,
urine), toothbrushes, disposable razors, a heavy object placed in a sock, and writing
utensils can all be used as weapons. (CO3-1.4.7)

CO3-1.4.16 Photograph contraband.

Contraband may enter correctional facilities by various means. Inmates, visitors,
vendors, and even staff can conceal contraband in their clothing, on their person, or in
other items. Other methods of introduction are through body cavities, mail, canteen or
commissary items and deliveries (CO3-1.4.8). For example, an inmate may personally
know one of the food delivery drivers and ask him or her to bring in contraband. The
contraband is then introduced into the facility within the food items. Or, the inmate
might ask the driver to take contraband out of the facility and deliver it to someone on
the outside.

CO3-1.4.18 Describe final disposition of
contraband.

Detection of Contraband
Detecting and recognizing contraband is an important means of controlling and
minimizing its introduction and presence in a facility. Some search methods used to
detect contraband are:

CO3-1.4.17 Document confiscation and
disposal of contraband.
CO3-1.4.19 Determine appropriate
receptacles for contraband
disposal.
CO3-1.4.20 Describe contraband
disposal methods.

CO3-1.4.21 List contraband items that
need special disposal.

 visual search—visually scanning for contraband items

 pat down—a physical frisk of a subject in a predetermined pattern to locate
weapons or other types of contraband
 clothed search—utilizes the quadrant search approach in an institutional
setting, by physically patting and squeezing the clothing of a person in a
systematic pattern

 custodial search—used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured
environment by physically patting and squeezing the clothing of a person in a
systematic pattern
 cell/area search—visually and physically inspecting an area in a systematic manner

 metal detection—use of electronic devices to detect a metal object on or within
a person or concealed within an item

 strip search—visually searching an unclothed person and physically searching
their clothing

 vehicle search—visually and physically inspecting a vehicle to locate contraband

 body cavity search—visually and physically inspecting body openings; such
searches are to be conducted by medical staff only (CO3-1.4.9)

Collecting Contraband
When contraband is located and identified, it is important that the items be removed
or secured immediately. There are general practices that should be followed when
collecting contraband. The officer should always use universal precautions and personal
protective equipment (gloves, mask) when searching for and collecting contraband. The
officer should never taste or smell any material found in a facility, or handle suspected

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contraband more than is absolutely necessary. Contraband could contain body fluids, communicable diseases,
toxic chemicals, or filth. The officer will confiscate the contraband and store or dispose of it according to
agency policy. (CO3-1.4.10)
The way the item is removed depends on whether the contraband is nuisance or hard/hazardous. All
contraband must be identified, confiscated, and documented. Confiscation of excessive supplies (such as extra
clothing or sheets) is handled differently than confiscation of a weapon. (CO3-1.4.11)
Contraband may be retained as evidence if it is part of an investigation, was used in the commission of a
crime, or is required for disciplinary proceedings. The manner in which contraband is processed could
determine the outcome of an investigation (CO3-1.4.12). Chain of custody is the witnessed written record
of all individuals who have maintained unbroken control of the evidence since its collection. Common types
of contraband stored as evidence may include weapons, illegal drugs, or items used in a serious incident or to
commit a crime. Officers should take special care to follow the protocols of Prison Rape Elimination Act
(PREA), such as securing clothing of the victim and suspect, and DNA collection. (CO3-1.4.13)
Chain of custody and inventory forms help ensure a complete and comprehensive contraband collection
process. It may be necessary to issue a receipt to the appropriate individuals for confiscated unauthorized
personal items not approved by the agency (CO3-1.4.14). Contraband is commonly stored in paper or plastic
bags, boxes or storage bins in a secured, locked area inaccessible to inmates. Label the container with the
inmate’s name and identification number, and document where it will be stored. (CO3-1.4.15)

Documentation
When hard or hazardous contraband is found, it may be necessary to photograph it prior to confiscation,
storage, or disposal. Failure to photograph and properly document contraband could adversely impact the
legal process and hinder disciplinary actions. Initiate the chain of custody for narcotics, weapons, and other
dangerous items. These items should always be photographed for possible presentation in criminal proceedings.
(CO3-1.4.16)
When documenting the confiscation and disposal of contraband, the facility’s policy and procedure must be
followed. Documentation may include an inventory of the contraband and an incident report. Include as
many details as possible, such as where the contraband was found, descriptions of what was found, quantity,
and method of disposal. (CO3-1.4.17)

Disposition
The final disposition of contraband includes either immediate disposal or storage for future inmate disciplinary
action, case reference, or training purposes. Officers must document the final disposition of the collected
contraband. In some instances, final disposition may involve outside investigators. For example, when a visitor
attempts to introduce contraband into or remove contraband from a facility, disposition may be handled by
local law enforcement. (CO3-1.4.18).

Disposal
The officer needs to obtain authorization prior to disposal of contraband. If nuisance contraband is found in
common areas and cannot be linked to an inmate, confiscate and process according to agency policy. These
items may be disposed of in receptacles, trash bins or incinerators not accessible to inmates. (CO3-1.4.19)

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Personal property considered contraband should be forwarded to the inmate property
storage area. According to agency policy, these items may be released or mailed to the
inmate’s family. Hard or hazardous contraband must be stored as evidence in a secure
location. For example, with most agencies a tattoo gun may be photographed and
stored (CO3-1.4.20). Officers should never be the recipient of, or take for personal
use, any contraband.

Section Vocabulary
contraband
hard/hazardous contraband
nuisance contraband

Items which require special disposal can include the following:
Money—Although some facilities allow inmates to have money up to a specified
amount, many do not allow it at all. Confiscated money should be counted in the
presence of the inmate. A receipt shall be signed by staff and given to the inmate.
The money may be deposited into the Inmate Welfare Fund or the inmate’s
personal account. Money is not thrown away.
Medication—Any unauthorized medication or authorized medication in excessive
amounts will be confiscated. The facility’s medical staff or the issuing authority
should become involved and determine the appropriate method of disposal.
Illegal drugs—The discovery of illegal drugs in a correctional facility may lead to
criminal charges. Illegal drugs should be held as evidence by the investigating agency.
Weapons—Possession of a weapon may result in criminal charges, which requires
the weapon to be held as evidence.
Biohazardous materials—Materials such as a tattoo gun needle or soiled bed
sheet may contain blood or body fluids. These items should be placed in the
appropriate biohazard containers or bags and disposed of according to agency
policy. (CO3-1.4.21)

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Ch 3 Officer Safety

LESSON 5 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Searches

OBJECTIVES

CO3-1.5.1 Describe techniques for
examining visitor property.

CO3-1.5.2 List types of areas to be
searched.

CO3-1.5.3 Conduct pat down of inmates.
CO3-1.5.4 Conduct systematic search
of an area.
CO3-1.5.5 Describe area search
methods.

CO3-1.5.6 State the common search
equipment used in a person search.
CO3-1.5.7 Identify area search
equipment.

CO3-1.5.8 Document details of an
area search.

CO3-1.5.9 Conduct a vehicle search.

Searches are vital in maintaining the safety of staff, visitors, inmates, and the security of
the facility. Officers should always look for the out of place and unusual. People tend
to conceal contraband wherever they think officers are least likely to look. A door that
is usually locked is left ajar, dirt disturbed in the yard, or an inmate with bulging pockets:
These are some indicators that a search should be initiated. Inmates may also provide
information about other inmates, contraband coming in, or illicit officer activities.
Searches prevent the spread of contraband, weapons and other dangerous items in a
facility. A search can detect the manufacture of weapons or escape devices, or escape
attempts. For example, during a fence inspection, an officer could notice a washed-out
area under the fence line. This early detection could prevent an escape or possible injury.
Damaged facility property and health hazards can also be discovered during a search.
Universal precautions and personal protective equipment (PPE) should always be used
when conducting a search to avoid exposure to biohazardous materials. Gloves can range
from latex or non-latex to puncture or cut resistant, which provide varying levels of
protection while conducting area and person searches.
All persons entering a facility and their property, including vehicles and keys, are subject
to search. When examining property, ensure all bags, briefcases, books, and papers are
opened and searched for contraband. Be sure to inspect all clothing items. Check
containers for hidden compartments and contraband. Officers may conduct pat down
searches of visitors. Additionally some agencies may have other resources, such as
scanning devices, to complement the search process. (CO3-1.5.1)
Searches should be conducted in all facility areas including day
rooms, cells, dormitories, recreation yards, kitchens and parking lots.
Structures and furnishings also need to be searched, including bars,
locks, windows, doors, bunks and chairs. Officers must search
outside transport destinations, including work release sites, court
rooms, or medical offices. (CO3-1.5.2)
At the officer’s discretion, he or she may conduct a pat down of
inmates to look for weapons and other contraband. This may
include searching inmates as they enter and exit the housing area.
These types of searches are intended to prevent the movement and
introduction of contraband within the facility. (CO3-1.5.3)

A typical dayroom in a
correctional facility

66

Prior to the area search, subjects should also be searched and closely
monitored. You should always ask the subject if there is any item
present that would harm anyone during the course of the search,
Figure 3-2 providing the subject the opportunity to divulge anything which

Officer Safety Ch 3

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

may be concealed. This provides safety for the officer and prevents interference.
Remove all persons from the area being searched.
While visually scanning the area, make a mental plan of how the search will be
conducted and select a starting point. Search in a thorough and systematic manner.
Search one area or item completely before going to the next. If contraband is found,
secure it and continue until the search is completed. Return property or furnishings
to their original condition and position. An officer should never place his or her hands
where his or her visibility is impaired. Avoid rubbing or sliding your hands over
objects or clothing; a pat or pat-and-squeeze method is recommended instead.
(CO3-1.5.4)
Officers may use one or more of the following search patterns for outside or large
areas and may use modified versions for smaller areas:

Spiral search pattern—usually used by one person. The searcher begins at a
central point and moves in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary
of the search area.

Strip/line search pattern—usually used in a predetermined area by several
people. The search area is divided into lanes that are searched by one or more
people in both directions until the entire area has been examined.

Grid search pattern—a variation of the strip/line search pattern. It overlaps A typical cell
a series of lanes in a cross pattern.

Figure 3-3

Zone/quadrant search pattern—used for an area that is large. The area
should be divided into four different sections and searched using one of the
patterns above. (CO3-1.5.5)
(See Figures 3.4-3.7, on this page and the next page.)

Spiral search pattern

Figure 3-4

Strip-line search
pattern

Figure 3-5

Spiral search pattern

Figure 3-6

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While the techniques for conducting a search are important, it is also necessary to have the
proper equipment. Equipment used during a person search includes gloves, metal detectors, ion
and x-ray scanners, body imaging or a canine (CO3-1.5.6). Equipment for an area search includes
flashlights, screwdrivers, mirrors, probing devices, collection bags or containers, and forms to
record any contraband found.
Various types of equipment and their uses:
• Flashlights—used to illuminate dim or unlit areas.
• Screwdrivers—used to remove panels or covers.

Zone/quadrant search
pattern

Figure 3-7

• Mirrors—used for viewing areas not easily seen, such as under or behind bunks, sinks,
toilets and other areas. Mirrors can also be used to search above and beneath vehicles
(see Figures 3-8, 3-9 & 3-10).

Using a mirror to search a transport vehicle before unloading an inmate

A mirror used
in searches

Figure 3-8

Figure 3-9

Figure 3-10

• Probing devices—any item used to search holes, cracks, or hollow areas. One such
method is using a wire to check grills, door tracks, faucets, and drains.
• bags or containers used to collect contraband
• notepads or forms used to record contraband found
• Metal detectors (hand-held or walk through)—devices, often found at entrance
and exit points of the facility, used to detect metallic objects or materials. When
searching a bunk, the officer can scan the mattress instead of physically handling it.
Using this method will protect the officer from possible injury and prevent the
destruction of property (see Figure 3-11).
• X-ray scanners—used to detect contraband in articles like shoes and clothes.
• Canines and their handlers—specially trained to detect certain types of contraband
such as drugs, other chemicals, and cell phones. (CO3-1.5.7)

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The officer should document the search details once the search is completed, using logs,
electronic databases, checklists, or any other identified method. Details may include the
subject’s names, locations, items confiscated, and officers who conducted the search.
(CO3-1.5.8)
All vehicles on facility property are subject to search, including visitors and staff vehicles.
Inmate transport vehicles are of particular concern. They must be searched thoroughly
before and after transport. Conduct these searches systematically. Ensure all
compartments and areas are searched including above and below the vehicle, interior,
exterior, engine, glove box, consoles, and tool box. (CO3-1.5.9)

A hand-held metal detector
used in searches

Figure 3-11

Section Vocabulary
grid search pattern
spiral search pattern
strip/line search pattern
zone/quadrant search pattern

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CHAPTER 4
Facility and Equipment
UNIT 1: EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT
LESSON 1: Issuing, Receiving and Documenting Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .72
LESSON 2: Weapons in a Correctional Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

UNIT 2: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND SENSITIVE SUPPLIES
LESSON 1: Hazardous Materials and Sensitive Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

UNIT 3: ENTERING, EXITING AND MOVING WITHIN FACILITIES
LESSON 1: Security Equipment and Moving Within Secured Areas . . . . . . .79

UNIT 4: INSPECTIONS
LESSON 1: Inspection Criteria and Methods

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

UNIT 5: SECURITY
LESSON 1: Security Standards and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
LESSON 2: Perimeter Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86

UNIT 6: FACILITY SAFETY CONCERNS
LESSON 1: Identifying and Resolving Safety Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

UNIT 7: SANITATION AND HEALTH
LESSON 1: Sanitation Standards and Environmental Health . . . . . . . . . . . .89

Correctional officers are responsible for equipment and materials used to keep correctional facilities clean, safe,
and secure. It is important for a correctional officer to have a basic knowledge of standard equipment used,
including weapons, hazardous materials, and sensitive supplies. Officers must be very familiar with common
problems found when managing equipment; this will help them complete their duty to support the safe and
efficient operation of equipment, and to provide a safe environment for inmates, staff and visitors.

Ch 4 Facility and Equipment

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

UNIT 1 | EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT

LESSON 1 |

Issuing, Receiving, and Documenting Equipment

OBJECTIVES
CO4-1.1.1 List common equipment and
accessories for issue.
CO4-1.1.2 Describe reasons for
inspection of equipment.
CO4-1.1.3 Inspect equipment.
CO4-1.1.4 Inspect equipment to be
issued.
CO4-1.1.5 Remove from service any
substandard equipment.
CO4-1.1.6 Describe the dangers of
improperly handling equipment.
CO4-1.1.7 Confirm identity of persons
receiving equipment.
CO4-1.1.8 Document issue of equipment.
CO4-1.1.9 Document receipt of
equipment.
CO4-1.1.10 List common equipment
and accessories requiring inventory.
CO4-1.1.11 Illustrate a systematic
approach for counting equipment.
CO4-1.1.12 Document inventory of
equipment.
CO4-1.1.13 Verify equipment against
written documentation.

A correctional officer is responsible for identifying and properly accounting for inventory
and issuing and storing equipment. Officers must properly account for all equipment
under their control, and know how to safely and efficiently operate various types of
equipment. Equipment is assigned for use in specific areas, such as inmate living
quarters, food service areas, building maintenance, health care services, and security.
Though some equipment may be assigned to specially trained staff, officers will be
trained by their respective agencies to identify, manage, and inventory all common
equipment used at their facility. Common equipment and accessories that can be issued
to individuals include the following:
• security equipment, such as radios, restraints, weapons, and chemical agents
• housing equipment, such as search mirrors, restraints, and personal protective
equipment (used while entering housing units for searches, to address
disturbances, etc.) (CO4-1.1.1)

Inspecting Equipment
Inspecting equipment ensures the equipment will be available and ready for use when
needed. Inspecting equipment is important for safety reasons, and to verify responsibility
if something is broken. If not inspected periodically, equipment may be neglected.
Neglect can result in damage, such as when poor vehicle maintenance causes mechanical
problems. Likewise, poorly maintained or improperly inspected items such as electronic
control devices can cause malfunctions, and even result in injury or death (CO4-1.1.2).
Inspection involves confirming that the item works, that it has the correct serial number
or property identification number, and that it has not passed its expiration date, if one
is present. (CO4-1.1.3)
Officers should inspect their own equipment to make sure it is sound, safe, and working
properly. They should also inspect equipment before issuing it or receiving it back into the
inventory (CO4-1.1.4). Additionally, before issuing or receiving equipment, the issuing
officer must remove any substandard equipment from the inventory. (CO4-1.1.5).

CO4-1.1.15 Secure equipment.

Officers should use caution when inspecting items during issue and receipt. Mishandling
equipment can hurt an officer or hurt others, or break the equipment. Mishandling
may include incorrectly identifying equipment, not using equipment for its intended
purpose, or using equipment without proper training. (CO4-1.1.6)

CO4-1.1.16 Identify common secured
storage areas in a correctional facility.

Issuing Equipment

CO4-1.1.14 Describe the consequences
of improperly storing equipment.

Each agency has its own identification system to ensure the person receiving or returning
the equipment is authorized to handle the item. If one of the officer’s duties is to issue
or receive equipment in the correctional facility, he or she will be involved in verifying

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the recipient’s identity, and documenting the activity. Officers might check ID cards or
a digital database to verify a person’s identity. (CO4-1.1.7)
To ensure the correct equipment is issued and received, an officer should compare the
item to be issued against information found in a database or log, such as appearance or
serial numbers. The officer should document the time, date, item, item number, and the
names of the issuing and receiving officers. Signatures or identification numbers may be
required (CO4-1.1.8). The officer may also need to document the condition of
equipment when items are received back into inventory and should always document
their receipt. (CO4-1.1.9)

Facility and Equipment Ch 4

CO4-1.1.17 Store equipment after
inventory.
CO4-1.1.18 Identify reasons for tool
and equipment control.
CO4-1.1.19 List tools considered
hazardous in a correctional setting.

Inventorying Equipment
Inventorying is the process of compiling a complete list of tools or equipment on hand.
Common equipment and accessories that should be inventoried include the following:
• building equipment—including maintenance tools and materials used to
complete common upkeep and repairs
• sanitation equipment—used for inmate living areas, such as brooms, mops,
cleaning carts, and cleaning supplies
• health care equipment and accessories—such as medical supplies, dental tools,
and restraints
• food service equipment—including serving utensils, trays, dishes, and cookware
(CO4-1.1.10)
Counting equipment is a vital part of inventory procedures. To count equipment
efficiently, organize the equipment so it is easy to see. You should have an orderly
method or plan you follow to physically count items by hand, such as laying items out
in order, or grouping similar items together before the count. Keep track of items that
cannot be grouped together, such as heavy equipment or sensitive supplies. You may
keep a mental or written list as you count to keep track of your progress before you
enter in the official count.
Be sure to compare the number of items previously listed in the inventory against the
actual number of items you count. Some agencies use shadow boards to store items; an
outline of each item is traced onto a board where the item is hung. When the item is
not returned to the board, it is easy to see what is missing. (CO4-1.1.11)
It is important to correctly identify what is in the inventory. Inventory control
techniques for identification include the following:
• Etch the inventory control number on the tool.
• Compare the tool markings with recorded facility markings.
• Color-code items by classification, e.g., restricted or non-restricted.
• Use inventory lists with descriptions and numbers together.
• Use prepared spaces on a shadow board for storage.

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Your agency will train you in the proper procedures for inventory control and documentation; the agency may
use logs, inventory sheets, or an electronic database. Maintaining accurate logs during inventory is important
for identifying the location of equipment. Reviewing logs is commonly done before, during and after shifts to
verify what equipment has been issued. Logs allow you to identify when an item is missing, not in inventory,
or when an item has been issued, replaced, or repaired (CO4-1.1.12). Each agency’s policies for inventory
control will determine how responsibilities will be assigned, whether by shift, area, job assignment, or
equipment type.
Documentation used in inventory and storage processes should be cataloged and preserved. Forms or logs are
archived and kept for a period of time in order to be made available for later review, and for public record. There
may be a master inventory log or a daily inventory sheet to document items in the inventory that are issued
or returned. (CO4-1.1.13).

Storing Equipment
A correctional officer is responsible for properly storing all equipment in his or her care and control. If the
officer is not paying attention, items can be stolen and used to aid in an escape or assault. Types of equipment
that can be used in escapes or assaults include tools, chemical agents, electronic control devices, restraint
devices, or other nonlethal weapons. (CO4-1.1.14)
Equipment must be stored in secure, designated areas. Equipment is considered secured when access is limited
to authorized persons. Secured storage areas may be considered temporary or permanent (CO4-1.1.15).
Secured storage areas commonly found in a correctional facility include an armory, a mini-arsenal, caustic
chemicals locker, master tool room, a tool cage, an exterior building, or any designated room within the
facility. (CO4-1.1.16)
Equipment is stored in its proper area immediately after inventory to preserve the integrity of the inventory,
to assure that equipment is ready for reissue, and for security reasons. Where an item is stored is based upon
the type of equipment and agency resources. (CO4-1.1.17)

Managing Hazardous Equipment
Correctional officers will encounter times where they need to use hazardous equipment or tools. Inmates may
also use hazardous tools while under staff supervision when completing work assignments. Tools are considered
especially dangerous when they are automated, sharp, heavy, or awkward to manipulate. Correctional officers
are responsible for tool and equipment control for safety reasons; these tools can be used by inmates to commit
a crime, such as an assault on another person, to damage the facility, or to aid in an escape. (CO4-1.1.18)
A list of tools considered hazardous in a correctional setting includes the following:
• basic construction tools: hammer, screwdriver, pliers, shovel, ladder, and hoses
• power tools: electric drill, jigsaw, chainsaw
• cutting tools: band saw, handsaw, hacksaw
• building and grounds maintenance equipment: painting supplies, lawn mower, pipe wrench
• culinary instruments: knife, cleaver, cooking fork, spit, or skewer
• medical/dental instruments with sharp points or cutting edges (CO4-1.1.19)

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UNIT 1 | EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT

LESSON 2 |

Weapons in a Correctional Facility

Weapons and Ammunition
Each agency may choose to issue certain firearms and ammunition depending upon the
correctional officer’s training and qualifications. Some agencies do not issue duty
weapons and ammunition to their correctional staff. Some weapons, such as firearms,
are lethal weapons (deadly force), and some weapons are considered nonlethal. The
purpose of a nonlethal weapon is to incapacitate a person. Nonlethal weapons include
electronic control devices, impact weapons, and chemical agents such as Oleoresin
Capsicum (OC) Spray. (CO4-1.2.1)
Firearms are not carried by staff while on duty inside a correctional facility, but in an
emergency, command staff may authorize issuance of firearms. If an agency permanently
issues firearms and ammunition to staff, staff will be required to secure these in
designated storage areas or secured lockers upon entering the facility. A correctional
officer with a firearm secured at the facility must retrieve it upon leaving the facility.
When being issued weapons and ammunition, the recipient’s identity must be verified.
Each agency will have its own identification system, such as identification cards, weapons
cards, or digital database checks (CO4-1.2.2). The officer issuing weapons and
ammunition will need to process documents authorizing the transaction. The
authorizing documentation will contain details of the firearm or weapon, e.g., serial
number, physical characteristics, etc., and information on the receiving officer,
authorizing his or her eligibility to receive the weapons and ammunition. Signatures
may be required by your agency for each transaction (CO4-1.2.3). The issuing officer
will document the time, date, make, model and serial number, total rounds of
ammunition, and the name of the receiving officer (CO4-1.2.4). The officer in charge
of equipment should perform a safety check when issuing or receiving any firearm.
Inspecting firearms and other weapons for issue involves checking the physical parts of
the weapon for operational soundness, completing a safety check, and making sure the
ammunition is the proper type and is in good condition. The recipient of the firearm
will also perform a safety check (CO4-1.2.5). After an officer has verified that an
individual has been authorized to receive a weapon, and the weapon has been inspected,
the weapon and ammunition can be given to the individual. The person receiving the
items must properly record the transaction. Both individuals must use caution during
this process because mishandling the firearm can result in injury or death. (CO4-1.2.6)

OBJECTIVES

CO4-1.2.1 Describe the different types
of weapons that are issued in a
correctional facility.
CO4-1.2.2 Verify identification of
persons authorized to receive
weapons or ammunition.
CO4-1.2.3 Interpret weapon and
ammunition authorization
documents.
CO4-1.2.4 Document weapons or
ammunition issued.
CO4-1.2.5 Inspect weapons or
ammunition to be issued.
CO4-1.2.6 Provide weapon or
ammunition to an authorized
individual.

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UNIT 2 | HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND SENSITIVE SUPPLIES

LESSON 1 |

Hazardous Materials and Sensitive Supplies

OBJECTIVES

CO4-2.1.1 Define hazardous materials.

CO4-2.1.2 Summarize information
found on Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS).
CO4-2.1.3 Identify guidelines for control
of hazardous materials.

Hazardous Materials
Hazardous materials are substances (solids, liquids, or gases) that when released may
be capable of causing harm to people, the environment, and property (CO4-2.1.1).
Safely managing dangerous, hazardous materials and sensitive supplies in a correctional
facility requires an understanding of the proper care, storage and control of these items
which will promote a safe working environment for staff and inmates.
Hazardous materials include the following:
• acids

CO4-2.1.4 Record the identity of a
person receiving sensitive supplies.

• bleach

CO4-2.1.5 Describe common sensitive
supplies.

• glue

CO4-2.1.6 Identify food items that can be
used to produce illegal substances.
CO4-2.1.7 Describe the dangers of
improperly handling sensitive
supplies.
CO4-2.1.8 Describe maintenance and
care of sensitive supplies.

• insecticides
• gasoline
A correctional officer needs to be able to read and understand the manufacturers’
guidelines and the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) in order to properly handle
hazardous materials. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards
require that all that MSDS documents are available to anyone who comes in contact
with a potentially hazardous substance.
Information found on the MSDS includes the following:

CO4-2.1.9 List safe handling procedures
for sensitive supplies.

I. Product Description—identifying name, description and distributor

CO4-2.1.10 Monitor the use of sensitive
supplies.

III. Hazardous Ingredients—chemical makeup

II. Health Hazard Data—effects of exposure and first aid procedures
IV. Special Protection and Precautions—hygiene, engineering controls
(ventilation, etc.) and personal protective equipment
V. Transportation and Regulatory Data—how to transport or store materials safely
VI. Spill Procedures/Waste Disposal
VII. Reactivity Data—Interactions with other chemicals
VIII. Fire and Explosion Data—flammability
IX. Physical Data—acidity, solubility and specific gravity (CO4-2.1.2)
Properly managing hazardous materials includes inventory control, and monitoring the
location and issue of these supplies. An officer must know how to control the inventory
and have a general knowledge of the use of these items, and an understanding of how
hazardous materials and supplies can become a danger when misused.

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Guidelines for controlling hazardous materials require the correctional officer to do the following:
• issue items only to authorized staff
• record staff name, date, amount, description of material issued, when it is returned, and in what condition
• supervise inmates using hazardous materials closely
• perform frequent inventories
• keep items in secured storage area
• store items in original containers
• store gasoline in approved safety cans (CO4-2.1.3)

Sensitive Supplies
Sensitive supplies refer to supplies used throughout the facility for health, sanitation, or housing maintenance.
It is especially important to record the identity of any person receiving sensitive supplies (CO4-2.1.4). Common
sensitive supplies include medical equipment, medicine, industrial strength cleaners, or other substances used
for facility maintenance. These items can be easily misused or pose a hazard. These supplies may or may not
be considered hazardous materials, and can be used for different purposes in the facility, such as maintaining
vehicles, cleaning and maintaining buildings, addressing pest control problems, for laundry services, to clean
firearms, or for medical purposes. Examples of sensitive supplies include, but are not limited to, paints, fuel,
oil, cleaning solvents, wax, window cleaner, gun oils, solvents, thinners, and bleach. (CO4-2.1.5)
Food service operations use sensitive supplies, such as cooking oils, vanilla, yeast, and nutmeg, which must be
controlled at all times. Some items can be used to produce illegal substances, such as alcohol produced with yeast,
sugar and fruit. Pepper can be used to incapacitate a person (CO4-2.1.6). It is important to use supplies only
for the purpose for which they were intended. You need to follow instructions and follow any listed instructions
and precautions. Improper handling of sensitive supplies can result in items becoming contaminated or
dangerous, which may result in injury or death. Sensitive supplies may become volatile when in contact with
other chemical substances, or when exposed to temperature changes or movement. (CO4-2.1.7).
To properly maintain and care for sensitive supplies, an officer must be careful to do the following:
• Issue and transport supplies according to the MSDS.
• Use appropriate safety gear or protection, e.g., gloves, masks, eye protection.
• Handle supplies only after receiving proper training.
• Never mix cleaning supplies.
• Be careful and thoughtful while moving supplies.
• Ensure a well-ventilated area when necessary.
• Close containers.
• Properly dispose of used cleaning supplies and rags.
• Appropriately supervise use of all supplies. (CO4-2.1.8)
Sensitive supplies may become volatile when in contact with other chemical substances, or when exposed to
temperature changes or movement.

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Section Vocabulary
hazardous materials

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Safe handling procedures for sensitive supplies involve the following:
• Store sensitive supplies in proper containers, such as boxes (wooden, paper,
plastic), drums (metal, plastic), cylinders (metal, plastic), and bags (multi-walled
paper, multi-walled plastic).
• Follow inventory processes.
• Keep supplies clean and securely closed.
• Remove any substandard items. (CO4-2.1.9)
Facilities often receive sensitive supplies in a concentrated form. These supplies need to
be diluted before use. You must be aware of possible allergic reactions when supplies are
handled or mixed. Each agency will vary as to how it monitors the use of sensitive
supplies and identifies and manages requests and purchases by using logs, charts, and
electronic databases. (CO4-2.1.10)

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UNIT 3 | ENTERING, EXITING AND MOVING WITHIN FACILITIES

LESSON 1 |

Security Equipment and Moving Within
Secured Areas

Security Equipment
Security equipment is defined as any item or technology used to enhance or maintain

OBJECTIVES

protection, and to ensure safety (CO4-3.1.1). Security equipment can be electronic,
such as a security camera. Gates or barriers are also a form of security equipment. This
equipment may confine a person or allow an officer to watch the activities of inmates.
The purpose of security equipment is to alert staff of any unauthorized activity, and to
discourage unauthorized movement. (CO4-3.1.2)

CO4-3.1.1 Define security equipment.

Correctional officers need to identify proper handling procedures and be knowledgeable
about approved methods for managing security equipment. Officers need to become
thoroughly familiar with the different types of security equipment at the correctional
facility and the process for issuing and authorizing the use of security equipment. Types
of security equipment in a correctional facility include equipment for personal security,
such as a body alarm system, or equipment used to preserve normal facility operations,
such as radios, perimeter alert systems, perimeter lights, cameras, or microwave systems
(movement detection). A perimeter is a secure area that surrounds a facility and is an
element of security. Perimeters may be large walls, single or double fences, or any other
barriers that prevent unauthorized exit or entry.

CO4-3.1.4 Define sally port.

Other types of institutional security equipment include the following:

CO4-3.1.9 Identify precautions for
operating manual and electronic
gates and doors.

• gates and sally port gates—entrances that open in sequence, one after the other
to confine a person in the space in between

CO4-3.1.2 Describe the uses for
security equipment.
CO4-3.1.3 Describe types of security
equipment.

CO4-3.1.5 State procedures for proper
operation of a sally port.
CO4-3.1.6 Operate manual and
electronic doors.
CO4-3.1.7 Describe types of manual
and electronic locking systems.
CO4-3.1.8 Operate remote control
panels for gates and cell doors.

• doors

CO4-3.1.10 Secure gate or door.

• locks

CO4-3.1.11 Report presence of person(s)
entering or exiting secure area.

• surveillance devices which enable you to view others’ activities from a distance
• internal alarm systems designed to alert staff when an unauthorized activity occurs
• contraband or metal detection systems

CO4-3.1.12 Confirm authorization of
person(s) or vehicle(s) entering or
exiting a secure area.

• razor wire (CO4-3.1.3)
Available security equipment and the application of security measures will differ
according to each agency’s resources. Security measures and the application of security
technology also depend upon the job duties which may require certain devices, e.g.,
electronic shields, restraint devices, chemical agents, detection systems, radios, etc.
Agencies may apply security measures differently in confinement units, entrances, exits,
or special areas.

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Entry and Exit Equipment
Agencies can vary in the equipment, systems, and operational procedures they utilize for entering or exiting
the correctional facility, or restricting movement throughout the facility. Movement into or out of a facility,
or within secure areas, can be controlled at every entrance and exit through a variety of gates and doors. One
special structure for controlling movement is a sally port gate. A sally port is a system of two openings (doors
or gates) designed to open only one at a time. This is used to control the movement of either vehicles or
pedestrians by creating a secure area between the two openings (CO4-3.1.4). Sally ports can be operated
manually or by remote control.
The following steps outline the operation of a sally port system:
• Identify persons or vehicles to be admitted or released.
• Verify authorization for admittance or release.
• Report the activity/presence of persons or vehicles, if required.
• Open the first gate of the sally port.
• Once persons or vehicles have cleared that gate’s threshold, close the gate.
• Search persons and vehicles when both gates are closed, if required.
• Open the second gate after the first gate has closed completely. Never have both gates open at the same
time, unless emergency situations dictate otherwise.
• Close the second gate after persons or vehicles have cleared the threshold.
• Report the movement of persons or vehicles.
• Record the movement of persons or vehicles through the gates or sally port in a log. (CO4-3.1.5)
Staff should be alert and attentive during the operation of doors and gates as they are opened and closed both
for security and safety reasons. Doors or gates are opened either manually or electronically (CO4-3.1.6).

Doors that allow one section of
passage to be closed before opening
another section

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Figure 4-1

A sally port gate within an enclosed garage

Figure 4-2

Facility and Equipment Ch 4

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

A transport van enters a sally port gate
upon arrival at a correctional facility

Figure 4-3

An exterior sally port gate large enough
for vehicles to pass through

Locking systems on doors and gates can be manual or electronic. Manual locking devices
consist of doors, gates, or windows that are operated by keys, locks, chains, levers, or
cranks. Electronic locking devices consist of doors, gates, or windows operated by a
system of electronic switches, panels, buttons, and key cards (CO4-3.1.7). Remote
control panel systems for gates and cell doors may differ in their function and operation.
To operate these panels, you may need to push a button, flip a switch, turn a knob, or
touch a screen (CO4-3.1.8). Injuries and escapes are major concerns during gate and
door operations of sally port systems. Keep all items (vehicles, equipment, and
extremities) clear of the gate’s moving parts during operation. You should know the
location of the manual or operational safety overrides on the gate in case of an emergency
(CO4-3.1.9). Staff should be alert and attentive during the operation of doors and gates
when they are opened and closed for both security and safety reasons.

Figure 4-4

Section Vocabulary
perimeter
sally port
security equipment

In order to prevent escapes, officers must make sure that doors are closed correctly and
are not manipulated or tampered with. If the locking mechanism is not functioning
appropriately, report it immediately so that it can be fixed as soon as possible.
(CO4-3.1.10)
The officer will notify appropriate personnel of the entry or exit of individuals by
completing logs, and by making phone and radio calls (CO4-3.1.11). Using a person’s
identification, it must be confirmed whether he or she is authorized to enter or exit an
area. Information collected will usually include items such as the driver’s license, state
identification information, tag number, make, model and color of vehicle, or other
official documentation. (CO4-3.1.12)

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UNIT 4 | INSPECTIONS

LESSON 1 |

Inspection Criteria and Methods

OBJECTIVES
CO4-4.1.1 List criteria for performing
facility inspections.
CO4-4.1.2 Identify criteria for
performing inspections.
CO4-4.1.3 Describe common inspection
equipment.
CO4-4.1.4 List items needed to record
inspections.
CO4-4.1.5 Describe facility inspection
techniques.

Inspections
Depending upon the type of inspection being conducted, an officer may follow a list,
schedule, or check-off sheet. The type of equipment needed depends upon the purpose
and location of the inspection. Inspections must be thorough, systematic, timely, and
safe (CO4-4.1.1). Criteria may include confirming the presence and functionality of
equipment assigned, and following a schedule for inspections. Inspections are generally
done on a regular schedule, and also conducted before or after a specific activity, such
as visitation, recreation, or inmate transports. (CO4-4.1.2)
Common items are used for inspection, such as flashlights, mirrors, gloves, and probes
(a probe can be as simple as a pencil) (CO4-4.1.3). Common items used to record
inspections include logs, writing pads, inventory lists, and report forms. (CO4-4.1.4)
To complete a basic inspection, the officer will do the following:

CO4-4.1.6 Inspect facility for property
damage.

• Begin the inspection at a specific location.

CO4-4.1.7 Inspect facility for structural
deficiencies.

• Make sure the equipment operates properly.

• Inspect in an orderly sequence.
• Record any deficiencies found during the inspection.
• Make any possible on-the-spot corrections.
• Leave the area the way it was found, never in disorder.
Inspections must be done systematically. Identify starting and ending points, and then
organize the inspection in a step-by-step process. Inspection techniques may also include
taking notes and closing doors when finished. (CO4-4.1.5)
To inspect a facility for structural or property damage, the officer will:
• Schedule the inspection.
• Consult the agency’s inspection guidelines for each type of inspection.
• Be familiar with the structure.
• Review safety procedures for the operation of equipment to be used for
the inspection.
• As determined by the type of inspection, the officer may search inmates, remove
inmates from the area to be inspected, and place inmates under supervision until
the conclusion of the inspection.
• Check area for cleanliness, structural integrity, and safety.
• Review documentation as available and appropriate to complete the inspection
and ensure its accuracy. (CO4-4.1.6)

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The officer should inspect for structural deficiencies by making sure that the structure has not been tampered
with, and to confirm proper functioning of its components. Structural deficiencies generally refer to issues that
affect normal operation or functionality of buildings, and their security. Officers should routinely examine their
surroundings to make sure equipment such as gates, doors, and locks are operational. Some structural
deficiencies require special equipment or special training to conduct an inspection. In these instances, special
inspection methods are sometimes used. For example, inspecting windows on the second floor of a building
at night may require a ladder and a flashlight. Another example would be inspecting fire fighting equipment
or testing gas lines, both of which may require special training. (CO4-4.1.7)

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UNIT 5 | SECURITY

LESSON 1 |

Security Standards and Inspections

OBJECTIVES
CO4-5.1.1 Summarize institutional
security standards.
CO4-5.1.2 Identify the officer’s
responsibility for providing security.
CO4-5.1.3 Identify security concerns
while inspecting a correctional
facility.
CO4-5.1.4 Perform security check.
CO4-5.1.5 Initiate the correction of
security deficiencies.

Security Standards
One of a correctional officer’s important duties is to provide security for the facility by
enforcing security standards. Security standards are the checks and balances that exist to
preserve the operational effectiveness of the facility. These standards ensure the care,
custody and control of inmates and the supervision of visitors within the facility. Security
standards ensure the health, safety and well-being of all persons in the facility and
include definitions of contraband, preventing the introduction of contraband, and
methods of confiscation. (CO4-5.1.1)
A correctional officer is responsible for the security of the entire facility as well as his or
her assigned work area. To ensure safety and security, the officer will conduct general
security inspections throughout the day. Inspection methods and schedules are followed
based upon the work assignment or assigned work area. The officer’s responsibility to
provide security may involve reviewing the integrity of the perimeter, fencing, windows,
doors, lighting elements, and furniture to make sure they are sound and operational
(no loose nuts, bolts, broken furniture pieces, etc.), and the proper functioning of locks,
keys, and microwave systems (motion detectors). The officer will need to apply
situational awareness by observing activity and the surroundings for any potential
problems, and be prepared to address any security concerns immediately. Officers should
use four of their five senses: seeing, hearing, smelling, and touching—when performing
security inspections. (CO4-5.1.2)
Security levels must be maintained to support the normal operations of the facility and
response during emergencies. Security measures require maintaining appropriate levels
of supervision, securing and managing the environment, following basic facility rules,
and enforcing proper behavior and conduct of inmates. This is accomplished by
performing security inspections and security checks. Security inspections are done to
verify “known” elements involved in security, whereas a security check is performed for
the purpose of checking for “unknowns,” or the unexpected.
Conducting security inspections serves to verify operational norms, or “knowns,” and
may include the following:
• Testing security casings, locks, and keys of all openings.
• Checking for broken windows, cut screens, cracked skylights, defective hinges,
loose or scarred bars, uplifted floor tiles, or holes in walls.
• Checking compounds, warehouses, perimeter buildings, storage areas, work areas,
service areas (libraries, training facilities), and fences for structural damage.
• Checking audible alarms and microwave systems for proper function.

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• Checking window bars, gates, fences, and emergency exits for free operation.
• Testing communications and audiovisual monitoring devices for proper function.
• Examining fire extinguishers and fire hoses to make sure they work.
• Checking lights and other electrical systems.
• Checking plumbing, heating, and ventilation systems. (CO4-5.1.3)
Examples of locations where an officer needs to conduct more frequent security inspections are cell rooms,
dorms, and day rooms. Officers should also frequently inspect medical areas or hospital rooms. Inmates who
are temporarily housed in these locations will require extra supervision due to escape attempts at these types
of facilities. Another example would be at a mental health clinic where inmates receive treatment. The mental
health facility may not require or allow mechanical restraints. The lack of restraints can pose an increased
security risk when new routines and requirements are introduced, and security is reduced. Inspections must
be performed upon an inmate’s arrival to any clinic or hospital room, while they are there, and after they leave.
How often a security check is performed will be based upon the security standards in place, the agency’s
protocols, or in response to special conditions, such as an imminent escape. Security checks are varied in
schedule so that inmates do not expect them. Checks will be done more frequently if the facility is in a lockdown status, or in a high security situation. An officer may initiate a security check based on an observation.
The officer should inform staff of the intention to do a security check. An officer might complete security
checks alone, or with another correctional officer. An officer should check all structures in the facility, such as
doors, closets, windows, and locks. Cell doors should be opened to make sure they work. Security checks may
also include monitoring video, either live camera feeds or recorded tapes. (CO4-5.1.4)
You may be able to resolve a deficiency found during an inspection if available resources allow. Examples of
deficiencies found as a result of inspections can include broken locks, bent or broken keys, malfunctioning
hardware on doors and gates, inoperable camera or video surveillance equipment, and broken control panels.
When you find a deficient item that poses a danger, you must notify your supervisor immediately and follow
the supervisor’s directions to resolve the concern. When a deficiency is identified and addressed, a follow-up
inspection will be conducted. In other cases, more formal action may be needed, in which trained personnel
are called in to resolve the deficiency. (CO4-5.1.5)

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UNIT 5 | SECURITY

LESSON 2 |

Perimeter Security

OBJECTIVES
CO4-5.2.1 Describe methods of
patrolling the perimeter.
CO4-5.2.2 Describe common security
perimeter discrepancies.
CO4-5.2.3 Perform a communications
check.
CO4-5.2.4 Notify staff of the disposition
of a security check.
CO4-5.2.5 Document patrol of the
perimeter.
CO4-5.2.6 Secure impacted areas while
resolving a perimeter deficiency.

Perimeter Security
Correctional officers are responsible for maintaining security levels of the perimeter for
operational readiness. They must also be prepared to respond to perimeter security
deficiencies. Perimeters are often monitored or patrolled on both a regular and an
irregular basis, either on foot or with vehicles. The perimeter may also be monitored
through video surveillance, armed observation towers, stationary posts or stationary
vehicles (where correctional staff remain in the area for observation), or in roving vehicles
patrolling a facility. (CO4-5.2.1)
Discrepancies may be identified through inspections or during regular patrols. Security
discrepancies of a perimeter can involve barrier failure, inoperable communications
systems, or weather-related events which negatively impact the integrity or visibility of
the perimeter and the facility. Security discrepancies can also occur as a result of staff
negligence, or when a correctional officer is not paying attention to details. A security
breach can be any of the following: unauthorized inmate activity either near the
perimeter or in a usually unoccupied area, inmates with changed clothing attempting
to approach a perimeter, items hanging in windows, broken windows, civilians or
vehicles approaching the perimeter from the outside, or inmates approaching perimeters
while persons are outside. (CO4-5.2.2)
While patrolling the perimeter, an officer should regularly check in with
the appropriate staff. This communications check should include the
officer’s location and the perimeter status (CO4-5.2.3). Officers are
responsible for following established protocols, such as notifying their
supervisor when a perimeter check is completed. You should let staff
know about any security concerns by using the radio or telephone, and
keeping written or digital logs. (CO4-5.2.4)
The officer must document perimeter patrols. Types of information to
include in the perimeter report include the following:
• condition of gates and fences, windows, lights, cameras
• unfamiliar and unsecured vehicles in the parking lot (CO4-5.2.5)

Razor wire tops a fence on the perimeter
of a correctional facility

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There is a heightened level of security and awareness when responding
to an identified security deficiency. When taking steps to resolve a
Figure 4-5
security discrepancy, the response could include immediately locking
down the facility, performing a thorough security check, and formally
counting the inmates. Additional staff may be assigned to the perimeter

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Facility and Equipment Ch 4

to accommodate security needs while the deficiency is addressed. Other agencies may
be requested to supplement staff as necessary. Depending on the severity of the
deficiency, specially trained response teams may be called in to assist. (CO4-5.2.6)

UNIT 6 | FACILITY SAFETY CONCERNS

LESSON 1 |

Identifying and Resolving Safety Concerns

Safety Standards
The correctional officer has a responsibility to maintain a safe environment for staff,
visitors and inmates. This involves applying knowledge of basic facility rules, regulations
and standards for operation. Providing a safe environment also involves providing
appropriate levels of supervision, and communicating instructions to inmates for
maintaining good behavior. (CO4-6.1.1)
It is essential that a correctional officer be aware of hazards that influence safety. Areas
of safety concern include all areas of the facility, such as grounds, dining halls, recreation
areas, housing areas, work crews, medical areas, visitation areas, the control center, officer
stations, sally ports, and the chapel (CO4-6.1.2). Some safety standards and guidelines
are uniform throughout each agency, and other standards may depend upon the
accrediting association of which the agency is a member.
Safety standards reflect the mission of the facility, and can address equipment
management, such as chemical labeling and equipment storage procedures. Operational
safety standards for facilities include guidelines for inmate classification, lighting, space,
temperature, air control, dietary concerns, and the ratio of inmates to staff. The safety
standards each agency observes will depend upon accreditation guidelines from

OBJECTIVES

CO4-6.1.1 Summarize the officer’s
responsibility for providing safety.
CO4-6.1.2 Specify general areas of
safety concern in a correctional
facility.
CO4-6.1.3 Identify guidelines related to
institutional safety standards.
CO4-6.1.4 List potential hazards in a
correctional facility.
CO4-6.1.5 Identify factors influencing
safety in a correctional setting.
CO4-6.1.6 Initiate the correction of
safety deficiencies.

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organizations that govern those standards. These organizations include Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), Florida Correctional Accreditation Commission (FCAC), American Corrections
Association (ACA), Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS), the National Detention Standards (NDS), and the
Florida Administrative Codes (FAC) 33 and 64E-11 (food service operations). (CO4-6.1.3.)
Potential hazards that could cause unsafe conditions include the following:
• exits covered and not accessible, or exit light not operable or visible
• cluttered walkways, which could potentially cause injuries from falls
• water fountains leaking or overflowing
• inadequate number of fire extinguishers
• inmates smoking in bed or other unauthorized areas
• frayed electrical cords
• inadequate electrical grounding
• loose items on floors
• improper use of tools and equipment
• failure to wear safety equipment
• spills on floor surfaces
• unattended cooking pots; scattered cooking utensils
• grease build-ups in hood systems and around cooking surfaces
• disorderly conduct in dining area
• improperly maintained fire extinguishing equipment (CO4-6.1.4)

Correcting Safety Deficiencies
As a correctional officer, you should resolve safety concerns that influence safety in a correctional setting. These
concerns deal with inmate housing and retaining proper visual and auditory surveillance. An officer must
apply reasonable judgment when enforcing policies and addressing concerns.
Factors that influence safety can involve deficiencies in equipment or the facility’s structure. Equipment
such as fire alarms, emergency lights, fire extinguishers, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA),
Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs), hand rails, and improperly stored equipment can pose a safety
concern when it is deficient. Inspections may require that you touch or visually inspect items, compare
components with manuals, compare an item’s normal functioning to its current status, look for expiration
dates, and determine that it is serviceable. Other factors that can influence safety in the facility include
structural deficiencies related to poor conditions, or facility layout or design that pose a potential for
disruptions of normal facility operations. (CO4-6.1.5)
An officer may be able to resolve a discrepancy during an inspection if available resources allow. When you
find a dangerous item, you must notify your supervisor immediately and follow the supervisor’s directions

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to resolve the safety concern. When a deficiency is identified and addressed, a followup inspection will be conducted. In other cases, more formal action may be needed,
where trained personnel will be called in to resolve the deficiency. (CO4-6.1.6)

UNIT 7 | SANITATION AND HEALTH

LESSON 1 |

Sanitation Standards and Environmental Health

Sanitation Standards
Sanitation standards are guided by F.S. §944.31, which refers to requirements for
facilities to provide clean, orderly and safe surroundings for inmates and staff. How
sanitation needs are addressed is determined by each agency’s resources and is guided by
professional standards, such as the Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS), the Florida
Administrative Codes (FAC), and through accreditation agencies.

OBJECTIVES

CO4-7.1.1 Identify institutional
sanitation standards.
CO4-7.1.2 Describe the elements of a
sanitation plan.

Institutional sanitation standards ensure that the facility environment is healthy, clean,
and disease free. Maintaining good standards has a positive effect on the public, staff and
inmates. (CO4-7.1.1)

CO4-7.1.3 List components of a
complete environmental health
program.

A correctional facility’s sanitation plan outlines the standards for and methods used
to inspect and clean areas, including scheduled inspections and required
documentation. Examples of standards may address heat requirements for laundry
and food service by controlling water temperature for chemicals to be effective in
destroying bacteria and germs. Sanitation equipment and supplies used as part of
sanitation plans include soaps and cleaning compounds, detergent and scouring
powders, mops, brooms, brushes, and cleaning cloths. Different levels of housing have
their own special sanitation considerations.

CO4-7.1.4 Summarize the role of the
correctional officer with regard to an
environmental health program.
CO4-7.1.5 Initiate the correction of
sanitation deficiencies.
CO4-7.1.6 Identify health hazards
within a facility.

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Part of a sanitation plan includes daily routines and schedules concerning the following items:
• housekeeping, trash collection, cleaning floors
• cells and housing areas cleaned
• toilets, sinks, and showers cleaned and sanitized
• activity and service areas cleaned
• garbage cans emptied and cleaned
• special areas cleaned after use
• food service area cleaned after each meal
• frequently laundered inmate clothing and linens (CO4-7.1.2)

Environmental Health Program
The components of a complete environmental health program should include the following:
• sanitary food preparation area
• effective elimination of rodents and pests
• sanitary, adequate water supply that prevents scalding and has either a water fountain or disposable
drinking cups
• adequate amount of heat, cooling, electricity, and ventilation
• adequate lighting and space
• proper sewage and liquid waste disposal
• measures to prevent the spread of communicable diseases
• clean bedding and adequate laundry
• maintenance of facility
• facilities designed and constructed for minimum noise, to accommodate disabled people, and to
minimize dangers of explosion, fire, and spread of fire
• safe storage and accountability for drugs, poisons and flammable, caustic, toxic materials, and
cleaning agents
• sanitation inspections by governmental health officials
• thoroughly trained inmates assigned to operate equipment in special cleaning tasks (CO4-7.1.3)
The role of the correctional officer in an environmental health program is to be thoroughly familiar with the
facility’s requirements, methods, and schedule.
Officers should assign inmates sanitation tasks fairly and consistently, and inmates should be rotated through
assignments so they learn all tasks. As the inmates perform cleanup duties, the officer should supervise and
conduct regular and unpredictable inspections. Cleaning supplies and equipment should be issued, inventoried,
and documented. The officer should look for unsanitary conditions and enforce housekeeping standards for
cells and activity areas (CO4-7.1.4). To initiate correction of a sanitation deficiency, you may be able to resolve
it independently if resources are available and abilities allow. For example, if an inmate overturns a bucket of

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dirty mop water, the situation may quickly be taken care of. In other cases more formal action may be required
where trained personnel will be needed to resolve the deficiency, such as a HAZMAT spill. (CO4-7.1.5)

Health Hazards
The environment may pose health hazards for all who enter a facility. These hazards can include parasitic
outbreaks (scabies, lice), and viral and bacterial illnesses, such as tuberculosis (TB), Human Immunodeficiency
Virus (HIV), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA).
Inspections can result in identifying health hazards, such as plumbing not working appropriately, broken pipes,
unsanitary areas, wet floors, etc. If the health hazard poses an immediate danger, notify your supervisor
immediately. Follow the direction of your supervisor to correct the hazard.
When inspecting for health hazards, the officer will evaluate the environment for cleanliness, the presence
of unusual odors, the extent of clutter, ventilation, hazardous conditions, and possible contagion from
inmates. (CO4-7.1.6)

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CHAPTER 5
Intake and Release
LESSON 1: Intake and Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
LESSON 2: Searching and Inventorying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
LESSON 3: Fingerprinting and Photographing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
LESSON 4: Classification and Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
LESSON 5: Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

The intake, classification, and release processes used by county and state facilities differ in many ways. Each
facility establishes guidelines and procedures based on Florida State Statutes, Florida Model Jail Standards
(FMJS), or Chapter 33 of the Florida Administrative Code (FAC). In the performance of their duties,
correctional officers may be assigned to conduct the intake, classification, or release of inmates. An officer must
have knowledge of facility policies and procedures, state laws, and legal guidelines as they pertain to each
part of the process.
In county detention facilities, admission to the facility is known as intake. In state facilities, admission to the
institution is known as reception. Intake, classification, and release processes include verification of identity,
required documentation, person and property searches, property inventory, issuing hygiene items,
fingerprinting, photographing, assessing custody levels, assigning housing, and releasing of inmates.

Ch 5 Intake and Release

LESSON 1 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Intake and Assessment

OBJECTIVES
CO5-1.1.1 Verify the identity of an
inmate during intake.
CO5-1.1.2 Define arrest papers.
CO5-1.1.3. Describe common features
of arrest papers.
CO5-1.1.4 Define commitment papers.
CO5-1.1.5. Describe common features
of commitment papers.
CO5-1.1.6 Identify terminology used on
arrest or commitment papers.
CO5-1.1.7 Confirm the completeness of
arrest or commitment papers.
CO5-1.1.8 Document intake
information.

Intake Documentation
During intake, the inmate’s identity is verified using various forms of identification,
including the following:
• driver’s license, military ID, or any other type of valid photo ID
• fingerprinting (CO5-1.1.1)
Identity is also verified when an inmate is moved, such as between correctional facilities,
to and from court, or when moved to another area. Before an inmate can be admitted
by a county or state facility, certain legal documents must be presented that support the
arrest or commitment. Arrest papers are defined as the paperwork generated by the
arresting officer that allows for the inmate to be arrested and taken to a county detention
facility for admission. These papers may consist of arrest affidavits, warrants, and other
court orders. (CO5-1.1.2)
Common features of arrest papers include the following:
• personal identifying information about the inmate (name, aliases, date of birth,
sex, race, current address, phone number, Social Security number, height, weight,
driver’s license state and number, and place of birth)
• date and time of arrest

CO5-1.1.9 Give inmate permitted
documents during intake.

• place of arrest

CO5-1.1.10 Obtain medical clearance
of inmate for intake.

• charges, including the statute number(s) and the number of charges

• agency-generated case number
• name of arresting officer and arresting agency
• probable cause affidavit
• copies of warrants or court orders
• victim contact notification, if required by Ch. 960, F.S.
• copies of issued citations for traffic offenses (CO5-1.1.3)

Commitment papers are defined as documents or orders generated by the court that
confine an inmate to a correctional facility after he or she is found guilty of a crime.
(CO5-1.1.4)
Common features of commitment papers include the following:
• judgment and sentence pages (signed by the judge)
• court paperwork with sentencing information and any court recommendation
• current criminal history printout from FCIC/NCIC
• synopsis of inmate’s behavior and adjustment to a correctional setting from the
sending agency noting disciplinary issues and housing assignment while in jail
• medical transfer summary from sending facility (CO5-1.1.5)

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Common terminology on arrest or commitment papers may contain abbreviations for certain aspects of the
arrest or commitment such as:
• NTA—notice to appear. This summons or writ may have been issued in lieu of a physical arrest requiring
a person to appear in court.
• ROR––release on recognizance, sometimes called a signature bond, is the pretrial release of an arrested
person who promises in writing to appear for trial at a later date. No monetary bond is required prior
to release.
• EOS—end (or expiration) of sentence. This date is determined by the court upon sentencing and can
be reduced due to gain time.
• DOB—date of birth as it appears on the inmate’s identification.
• Either “subject” or “arrestee” to identify the individual, instead of inmate. (CO5-1.1.6)
Confirming completeness of arrest or commitment papers is a critical part of the intake process and includes
ensuring that:
• all information is obtained
• all paperwork needed to complete the arrest or commitment is present, such as victim notification,
traffic citations, and copies of warrants
• arrest paperwork is signed by the arresting officer and, if required, the inmate
• commitment papers are signed by the sentencing judge (CO5-1.1.7)
The inmate’s file is created once the arrest and intake documents are completed and are signed by the officer
and inmate. The documents can be maintained electronically or by hard copy placed in the assigned location
specific to that facility. (CO5-1.1.8)
During intake, the inmate will be given the documents he or she is permitted to keep while in custody,
including the following:
• court documents
• legal paperwork pertaining to the inmate’s case
• copies of arrest papers
• copies of property receipts
• inmate handbook for the facility in which he or she is incarcerated
• copy of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) (CO5-1.1.9)
It is the inmate’s responsibility to ensure he or she does not misplace these documents.

Pre-incarceration Medical Assessments
County Detention Facility
According to Florida Model Jail Standards, admitting unconscious, seriously ill, or injured persons into a
county facility without medical clearance is prohibited. Each facility has established guidelines regarding
medical and suicide screenings. The intake officer will observe the inmate for any visible injuries and drug or
alcohol impairment. If injuries or impairment are present, medical staff will assess whether the subject can

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Section Vocabulary
arrest papers

remain at the facility or must be transported by the arresting officer to a hospital
emergency room. Upon return to the facility, the officer will provide written medical
clearance from a physician.

commitment papers

State Facility

intake

Reception is a multi-faceted process that may take several days to complete. Reception
is based on statewide rules and the policies of each reception center. During reception
an inmate will be assigned a unique Department of Corrections number. A health
screening will be completed to establish immediate medical or psychological needs. The
inmate will be fingerprinted for the purpose of obtaining a current criminal history.
Inmate evaluation and facility assignment will be based on such factors as the nature and
severity of the offense, characteristics of the sentence, criminal history, age, and health
status. (CO5-1.1.10)

reception

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LESSON 2 |

Intake and Release Ch 5

Searching and Inventorying

Examining and Searching Inmate
and Property
Upon admission to a county or state facility, inmates and their property are searched
thoroughly and systematically. Searches are essential to the safety and security of the
facility and will be conducted according to policies or procedures. Searches of an inmate
are gender specific (male officers will search male inmates; female officers will search
female inmates) unless emergency situations dictate otherwise.
Officers will not assume that a prior search was conducted by another officer and will
search all inmates entering the facility at intake or reception. At county facilities strip
searches are to be conducted only in accordance with §901.211, F.S. In state facilities
strip searches may be conducted on inmates entering or exiting the facility and may be
conducted at any time to discourage the introduction and movement of contraband.
(CO5-1.2.1)
Officers should employ a method of pat searching inmates to prevent the introduction
of contraband. Wearing disposable gloves, search outerwear such as jackets or layered
clothing, then remove and place the piece(s) of clothing out of the inmate’s reach before
continuing the search. Check clothing carefully; systematically look for tears or hidden
compartments in clothing and footwear in which small items or drugs could be hidden.
Remove and inspect footwear insoles and the part of the shoe under the insole. Turn
footwear upside down and shake or knock it against a hard object to dislodge any
contraband that may be hidden inside.
Remove and inspect all items from wallets, pocketbooks, backpacks, or any other
articles associated with the inmate. Instruct the inmate to take off any jewelry
including body piercings. Examine rings, necklaces, bracelets, and watches for
disguised or concealed contraband.
Check any prescription medication containers to ensure that the name on the container
is the inmate’s. Loose medication or medication not in a labeled prescription container is
considered contraband and should be handled according to facility policy. Also check that
credit cards, bank cards, driver’s license, and ID cards match the inmate’s name. If not,
these items should be brought to the attention of a supervisor. (CO5-1.2.2, CO5-1.2.3)

Inventorying and Documenting Property
Methods of documenting inmate property vary among facilities; however, all require
some type of record keeping for items an inmate has in his or her possession. During
intake it is important to inventory each item as well as note the exact number of
every item.

OBJECTIVES

CO5-1.2.1 Search inmate during intake.
CO5-1.2.2 Describe inmate property
search methods.
CO5-1.2.3 Conduct a thorough and
systematic search of inmate
property.
CO5-1.2.4 Confirm the identity of an
inmate before taking inventory of
inmate property.
CO5-1.2.5 List property items that may
be retained by the inmate.
CO5-1.2.6 Describe types of inmate
personal property that may be
stored.
CO5-1.2.7 Document receipt of inmate
property items.
CO5-1.2.8 Inventory inmate property
during intake.
CO5-1.2.9 Deliver inmate personal
property to designated area.
CO5-1.2.10 Document delivery of
inmate property to storage area.
CO5-1.2.11 List types of hygiene items
for issue to inmate.
CO5-1.2.12 Verify hygiene items to be
issued during intake/reception.
CO5-1.2.13 Document issuance of
hygiene items during
intake/reception.
CO5-1.2.14 Verify identity of inmate
when issuing hygiene items.

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The inmate, whenever possible, should be present at the time his or her property is inventoried. When dealing with
multiple inmates, take care to ensure the property being inventoried belongs to the correct inmate. (CO5-1.2.4)
Check all non-clothing items to ensure that they are not tampered with and are in their original form. Make
sure the item is not considered contraband by facility regulations. Dispose of contraband according to facility
policy or procedure. In accordance with Florida Statutes additional criminal charges may be made against an
inmate who introduces contraband into the facility.
Inmates are limited as to what property they can retain at intake. Generally, facility policy or procedure only
permits inmates to retain certain types of property upon intake:
• religious materials
• legal paperwork pertinent to the inmate’s case (search but do not read; remove paper clips, staples, and
any other contraband before returning the paperwork)
• medically necessary items as cleared by medical staff (prosthetics, wheelchairs, braces)
• photographs (allowed but limited in quantity and content, as determined by facility policy or procedure)
• personal hygiene items (CO5-1.2.5)
Be as specific as possible when inventorying and describing property that may be stored until an inmate’s
release. Be sure to:
• List all clothing by type and color.
• List jewelry by item, description and color; use terms such as “yellow” or “white metal with clear or
colored stones;” avoid determining value. List watches by brand name, if known. Notate any missing
stones, damage, or abnormalities to the property.
• Note that all forms of identification (photo ID, Social Security card, etc.) are in the inmate’s name.
• List credit/debit cards, bank cards, checks (may include check numbers but not account number), and
other monetary instruments by name and issuing entity.
• Record money by denomination and amount, e.g., 2 twenty dollar bills, 1 ten dollar bill, 2 five dollar
bills, and 3 quarters for a total of 60 dollars and 75 cents. Some agencies require a second person to verify
cash amount. Deposit money in the inmate’s account.
• List the number of keys an inmate has in his or her possession and describe the key chain or key ring,
if present.
• List cell phones or other electronic devices by brand and note the overall condition. Turn off devices and
remove the battery before storing. (CO5-1.2.6)
After the inmate’s property is documented the officer may review the form with the inmate to ensure all items
are accounted for. The inmate and officer should sign and date the property inventory form. If the inmate
refuses to sign the property inventory form, note the refusal; a second officer will verify the inventory and sign
the form. (CO5-1.2.7, CO5-1.2.8)
Once an inmate’s personal property has been inventoried and documented, deliver it to a designated property
room according to agency policies and procedures (CO5-1.2.9). Some facilities require inmates to release their
property to a specific individual or mail it to a recipient away from the facility at the inmate’s own expense.
Many facilities have assigned property officers who are responsible for the storage and final disposition of

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property. The property officer is accountable for storing all property, ensuring the property room is secured at
all times, inventorying property, and documenting the delivery or release of all property. (CO5-1.2.10)

Facility-Issued Items
Hygiene items such as bath soap, toothpaste, a toothbrush, shampoo, comb and toilet paper are issued to
inmates upon entry into a facility (CO5-1.2.11). The officer should review policy and procedure for the
allowable types and amounts of agency-issued items. The items being issued must be checked for contraband
before being provided to the inmate (CO5-1.2.12). Document the issuance of hygiene items in accordance with
policy or procedure. (CO5-1.2.13)
To stop inmate attempts to use other inmate’s identification to try to obtain additional hygiene items, check
the inmate’s ID card, armband identification, or wristband identification to confirm that the photo matches
the inmate being issued hygiene items. (CO5-1.2.14)

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LESSON 3 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Fingerprinting and Photographing

OBJECTIVES
CO5-1.3.1 Identify the purposes of
fingerprinting.
CO5-1.3.2 List criteria for completing a
fingerprint card.
CO5-1.3.3 Specify methods of
fingerprinting.
CO5-1.3.4 Fingerprint inmates during
intake.

Fingerprinting and Photographing
Fingerprints are taken upon intake or reception for the purpose of obtaining, verifying,
and documenting both the identity and the past criminal history of the inmate (CO51.3.1). Fingerprints are submitted to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement
(FDLE) electronically or by inked card. FDLE is the repository for all fingerprint
submissions in Florida and, in turn, forwards fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI).
Both FDLE and the FBI have established criteria when completing fingerprint cards
that include the following:
• visible and clear fingerprint patterns

CO5-1.3.5 Describe fingerprinting
equipment.

• fingerprints in proper spaces

CO5-1.3.6 List personal data required
on a fingerprint card.

• proper notations for special problems

CO5-1.3.7 Identify signatures required
on fingerprint card.
CO5-1.3.8 Describe the relationship
between FCIC and NCIC.
CO5-1.3.9 Describe the information
available through the Florida Crime
Information Center (FCIC).
CO5-1.3.10 List the information
available through the National
Crime Information Center (NCIC).
CO5-1.3.11 Identify legal requirements
regarding the use of FCIC/NCIC
information.
CO5-1.3.12 Describe requirements for
photographing an inmate.
CO5-1.3.13 Specify information to
include when generating an inmate
identification wristband or ID card.

100

• fingerprints on proper type of card (if inked)
• the fingerprint should be free of smudges
• the finger should be rolled from nail to nail to ensure completeness, then lifted
up and away to avoid smudging
• all information complete and accurate (CO5-1.3.2)
There are two methods of fingerprinting. The most common is the electronic fingerprint
system using the Biometric Identification Solution (BIS) (formerly known as Automated
Fingerprint Identification System or AFIS). However, some facilities may still use inked
fingerprints (CO5-1.3.3). Regardless of the way the fingerprints are taken, certain
principles should always be followed. Fingers must be clean and dry before
fingerprinting. The inmate being fingerprinted should be asked to stand in front of and
a forearm’s length away from the fingerprinting device. Depending on the officer’s
preference and the device used to take the fingerprints, the inmate should stand to the
right and rear of the officer taking the fingerprints. Generally, the weight of the finger
is enough to make an impression; the finger does not have to be pressed. Make sure the
thumbs are rolled toward and the fingers are rolled away from the center of the
individual’s body; this allows a natural motion from a hand position that is more difficult
to hold to an easier, relaxed hand position. This process allows the hand to relax so
smudges are less likely. (CO5-1.3.4)

Intake and Release Ch 5

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Taking fingerprints electronically

Figure 5-1

Figure 5-2

Figure 5-3

Biometric Information Identification Systems Solution
(BIS)
BIS is connected directly electronically to FDLE. The system receives submissions and generates responses
automatically. The information generated by BIS is only as accurate as the data submitted by the officers. The
fingers are rolled on a glass panel to obtain the prints. A touch screen allows the user to navigate from screen to
screen as needed and a keyboard is used to type the identifying data related to the inmate. The dedicated printer
holds blank cards on which the just-rolled prints are printed once confirmed. During the fingerprint process BIS
attaches a grade to the fingerprint (A, B, or C) and will reject a fingerprint if it is not rolled properly. Additionally,
many agencies in the state now obtain fingerprints using a biometric identification device known as Rapid ID.
This device sends scanned fingerprints to FDLE’s BIS system.

Inked Fingerprints
The same principle of rolling the fingers applies when taking inked prints as when using BIS. Paper card
submissions are either for the purposes of arrest or applicant or personal identification and are submitted to
FDLE through the postal service.
Materials used for taking manual (inked) fingerprints include the:
• fingerprint card holder—usually a metal clip that secures the card in place while fingerprints are taken
• fingerprint cards—preprinted white cardstock that features a boxed grid for rolled prints as well as
space at the bottom for simultaneous or plain prints. There is a separate card for printing the edge of
the hand (“writer’s palm”) and to allow for fingerprinting both palms (upper and lower).
• fingerprint ink—special black fingerprint ink is usually packaged in tubes, although there are also
inked pads available commercially
• printer’s roller—round rubber tube with a handle used to spread fingerprint ink on the inking plate

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• inking plate—usually a piece of clear plastic or metal on which ink is rolled to a thin film before
transferring to the fingers
• fingerprint table—may be stationary or portable and is usually at the height of an average person’s
elbows (CO5-1.3.5)
The officer will record personal information about the inmate, on the card, that could include name, race, sex,
birth date, Social Security number, criminal charges, and the case number (CO5-1.3.6). Both the inmate and
officer taking the fingerprints are required to sign the fingerprint card in the spaces provided: the inmate signs
on the front; the officer will print and sign his or her name on the back. (CO5-1.3.7)

Florida Crime Information Center (FCIC)/National
Crime Information Center (NCIC)
Fingerprints and criminal history submissions are entered electronically into the Florida Crime Information
Center (FCIC) maintained by FDLE. This information is then forwarded to the National Crime Information
Center (NCIC), the automated data system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. FCIC/NCIC
maintains fingerprint information, providing accurate and current data to certified users
(CO5-1.3.8). Since the information is originally generated at the local level, it is essential that arresting officers,
county jails or detention facilities, and state institutions provide accurate information. The information
generated by BIS is only as accurate as the data submitted by the officers.
The primary function of the FCIC is to provide access to criminal histories of individuals arrested in Florida,
including wanted persons (Florida warrants only), probation information, and offenders of special concern.
FCIC assigns each subject a State Identification number (SID) unique to the individual that is used to obtain
and maintain records of the following information:
• demographics (name, race, sex, date of birth)
• Florida arrest history (date of arrest, county in which the arrest(s) occurred, arresting agency)
• disposition of arrest (convicted, adjudication withheld, etc. Note: this information is not always available
on all arrests) (CO5-1.3.9)
The primary function of the NCIC is to provide access to the criminal history of all subjects arrested in the
United States and its territories including wanted persons’ information (warrants nationwide). NCIC assigns
the arrestee an FBI number which, when entered into the system, provides information on a specific person
such as:
• demographics (name, race, sex, date of birth)
• arrest(s) for a subject in the United States or its territories
• location of arrest (county and state)
• arresting agency
• date of arrest
• disposition of arrest (convicted, adjudication withheld, etc. Note: this information is not always available
on all arrests) (CO5-1.3.10)

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Intake and Release Ch 5

Legal requirements regarding the use of NCIC/FCIC information include the following:
• certification—all persons, officers or civilians using FCIC/NCIC must be certified. Unless certified, an
individual cannot use or even access the FCIC/NCIC computer.
• restriction—information obtained from FCIC/NCIC is for criminal justice purposes only and should not be
used for personal reasons. Individuals cannot use the system to check on family, friends, or coworkers.
• confidentiality—information obtained from FCIC/NCIC is confidential and is for criminal justice purposes
only. Someone outside the agency may receive certain background information through a paid public records
request, although they are not entitled to everything that appears on an FCIC/NCIC printout.
(CO5-1.3.11)
It is important to search both FCIC and NCIC when attempting to identify an inmate as he or she may have a criminal
record in Florida and another state. When checking for an outstanding warrant or detainer on an inmate, it is best to
provide as much information as possible. If an outstanding warrant is found, the FCIC operator will follow “hit”
confirmation guidelines. The jurisdiction that generated the wanted person’s entry will confirm the warrant and may
request a hold or detainer, if the pick-up status is met.

Photographing
Photographs taken at intake or reception provide a visual record of each inmate. Make sure that the inmate’s eyes are
open and that his or her hair is not obstructing the full view of his or her face. Photographs should include front and
side profiles. Other photographs may also include tattoos, distinguishing scars, or marks helpful in identifying an
individual. Scars, marks or tattoos are also used to help identify members or affiliates of security threat groups (STGs).
(CO5-1.3.12)
Inmate photographs may be used to generate an identification wristband or ID card. Most IDs are printed from a
computer and often have the inmate’s photo, sex, race, date of birth, and agency-generated identification number
(CO5-1.3.13). Inmate identification will be displayed at all times the inmate is dressed.

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LESSON 4 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Classification and Housing

OBJECTIVES

Classification
Classification is defined as a management tool used by facilities to assign custody

CO5-1.4.4 Define minimum security
level.

grades or security risk levels to inmates (CO5-1.4.1). Classification will be applied to all
inmates admitted to a facility as soon as practical. Classification is an ongoing process
as reassessments are conducted throughout an inmate’s incarceration. Reclassification
may be necessary based on the inmate’s behavior or new criminal charges. Criteria for
establishing custody grade or security risk levels during classification may include current
charges, criminal history, age, sex, current and past behavior (discipline), medical and
psychological needs, and degree of crime and length of sentence (CO5-1.4.2.).
Classification screening and determination of custody risk levels differ between county
and state facilities.

CO5-1.4.5 Define medium security
level.

County Custody Risk Levels and Criteria

CO5-1.4.6 Define maximum security
level.

Minimum, medium and maximum are county custody, or security risk levels as
determined by facility policy or procedure. (CO5-1.4.3)

CO5-1.4.1 Define classification.
CO5-1.4.2 List the criteria for
determining the types of
classification assignments.
CO5-1.4.3 Specify inmate security
risk levels.

CO5-1.4.7 Define community custody
grade.
CO5-1.4.8 Define minimum custody
grade.
CO5-1.4.9 Define medium custody
grade.
CO5-1.4.10 Define close management
custody grade.
CO5-1.4.11 Define maximum custody
grade.
CO5-1.4.12 Identify categories of initial
segregation.
CO5-1.4.13 Assign housing to inmate.

Minimum security level is for inmates considered low risk: those who have adjusted
well to being incarcerated, have a minimal criminal history with no violent charges in
their history, or are currently charged with a nonviolent crime. (CO5-1.4.4)

Medium security level is for inmates considered moderate risk: those who have
adjusted to being incarcerated in the past and have limited violence in their criminal
history. (CO5-1.4.5)
Maximum security level is for inmates considered high risk: those who have serious
and violent felony charges pending or pose a threat to the safety of staff and security of
the facility. (CO5-1.4.6)

State Custody Grades and Criteria
Community, minimum, medium, close, and maximum are state custody grades as
defined in Chapter 33-601.210, FAC.

Community custody grade refers to inmates who are eligible for placement at a
community residential facility. (CO5-1.4.7)

Minimum custody grade refers to inmates who are eligible for outside work
assignments but not for placement in a community residential center. (CO5-1.4.8)

Medium custody grade refers to inmates who are eligible for placement at a work
camp with a secure perimeter but who are not eligible for placement in an outside work
assignment without armed supervision. (CO5-1.4.9)

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Close custody grade refers to inmates who must be maintained within an armed
perimeter or under direct, armed supervision when outside a secure perimeter.
(CO5-1.4.10)

Intake and Release Ch 5
Section Vocabulary
classification

Maximum custody grade refers to inmates who are sentenced to death. (CO5-1.4.11)

close custody grade

Housing

community custody grade

Initially, inmates may be temporarily segregated from others in a holding cell, during
intake, while awaiting a permanent housing assignment. Male and female inmates
should be separated to prevent normal sight and sound contact. Juvenile offenders
should be separated from adult inmates in the same manner. County facilities that
process juveniles will follow guidelines provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile
Justice (DJJ). Juveniles detained in county facilities pending court disposition must have
been direct filed, indicted, or waived. A juvenile is direct filed when he or she is charged
as an adult and the cases is transferred out of the Juvenile Division. If this criterion has
not been met, a juvenile must be transported to the nearest juvenile intake facility.
(CO5-1.4.12)

maximum custody grade
maximum security level
medium custody grade
medium security level
minimum custody grade
minimum security level

Housing assignments are based on an inmate’s potential or inherent risk and needs.
Housing assignments will be provided to all inmates admitted to a facility as soon as
practical. After an inmate has completed the intake/reception process he or she will be
assigned to a housing unit based on facility guidelines. Restrictions may apply due to
security concerns, high profile cases, or medical and psychological needs, such as suicidal
tendencies. Officers should be aware that there is a high risk of suicide in inmates within
the first twenty-four (24) hours of incarceration.
The primary objective of classification is to place inmates in the type of housing that best
meets their needs and to provide reasonable protection for all inmates. Most facilities
have designated sworn or civilian classification personnel who will complete the
appropriate housing assignment documentation. (CO5-1.4.13)

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Ch 5 Intake and Release

LESSON 5 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Release

OBJECTIVES
CO5-1.5.1 Define release.
CO5-1.5.2 Explain DNA requirements
for convicted or charged felons
(§943.325, §925.11, F.S.)
CO5-1.5.3 Check for an outstanding
warrant or detainer on an inmate.
CO5-1.5.4 Confirm identity when
releasing inmate property.
CO5-1.5.5 Identify inmate property to
be released.
CO5-1.5.6 Search inmate property for
contraband prior to release.

Releasing an Inmate
Release is the process by which inmates are discharged from a county detention facility
or state correctional institution. Release usually involves verification, authorization,
documentation, transportation or arranging of transportation, and actual physical release
of an inmate. (CO5-1.5.1)
Releases are granted through a court order, posting of bond, pretrial release, or expiration
of sentence (EOS). The posting of bond requires the arrestee to pay the court a
designated fee to assure his or her appearance in court. Release on recognizance requires
no payment for assurance. If the defendant does not appear, any money posted is
forfeited and a warrant is issued. To verify release documentation the officer will review
the order for accuracy and completeness, confirm that the release order was issued for
a specific inmate, and verify that the release order was issued by the proper authority.
Common procedures to follow before releasing an inmate may include the following:
• checking to make sure any special conditions have been satisfied

CO5-1.5.7 Release property to an
inmate.

• notifying others within the facility as required

CO5-1.5.8 Define gratuity.

• notifying any victim(s), if required

CO5-1.5.9 Issue gratuity to an inmate
upon release.

• resolving any grievances or claims for damage or loss

CO5-1.5.10 Return an inmate’s
personal property upon release.
CO5-1.5.11 Document details of
property release.
CO5-1.5.12 Document an inmate’s
release.

• notifying the inmate of his or her impending release

• obtaining a DNA sample in accordance with Florida Statutes (§943.325,
§925.11), which require that DNA be collected from persons convicted of or
arrested for felony or attempted offenses and convicted of certain misdemeanor
offenses. Additional offenses may be added each year subject to sufficient funding
by the Legislature and approved by the Governor. (CO5-1.5.2)
• completing any criminal registration process (county)
• providing instructions for criminal registration reporting (state)
Additionally, an officer should check for outstanding warrants or detainers. (CO5-1.5.3)
Follow agency policy and procedure when releasing inmate property. Begin by verifying
the inmate’s identity (CO5-1.5.4). Using the inmate’s ID, locate the inmate’s stored
property and thoroughly search it for contraband in any stored property (CO5-1.5.5,
CO5-1.5.6). Once the property is searched and confirmed it is released to the inmate.
(CO5-1.5.7)
Inmates released from a state facility may be entitled to certain monetary gratuities.
A gratuity is money given to qualified inmates discharged from the custody of the
Department of Corrections per 33-601.502, FAC (CO5-1.5.8). Document any gratuity
issued to an inmate. (CO5-1.5.9)

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Prior to the inmate’s release, he or she will sign a receipt for returned money, personal
property and release papers or certificate. Return the inmate’s personal property upon
release according to agency policy or procedure. (CO5-1.5.10)
Each agency has procedures for the actual physical release of inmates and their property,
which includes documenting the details of the property release (CO5-1.5.11). The
releasing officer will document all release information in the inmate’s file, close out the
file, and store the file as required. (CO5-1.5.12)

Intake and Release Ch 5
Section Vocabulary
gratuity
release

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CHAPTER 6
Supervising in a Correctional Facility
LESSON 1: Observation and Monitoring of Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
LESSON 2: Supervision of the Referral Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
LESSON 3: Inmate Discipline Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
LESSON 4: Inmate Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
LESSON 5: Inmate Dining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
LESSON 6: Processing Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
LESSON 7: Visitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
LESSON 8: Escorting Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
LESSON 9: Transporting Inmates

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

LESSON 10: Work Squads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
LESSON 11: Hospital Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140

The primary activity of a correctional officer is the care, custody, and control of inmates. By developing
supervisory and observational skills, practicing officer safety, and following the policies and procedures of his
or her agency, the officer will ensure the safe operation of a correctional facility while fulfilling his or her
responsibilities.

Ch 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility

LESSON 1 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Observation and Monitoring of Inmates
Observation Skills

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.1.1 List primary components of
observation.
CO6-1.1.2 Identify environmental
factors to consider during the initial
stage of observation in a
correctional facility.
CO6-1.1.3 Identify indicators of a
possible escape attempt.

A correctional officer’s application of observational skills is key to supervising inmates
in a correctional facility. Observing is being aware of your surroundings and paying
close attention to details. Inmates must be monitored at all times, such as when they are
entering or exiting a housing area, which is critical to officer safety and security. Officers
should be mindful of their surroundings in order to prevent potential threats and safety
hazards to fellow officers, staff, inmates, and the public. Observe behavioral patterns of
inmates to decide if the situation is normal or requires action. (CO6-1.1.1)

CO6-1.1.7 State uses of surveillance
equipment.

The initial stage of observation is monitoring inmate behavior using the primary senses
of seeing, hearing, touching, and smelling. Using these senses enables officers to observe
environmental changes within the facility. Look for any alterations or damage to
property or equipment, sudden changes in weather, and tension among inmates (CO61.1.2). An example would be smelling smoke, seeing a sudden flash of lightning, or
feeling loose bricks or chipped tiles. Changes in inmate behavior could include hearing
a variation in the noise level, observing improper contact between inmates or staff, or a
violation of inmate conduct such as unauthorized attire, whistling, sexual comments,
assaults, and escape attempts. Also, as the environment changes, maintain a heightened
awareness. An officer will use his or her senses and awareness of surroundings to observe
changes in inmate behavior and respond appropriately.

CO6-1.1.8 Define an unusual
occurrence in a correctional setting.

Visual Skills

CO6-1.1.4 Identify inappropriate inmate
attire.
CO6-1.1.5 Recognize suspicious noises
or activity.
CO6-1.1.6 Monitor inmates’ behavior in
the housing area.

CO6-1.1.9 Identify signs of a potential
disturbance or riot.
CO6-1.1.10 List usual and unusual
occurrences that should be
documented.
CO6-1.1.11 Describe methods of
recording inmate movement.

Out of the five senses, the one most used for observation is sight. By watching the actions
of inmates, officers should observe changes in their surroundings, and identify missing
items or damage to equipment and property.
Inmates gathering in a group that keeps an officer from seeing what is going on could
be dangerous. Officers should take the necessary steps to disperse the group by making
their presence known and giving the group verbal commands, such as telling them to
break up and move on.

Monitoring Inmate Behavior
Paying attention to changes in the housing area can also alert officers to possible illegal
activities, such as escape plans or attempts. Indicators of a possible escape include an
inaccurate count, missing screws, broken windows, damaged toilets (such as a toilet being
separated from the wall), evidence of digging through walls or floors, or loosening of
security bars. Other signs of a potential escape may be inmates hoarding excessive sheets
or towels, maps of facilities and the surrounding area drawn on walls, ground, or any paper
products, coded messages in the mail, or finding visitors or other inmates in unauthorized
areas (CO6-1.1.3). Incidents such as a fire or a medical emergency, grouping of inmates,
or a staged fight might be used as distractions for escape attempts or other illegal activity.

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When inmates enter or exit the housing area, identify the inmate by photo ID, arm band, or uniform color.
Officers should compare the identification method with the housing roster. The color of the uniform may
reveal the inmate’s classification, work assignment, or housing location. For example, an inmate’s ID tag will
confirm whether the inmate is authorized to be in that area.
Officers must observe that the inmates clean their living areas and practice personal hygiene to minimize
health hazards. An inmate practicing poor personal hygiene can draw unwanted attention, causing conflict
between inmates. Showers, toiletries, personal hygiene items, and uniforms are available to inmates. Ensure
that inmates follow the established housing standards, showering schedules, and uniform guidelines.
Inmates dressed according to agency policy will make it easier to see concealed contraband or identify signs
of security threat groups (STGs). Inmates may modify their uniforms by rolling up a pant leg, tying their
shoes in a specific pattern, writing graffiti on clothes, and wearing clothes backwards or inside out. An inmate’s
appearance can also be an indicator of a potential security risk; for example, an inmate wearing seasonally
inappropriate clothing may be concealing contraband. Inmates may alter their physical appearance with
tattoos, different hairstyles, and body piercings (CO6-1.1.4). These security violations must be addressed
and documented.

Listening Skills
Listening skills are an essential component of effective observation. Correctional officers should be aware of
different noises and noise levels in the facility, which may indicate potential violations. It may be normal for
noise levels to increase when inmates are watching sporting events or participating in activities, but an officer
should nonetheless remain alert for signs of a threat. You should listen to inmate communications for key
words, slang, or changes in voice inflection.
During sleeping hours, excessive or unusual noise might indicate a potential problem. For example, a loud
banging or scraping noise coming from a cell, screaming, crying, and repeated flushing of toilets must be
investigated (CO6-1.1.5). These sounds could be a sign of a possible fight, sexual assault, the sharpening of a
shank, or an escape attempt.
Suspicious activities or behaviors, such as slamming a door or locker, yelling, fighting, or faking an injury
could be an attempt to distract an officer in order to commit a violation. Unusual activity could be an indicator
that a problem is occurring or about to occur. The officer should assess the situation and determine if additional
resources are needed. If there is a threat, the officer should immediately contact a supervisor and take required
action. After the situation has been resolved safely, officers should document it as required.
Changes in inmate behavior, especially in the housing area, should be closely monitored. These changes could
be the result of divorce, notification of a death in the family, loss of a work assignment, or receiving additional
charges. (CO6-1.1.6)

Surveillance Equipment
Correctional facilities have blind spots. These are areas or locations that are difficult for officers to monitor for
inmate activity and may pose a security or safety concern. Blind spots are locations within a facility that have
limited visibility, such as corners, closets, doorways, and stairwells. Surveillance equipment such as video cameras,
lighting, and concave wall mirrors enhance an officer’s ability to monitor daily operations within the facility.

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This equipment helps officers reduce blind spots, monitor inmates, limit the introduction of contraband,
observe illegal activities, and respond to incidents safely and quickly (CO6-1.1.7). Surveillance equipment can
provide visual and audio evidence to support documentation for incident reports, investigations, or any
additional needs.

Observing Unusual Occurrences
An unusual occurrence is any incident that is out of the ordinary and disrupts the normal operations of
the facility.
There are many incidents that could negatively impact the security of the facility. These may include:
 inmate or staff death

 serious injuries to inmate or staff
 suicide or attempted suicide

 escapes or attempted escapes
 criminal acts

 inability to clear count

 inmates fighting
 use of force

 power or water outages at the facility

 inmate strikes (refusal to eat or work)
 riots

 hostage situations

 bomb threats or detonation
 fire

 manmade and natural disasters
 sexual assault

 lost or missing equipment, particularly keys (CO6-1.1.8)
Any incident can lead to a disturbance in a correctional setting, provoking a response from other inmates, and
possibly escalating to major disturbances or riots. Officers should address minor incidents immediately to
avoid inmates taking matters into their own hands. When inmates seek retribution, sympathetic participants
could join in the conflict, and a small, containable incident could grow out of control.

Signs of Potential Disturbances
Officers should always be looking for indicators of an impending disturbance or riot and take proactive
measures to prevent these incidents from occurring. Indicators of potential disturbances include the following:
 inmates gathering in a particular area
 inmates staying in their cells

 inmates requesting to be transferred or moved

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 increase of inmate-on-inmate violence

 inmates acting out in order to be placed in special protection or isolation
 low staff or inmate morale

Section Vocabulary
unusual occurrence

 inmates avoiding areas where large numbers of other inmates congregate
 inmates storing food

 inmates warning staff to stay home on particular days

 an increase in security threat group-related (STG) activities
 an increased number of weapons found in searches
 information from inmate informants

 increased separation along racial or ethnic lines
 inmates making specific demands (CO6-1.1.9)

Documentation
Logs, report forms, and video tapes are used to document the facility operations, daily
activities, and unusual occurrences. Completing accurate documentation is essential for
safety, security, and accountability. Examples of usual and unusual occurrences that need
to be documented include the following:
 inmate counts

 fights

 sick call

 fire

 meals

 cell searches

 clinical visits

 security checks

 workgroup assignments
 court appearances
 visitation

 transports

 suicide attempts
 natural disasters
 riots

 escapes or attempted escapes
 sexual assaults
 use of force

 bomb threats

 medical and mental emergencies (CO6-1.1.10)

Written reports keep the facility staff informed about developments and problem areas.
It is particularly important to document inmate movement (such as moving inmates
between dorms and the dining hall or to and from medical and visitation). This
documentation helps verify counts and work assignments. Use forms and logs to
document inmate movement, taking care to note any incidents. (CO6-1.1.11).

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LESSON 2 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Supervision of the Referral Process

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.2.1 List institutional referral
services.
CO6-1.2.2 Identify changes in inmate
behavior which may indicate the
need for a referral.

It is critical that an officer effectively observes and recognizes an inmate in distress and
in need of referral services. The officer must become familiar with the agency’s referral
process to ensure the inmate receives the appropriate care.

Referral Services in the Facility
Cooperation and adequate communication between the officer and the service provider
is vital to the proper care and treatment of inmates. Inmates may be referred to the
following providers:

CO6-1.2.3 Describe procedures needed
for a referral.

• medical

CO6-1.2.4 Assess the safety risks of a
referral.

• psychiatric

CO6-1.2.5 Describe steps to take when
escorting inmates who have
received a referral.
CO6-1.2.6 Identify individuals to notify
in the referral process.

• dental
• chaplain
• substance abuse services
• classification (e.g., housing location or work assignment)
• Additional services may be provided, such as educational or legal services.
(CO6-1.2.1)
Being familiar with the referral process will allow for a prompt response by the officer,
needed resources for the inmate, and safety and security of the facility.

Identifying the Need for a Referral
Sudden or unusual changes in behavior may indicate the need for referral. Being familiar
with inmates under your supervision allows you to observe and recognize changes in
behavior. Information used for a referral may include statements made by the inmate,
observed behavior, or another reason, such as a personal crisis. This information may be
helpful to the service provider in determining the treatment options.
Some signs and symptoms of distress or need are illness, physical pain, odd movement,
or unresponsiveness. Obvious signs or changes to observe in an inmate may include
difficulty walking, low energy, screaming, crying, weight loss, a rash, or a severe cough.
It is important to be aware of changes in behavior, especially when these changes happen
suddenly. Behavioral changes include giving away belongings, wanting to be alone,
changes in normal behavior, not eating, acting strangely, unusual interactions with others,
restlessness, or lack of personal hygiene. Psychological symptoms may require more
interaction to determine the severity of the need. These symptoms may include abrupt
changes in demeanor, mood swings, depression, or suicidal thoughts. (CO6-1.2.2)
Inmates may request a referral for services; treat this request as if you observed a need
for a referral. Additionally, staff, friends, family members or other inmates may report
strange inmate behavior. Cell searches also could allow officers to detect suicide notes
or other evidence of referral needs.

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The determination for referral is based on information obtained and the officer’s knowledge of the institution’s
available services. After careful assessment, the inmate should be referred to the most appropriate service
provider. For example, if the officer observes bizarre behavior, this will require a psychological referral.
Illnesses and injuries require a medical referral. If the type of service the inmate needs is not obvious, the
officer should contact his or her supervisor for further direction.
Once the need for a referral is identified, the officer will gather relevant facts to explain the decision to refer.
Personally observe the inmate, and interview the inmate, staff, or others.
Tell the service provider about the inmate’s specific actions and behaviors while avoiding generalizations.
Statements such as “acting weird” should be avoided; instead, use more specific language such as “the inmate
was talking to the wall” or the inmate was “unresponsive and staring off into space.” It is imperative that the
officer take good field notes to adequately relay the information to the service provider and later document
the incident.
There are several basic steps that must be followed in each referral:
Identify the need for a referral.
Interview the inmate, staff, or others.
Contact service providers.
Request an escort if necessary.
Make the referral.
Document the incident.
Each agency may have different procedures for making referrals. It is the officer’s responsibility to know their
agency’s requirements. (CO1.2.3)

Officer Response to Inmate Need
Once a determination for referral is made, the inmate should remain under close observation. Until the inmate
is in the care of the service provider, the officer is responsible for taking necessary action so that no harm
comes to the inmate or anyone else. For example, the officer will apply first aid as necessary or intervene to
prevent a suicide. Universal precautions should be used as necessary.
Threats to officer safety may exist when responding to inmates in distress. Be cautious; an inmate could feign
medical distress to cause a distraction. An officer will assess the situation and determine that it is reasonably
safe to respond to the inmate. From a security standpoint, an officer should recognize that inmates might try
to assume the identity of another inmate.
Confirm the identity of the inmate being referred. Regardless, always respond when an inmate reports or
displays medical or psychological distress. (CO6-1.2.4)

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Notification to Service Provider, Inmate Movement
and Documentation
Movement of inmates who have received a referral inside a correctional facility is coordinated through the
control room or a supervisor. When an escort is necessary, security considerations prior to movement include
the inmate’s classification level, types of restraints used, and number of officers needed. Upon arrival at the
destination, the control room or supervisor will be notified that the movement of the inmate is complete.
(CO6-1.2.5)
Any time an inmate has been referred, communicate with other appropriate staff. This communication is
usually passed along verbally or through a daily log. Share details of the referral, follow-up requirements, and
assessment with other shifts. (CO6-1.2.6).
Documentation of an inmate referral varies among correctional agencies. This documentation is forwarded
from the housing unit to the service provider. Typically, this documentation is a narrative report that addresses
the need for the referral, the proper identification of the inmate being referred, and the service provider.

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LESSON 3 |

Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6

Inmate Discipline Process

In a correctional facility, the disciplinary process is an administrative function that
addresses minor and major rule violations and is not governed by rules of criminal
procedures. The disciplinary process is sometimes called progressive discipline. It is
designed to increase the penalty if the inmate does not correct his or her behavior.
Officer discretion may be applied when determining the most appropriate course of
action, considering the severity of the rule violation and violations of the law. If an
inmate is involved in a disciplinary process, and a pending outside charge may apply,
Miranda warnings must be given before questioning the inmate.
A rule violation or infraction is an activity or behavior that is not permitted in the
correctional facility. For example, an inmate has a radio that belongs to another inmate.
While this is technically petty theft, the offending inmate may only be disciplined within
the facility and not prosecuted in a court of law.

Discipline is the enforcement of a penalty for a violation of established rules and is used
to ensure compliance of those rules. The disciplinary process is designed to correct an
inmate’s behavior (CO6-1.3.1). The goal of discipline is to maintain order and ensure
the safety and security of the facility. Section 944.09, F.S., provides authority and
guidelines for enforcing rules. It allows each facility the opportunity to expand the
guidelines for establishing rules for disciplinary processes, and lets higher authorities
tailor them to each situation.
You can never deny due process, but you can restrict it to meet the safety needs of a
facility. For example, mail is a right, but it may be held for the inmate until disciplinary
confinement is complete, with the exception of legal mail.

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.3.1 Define discipline as it relates
to inmate misconduct.
CO6-1.3.2 Define the authority of the
disciplinary process.
CO6-1.3.3 Identify the questions to ask
inmates regarding a rule violation.
CO6-1.3.4 Define minor rule violation.
CO6-1.3.5 Define major rule violation.
CO6-1.3.6 Describe methods of inmate
isolation due to a major rule violation.
CO6-1.3.7 Recognize staff to notify of a
major rule violation.
CO6-1.3.8 Describe the inmate
discipline process.
CO6-1.3.9 Describe the steps
needed to document disciplinary
action taken.
CO6-1.3.10 Identify information to
include in a Disciplinary Report (DR).

The rules of prohibited inmate conduct and penalties for violations or infractions are
defined in Rule 33-601.314, F.A.C. for state correctional facilities. There is a list of these
rules in every inmate’s handbook. County facilities are governed by the Florida Model
Jail Standards, and inmates are also given a copy of these standards in the inmate
handbook. (CO6-1.3.2)
To assess an observed or reported rule violation, an officer must collect all pertinent
information. Ask the inmate and other observers open-ended questions. This is the best
way to obtain more information regarding the violation. The officer should ask followup questions and take complete and accurate notes on the information obtained
(CO6-1.3.3). During questioning, officers should look for inconsistencies in inmate
responses, body language, or physical evidence.

Minor and Major Rule Violations
When an officer observes unacceptable inmate behavior, he or she should begin the
documentation process of progressive discipline. Be familiar with and refer to your

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facility’s inmate handbook or agency’s rules and regulations manual. After determining if it is a minor or major
rule violation, the officer should respond based on the severity of the incident.
Minor infractions are a violation of rules where no disciplinary report is necessary. Minor violations are any
rule violation that goes beyond a verbal warning but would not warrant maximum disciplinary sanctions
(CO6-1.3.4). Some unacceptable behaviors generally considered to be minor rule violations include improper
wearing of uniform, rough horseplay, and gambling. Minor violations may result in receiving verbal counseling,
a corrective consultation, or informal disciplinary sanctions.
Some rule violations may be considered major or minor depending on the circumstances, the severity or the
degree of the violation, and other considerations. Major rule violations are any disruption so significant that
maximum disciplinary sanctions may be imposed (CO6-1.3.5). Incidents like disorderly conduct, disrespectful
behavior, violence, use of a weapon, sexual activity, use of drugs or intoxicants, battery, and extortion are
considered major rule violations. These should immediately result in a disciplinary report and could lead to
additional criminal charges.
Isolation of the inmate in a holding area may be necessary to maintain the order and security of the facility,
and the safety of staff, visitors, and inmates. The steps you take to isolate an inmate who has committed a major
rule violation include:
• Contact a supervisor or control room.
• Request backup if necessary.
• Secure the inmate and separate him or her from other inmates.
• Secure the scene (if there is a suspected crime scene).
• Move the inmate to a holding cell.
• Have medical perform a pre-confinement physical (depending on agency policy and procedure).
• Move the inmate to confinement.
• Document the incident. (CO6-1.3.6).
In most agencies, officers must notify their supervisor of any major rule violations (CO6-1.3.7). The supervisor
will evaluate the incident and ensure that any additional action is taken as needed. A higher authority (such
as a duty warden or sheriff ) may also be notified, as well as outside agencies. There may be a crime scene,
evidence may need to be preserved and protected, and coordination with other agencies may be required.
Finally, the supervisor must approve any action taken, verify that proper documentation is completed, and
ensure the disciplinary process is carried out in a fair and unbiased manner.

Corrective Action
Corrective action is defined as steps taken to eliminate the cause of inappropriate or unlawful behavior in
order to prevent recurrence. Given the nature of a correctional facility and inmates in general, inappropriate
inmate behavior will occur. Officer presence is an important deterrent in discouraging rule violations. When
inappropriate conduct is observed, an officer should give verbal warning or counseling to the inmate to stop
the behavior immediately. A majority of disciplinary issues will be handled at this level. If the inmate
immediately corrects the behavior, no other action is required. If the behavior continues, the officer may
escalate his or her response.

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The discipline process involves:
 counseling

 verbal warning

 written warning (incident report or corrective consultation)

 disciplinary report (CO6-1.3.8)

Counseling is an in-depth explanation of a rule violation, including suggestions on how the inmate can correct his or
her behavior. Before counseling an inmate, the officer may refer to the inmate’s handbook or rules and regulations
manual. Officers should separate the inmate from others during counseling and communicate professionally. Make
sure the inmate has a clear understanding of the rules he or she has broken. The officer should explain the disciplinary
process if the inmate’s behavior continues. This process could include a disciplinary report, possible loss of privileges,
a change in custody level or work assignment, confinement, or loss of gain time.
A verbal warning is a statement to the inmate that he or she has committed a rule violation and should correct the
behavior immediately. The officer will explain his or her observations to the inmate and describe the unacceptable
behavior, and steps to correct it. An inmate’s behavior is unacceptable if it clearly violates the facility rules. Verbal
warnings can be documented in a variety of ways, including incident reports, contact cards, daily logs, computer logs
or specific agency forms.
A written warning is usually an agency-specific form that documents an inmate rule violation. The officer will
counsel the inmate about the offense, and document it on the form. Document the corrective action as soon as possible.
The corrective action should include the details of the incident including the officer’s name, the inmate’s name and
identification number, and the date, time, and location of the violation. Basically, include the who, what, where, when,
why, and how of the violation and the specific corrective actions taken by the officer (CO6-1.3.9). The officer and the
inmate must sign the form. If the inmate refuses to sign the form, document the refusal on the form, and provide him
or her with a copy. In a timely manner, a copy is provided to the inmate and the original is maintained on file. This
documentation may serve as a basis for future reference or formal disciplinary action. Some agencies do not require
written warnings and immediately issue a disciplinary report.
A disciplinary report (DR) is a detailed report of the facts surrounding an inmate’s rule violation and sets in motion
a series of events that ensures due process. A disciplinary report is normally reserved for major rule violations.
However, depending on the frequency of minor rule violations, a disciplinary report can be issued. Prior documented
rule violations should be included in the report. As soon as an officer becomes aware of a major rule violation, he or
she should obtain approval from the shift supervisor to initiate the disciplinary process.
A disciplinary report should include the following:

 officer name, inmate name and number (if applicable), place, date and time
 formal statement of the specific violation (charge)

 a narrative that contains a detailed explanation of the events and supports the specific violation

 statements from any known witnesses or participants
 a description of physical evidence and its disposition

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Section Vocabulary
corrective action
counseling
disciplinary report (DR)
discipline
rule violation or infraction
verbal warning
written warning

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 action taken

 signature of involved staff

 supervisor’s approval (CO6-1.3.10)

A disciplinary report must be written within 24 hours from when the incident
is discovered.

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

LESSON 4 |

Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6

Inmate Count

One of the primary duties of correctional officers is counting inmates. Counts verify and
account for every inmate within a facility or offsite area and are vital to the security and
safety of the facility and the community. These counts will be conducted at housing or
cell assignments, work details, and any other location an inmate may be, such as at the
clinic, court, or dining hall.

Types of Counts
Informal Count: An informal count verifies the number of inmates in an area. These
counts are done randomly by the supervisor of inmates who are on site or off site,
such as medical, court, work details, or during transport. A body count is a type of
informal count; this is a census check (body count) and is only reported when an
inmate is missing.
Formal Count: Formal counts are performed at least once per shift, and may be
conducted at the beginning and end of the officer’s shift. Formal counts verify the total
number of inmates at a facility, accounting for all gains and losses during the day. A
computer-generated roster is used to determine the actual number of inmates in a
specific unit or housing assignment.

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.4.1 Describe the general types
of inmate counts.
CO6-1.4.2 Describe procedures for
conducting an inmate count.
CO6-1.4.3 Describe the inmate’s role in
obtaining an accurate count.
CO6-1.4.4 Demonstrate professionalism
during an inmate count.
CO6-1.4.5 Describe criteria for
preparing a count slip.

Out Count: This count provides accountability for the location of inmates outside their
assigned housing area. Some examples are the canteen area, the dining area, workgroups
(such as the laundry, kitchen, or warehouses), the hospital, and court. These inmates will
be included in the formal count.
Master Count: A master count is where positive identification of each inmate is verified
through various items such as armband identification or photo identification cards that
include the facility number, and the inmate’s name, date of birth, sex and race. This
count is conducted a minimum of once a day at a specified time, and accounts for all
inmates admitted, released, returned, or detained in the facility during the previous 24hour period. The officer will use a current computer-generated roster and compare it to
the inmates’ personal identification cards or armbands. This information is recorded
and documented according to agency policy.
Emergency Count: Emergency counts are conducted when unusual situations arise,
such as a possible escape, disturbances, an evacuation, or when the total number of
inmates counted is not confirmed or verified with the facility total. Some agencies refer
to a recount as an emergency count. (CO6-1.4.1)

Count Procedures
Depending on the design of the facility, count may require two officers. Counts are
conducted at least once per shift. The count should be completed in a timely, systematic

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and accurate manner as determined by the facility. With the exception of informal counts, all counts must be
documented. Common count procedures inside the facility include the following:
Count—receive start to count. Initiate count by an audible alarm system. Tell every inmate to go back to
their assigned area.
• Count may be initiated by the control room, on the facility schedule, or prompted by a supervisor.
• The officer will instruct inmates to return to their assigned housing area.
• The officer then physically counts each inmate.
• The officer verifies armbands or ID cards against a computer-generated roster.
• The officer then documents and reports totals.
• The supervisor or assigned staff members (control room) verifies count.
• A clear count is announced to staff and inmates.
• Normal operations are resumed. (CO6-1.4.2)
The inmates’ identity and presence is verified by cross referencing with facility documentation. The officer will
physically count each inmate present. If an inmate is in his or her bunk with the covers pulled up, preventing
the officer from seeing his or her face, the officer must verify that it is a live person.
The inmates’ cooperation is required for an accurate count; however, there are occasions when inmates will try
to disrupt the count. Some inmate behaviors that may interfere with proper count procedures include but are
not limited to inmates talking, tapping on walls, not being at the assigned bunk, wearing inappropriate attire,
going to the bathroom, listening to the radio, and switching identification cards. (CO6-1.4.3)
While performing a count, the officer will enforce the rules and regulations in a firm, fair, and professional
manner. He or she must stay alert and aware of the surroundings due to the close proximity of the inmates
(CO6-1.4.4). The officer should maintain attention to detail to ensure an accurate count.
If two officers are conducting a count together, they should ensure that their total numbers correspond. If there
is a discrepancy, they should immediately recount the inmates in their count area before reporting the count.
When their totals agree, the count should be reported. Once counts are reported from all areas in the facility,
if a discrepancy is found, a recount will be conducted.
If the recount does not resolve the discrepancy, an emergency master count procedure will be announced and
initiated. Use extreme caution during a recount, as an inmate may be hiding or attempting an escape.
A clear count may be announced via the communication system of the facility. Once the count is cleared, all
information is reported to the appropriate personnel and the facility will resume normal operation.
A count slip is a form used to document inmate counts. There may be two types of count slips: a dormitory
count slip and a formal count slip. The dormitory count slip includes the total number of inmates in their
housing area, and the officer’s signature.
The formal count slip may include the following information: facility name, date, time, location, officer
signature, total number of inmates counted, and time cleared. The results may be documented through either

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a computerized format or hand written form and forwarded to appropriate personnel.
The count slip will contain no erasures, strikeouts or alterations. Verifying count slips
completes the inmate counting process. (CO6-1.4.5)

LESSON 5 |

Inmate Dining

Pre-Dining Security Check
The dining area should be inspected for cleanliness, proper sanitary practices, and to
ensure health and safety. Designated inmate dining areas could include a dining hall, day
room, cell, or workgroup areas.
If inmates are served in cells or other common areas, a pre-mealtime security check is
not necessary; regular searches will go on as usual. When serving meals in a dining hall,
prior to opening the dining facilities to inmates, an officer should conduct a thorough
and systematic security check. Document the results on the appropriate form.
The security check includes examining locations where contraband can be concealed.
These areas include tables and chairs, heaters, ceiling fans, beverage containers, and
trash cans (CO6-1.5.1). Any equipment that poses a safety hazard should be
documented and reported, and its use must be restricted until the equipment is repaired
or replaced.
Be aware that the dining area is a common location for inmates to obtain and
distribute contraband. Some examples of contraband include food, utensils, drugs,
and sensitive items (food such as sugar, yeast, and fruit that can be used to produce
illegal substances). Thoroughly search concealable areas, such as jackets, any medical
devices (casts, wheelchairs, or prosthetics), napkins, and containers. Make sure all

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.5.1 Conduct security check of
dining area prior to mealtime.
CO6-1.5.2 Identify areas used for
concealment during mealtime.
CO6-1.5.3 Explain the monitoring of
food distribution.
CO6-1.5.4 Describe procedures for
distributing meals for special diets.
CO6-1.5.5 Maintain a count of inmates
receiving meals and number of
meals served.
CO6-1.5.6 Monitor inmates in
dining area.
CO6-1.5.7 Conduct security check of
dining area after mealtime.

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issued utensils, glasses, and trays are accounted for (CO6-1.5.2). If contraband is located, it should be
confiscated and processed.

Inmate Monitoring During Mealtime
Depending on the type of facility, meals may be served in a dining hall or in a housing area. If meals take place
in a dining facility, when mealtime is announced, inmates will report directly to the dining hall. Other inmates
may need to be escorted to the designated dining area. The type of escort will be determined by the security
level of the inmate.
In most facilities, meals are served by inmates. The officer should enforce all sanitation standards, making sure
food handlers are properly attired in gloves, hairnets, and aprons. The officer will observe and ensure the
proper distribution of food, making sure each inmate only receives one tray of food and the proper number
of utensils.
The officer should be aware of what foods are being served on a daily basis and ensure inmates receive the
correct menu items. The officer will also document the number of inmates and food trays served. (CO6-1.5.3)
There may be inmates who have special dietary requirements, for example, diabetics, those with religious
restrictions, inmates with allergies, or inmates requiring additional portions. The officer should be aware of
those differences and ensure that the proper prescribed meals have been received by the correct inmate. He or
she will identify, address and correct any discrepancies. Facilities that house juveniles may have child-specific
nutrition guidelines that must be followed. (CO6-1.5.4)
Compare the number of inmates that received food trays during the distribution of meals with the number of
meal trays returned. The mealtime process should be orderly to ensure compliance with safety, security, and
sanitation standards. (CO6-1.5.5)

Inmate Monitoring
Disturbances and riots may occur in the inmate dining area. Officer positioning and patrolling is essential for
effective observation of all inmate activity in the dining area. By walking around the dining area and making
their presence known, officers will be able to observe the inmates’ behavior and prevent rule violations
(CO6-1.5.6). Officers should monitor and supervise specific areas such as entrances, serving lines, the seating
area, the tray return window, and exits.
Each agency establishes a policy on dining procedures. This may include searching inmates entering and exiting
the dining area. At the conclusion of a meal, the area should be cleared of inmates. A security check of the
dining area is then conducted to ensure the security of the facility. A post-mealtime security check is performed
in the same manner as a pre-mealtime security check.
Additionally, this check includes serving utensils. Following these procedures ensures a safe and secure dining
area. (CO6-1.5.7)

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LESSON 6 |

Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6

Processing Mail

Types of Inmate Mail
Inmates are allowed to receive three types of mail: routine, legal, and privileged.

Routine mail: It is the most common type of mail in a correctional facility, and it
comes directly through the postal service. Routine mail may consist of letters, magazines,
newspapers, periodicals, and book subscriptions that have not been tampered with and
were received directly from the publisher or supplier. (CO6-1.6.1)

Legal mail: Legal mail contains confidential information concerning legal matters. It

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.6.1 Define routine mail.
CO6-1.6.2 Define legal mail.
CO6-1.6.3 Define privileged mail.
CO6-1.6.4 Identify security violations
in mail.

includes mail to and from municipal, county, state and federal courts, state attorneys,
private attorneys, public defenders, and legal aid organizations. (CO6-1.6.2).

CO6-1.6.5 Identify general mail
procedures.

Privileged mail: Privileged mail is defined as correspondence to and from public

CO6-1.6.6 Identify legitimate sources of
legal mail.

officials, governmental agencies, and the news media. Privileged mail shall be delivered
to a facility by the U.S. Postal Service or other mail provider. (CO6-1.6.3)

Processing Mail
There is no limit to the amount of mail that may be received by an inmate, but there is
a limit to the amount of mail that an inmate may possess.
When mail is received by the mail room or mail clerk, it must be logged. All mail is
opened by designated staff and is examined for content and to prevent introduction of
contraband. People inspecting mail should use personal protective equipment (PPE) to
prevent exposure to contaminants such as fecal matter, blood, and body fluids or other
hazardous materials that may be found inside or outside of mail.

CO6-1.6.7 Describe the process of
legal mail.
CO6-1.6.8 Differentiate between inmate
routine and legal mail.
CO6-1.6.9 Describe institutional mail
procedures.
CO6-1.6.10 Describe steps to
confiscate mail.

The content of the mail is scanned for pornography, information about criminal activity,
codes, threats to the facility, threats or evidence of extortion against staff or other
inmates, and escape plans, including dates, times, or arrangements for clothing and
transportation. Also scan to ensure victims or witnesses are not contacting the inmate.
(CO6-1.6.4)
When inspecting mail for contraband, officers will check the texture of the mail to
determine if it is brittle or stained. An odd texture could indicate the presence of drugs,
body fluids, or hidden messages. Stamps or stickers placed on paper and envelopes
should be inspected to determine if any alteration has been made. These are potential
concealment sites for contraband and can be laced with drugs such as LSD. Drugs or
other substances can be concealed in the glue of the stamp and envelopes, in the folds
of the paper, as watermarks, between two pieces of paper glued together, or in concealed
areas within poly-bubble envelopes. No mail is delivered directly to the inmate prior
to inspection.

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Once the mail is cleared, it is sent to the housing area. The identification of the inmate is verified and the mail
is delivered. Delivery methods vary between agencies and must be handled according to agency policy and
procedure. (CO6-1.6.5)
Legal mail is handled differently than routine mail. While the officer may inspect the outside of the envelope,
it must be opened in the presence of the inmate to whom it is addressed. To ensure that it is valid legal mail,
the officer should confirm the letterhead has the proper return address, raised seal, or watermark, and verify
that the correspondent is a legitimate legal source (CO6-1.6.6). While the officer may inspect the outside of
the envelope or package, the officer will only inspect for contraband and must not read legal mail or its content.
The officer will also document receipt by the inmate (CO6-1.6.7). Though routine mail may be withheld as
a disciplinary action, legal mail may not be withheld. (CO6-1.6.8)
Packages are only allowed to be received with special permission. All packages should be thoroughly and
systematically examined for items such as drugs, cell phones, money, and inappropriate photographs.

Outgoing Mail
In the same manner as incoming routine mail, outgoing routine mail should be inspected for contraband and
security violations. Mail should then be scanned for adequate postage and proper address format of sender and
recipient. Scan mail to make sure the correspondence is allowed and that the address is legitimate. Mail may
be held to make sure it is legitimate.
Approved outgoing mail will be forwarded in accordance with agency policies and procedures for delivery
by the USPS. Mail should only be processed through the USPS and never carried out of the facility.
(CO6-1.6.9)

Confiscation of Mail
Any mail that violates agency policy or threatens security may be confiscated. If the mail contains
unauthorized items (such as too many photographs), it may be returned to the sender with a copy of the mail
rules. Confiscate any illegal items found in mail. Disciplinary action could follow. If the confiscated item may
become evidence in a disciplinary hearing or criminal case, the officer should use proper evidence handling
procedures. (CO6-1.6.10).
If outgoing inmate mail is confiscated due to a rule violation, contact your supervisor. All mail, routine, legal,
and privileged, must comply with facility rules.
An inmate may only correspond with approved individuals. Special permission must be received for inmates
to contact one another by mail. For example, a husband and wife who are both incarcerated must get
permission before corresponding. However, correspondence between co-defendants, victims, witnesses, and
security threat group members is prohibited. Depending on the circumstances, other legal restrictions may
apply to inmate communication.
A common method used by inmates to send illegal communications to another inmate is known as kickback
or three-way mail. The sender uses the intended inmate’s location as the return address on the envelope
and includes a deficiency such as insufficient postage, requiring the envelope to be returned. The envelope

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is thus returned to the intended inmate instead of the sender. Officers should verify the
return address prior to returning mail to an inmate and note if the return address is for
another housing unit or facility.

Section Vocabulary
kickback or three-way mail
legal mail
privileged mail
routine mail

LESSON 7 |

Visitation

Visitation is a privilege and not a right for inmates and visitors in Florida per F.A.C.
33.601.714. Visitors and inmates can lose this privilege because of inappropriate
conduct, rule violations, or introduction of contraband.

Types of Inmate Visits
Visitors may not understand the operation of a correctional facility. When subjecting
visitors to security measures, the officer should speak clearly and courteously to ensure
the visitor understands any direction given.
All visits within a correctional facility can be classified as either contact or non-contact
visits. Contact visits are defined as visits in which both the visitor and the inmate are
in the same room, without a physical barrier, and can have limited physical contact.
Non-contact visits are defined as visits in which the inmate and visitor are physically
separated by some type of barrier or communicate through electronic means, such as an
audio and video communication system. (CO6-1.7.1)
An inmate may receive two types of visitors, social or professional. A social visitor may
include friends and family. Some agencies require social visitors to be pre-registered and
screened for criminal history or active warrants. Additionally, agencies may limit the
number of social visitors an inmate may receive at one time or within a specified period
of time.

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.7.1 Define contact and
non-contact visits.
CO6-1.7.2 Confirm visitor identification
and complete registration
information.
CO6-1.7.3 Describe security
procedures provided for visitation.
CO6-1.7.4 Determine the purpose of
a visit.
CO6-1.7.5 Obtain authorization for a
visit from appropriate personnel.
CO6-1.7.6 Conduct search of the
visitation area.
CO6-1.7.7 Search a visitor for
contraband.

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CO6-1.7.8 Describe methods for
directing visitors to the visitation
area.
CO6-1.7.9 Notify an inmate of visitor
arrival.
CO6-1.7.10 Search an inmate for
contraband prior to a visit.
CO6-1.7.11 Direct an inmate to the
visitation area.
CO6-1.7.12 Identify monitoring
techniques within a visiting area.
CO6-1.7.13 Direct a visitor to leave the
visitation area upon the completion
of a visit.
CO6-1.7.14 Document completion
of visitation.
CO6-1.7.15 Conduct search of the
visitation area at conclusion of
visitation.
CO6-1.7.16 Upon completion of a visit,
return an inmate to the designated
housing area.
CO6-1.7.17 Search an inmate for
contraband after a visit.

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

A professional visitor may include attorneys and staff employed by attorneys,
investigators, bail bondsmen, parole and probation officers, law enforcement officers,
social service agency staff, clergy, and others. Professional visitors are processed in a
manner similar to social visitors.
Training academies, schools, or self-help or religious groups visiting a correctional facility
may be subject to the same search procedures. These are usually pre-approved visits with
staff escorts to a designated area or for a tour of the facility.
Most visits are conducted at the correctional facility. However, occasionally inmates
being treated at outside medical facilities could receive visitors. These visits are usually
for inmates who are terminally ill receiving social visitors at the discretion of the
correctional agency.

Facility Security and Visitor Identification
and Authorization
Visitation and entry requirements vary considerably from state correctional institutions
to municipal and county facilities. Confirmation of visitor identification is necessary
for authorized entry into all facilities. All visitors must present valid photo identification.
Valid forms of identification include government-issued photo identification, driver’s
license or identification card, military identification, agency-issued identification,
passport, or birth certificate. Officers should be aware that presenting a false ID per
F.S. §944.39 is a crime. (CO6-1.7.2)
Some visitors may receive security equipment upon arrival at a facility. Agencies may use
closed-circuit television systems to monitor visitor movement, while others may issue
personal body alarms that the visitor can activate in the event of an emergency, alerting
security personnel to potential threats and the need to respond immediately. Any special
equipment or requirement for professional visitors may vary from agency to agency such
as body alarms (CO6-1.7.3). The purpose of the individual’s visit will dictate the types
of security equipment issued. Some agencies provide security escorts for visitors
throughout the facility.
The officer will need to determine if the visit is social or professional as the procedures
for processing each is different (CO6-1.7.4). Social visits are conducted on a specific
schedule at designated times and days, whereas professional visits may be permitted at
any time. When a visitor requests to meet with an inmate, the reason is either verified
through a published schedule or authorized by a shift supervisor according to policy or
procedure. Any question regarding the validity of the purpose for the visit will be
directed to the supervisor (CO6-1.7.5). Once a visitor is approved, the officer will direct
him or her to the visitor registration area.
As part of the registration process, the visitor’s identification information will be
recorded, along with date and time (entry and exit), and purpose and individual visited.

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Visitors are required to sign in, and should be told what items are permitted in the visitation area. Visitor
registration logs are maintained by correctional agencies as a permanent record. These logs are for
accountability purposes to prove that an inmate’s rights have not been violated (attorney visits), and for
emergency evacuation purposes.
Officers will conduct a systematic search of the visiting area before allowing inmates or visitors access. The
area should be free of contraband or any potentially dangerous or hazardous material. It is important to
inspect the equipment and furniture in the visitation area to ensure it is in proper working order. The
restrooms should be searched in the same manner. Any discrepancies need to be resolved prior to allowing
visitation to occur. (CO6-1.7.6)
Visitors are searched to control the introduction of contraband into the facility. This search is accomplished
by various methods such as metal detectors, pat down searches, and visual inspection. All objects a visitor
brings are subject to search, whether visually, with an x-ray machine, or other electronic means. (CO6-1.7.7)
Contraband is commonly found on visitors. Not all items that are considered to be contraband in a correctional
facility are criminal in nature or pose an immediate threat to the safety or security of the facility.
For example, personal keys are not authorized in most facilities, and are considered contraband, since keys are
sharp implements and could be dangerous. The visitor will likely be told to return the keys to his or her car
or place them in a secure location until he or she leaves. If contraband that poses an immediate threat to the
facility’s safety or security is found on a visitor, it will be confiscated and may be processed as evidence.
Contraband of a criminal nature, such as unauthorized cell phones, weapons, drugs and intoxicants, will be
confiscated. The visitor will then be subject to criminal prosecution and visitation privileges may be terminated.
All confiscated property will follow the chain of custody. The officer should take necessary precautions to
preserve evidence that would aid in an investigation.
Upon completion of registration and search, visitors are either verbally directed or escorted by an officer to the
visitation area. In either instance, the safety of the visitor and the security of the facility shall be maintained
(CO6-1.7.8). Visits may occur in other designated areas as approved by the officer in charge. These may include
medical or confinement. In such instances, it may be necessary to escort the visitor to the alternate location.
Remember attorney-client visits are privileged and must follow approved guidelines.

Inmate Notification of Visit and Search
When visitors arrive at the facility and have been approved for visitation, the inmate is properly identified and
informed of the visit. He or she may either accept or decline the visit. If the inmate declines the visit, it will
be documented. The visitor registration area is advised and the visitor is informed and asked to leave.
(CO6-1.7.9). (CO6-1.7.10)
For inmates accepting visitors, the inmate will be searched for contraband prior to the visit. Inmates will be
visually inspected to make sure they comply with the facility dress code (CO6-1.7.11). Depending on the
facility layout and agency policy or procedure, the officer will verbally direct, monitor, or escort the inmate to
the designated visitation area. (CO6-1.7.12)

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Section Vocabulary
contact visits
non-contact visits

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Monitoring the Visit
Officers should continually observe the conduct of the inmate and visitor for general rule
violations such as excessive noise, vulgarity, sexual misconduct, introduction of
contraband, and altercations. The officer should take immediate action if a rule violation
is observed.
Even though all visitors are searched prior to entering the visitation area, contraband can
still be introduced to the facility during visitation.
For example, contraband may be smuggled through security checkpoints by “ballooning.”
Ballooning is contraband placed in a sealed balloon and concealed in a body cavity or
swallowed for later expulsion. Officers should pay particular attention to inmate and
visitor activity after a visitor exits a restroom. While in the restroom, the concealed
contraband could be retrieved and later passed to an inmate or hidden in the visitation
area. If an officer observes a visitor with contraband, the visitor may be detained.
Should an issue arise that the officer cannot control, or that is beyond his or her
authority, the officer should call for backup. Actions which may be taken include
termination of the visit, permanent restriction of the visitor from the facility, and
disciplinary action against the inmate. All actions taken should be documented. During
and after visitation, inmates should also be monitored for emotional reactions that
require referral to service providers such as a mental health professional or chaplain.
(CO6-1.7.13)

Exiting the Visitation Area
Upon the conclusion of visitation, the officer will ensure the inmates and visitors are
separated. The officer will explain to the visitors where and how to exit the visitation area
(CO6-1.7.14). The officer will verify that all visitors have left the visitation area, and the
identity of each visitor will be confirmed prior to exiting the facility. The officer will then
update the visitation log to reflect that the visitor has departed. (CO6-1.7.15)
An officer should be aware that contraband could be concealed in the visitation area to
be recovered by an inmate at a later time. The officer will systematically search the
visitation area and restrooms upon conclusion of the visit. The area should be free of
contraband or any potentially dangerous or hazardous material. If contraband is
discovered, the officer should confiscate it, maintain chain of custody, and contact his
or her supervisor.
At the conclusion of the visit, the inmates will be segregated and monitored pending a
thorough search. Inmates exiting a contact visit are searched to ensure no contraband
enters the facility. Contraband found will be processed according to agency policies and
procedures. Upon completion of the search, the inmate will be directed or escorted back
to his or her assigned area and documented. (CO6-1.7.16)

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LESSON 8 |

Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6

Escorting Inmates

Escorting inmates requires the use of officer safety procedures to ensure the safe and
timely movement of an inmate from one location to another. Escort is defined as the
movement of an inmate from one point to another accompanied by an officer or staff
member (CO6-1.8.1). Escorting may be as simple as walking with a single unrestrained
inmate from one location to another or as complex as accompanying a group of fully
restrained inmates. An officer may conduct two types of escorts in a correctional setting.
Internal escorts are conducted within the facility’s secure perimeter when moving one
or more inmates from one location to another. External escorts occur outside the secure
perimeter of the facility.

Escort Considerations
The officer will receive verbal or written instructions to escort inmates, including which
inmates will be escorted and their destination. Inmates must be positively identified
prior to departing. Officers will take an accurate count of the inmates and notify
appropriate staff of the number of inmates to be escorted and their destination
(CO6-1.8.2). The reason for escort, number of inmates, and inmate classification may
determine the number of officers needed for the escort and the level of physical restraint
required. Reasons for escort may include medical, workgroup assignments, mental health
services, and visitation. Additional staff may also be necessary. (CO6-1.8.3)
When preparing to escort an inmate, a frisk or pat search should be conducted. Some
facilities require strip searches to be conducted when inmates are escorted outside of or
returning to the facility (CO6-1.8.4). To ensure the safety of the inmates, officers should
also consider limitations and physical condition of the inmate to be escorted, such as
missing limbs, paralysis, obesity, prosthetic devices, crutches, or wheelchairs (CO61.8.5). All prosthetic devices or medical equipment will require a search for contraband.
An officer should not, however, only pay attention to disabilities, as extraordinarily
physically fit inmates should also be of concern. Inmates who have acute or chronic
medical conditions or serious injury may require additional specialized equipment
during an escort. Examples include inmates with respiratory illness, broken limbs,
gunshot wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and inmates with mental illness. (CO6-1.8.6)

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.8.1 Define escort.
CO6-1.8.2 Count and notify staff of
inmates to be escorted.
CO6-1.8.3 Determine number of staff to
perform escort.
CO6-1.8.4 Search inmate to be
escorted.
CO6-1.8.5 Identify physical limitations
of subject to be searched.
CO6-1.8.6 Assess physical condition of
inmate to be escorted.
CO6-1.8.7 Apply escort techniques.
CO6-1.8.8 Describe security issues
during escort.
CO6-1.8.9 Confirm count of inmates
upon escort arrival.
CO6-1.8.10 Notify staff of escort
completion.

It is critical that the officer be aware of his or her surroundings at all times while
escorting an inmate. An officer will position him- or herself to the rear and slightly to
one side of the inmate to control movement (CO6-1.8.7). Escorting officers should be
familiar with diversionary tactics of inmates. During movement, contraband may be
introduced, the inmate may commit battery, or the inmate may attempt to escape
(CO6-1.8.8). Some equipment that may be used while escorting inmates includes
handcuffs, leg-irons, waist chains, and restraint chairs. Escort techniques and equipment
are further discussed in the Defensive Tactics portion of the curriculum.

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Section Vocabulary
escort

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Upon the conclusion of the escort, the officer must confirm that the number and
identity of inmates arriving at the destination matches the original record of inmates
departing (CO6-1.8.9). The officer will then contact the appropriate staff member to
notify him or her of the escort’s completion. (CO6-1.8.10)
External escorts could be an outside work detail, a chase vehicle following an ambulance,
or any other escort outside the security perimeter of the facility. Officers should follow
agency policies and procedures with external escorts.

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LESSON 9 |

Transporting Inmates

Inmate transport is a routine operation for moving inmates outside the correctional
facility. Transport is defined as moving an inmate from the confines of a secure facility
to another location. The officer must be continually aware of his or her surroundings
during inmate transport, including inmate behaviors, the public, the transport vehicle,
other vehicles, traffic, and the security at the destination. Other potential security issues
the officer may encounter may include vehicle accidents, mechanical failure, or
interaction with the general public. (CO6-1.9.1)

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.9.1 Define transport.
CO6-1.9.2 Describe common reasons
for transporting inmates.
CO6-1.9.3 Describe common types of
transport vehicles.

Reasons for inmate transport include medical treatments at local facilities or offices,
transfers, work assignments, confinement, STG affiliations, and required court
appearances within and between jurisdictions. (CO6-1.9.2)

CO6-1.9.4 Identify factors for selecting
a proper transport vehicle.

Choosing a Transport Vehicle

CO6-1.9.5 Identify common
transportation segregation
requirements.

There are several types of transport vehicles with specialized security or accommodation
equipment. Some may include the following:
a transport bus or van with cages, extra locks, and isolation seats

CO6-1.9.6 Inspect transport vehicle for
roadworthiness.

a van with negative pressure ventilation and wheelchair accessibility

CO6-1.9.7 Search transport vehicle for
contraband.

a car with cages (CO6-1.9.3)

CO6-1.9.8 Position vehicle for transport.
The officer will determine what
type of transport vehicle is required
by considering how many inmates
are to be transferred, custody levels,
gender, special needs, and the
purpose of the transport. (CO61.9.4)

The officer may need to segregate
inmates in separate vehicles or
separate compartments within the
Interior of a transport van
Figure 6-1
transport vehicle. The following
groups of inmates must be
transported in separate compartments: male and female inmates, juveniles and adults,
high profile inmates, or violent inmates (who must be separated from others). Whenever
possible, inmates will be transported in secure compartments without access to the
driver. (CO6-1.9.5).

CO6-1.9.9 Describe security restraint
devices for transport.
CO6-1.9.10 Describe transport vehicle
security devices.
CO6-1.9.11 Identify transport
documentation.
CO6-1.9.12 Count inmates to be
transported.
CO6-1.9.13 Secure inmate in transport
vehicle.
CO6-1.9.14 Identify issues that may
impact inmate transport.
CO6-1.9.15 Notify staff of transport.
CO6-1.9.16 Document details of
transport of inmate.

Lower custody inmates, such as those assigned to workgroups or squads, may be
transported in vehicles without cages and partitions. Certain custody levels require
transport vehicles with secure cages and partitions; additionally, these types of transports
may require trailing or chase vehicles.

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A trailing or chase vehicle is an additional vehicle following or trailing a transport
vehicle to provide additional security. These vehicles are often used when the transport
is a high-level threat, such as when a death row inmate is transported.

Transport Vehicle Inspection and Search
It is the officer’s responsibility to systematically inspect the transport vehicle for
mechanical deficiencies, possible security breaches, and to ensure the vehicle is properly
equipped and in good working order. The officer should ensure that the vehicle is fueled,
fluid levels are sufficient, and tires are properly inflated. The officer should ensure that
all equipment works, such as the radio, issued cell phone, brakes, spare tire and jack,
horn, lights, seat belts, wipers, mirrors, security equipment, and locks. Additionally,
some agencies may require equipment such as safety reflectors, a fire extinguisher or a
first aid kit (CO6-1.9.6). Upon conclusion of the inspection results should be
documented on the designated agency-approved form. Note any deficiencies and submit
a work order. The supervisor should be notified if further instructions are necessary.
Any discrepancies should be corrected and the vehicle should not be used until repairs
are performed.
The officer will apply systematic area search techniques to the inside and outside of the
transport vehicle. These searches are done to ensure there is no contraband present before
and after inmate transport. Particular attention should be given to the secure
compartments where the inmates will be or have been seated. The officer should
understand that common components of the vehicle, such as bolts, screws, and parts of
seat belts, can be removed quickly and without notice. Such items can be made into
weapons or other contraband. (CO6-1.9.7)
Example of typical transport
vehicle with partitions
and screens

Examples of typical security
restraint devices used on
inmates during transport

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Figure 6-2

Security Issues
When the vehicle has entered the designated area such as a sally port, the officer will
secure the inmates in the vehicle. When loading or unloading inmates from a non-secure
area, such as a hospital, the officer will position the vehicle in a tactically advantageous
way to prevent escape or ambush (CO6-1.9.8). If security concerns are observed, contact
a supervisor or local law enforcement for assistance.

Figure 6-3

Generally, all inmates will remain restrained during transport. However, inmates must not
be restrained to the vehicle except by the use of standard seatbelts and shoulder harnesses.
An inmate’s custody level will determine the level of restraint required during transport.
Additionally the officer must take the limitations and physical attributes of the inmate
into consideration when determining the types of restraints to be used. The various
security restraint devices that can be used on an inmate when in transport include hand
or ankle cuffs, waist chains/cuffs, black boxes (hard interlocking cover for handcuffs and
waist chains), leg braces, and an electronic control belt (CO6-1.9.9). Transport vehicle
security devices such as security cages, partitions and screens are all physical barriers
installed in vehicles to segregate the various types of inmates as well as separate the inmates
from the officers. (CO6-1.9.10)

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6

Transport Documentation
The officer must ensure they have the proper authorization and documentation to transport the inmate(s).
These documents may include a court order, court docket, face sheet, transport request, or TWIX (a
Department of Corrections computerized message). The officer will confirm the identity of each inmate and
verify the inmate’s name, number and destination on the transport document by looking at the face sheet and
comparing it to the inmate (CO6-1.9.11). A face sheet is defined as a document with a current picture of the
inmate, name, inmate identification number, physical description, incarceration date, date of birth, end of
sentence date, and custody level. Any discrepancy will be reported to the supervisor prior to departure. Upon
verification of transport documents, the officer will confirm the identity and the total number of inmates.
The count should be verified upon departure and again upon arrival (CO6-1.9.12). The officer must make
certain that all required transport documentation accompanies the officer to the destination.

Securing the Inmate and Staff Notification of Transport
An important part of the transport process is to search the inmate. The inmates identified for transport will
be removed from general population and moved to a secured area. The officer will verify proper attire, search
each individual inmate before transport, and secure the inmates. Once security restraint devices have been
properly applied, the inmate will be placed in the transport vehicle. The inmates will be placed in segregated
compartments if required. Officers will apply seatbelts to all inmates. Officers and inmates will adhere to the
Florida Safety Belt Law, and the number of inmates transported will not exceed the vehicle passenger capacity.
(CO6-1.9.13)
According to agency policies and procedures, the officer may be assigned a firearm and duty gear. The officer
should ensure the firearm is in good condition and has the proper ammunition. Additionally, available body
armor should be worn.
A transport plan should include a primary and alternative route. The officer should be aware that diversions
may be created to provide opportunity for escape. Therefore routine routes should be varied to reduce the risk
of outside assaults. During transport, if an inmate becomes non-compliant, combative, disorderly, or complains
of a medical condition, the officer will not stop the transport (CO6-1.9.14). Many doctors’ offices will not see
disruptive inmates. The courts are also hesitant to hold legal proceedings with inmates who are unable to
conform to courtroom decorum. The officer will immediately contact his or her agency with all appropriate
information and follow instructions.
If the transport vehicle encounters any unforeseen situations, such as a vehicle crash, mechanical failure, or a
problem with the primary route, the officer will immediately ensure inmates are secure. In such cases the
officer will contact local law enforcement for assistance and notify a supervisor for further instruction. When
contacting local agencies the officer should provide as much information as possible.
An officer will maintain communication with the facility and provide necessary information during transport,
such as the direction of travel, primary and alternative routes, the number of inmates, time of departure,
beginning and ending mileage, destination, and predicted time of arrival. The officer will provide status updates
and time of arrival at the destination (CO6-1.9.15). Information provided by the transport officer will be
documented by the agency’s control room.

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Section Vocabulary
face sheet
trailing or chase vehicle
transport
transfer

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The officer should document any unusual occurrences on an agency form (incident
report) and include all relevant information. (CO6-1.9.16)
In some circumstances a transport could result in a transfer. A transfer is movement
of an inmate from one housing location to another. For example, an inmate’s routine
medical appointment could result in hospitalization. If this occurs the officer will contact
their agency for specific instructions.
Upon conclusion of the transport, the officer will once again perform a vehicle
inspection noting any damage. The officer should check the vehicle’s fluids, and ensure
the vehicle is clean, refueled, and parked in the designated area. The officer should also
complete inspection documentation as required.

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

LESSON 10 |

Supervising in a Correctional Facility Ch 6

Work Squads

Many of the inmates who are incarcerated work within the correctional system.
Classification is responsible for assigning inmates to a work detail. Medical will screen
and approve the inmate for job assignments. These assignments could be inside or
outside the correctional facilities. Work crews or squads that do not breach the security
perimeter of a facility are considered inside. Anything that breaches the perimeter is
considered an outside work squad. (CO6-1.10.1)

Inside and Outside Work Squads
Correctional facility work squads perform a variety of services, which provide a cost
benefit to state and local government. Typically, inside work squads assist with
maintenance, sanitation, food service, library, medical, laundry and other duties as
assigned. Inmates on outside work squads usually perform road maintenance, grounds
maintenance, sanitation, farming and other assigned duties. In certain circumstances
some inmates are allowed to leave the facility without supervision for work. These
inmates may be on a work release or continued employment program.
Verifying an inmate’s identity on an inside or outside work squad is accomplished by
comparing the inmate’s issued identification card with the work squad roster and the
inmate (CO6-1.10.2). Officers assigned to outside work squads are required to verify
each inmate’s identity prior to exiting the facility. The officer should inspect the
identification for obvious signs of tampering, making reasonably sure that the
identification card is valid. If the officer suspects that the identification card is altered
or the inmate is concealing his or her actual identity, they should confiscate the card and
immediately contact a supervisor for further instruction.
Inmates should be searched for contraband prior to and at the completion of the work
assignment. The type of search may be dependent on the type of work assignment,
location, and equipment used during the work detail. The officer will perform a pat or
strip search dependent on the agency’s policies (CO6-1.10.3). While the officer is
conducting a search, he or she will make sure inmates are properly dressed for the work
squad. Inmates who fail to comply with rules and regulations, such as dress codes, will
be subject to disciplinary action. Should the inmate become unable to perform that
assignment, the officer will notify his or her supervisor.

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.10.1 Differentiate between
inside and outside work squads.
CO6-1.10.2 Verify inmate in work squad
with the roster.
CO6-1.10.3 Search inmates assigned
to a work squad.
CO6-1.10.4 Report the work squad
count and location.
CO6-1.10.5 Search work area for
contraband.
CO6-1.10.6 Issue equipment for inmate
work assignment.
CO6-1.10.7 Explain rules and
procedures of work area to an
inmate.
CO6-1.10.8 Monitor inmates during
work detail.
CO6-1.10.9 Search work area for
contraband upon completion of
work detail.
CO6-1.10.10 Search inmates upon
completion of work detail.

The officer supervising the work squad must maintain an ongoing count of the inmates
under his or her supervision. This count begins when the officer takes custody of the
inmates for the work assignment. Counting is particularly important when changing
work locations. The specific reporting procedure varies from agency to agency. The
officer should count, document, and report the number of inmates when leaving the
facility, as the officer arrives at the destination, after any subsequent change in location,
or the departure from the work site, and upon arrival back at the facility (CO6-1.10.4).

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The officer should document the inmates’ names, numbers, work location and the total number of inmates
assigned to the workgroup.
A work area is searched to provide safety and security prior to allowing inmates access. The officer should vary
the method and timing of searches conducted for regularly scheduled work locations so as not to set a pattern
or routine. When searching, the officer should remove any potentially dangerous or hazardous material
(CO6-1.10.5). Work areas outside the facility are potential contraband drop-off sites, especially when the work
assignment extends beyond one workday. If a work assignment is regularly scheduled, inmates can arrange for
contraband to be dropped off at a predetermined location. The inmate will then return to the site and retrieve
the contraband.

Instructions for Work Details
Before each new job assignment the officer will conduct and document safety training for the inmates. He or
she should ensure that all inmates assigned to the work detail are issued the proper work and safety equipment.
Safety equipment may include safety goggles, hearing protection, or gloves. Prior to allowing the inmates to
work, the officer should inspect equipment to ensure proper working order and verify the item has not been
altered. This inspection should take place both before issuing the equipment to the inmate and after it has been
returned (CO6-1.10.6). It is the work squad officer’s responsibility to maintain accountability for equipment
used by inmates at all times.
The officer will explain the boundaries of the work site and remind inmates in the work area of the rules
regarding inmate behavior. The officer will demonstrate how to use any work equipment and answer any
questions the inmates may have concerning the work to be accomplished. It is the officer’s responsibility to
supervise work performance, maintain safety and security of the squad, notify their supervisor of any problems
that arise, and document all training. (CO6-1.10.7)

Monitoring Inmates During Work Detail
While monitoring a work detail, the officer should ensure the inmates are doing the following:
• completing the work assignment in a timely manner
• operating the equipment as trained
• not damaging or altering the equipment or other items in the work area
• wearing issued safety equipment properly
• not interacting with the public
• wearing proper clothing
• staying within the assigned work area
Any deviation from the instructions given should be immediately corrected and documented as necessary
(CO6-1.10.8). The officer should report any injuries or illness at the work site immediately and ensure the
inmate receives appropriate treatment. In the event of a life-threatening emergency, the officer should
immediately request local emergency medical services, notify their agency, and request additional support
as needed.

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The officer will allow for required rest periods, proper hydration, meal breaks, and restroom use. Restroom
facilities will be searched prior to use and the locations will be varied to discourage possible escape attempts
and introduction of contraband. During work periods or restroom breaks, the vehicle will be secured and
constantly monitored to ensure no contraband is introduced.
Should an inmate become non-compliant, combative, or disorderly during a work assignment, the officer will
contact the control room or local law enforcement for assistance and use the amount of force necessary to
control the inmate and protect the public. In the event of an escape, the officer will immediately assemble the
remaining inmates and notify the facility that an escape has occurred. Under no circumstances will the officer
abandon the remaining inmates in an attempt to apprehend the escaping inmate.

Completion of Work Detail
Upon completion of the work detail, the officer will instruct the inmates to secure all equipment used and
thoroughly search the work area to ensure the inmates have not left any tools, materials, notes, or other
contraband behind. (CO6-1.10.9)
The ease and availability of obtaining contraband during a work assignment will require that the officer
conduct a thorough search of each inmate upon return to the facility. The inmates will be removed from the
transport vehicle, escorted into a secure area, and searched (CO6-1.10.10). Some facilities will require that
returning inmates are strip searched.

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LESSON 11 |

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Hospital Assignments

OBJECTIVES
CO6-1.11.1 Review security concerns
with medical staff.
CO6-1.11.2 Describe officer
responsibilities in a hospital setting.
CO6-1.11.3 Describe the use of
restraints in a hospital setting.
CO6-1.11.4 Differentiate between
clinical restraints and clinical
seclusion.
CO6-1.11.5 Identify the officer’s role
when responding to inmate medical
emergencies in a hospital setting.

Security measures will continue for an inmate who is taken to a hospital outside of a
correctional facility. The inmate will be separated from the general public as much as
possible with heightened security.

Communicating Security Concerns with
Medical Staff
Upon arrival at a hospital, the officer should give any accompanying medical records to
hospital staff. The officer should speak with medical staff about security concerns that
may impact the care of the inmate. These concerns may include the following:
• unauthorized visitation
• safety and suicide precautions
• unauthorized phone access
• access to items that are considered contraband in a correctional facility (CO6-1.11.1)
Hospital staff may assist with moving the inmate throughout the facility. However, it is
the officer’s responsibility to maintain security.

General Officer Responsibilities
When an inmate is hospitalized and the officer is assigned hospital duty, upon arrival
or start of a shift, the officer should notify his or her supervisor or control room staff
of the arrival, room number, and inmate’s condition. The officer should then survey
the area in which the inmate is being held for potential security threats. Unnecessary
medical equipment, furnishings, and hospital personnel should be removed from the
immediate area if possible. Officers should conduct a visual search of the inmate, the
room, and any adjacent rooms such as bathroom facilities that the inmate may use
during his or her stay. All windows and secondary exits should be systematically
inspected and secured if possible. All restraints used on the inmate should be inspected
to ensure proper security. Any discrepancies should be corrected and reported to the
officer’s supervisor immediately.
The officer should be mindful of weapon retention techniques while in close proximity
to the inmate when applying, removing, or checking restraints. The officer should
stand strategically between the inmate and other people or the door. If the inmate is
in isolation, the officer will be stationed outside the door. If the inmate is in the
operating room or intensive care unit (ICU), the officer should follow the direction of
hospital staff but not violate correctional agency policy or procedure. The officer should
contact his or her supervisor immediately if a conflict occurs between hospital and
agency policy. (CO6-1.11.2)
The inmate should not be allowed to have contact with the public. If the security of the
inmate is compromised due to public contact, the supervisor should be notified

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immediately to determine what additional security measures may be necessary. Inmate
death bed visit requests by family members will be addressed by agency administration
on a case-by-case basis.

Section Vocabulary

Restraint Issues

clinical seclusion

clinical restraints

Security restraint devices, such as shackles, handcuffs, or flex cuffs, may be used to secure
an inmate in the hospital. It is common practice for the officer to apply one leg restraint
to the inmate and the other to the bed frame and not the bed rail, to prevent
unauthorized movement. Security restraint devices may be removed temporarily, with
the approval of the facility officer-in-charge, to conduct medical tests or procedures.
Removing handcuffs and leg restraints at the same time is not recommended unless
medically necessary; however, in such cases, additional security measures should be
taken. Restraints must be re-applied once the test, procedure or examination has been
completed. (CO6-1.11.3)
Restraints may not be used on a prisoner who is known to be pregnant during the third
trimester, or during labor, delivery, and postpartum recovery unless the officer makes a
determination that the prisoner presents a substantial flight risk or some other
extraordinary medical or security circumstance that dictates restraints to be used. There
are restrictions on the types and placement of restraint devices on pregnant prisoners.
Officers should follow their agency’s policy. If a licensed health care professional requests
all restraints be removed, the officer should inform him or her of all pertinent security
concerns regarding the inmate.
Inmates may also be controlled through other methods. Clinical restraints are ordered
by the attending physician and are used to keep the inmate from injuring him- or herself
in a medical facility. Clinical seclusion is used to isolate the inmate from the general
population at a medical facility for medical and safety reasons (CO6-1.11.4). This may
include placing the inmate in a padded room or a straightjacket for his or her safety. The
attending physician has sole discretion on the application or removal of clinical restraints
and placement in or out of clinical seclusion based on specific medical needs.

Inmate Medical Emergencies
The officer will notify the nearest medical personnel for assistance if the inmate exhibits
any of the following:
• any signs of medical distress, such as difficulty breathing, extreme sweating,
nausea, extreme bleeding, or paralysis
• any dislodging of medical devices or equipment, such as intravenous (IV) lines
or monitors
• any medical situation beyond the officer’s training and abilities (CO6-1.11.5)
Inmate medical emergencies are fluctuating events and multiple medical personnel may
respond to the situation. Security measures must not interfere with medical life-saving
intervention. The officer must monitor all activity and maintain a balance between
security and medical treatment. Additionally, the officer must complete an incident
report as soon as possible after the medical emergency has been resolved.

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Supervising Special Populations
UNIT 1: DIVERSITY IN THE CORRECTIONAL SETTING
LESSON 1: Inmate Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
UNIT 2: SECURITY THREAT GROUPS
LESSON 1: Gang and STG Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
LESSON 2: STG Structures and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
UNIT 3: RECOGNIZING SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG INMATES
LESSON 1: Inmates with a History of Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
UNIT 4: MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH MENTAL RETARDATION
LESSON 1: Inmates with Mental Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
LESSON 2: Inmates with Mental Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
UNIT 5: JUVENILE INMATES AND YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS
LESSON 1: Monitoring Juvenile Inmates and Youthful Offenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
UNIT 6: ELDERLY INMATES
LESSON 1: Monitoring Elderly Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
UNIT 7: FEMALE INMATES
LESSON 1: Female Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
UNIT 8: INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES
LESSON 1: Sexually Abused Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
LESSON 2: Inmates with Sexuality Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
UNIT 9: PHYSICALLY DISABLED INMATES
LESSON 1: Monitoring Physically Disabled Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
UNIT 10: INMATES WITH MEDICAL NEEDS
LESSON 1: Characteristics of Inmates with Medical Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
UNIT 11: CONFINEMENT
LESSON 1: Inmates in Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
UNIT 12: DEATH ROW INMATES
LESSON 1: Monitoring Death Row Inmates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

On a daily basis, a correctional officer interacts with a variety of individuals who have been grouped together.
Special populations are part of this larger group. The officer may need to make considerations when supervising
each of these groups of inmates. These special population groups have individual characteristics. The most common
groups the officer will encounter are discussed in this chapter, from most prevalent to least. The officer should be
aware of these special populations and respond appropriately when interacting with and supervising them.

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UNIT 1 | DIVERSITY IN THE CORRECTIONAL SETTING
LESSON 1 |

Inmate Societies

OBJECTIVES
CO7-1.1.1 Define special populations.
CO7-1.1.2 Identify common types of
inmate societies.
CO7-1.1.3 Identify reasons for inmate
societies.
CO7-1.1.4 Describe common structures
of inmate societies.

Section Vocabulary
special populations

Special Populations
Special populations are classifications of inmates an officer will encounter routinely,
each of which requires different interactions or services from the officer. These
encounters may happen in the general population where staff has not identified an
inmate as having special needs, or the officer may work in a unit designated to handle
inmates with special needs. (CO7-1.1.1)

Societies
By nature, humans are social beings, even in a correctional setting, and tend to gravitate
toward people with similar beliefs and backgrounds. Inmate societies tend to form
around race, religion, medical needs, geographical, ethnic or cultural background, and
socio-economic standing. The inmate’s social and financial status, physical size, crimes
committed, number of repeat offenses, and length of sentence can also play a part in
these associations. These societies bond together because of a common background or
interests, and sometimes for protection. Often individuals will align with inmates they
think have power and will often imitate them, with the goal of becoming more like
them. (CO7-1.1.2)
• Racial societies are not absolute, are often hybrids of multiple racial groups, and
often do not reflect a single race.
• Groups focused on religious practice may guide the inmate’s daily activities; some
examples are praying five times a day, carrying a rosary or fasting. Having
knowledge of some of the characteristics of these religious groups will help the
officer better understand the inmate population.
• Inmates with similar medical issues, such as diabetes, HIV, and cancer often
commiserate in their own social group, sharing medical experiences and hardships.
• Geographical societies are coming to the forefront of inmate populations. Inmates
from the same geographical region group together using identifiers such as the
area code or name of the major city or county in which they lived.
• Some inmates from similar socio-economic groups will cluster and sometimes
control certain activities within the inmate population with money, contraband,
and influence. Inmates on the lower end of the social ladder often struggle to
gain protection from inmates with greater influence. (CO7-1.1.3)
• Inmate societies may follow a hierarchical leadership where there is a clearly
defined leader, sub-leaders, and followers. Elderly inmates typically do not have
a leader. Youthful offender societies often do not maintain the discipline required
to keep this type of structure. Different situations, such as fights, releases, intakes,
changes in the availability of assets, or politics can erode the hierarchy on a regular
basis. (CO7-1.1.4)

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UNIT 2 | SECURITY THREAT GROUPS
LESSON 1 |

Gang and STG Characteristics

Security Threat Group
A security threat group (STG) is a criminal enterprise, an organization of a
continuing nature that engages repeatedly in acts of crime, and individually or
collectively poses a safety or security threat within, as well as outside of, a correctional
facility. (CO7-2.1.1)

Criminal Gang
According to §874.03, F.S., a “criminal gang” is a formal or informal ongoing
organization, association, or group that has as one of its primary activities the
commission of criminal or delinquent acts. It consists of three or more persons who
have a common name or common identifying signs, colors, or symbols, including, but
not limited to, terrorist organizations and hate groups. (CO7-2.1.2)
STG is a term used by officers to remove any glamour from being a member of these
organizations and diffuse the power associated with being a “gang” member. Inmates
idolize the lifestyle of a gang member and the term STG makes being a member less
appealing. (CO7-2.1.3)
STGs are a threat to the orderly operation of a correctional facility because the root of
their operation is criminal; their numbers can influence inmate populations and threaten
the safety and security of the operation of the facility. STG members usually control
the bulk of the contraband flow because of their strength in numbers. STGs can commit
the same crimes in the facility they commit outside of the facility, such as extortion,
gambling, prostitution, battery, assault, money laundering, drug smuggling, escape plots,
robbery, and murder. (CO7-2.1.4)

OBJECTIVES

CO7-2.1.1 Define security threat group
(STG).
CO7-2.1.2 Define “criminal gang”
according to §874.03, F.S.
CO7-2.1.3 Describe why officers refer
to gangs as STGs in a correctional
setting.
CO7-2.1.4 List common criminal acts
committed by STGs.
CO7-2.1.5 Describe the differences
between types of STGs.
CO7-2.1.6 List commonly known STGs.
CO7-2.1.7 Describe characteristics of
STG members.
CO7-2.1.8 Describe common STG
symbols, graffiti, colors, signs,
and tattoos.
CO7-2.1.9 Identify inmate codes and
the slang of STGs.

STGs may be classified into many different types, such as:

Traditional
Traditional STGs have a documented history, a written set of laws or codes, and can have
an organizational structure. Some examples include the Latin Kings, Bloods, Crips,
Aryan Brotherhood, Ku Klux Klan, MS-13, and SUR-13. These STGs often have a
leadership structure (implicit or explicit), codes of conduct, colors, special dress, signs,
and symbols. A traditional STG may vary in characteristics of age, gender, community,
ethnicity, or generation, as well as in the scope and nature of its criminal activities.

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Non-Traditional/Hybrid
Non-traditional STGs that do not fall under the criteria of a traditional STG can be without laws or code, but
still have an organizational structure. Some examples include Haitian gangs, Jamaican Posse, Asian Pride, and
Taking Over Your Shit (TOYS).
Hybrid STGs form within schools, neighborhoods, or regions, and in youthful offender, juvenile, and adult
correctional facilities. They are composed of members from other STGs uniting to form a group, and the
activity can be limited to specific geographic areas or neighborhoods. Examples include Money Over Bitches
Boyz (MOB Boyz), 704 (or local area codes), Zoe Mafia, and Guatemalans Taking Over (GTO).

Transitional
Transitional gang members are individuals or a group of gang members that come to prison and realign
themselves with traditional and non-traditional STGs, or they can be hybrid STG members recruited by larger,
traditional STGs.

Female
Female STGs do exist, and females can be members of a typically male STG or members of an all-female STG.
Female STGs can be similar to male STGs in structure. The female STG crime rate is currently low;
however, female STGs are the fastest growing prison population. When a crime is committed, it is often violent.

Prison Based
Prison-based STGs originate within the prison system and predominantly base their operations from within
the prison system. Some examples include Mexican Mafia/LA EME, Aryan Brotherhood, Black Guerilla
Family, Ñeta, Texas Syndicate, and Nuestra Familia.

Extremists
Extremists may act solo or as a group, follow an extreme ideology, such as faith or belief-based, or antiestablishment, and can pose a significant security threat because they are usually very tight-knit, unpredictable,
and exclusive. Some examples include Sovereign Citizens, Jihadists, and Posse Comitatus. (CO7-2.1.5)

Common STGs in a Correctional Setting
Noted STGs represented in a correctional setting can include the following:
5%er
Aryan Brotherhood
Aryan Nations
Black Gangster Disciples
Black Guerrilla Family
Bloods
Crips
Folk Nation

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Gangster Disciples
Insane Gangster Disciples
MS-13
Ñeta
Sur-XIII or Sur-13
White Pride
White Supremist
Zoe Mafia (CO7-2.1.6)

Common STG Characteristics, Symbols,
Graffiti, Colors, Signs, and Tattoos

People Nation

Figure 7-1

Folk Nation

Figure 7-2

Aryan Brotherhood

Figure 7-3

Most facilities have an STG coordinator on site who can provide additional information
related to characteristics of a specific population. The officer should refrain from using
these symbols, gestures, graffiti, or alphabets as communication because they can
potentially place the officer in a compromising or dangerous situation. Some
characteristics may include the following:
• forming hand signs with the left or right hand
• wearing hats cocked or tilted to the left or right
• rolling up one pant leg
• untying one shoe
• resting the hand in a specific pocket
• wearing jewelry turned at an angle
• color association (black/brown, blue/red, etc.)
• identifiers or icons often appear in combination. For example, you may see a star
and a crown, which may reveal both the person’s alliance and the specific gang to
which the individual belongs.
• using a common phrase, such as “All is one” or “All is well”
• using hand signals or graffiti in a certain direction such as upside down or
sideways denotes a sign of disrespect
• using hand signals or graffiti properly is a sign of respect
• using nonverbal communication, such as tugging on a shirt (CO7-2.1.7,
CO7-2.1.8)

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Nuestrã Familia

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Figure 7-4

Mexican Mafia

Gang hand signals table (Right to left)
Top: People’s Nation Alliance, Allport Lovers, Almighty Popes, Maniac Latin Disciples, Gangster Party People OR
Party Players, Vice Lords
Middle: Two Two Boys, Gangster Disciples, Insane Deuces, Latin Kings, Insane Dragons, Imperial Gangsters
Bottom: Crazy Gangsters, Spanish Gangster Disciples, Latin Counts, Familia Stones, Latin Lovers, Bishops OR
Almighty Brazers OR Insane Latin Brothers

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Figure 7-5

Figure 7-6

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Some Common STG Slang
187—to kill someone; California penal code for murder
13—sure or no
911—police
B.K.—blood killer
B.O.S.—Brothers of the Struggle
bang/gang bangin’—being involved in gang activity
banger—gang member
beef—complaint, dispute
behind the wall—in prison
blade—knife
bogart—to con or trick
bolt—run
book—run, get away, leave
bounce—to leave an area
buck, buck—sound of a handgun
buck—prison made alcoholic beverage
buck—to not comply
C.K.—Crip Killer
call the shots—give orders
catch a V—punishment for breaking a gang rule or code
cellie—person who shares a cell with another inmate
check yourself—watch what you say or what you do
check-in—an inmate that requests protection from staff or other inmates
chief—gang leader
chillin’—just hanging around, relax, mellow out, okay
chill out—stop what you are doing
claim—announce your gang affiliation, represent
colors—specific color scheme used by the gang to represent
crab—derogatory name for Crip members used by Bloods
creepin’—a married or committed person going out to have an affair
dissin’—disrespecting someone
down—loyalty or allegiance to someone or something
drop a dime—to snitch or tell on someone
dropping the flag—leaving the gang

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Section Vocabulary

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false flaggin’—representing a gang that you don’t belong to
fishing—sending small notes using fishing line by slinging under the door

criminal gang

flag—gang handkerchief

security threat group (STG)

kite—letter
latching/jumped—placing a heavy object within a sock to use as a weapon
rag—gang handkerchief
set—group or gang that one is affiliated with
shiv/shank—prison-made weapon, usually a knife
shot caller—person in charge
slob—derogatory name for Bloods used by Crips
violation—the punishment given to a gang member who breaks a rule
Inmates can deliver messages through sign language
and written code sent by fishing (passing messages
using a string) or the United States Postal Service.
STG code is a form of cryptic communication
using written symbols and letters. The officer can
break the code by matching the letter with the
symbol. The officer should notify the supervisor
when these types of communications are found,
explaining the circumstances under which they
were found, from whom, and where they were
found. (CO7-2.1.9)

Bloods alphabet

150

Figure 7-7

Crips alphabet

Figure 7-8

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UNIT 2 | SECURITY THREAT GROUPS
LESSON 2 |

STG Structures and Activities

STG Structures
There are different structures associated with STGs, such as:
The pyramid structure contains one individual, who is a strong leader, with at least two
or more sublevels of command. The pyramid is usually the strongest and most organized
structure and is common to the more traditional, national gangs.

OBJECTIVES
CO7-2.2.1 Describe common STG
structure.
CO7-2.2.2 Identify signs of the solo
extremist.

The linear structure contains a single leader representing each clique; however, the
leaders do not answer to a higher command. The leaders will often meet to consult with
one another, common to the more non-traditional or local street gangs.

CO7-2.2.3 List the indicators of STG
activity in a correctional setting.

The flux or circular structure has a continually changing leadership. Stronger or more
charismatic people enter this type of gang structure. These gangs will usually evolve into
the linear or pyramid structure as they work toward establishing a strong leader; some
examples of the flux or circular structure include school-based gangs and some
hybrid gangs.

CO7-2.2.5 Describe the indicators of
STGs the officer may encounter
during cell or area searches.

Some STGs have an organization based on tenure. The STGs rule by committee, there
is no leader, and all decisions are made by consensus. Should a member disagree with
the group’s ideas, that member will not participate. When a member initiates a criminal
activity, all of the participating members must commit the crime. These STGs have
specialists (not leaders) in specific crimes who consult with members on how to carry
out each crime.
It is common for the formal leader of a street gang to control the gang while in prison,
and this is the case for most of the national gangs. The leader, similar to other inmates,
usually has phone and visitor privileges and will issue orders from inside the institution;
the next in command carries these orders back to the street. (CO7-2.2.1)

Extremists

CO7-2.2.4 Describe indicators of active
STGs.

CO7-2.2.6 List the indicators of STG
activity while monitoring mail.
CO7-2.2.7 Describe signs of alliances
or conflicts between STGs within
the correctional setting.
CO7-2.2.8 Discuss the importance of
recognizing changes in inmate
cliques or groupings.
CO7-2.2.9 Observe inmate behavior
related to STG activity.
CO7-2.2.10 Seize material related to
STG activity.
CO7-2.2.11 Document STG activity.

Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups
outside the perceived political center of a society. In democratic societies, individuals or
groups that advocate the replacement of the democracy with an authoritarian regime are
usually branded extremists.
An extremist may be identified as an individual working alone or an individual working
within a group. There are many indicators that an individual may be an extremist. One
sign may include withdrawal into a solitary lifestyle. These individuals may see outsiders
as a threat to their lifestyle. They might also withdraw from family members and friends.

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In some cases, the individual may appear to fall off the radar for a length of time. These individuals may begin
coveting and hoarding artifacts felt to be sacred or aligned with their cause.
The officer should be aware of the similarities and differences between religious belief, and religious fanaticism
and extremism. (CO7-2.2.2)

Indicators
Some of the indicators of STG activity in a correctional setting can be a change in the amount of crime,
batteries, and taggings. A tagging is a marking on a wall, fence, or the ground that identifies STG territory.
The officer should be aware of an increase in rule violations, differences in inmates congregating, new STG
tattoos, and a noticeable increase in recruitment, fights, injuries, and requests for personal protection or housing
reassignment. Often, an increase in confidential disclosures from the inmates to avoid association with the
impending activity is the main way the officer will become aware of STG activity. (CO7-2.2.3, CO7-2.2.4)
During cell or area searches, the officer should look for a shift in contraband items such as weapons, cell
phones, gang literature, and a change in the amount of commissary items. STG leaders will often have the
largest amount of commissary items without receipts, which they will pass along to other inmates. Look for
an increase in the allowable items, such as an extra lock, a pair of shoes, and excessive amounts of facilityprovided items. (CO7-2.2.5)
The mailroom should filter inappropriate items when monitoring inmate mail and look for gang-related
symbols, codes, phrases, and photos. The officer should scan the mail for direct or indirect threats of STG
activity and any hidden contraband. (CO7-2.2.6)

Being Proactive
Constantly observing inmate STG behavior is critical to the safe and secure operation of the facility as well
as discouraging STG activity. This includes recognizing changes in inmate cliques or groupings as they may
indicate a shift in alliances, authority, and influence over other STG inmates. Alliances and conflicts between
STGs are constantly changing (CO7-2.2.7). A shift in alliances can result in an argument or a major fight
that can spread throughout the compound (CO7-2.2.8). The officer’s awareness of imminent STG activity
within the facility is the most effective tool to deter STG activity. Observation of STG activity can mirror
gang activity that is happening or about to happen outside of the facility. Maintaining a flow of STG
information to law enforcement outside of the facility can deter activity both inside and outside of the
facility. The officer should not underestimate the ability of an STG member to get things done inside or
outside of a facility. (CO7-2.2.9)

Contraband
An additional deterrent to STG activity is recognizing and seizing STG contraband. This process can be as
simple as viewing the item, seizing the item, and then determining what to do with it. The officer may also
encounter STG contraband that requires further review by the STG coordinator, supervisor, or investigating
authority. It is critical that the officer recognize that what he or she is looking at is STG contraband.
(CO7-2.2.10)

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Documentation
The officer should thoroughly document all suspected STG activity immediately after
observation. Documenting STG activity provides additional information to contribute
to STG databases. This information helps identify a person formally as a gang member,
which increases the potential for enhanced penalties or change in classification and
housing status. (CO7-2.2.11)

Section Vocabulary
tagging

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UNIT 3 | RECOGNIZING SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG INMATES
LESSON 1 |

Inmates with a History of Substance Abuse

OBJECTIVES
CO7-3.1.1 Define substance abuse.
CO7-3.1.2 List symptoms of alcohol or
drug abuse.
CO7-3.1.3 List signs and symptoms
of substance abuse withdrawal
or detoxification.
CO7-3.1.4 Describe common medical
needs of the substance-abusing
inmate.
CO7-3.1.5 Summarize special
considerations the officer needs to
make when monitoring substanceabusing inmates.
CO7-3.1.6 Explain the role of the officer
in an inmate’s court-ordered
treatment program.

Definition
Inmates can have substance abuse issues, making their behavior unpredictable.
Substance abuse is the use of any substance, manmade or natural, that alters the mood
or state of mind of the user. These substances can be inhaled, ingested, injected, or
absorbed. Clinically, substance abuse is the long-term, pathological use of alcohol or
drugs, characterized by daily intoxication, inability to reduce consumption, and
impairment in social or occupational functioning. (CO7-3.1.1)

Signs and Symptoms
Some symptoms that inmates display when abusing substances, withdrawing from
substance abuse, or going through the process of detoxification can be
• unresponsiveness
• breathing difficulty
• abnormal pulse
• fever
• vomiting
• convulsions or seizures
• sweating
• tremors
• abnormal pupil reactions
• blurred vision
• slurred speech
• muscle spasms
• signs of illicit drug use (track marks, burns on fingers or lips)
• combativeness
• extraordinary strength
• endurance without fatigue
• sudden tranquility after frenzied activity
• paranoia
• memory loss
• hallucinations
• altered mental status or abnormal behavior (CO7-3.1.2, CO7-3.1.3)

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Special Considerations
The officer needs to make special considerations when monitoring inmates who have
problems with substance abuse. If an inmate is withdrawing from addiction to alcohol
or drugs in the “tranquilizer” group (Valium, Xanax), there may be a potential for
seizures and respiratory arrest. The officer should immediately notify the supervisor and
medical staff when this occurs. These inmates have critical medical needs. (CO7-3.1.4)

Section Vocabulary
substance abuse

Inmates under the influence of controlled substances have a high potential to commit
self-harm, such as banging their heads on hard objects, biting or hitting themselves, or
attacking others. Their behavior can be completely unpredictable; they may be calm
one moment and incredibly volatile the next. This may present a challenge to the officer
as most standard physical control techniques may not apply in these situations. The
officer should immediately request backup to control the situation.
An officer needs to be aware that inmates identified as substance abusers will need
increased monitoring and observation to ensure their safety. This may include a shift in
housing or management in which staff places the inmate in an environment more
conducive to preventing self-harm. A housing or management change may include the
restriction of personal property and institutionally-provided items. The Florida
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Control Act, §893.01, F.S., dictates that any individual
who appears to be under the influence of alcohol or narcotics will be housed separately
from the general population with close supervision. When a physician, designee, or
medical personnel determines that the inmate is no longer posing a threat to him- or
herself or others, staff may move the inmate to the general population. (CO7-3.1.5)
In the event that an inmate is court-ordered into a substance abuse treatment program,
the officer should allow every opportunity for the inmate to attend the program. The
officer should also increase the number of searches to discourage introducing contraband
into the housing area. Increased documentation accompanies an inmate’s refusal, denial,
or lack of attendance of a substance abuse treatment program. (CO7-3.1.6)

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UNIT 4 | MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH

MENTAL RETARDATION
LESSON 1 |

Inmates with Mental Illness

OBJECTIVES
CO7-4.1.1 Describe the symptoms of
inmates with depression or who are
at risk for suicide.
CO7-4.1.2 Describe common medical
needs of the mentally ill inmate.
CO7-4.1.3 Describe the characteristics
of a mentally ill inmate.
CO7-4.1.4 List the symptoms of
inmates with mental disorders.
CO7-4.1.5 Describe elements of
effectively communicating with the
mentally ill inmate.
CO7-4.1.6 State the use of force
considerations used with the
mentally ill.
CO7-4.1.7 Explain the Baker Act as it
relates to inmates with mental illness.

There are many different mental health disorders; however, some are more common in
the correctional setting than others, with personality disorders affecting the most
inmates. An officer needs to be able to recognize the symptoms of each disorder when
making decisions about how to deal with an inmate.
Mental illness comes in a variety of forms; it is a person’s prominent behavior presented
as odd or bizarre acts, which negatively impact the person’s life. Common mental
illnesses that inmates may display include bi-polar disorder and schizophrenia. Each
person with mental illness will have different symptoms.

Categories
Mental illness is typically divided into mood disorders, thought disorders, and
personality disorders. An inmate can display one or multiple behaviors associated with
these disorders. Having an awareness of these categories can make supervising these
inmates less challenging.
Mood disorders are illnesses an inmate can have for short periods or on a long-term
basis. Some mood disorders can be corrected or reduced through prescribed medication.
Typical mood disorders an officer will encounter are bi-polar disorder and depression,
with depression being the most prevalent. Depression is often situational and not a longterm, chronic issue. Inmates can become depressed because of being incarcerated, a
death of a family member, or other losses. Depression may worsen to the point where
the inmate considers and even acts upon thoughts of self-harm or suicide.
Signs and symptoms of an inmate considering self-harm or suicide can include unusual
crying episodes, giving away personal belongings, wanting to be alone, outbursts, not
performing normal activities, and changes in routine. Statistically, inmates who commit
suicide often complete the act during the late night or early morning hours. This often
occurs soon after being sentenced and incarcerated. It can also be brought on by
receiving distressing news from outside the facility. Officers should closely monitor
inmates during these times.
The officer has a responsibility to notify the appropriate mental health professional if
an inmate needs further evaluation. The officer should take the appropriate steps to
prevent any suicide attempts; however, the officer is not liable for determining if an
inmate will harm or kill him- or herself. (CO7-4.1.1)
Thought disorders are typically illnesses that last a lifetime, but may be treated with
medication. A typical thought disorder an officer will encounter is schizophrenia.

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Inmates with thought disorders often present with odd behavior that is noticeable to both other inmates and
officers. The inmate with a thought disorder may appear preoccupied and distracted most of the time. He or
she may present with very poor hygiene with no regard for personal appearance. The inmate may express
bizarre ideas such as the CIA implanting a listening device in his or her brain, being hunted by the Mafia, or
that newscasters hide special messages in their broadcast that only the mentally ill inmate can decipher.
Personality disorders are illnesses causing the inmate to exhibit a long-term pattern of distress and impairment
in his or her life. Typical personality disorders an officer will encounter include narcissistic personality disorder,
dependent personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and adjustment disorder.
Maintaining a consistent medication regimen is critical to keeping mentally ill inmates stable; a missed dose
of certain medications could have a detrimental effect on the inmate’s mental status. The officer should always
direct inmates to the appropriate staff for their medication. Mentally ill inmates who have medical needs are
most often bi-polar, schizophrenic, or depressive. These inmates require daily medication to manage their
symptoms. (CO7-4.1.2)
Inmates will often manipulate the officer and fellow inmates to obtain services beyond those normally received
through regular channels. (CO7-4.1.3)

Symptoms
The officer will encounter behaviors that may be out of the ordinary and will need to use his or her best
judgment to determine whether the inmate suffers from mental illnesses or is exaggerating behavior in order
to obtain unwarranted attention and contraband. The officer should be aware of the following symptoms of
mental illness that may appear in the inmates’ actions and speech:
• delusional thoughts
• hallucinations, auditory or visual
• paranoia
• hypersexuality
• depression or manic episodes
• antisocial behavior, even during visitations
• impulsive behavior
• active and passive acts of self-harm
• extreme energy followed up by extreme lethargy
• incoherent or tangential thoughts and talk
• extreme demand for admiration
• constant refusal to make decisions
• high egotistical behavior
• lack of self-identity
• great difficulty adjusting to new or novel situations (CO7-4.1.4)

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Communication
The officer should communicate with the mentally ill inmate as with any inmate in the general population.
Should the communication take place during a crisis, the officer should extend efforts to use active listening
skills. The officer should remain composed to de-escalate the situation, which should calm the inmate enough
for him or her to understand and follow orders. (CO7-4.1.5)

Special Considerations
Inmates with thought or mood disorders do not react the same way other inmates do when an officer gives
them orders. Psychotic inmates (those hearing voices, etc.) are sometimes preoccupied with internal voices, do
not hear the officer, and are unable to follow commands. Inmates often lie about their status; however, the
officer should not try to diagnose whether the inmate is faking a mental health disorder. If an officer has any
doubts about an inmate’s mental status, the officer should refer or escort the inmate to the mental health clinic
and fully explain to the mental health clinician what he or she has observed.

Use of Force
The officer should handle use of force situations on a case-by-case basis. If the inmate is displaying selfdestructive behavior, the officer should call for backup and use the minimum amount of force necessary to gain
control of the situation. When an inmate with a mental disorder is among the general population, use of force
guidelines are consistent as with the general population. (CO7-4.1.6)

The Baker Act
In a detention setting, the officer or health professional may apply the Baker Act at the end of the inmate’s
sentence should the inmate display behavior(s) indicating the need for evaluation. The Baker Act provides for
emergency service and temporary detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community
inpatient treatment, if necessary. The criteria for a Baker Act/Involuntary Examination Response, according
to §394.463, F.S., is that a person may be taken to a receiving facility for involuntary examination if there is
reason to believe that he or she has a mental illness, and because of his or her mental illness, the person is unable
to care for him- or herself, or to protect the inmate from harming him- or herself or others. (CO7-4.1.7)

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UNIT 4 | MENTALLY ILL INMATES AND INMATES WITH

MENTAL RETARDATION
LESSON 2 |

Inmates with Mental Retardation

Characteristics
Inmates with mental retardation may have a significantly reduced intellectual ability;
specifically, they will have an IQ of less than 70. These inmates may also have other
deficits or impairments that affect their ability to function in life. Most of these inmates
have difficulties with problem solving, have high anxiety levels, and are easily frustrated
by simple tasks. Inmates with mental retardation are more comfortable with routines and
become agitated when routines vary. Often, they display self-soothing behaviors such as
rocking or clicking their fingers, and may become upset when interrupted. Each inmate
with mental retardation is an individual with his or her own skills and abilities. The
inmate might be educable, trainable, or may be incapable of learning. (CO7-4.2.1)

OBJECTIVES
CO7-4.2.1 Describe the characteristics
of an inmate that has mental
retardation.
CO7-4.2.2 Differentiate between mental
illness and mental retardation.
CO7-4.2.3 Describe elements of
effectively communicating with
inmates that have mental retardation.

Mental illness is the result of biological diseases or chemical imbalances in which brain
chemistry does not work normally and requires medication to compensate for the
imbalance. In contrast, mentally retarded inmates do not benefit from taking psychiatric
medication. (CO7-4.2.2)

Communication
The officer should communicate just the same with an inmate with mental retardation
as with any inmate in the general population. Should the communication take place in
a crisis, the officer should extend efforts to use active listening skills. Instead of shouting,
the officer should remain calm to de-escalate the situation, which should help the inmate
understand orders. Sometimes, using simple words and single-step commands is an
effective way to communicate with an inmate with mental retardation. (CO7-4.2.3)

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UNIT 5 | JUVENILE INMATES AND YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS
LESSON 1 |

Monitoring Juvenile Inmates and Youthful Offenders

OBJECTIVES
CO7-5.1.1 Define juvenile adjudication.
CO7-5.1.2 Define juvenile inmate.
CO7-5.1.3 Define youthful offender.
CO7-5.1.4 List the characteristics of the
juvenile inmate and youthful offender.
CO7-5.1.5 Describe disciplinary issues
associated with the juvenile inmate
and youthful offender.
CO7-5.1.6 Describe special
considerations when monitoring
juvenile inmates and youthful
offenders.
CO7-5.1.7 List the legal requirements
for incarcerating juvenile inmates
and youthful offenders.
CO7-5.1.8 List types of services
available to juvenile inmates and
youthful offenders.

Definitions
Juvenile adjudication occurs when the court charges, sentences, adjudicates as
delinquent (including nolo contendere), and commits a juvenile under the age of 18
years to the Department of Juvenile Justice (CO7-5.1.1). A juvenile inmate is an inmate
who is not legally an adult or adjudicated as an adult and whom the court may assign
to the Department of Juvenile Justice. (CO7-5.1.2)
Sometimes, an adjudicated juvenile is unsuccessfully incarcerated within the juvenile
justice system and the placement is not appropriate for their rehabilitation program.
When this happens, the court remands the juvenile to the Department of Corrections
as a youthful offender.
A youthful offender is any offender younger than the age of 24 years, who has either
been sentenced as an adult by the judge or assigned youthful offender status by the
Department of Corrections. According to §958.03(5), F.S., a youthful offender means
any person who is sentenced as such by the court or is classified as such by the
Department of Corrections pursuant to §958.04, F.S. and can be:
Court-declared—a youthful offender cannot be sentenced to prison for more than
six (6) years. He or she must have been younger than 21 years of age on the date
the sentence was imposed for offenses committed on or after 10/01/2008 and
cannot have previously been classified as a youthful offender.
Department-designated—a youthful offender’s total length of prison sentence
cannot exceed 10 years. The age of the offender cannot exceed 24 years and the
individual cannot have previously been classified as a youthful offender.
Department-declared—not a youthful offender, but housed at a youthful offender
facility by virtue of mental or physical vulnerability. The inmate’s mental or physical
vulnerability would significantly jeopardize his or her safety in a non-youthful
offender facility.
Young Adult Offender—not a youthful offender, but an offender housed at a
youthful offender facility by virtue of age at time of crime and time of admission
to prison. (CO7-5.1.3)

Characteristics
The officer should not assume that all young inmates have the following characteristics
and should treat each inmate as unique with individual personalities. However, these are
some characteristics that officers might find in young inmates:

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• tend to be more impulsive and unpredictable
• act first and think about the consequences later
• are often unable to accept responsibility for their behavior; they may blame others for their inappropriate
behavior
• are often oppositional, defiant, and resentful of authority
• may join gangs in an attempt to find an identity and for personal safety
• can cave to peer pressure, be easily manipulated, and be concerned about what other inmates think
about them
• may come from households with generations of gang members, a history of abuse and criminal activity,
and whose value systems clash with common social norms
• may have few positive adult role models
• may not have graduated from high school; may not have a formal education, but may have street smarts
• if diagnosed with learning disabilities, they may continue to have those challenges, which may also
impact their ability to respond appropriately in a variety of situations
• tend to have a lot more sexual curiosity issues and can have an increased incidence of lewd and
lascivious behavior
• tend to have no moral compass
• often depersonalize other inmates, corrections officers, and people on the outside
• can be insensitive, lack remorse for what they do, and do not see their behavior as anti-social or criminal
(CO7-5.1.4)
Juvenile inmates and youthful offenders may frequently need disciplining to correct inappropriate behavior.
Juvenile inmates and youthful offenders are in confinement more often than adult inmates. Minor infractions
can include an unmade bunk or failure to wear ID or follow proper dress code. Major infractions can include
fighting, battery, STG activity, rioting, setting fires, theft, and lewd and lascivious behavior. (CO7-5.1.5)

Proactive, Professional Officer Behavior
The officer should be a positive role model for young inmates. The officer should demonstrate professional
behavior by being consistently firm and fair. These young inmates need a structured, predictable environment
that is consistent from one shift to another.
Young inmates will constantly test a new officer, looking for weakness and vulnerability. It is important that
officers new to the facility understand policy and procedures, enforce them, and appear competent. The officer
should avoid being distracted by long conversations, as this could be a diversion for inappropriate behavior in
another area. Proactive intervention begins with being aware of surroundings and changes in inmate behaviors,
dress, and social groupings that may include but are not limited to the following:
• inmates wearing boots during showers and at night time may indicate there will be an incident
• magazines under shirts indicate an inmate anticipates being stabbed or hit
• an inmate hoarding items from the commissary may indicate he or she anticipates being placed
in lock-down
• an increase in requests for protection or “check-in”
• increase or decrease in the normal activity or sounds of the facility

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The officer should immediately report these behaviors to his or her shift supervisor, call for backup if
appropriate, and take immediate action to isolate the impending incident. (CO7-5.1.6)

Legal Requirements
Federal law mandates different nutritional requirements for young inmates and juvenile offenders than for
adult inmates.
Juvenile inmates and youthful offenders cannot be housed with adult offenders and require additional
supervision. According to §985.265(5)(b), F.S., juveniles shall be housed separately from adult inmates to
prohibit sight and sound contact with incarcerated adults, including trustees. Separation of juveniles from
adults permits no more than random or accidental contact. The receiving facility shall contain a separate
section for juveniles and have adequate staff to supervise and monitor the juvenile’s activities at all times.
Supervising and monitoring juveniles includes physical observation and documented checks by facility
supervisory staff at intervals of no more than 15 minutes. This subsection does not prohibit placing two or
more juveniles in the same cell. Under no circumstances shall a juvenile be placed in the same cell with an adult.
(CO7-5.1.7)

Services and Programs Available
Juvenile offenders are required to participate in physical activity. Youthful offenders are also required to
participate in the Extended Day Program (EDP). The EDP operates 16 hours each day, Monday through
Saturday. It provides a minimum of 12 hours per day for work, academic, and vocational education, counseling,
personal development and self-betterment.
Juvenile inmates are required to attend General Equivalence Diploma (GED) classes. Programs that may be
available for juvenile inmates and juvenile offenders can include academic and vocational programs, such as:
• wellness programs
• work programs
• faith- and character-based programs
• substance abuse programs
• betterment programs
• pre-release, transition programs
• counseling programs
• tutoring programs
• correspondence courses
• education and trade programs
Referral resources available to juvenile inmates and youthful offenders include the following:
• medical
• psychology

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• dental
• chaplain or other religious leader
• classification

Supervising Special Populations Ch 7
Section Vocabulary
juvenile adjudication

• security

juvenile inmate

• education

youthful offender

• library and law library (CO7-5.1.8)

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UNIT 6 | ELDERLY INMATES
LESSON 1 |

Monitoring Elderly Inmates

OBJECTIVES
CO7-6.1.1 Define elderly inmate.
CO7-6.1.2 Describe the characteristics
of an elderly inmate.
CO7-6.1.3 Summarize the elements of
effectively communicating with an
elderly inmate.
CO7-6.1.4 Describe special
considerations the officer needs to
make when monitoring elderly
inmates.
CO7-6.1.5 Describe situations in which
the officer needs to make special
considerations for an elderly inmate
with physical limitations.
CO7-6.1.6 List the types of services
available to the elderly inmate.

Florida’s Elderly Inmates
Elderly inmates are 50 years of age and over. Some elderly inmates are docile and more
apt to follow the rules. They are less apt to play games; however, if they do intentionally
manipulate the system, they are very good at it, and maximize the outcomes. Elderly
inmates can be good at manipulating officers through sympathy. (CO7-6.1.1)
Elderly inmates’ life experiences prior to and while in prison can contribute to a lower
life expectancy. Almost every elderly inmate experiences normal physical and
physiological changes, and can develop certain medical conditions as they get older.
They may experience changes in their eyesight and hearing. These changes may limit the
inmate’s mobility, increase the likelihood of accidents, or lead to fear, isolation, and
victimization by other inmates.
Older inmates may also experience a change in their sense of touch. Damage to nerves
may make them less likely to feel surface pain and therefore less likely to notice injuries.
They are more prone to rips, tears, and bruising to their skin from everyday activities.
They are more likely to suffer loss of balance, which increases the risk of falls. Because
older people often experience an increased sensitivity to weather, officers should be aware
that they are more susceptible to heat stroke, heat exhaustion, and hypothermia.
Another result of aging is the loss of muscle flexibility and strength, which makes
performing daily tasks more difficult. Joints may stiffen due to arthritis, making
movement extremely painful. Older inmates may also lose some cognitive ability, which
is the ability to think, learn, and remember. They may experience slowness in thinking,
finding the right words, or identifying objects. Officers should be patient when
supervising elderly inmates because it may take them longer than younger inmates to
explain themselves.

Medical Issues
Some elderly inmates suffer from chronic medical conditions, such as dementia or
Alzheimer’s disease, requiring long-term management or care. Dementia and Alzheimer’s
are organic, progressive mental disorders characterized by loss of memory, impairment
of judgment and abstract thinking, and changes in personality. These inmates appear
confused, and may also use violent behavior as they experience progressive declines in
mental functions.
Due to the onset of Alzheimer’s and dementia, another condition known as Sundowner’s
Syndrome may set in. This condition is most notable after dinner hours after sundown.
Inmates who exhibit Sundowner’s Syndrome become active after dark, have a tendency

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to wander, and may exhibit mood swings or become demanding, suspicious, or disoriented. Not all inmates
with Alzheimer’s or dementia will exhibit Sundowner’s Syndrome.
Elderly inmates may also experience a variety of mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and depression. Physical
conditions that tend to affect the elderly more than other population groups include incontinence, bedsores,
and dehydration. (CO7-6.1.2)

Communicating with Elderly Inmates
When communicating with an elderly inmate, the officer should always treat him or her with dignity, respect,
and patience. The officer should speak directly to the inmate, establishing and maintaining eye contact, and
speaking loudly only if necessary. In addition, the officer should include the person in all discussions concerning
his or her welfare and should adjust communication based on any disabilities or limitations. (CO7-6.1.3)

Monitoring Elderly Inmates
Increase the number of rounds when monitoring elderly inmates. The officer should observe if the inmate is
moving around, or if in bed, that their chest is rising and falling, and that they are breathing. Monitor the
restrooms and showers more often as some elderly inmates have difficulty using the facilities and can be injured.
Some elderly inmates tend to hoard food beyond the expiration date and then get sick after eating it.
When conducting searches, an officer may find elderly inmates have items in their locker that will be different
from the general population such as:
• hearing aid batteries
• varicose vein socks
• adult diapers, catheters
• prostheses (i.e., an artificial arm or leg) (CO7-6.1.4)

Inmates with Physical Limitations
Job assignments will vary based on the physical limitations of an elderly inmate and are based on their medical
grade and classification.
Some elderly inmates will need adapted eating and drinking utensils.
Non-ambulatory inmates will require durable medical equipment to decrease the incidence of bedsores and
to manage complications from existing medical conditions.
An officer will encounter elderly inmates with physical limitations that may include, but are not limited to,
missing appendages, the inability to move about due to physical defects or malformations, deafness, and
blindness or near blindness. The officer should give the elderly inmate additional time to get where they need
to be because of mobility challenges.
The officer encountering an elderly inmate with physical limitations should make an effort to reasonably
accommodate the inmate when asking him or her to perform tasks or follow directions. The officer should be
aware that instances might arise where standard physical control measures, tactics, and even verbal directions

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Section Vocabulary
elderly inmate

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

used with younger populations may not work for elderly inmates. For example, an
inmate who has a prosthesis that restricts movement of the knee will not be able to kneel
down on his or her knees when getting into a “prone” position. Another example is an
inmate with a visual or hearing deficiency that affects the inmate’s ability to understand
verbal directions, and which may make the inmate appear to refuse to obey an order.
The officer should also be aware that an elderly inmate might falsely claim to have a
physical limitation in an attempt to avoid following commands or to elicit sympathy
from the officer. These elderly inmates claim they cannot perform the actions as directed
or will refuse to comply with the direction. The officer should give the inmate another
action or task which will achieve a similar result. (CO7-6.1.5)

Services
Elderly inmates receive the same services as any other inmate from the general
population. (CO7-6.1.6)

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UNIT 7 | FEMALE INMATES
LESSON 1 |

Female Inmates

Emotional Characteristics
The courts incarcerate the majority of female inmates because of drug-related charges
and economic crimes such as passing worthless checks, forgery, fraud, and other nonconfrontational crimes; however, the incidence of younger females committing violent
crimes is on the rise. Female inmates are the fastest growing criminal population.
Women, especially older inmates, are less likely to join STGs; they do, however, tend to
form surrogate families. These surrogate families take the place of their families on the
outside and form hierarchies with mother, father, child, and grandparent figures. Female
inmates tend to form relationships based more on companionship than for sexual reasons.

OBJECTIVES
CO7-7.1.1 Describe the emotional
characteristics of the female inmate.
CO7-7.1.2 Describe common methods
of manipulation officers may
encounter when supervising female
inmates.
CO7-7.1.3 List the types of services
available to female inmates.

They tend to struggle more with depression, guilt, and worry about their children. They
freely express their fear, anger, and affection on a verbal level, while men tend to express
their feelings physically.
Female inmates tend to base their self-esteem on what others think about them rather
than what they think about themselves. Female inmates can have a lower self-esteem
than male inmates do because of issues related to sexual abuse and domestic violence.
Female inmates have higher instances of relieving stress through self-mutilation and selfharm than male inmates.
Many female inmates have a higher tolerance for others entering their personal space
until an unwelcome person attempts to put his or her hands on the inmate. This can lead
to a physical fight. Female inmates are frequently more concerned than male inmates
with cleanliness and having a neat environment. (CO7-7.1.1)
Female inmates have a high tendency to manipulate staff. Common methods of
manipulation include using the enticement of sex to form a relationship with a staff
member or another inmate. Officers must remain professional at all times and avoid
this type of contact. Female inmates tend to be more inclined than male inmates to
provide false information to achieve an agenda. (CO7-7.1.2)

Programs and Services
Generally, female inmates are more willing to participate in programs than males because
it presents additional opportunities to bond and socialize with other inmates. Alcoholics
Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings are typical of the programs
available to female inmates. Programs can include education, vocation, crafts, computer
support services, equine care, small gas engine repair, HIV awareness, fitness, intramural
sports, stress reduction, parenting, and wellness education.

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Types of gender-specific services available to female inmates are gynecology, obstetric,
pre-natal, and family planning classes. (CO7-7.1.3)

UNIT 8 | INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES
LESSON 1 |

Sexually Abused Inmates

OBJECTIVES
CO7-8.1.1 Define sexual abuse.
CO7-8.1.2 Describe the characteristics
of an inmate who is a sexual abuse
victim.
CO7-8.1.3 Identify housing issues for
the inmate who is a sexual abuse
victim.
CO7-8.1.4 Describe methods to prevent
sexual abuse of at-risk inmates.
CO7-8.1.5 Describe disciplinary issues
of inmates who are sexual abuse
victims.

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Characteristics
Sexual abuse is engaging in or attempting to engage in a sexual act with another person
through the use of threats, intimidation, inappropriate touching, or other actions and
communications aimed at coercing or pressuring another person to engage in a sexual
act. Sexual abuse is also the intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing,
of any person’s genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttock with the intent to
abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or gratify the sexual desire of any person. (CO7-8.1.1)
Victims of sexual abuse may display self-esteem issues, depression, and self-destruction.
A victim may believe his or her only worth is sexual, and may therefore act out. Male
victims typically do not self-report as often as female victims do. (CO7-8.1.2)

Applying the PREA
The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) was signed into federal law in 2003. The
PREA establishes a zero tolerance standard for the sexual abuse of inmates. It addresses
the safety and treatment of inmates who have been victims of nonconsensual sex acts,
and disciplines and prosecutes those who perpetrate these acts. The PREA provides
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incident, as well as for housing the involved inmates before, during, and after the initial
investigation. Typically, the victim is segregated or isolated and put under increased
observation. (CO7-8.1.3)

Section Vocabulary
sexual abuse

Methods to prevent sexual abuse of at-risk inmates can include accurate classification of
offenders, staff and inmate education, and a zero tolerance policy for sexual abuse. The
officer should treat all sexual abuse allegations seriously and should not make any
assumptions or their own determination of the reported events. Officers are required to
report and document all sexual abuse incidents. The officer should not re-victimize an
abused inmate by blaming the victim for what happened or making light of the incident.
(CO7-8.1.4)
In some circumstances, a victim may act out if he or she is ashamed of or does not want
others to know about what happened. The victim may not bring to light the actual
reason for acting out but will act in such a way as to get him- or herself immediately
removed from the area. After the incident, the victim may try to get back at the
victimizer. Sometimes the accusation is not true, and staff may discipline the inmate
for falsely reporting the crime. (CO7-8.1.5)

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UNIT 8 | INMATES WITH SEXUAL ABUSE AND SEXUALITY ISSUES
LESSON 2 |

Inmates with Sexuality Issues

OBJECTIVES
CO7-8.2.1 Define institutional
homosexuality.
CO7-8.2.2 Describe characteristics of
institutional homosexuality within
the correctional setting.
CO7-8.2.3 Define transgender.
CO7-8.2.4 Identify housing issues for
the transgender inmate.

Section Vocabulary
institutional homosexuality
transgender

Institutional Homosexuality
Homosexuality is a sexual orientation in which people of the same sex are attracted to
each other emotionally and physically. Institutional homosexuality is the changing
of an inmate’s sexual preference from heterosexuality to homosexuality only while
incarcerated (CO7-8.2.1). The inmate may be heterosexual outside the facility, and
forced into homosexual acts, or perceives homosexuality as a situational necessity while
incarcerated. It is not uncommon for heterosexual male inmates to enter into a
homosexual relationship strictly for sexual gratification. Male inmates with long
sentences will sometimes have homosexual relationships with just one inmate partner
in a monogamous relationship. Some male inmates may court several inmate partners.
Heterosexual female inmates enter into female relationships more for companionship
and bonding than for sexual gratification. An increase in opposite-gender behavior may
be part of an inmate’s response to institutional homosexuality. (CO7-8.2.2)

Transgender Inmates
Transgender as defined by the American Psychological Association:
“Transgender is an umbrella term used to describe people whose gender
identity (sense of themselves as male or female) or gender expression differs
from that usually associated with their birth sex. Many transgender people
live part-time or full-time as members of the other gender. Broadly speaking,
anyone whose identity, appearance, or behavior falls outside of conventional
gender norms can be described as transgender. However, not everyone whose
appearance or behavior is gender-atypical will identify as a transgender
person.” (CO7-8.2.3)
Transgender and transsexual inmates that are in any stage of the gender changing process
can cause housing issues. Sometimes the inmate can be in the middle of the process of
changing gender and it can be confusing to the officer as to how to determine the gender
of the inmate. These inmates should not be treated differently from any other inmate
related to monitoring and security. (CO7-8.2.4)

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UNIT 9 | PHYSICALLY DISABLED INMATES
LESSON 1 |

Monitoring Physically Disabled Inmates

A disabled person is someone who may have one or more medical or mental
impairments causing disability and substantially limiting one or more of their major
life activities. A major life activity refers to an activity that an average person can perform
without assistance with little or no difficulty under normal circumstances. These
activities can include walking, standing, hearing, speaking, seeing, and performing
manual tasks.

OBJECTIVES

Inmates may become disabled prior to or during incarceration. There are several types
of disabilities that may affect inmates, including the following:

CO7-9.1.3 Describe common methods
of manipulation used by physically
disabled inmates.

• paraplegia
• back injuries or pain
• amputation
• stroke
• obesity
• renal failure
• cancer
• heart disease

CO7-9.1.1 Define disabled person.
CO7-9.1.2 Identify Americans with
Disabilities Act provisions that apply
to physically disabled inmates.

CO7-9.1.4 Describe special
considerations the correctional
officer needs to make when
monitoring physically disabled
inmates.
CO7-9.1.5 List types of services
available to the physically disabled
inmate.

• cardio-pulmonary conditions
• late stage HIV disease
• diabetes
• mental retardation
• mental illness
• visual, speech, and hearing impairments
• mobility challenges (CO7-9.1.1)

Apply the ADA
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 provides provisions for
inmates with disabilities and defines health care appliances as:
• orthopedic prostheses, braces, or shoes
• crutches, canes, walkers
• wheelchairs (gloves if needed for wheelchair use only)
• hearing aids
• prescription eyeglasses

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• artificial eyes
• dental prostheses
• breathing devices
Trained medical staff will determine the existence of an inmate’s disability. The officer should ensure the
disabled inmate remains in compliance with facility or institutional rules while providing for reasonable
accommodations for the inmate’s disability. A reasonable modification or accommodation request should be
resolved in accordance with the ADA, to provide for the impaired inmate’s participation in the facility’s or
institution’s services, programs or activities, such as wellness (recreation), library services, visitation, and going
to required appointments by special transport vehicles when necessary. (CO7-9.1.2)

Methods of Manipulation
Inmates may try to use medical conditions or disabilities to manipulate staff by requesting additional health
care appliances beyond their personal needs, avoiding undesirable job assignments, or receiving superfluous
medications. Exaggerating illness or disability is difficult to prove; however, it is a common method of
manipulation. When denied unnecessary supplies, an inmate may go to such extremes as exaggerating an
existing disability or illness and creating frivolous lawsuits, or even self-injury to achieve desired results. The
disabled inmate may use his or her assigned medical appliance (wheelchair, cane, etc.) to transport contraband
from one location to another, or sell medications or portable accessories to other inmates. (CO7-9.1.3)

Monitoring Disabled Inmates
The officer should use the same search techniques and frequency with disabled inmates as with the general
population, including searching their property and specially issued medical appliances. Some of the medical
appliances have detachable parts, which a disabled inmate can use as a weapon. The officer should frequently
verify the validity of medically-issued passes that allow inmates to have medical appliances and additional
medical supplies, such as diapers and catheters.
If applicable, the officer should verify and ensure that the inmate assigned as a personal care attendant is
performing his or her duties within the allowable scope, such as pushing a wheelchair, changing linens,
providing bowel care and hygiene assistance, and feeding. The assigned personal care attendant is not
responsible for handling or having access to medical devices such as needles, medications, surgical instruments,
or other health care (HIPAA) activities or records. (CO7-9.1.4)

Programs and Services
Within the scope of administering services, under the guidelines of the ADA, the following services and
programs for disabled inmates include, but are not limited to the following:
• interpreter and or TDD (telephone communication for the deaf )
• handicapped accessible dining, housing, and bathroom facilities
• legal and general library services including access to Braille materials or talking books
• property storage or key locks for the visually impaired
• restraint devices to accommodate various disabilities
• disabled accommodations for visitation

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Section Vocabulary

• wellness
• chaplains
• education (CO7-9.1.5)

Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA)
disabled person

UNIT 10 | INMATES WITH MEDICAL NEEDS
LESSON 1 |

Characteristics of Inmates with Medical Needs

Inmates who have an underlying or prominent medical need may or may not verbally
express their medical concern to the officer. It is the officer’s responsibility to be able to
recognize changes in an inmate’s physical demeanor or behavior indicating there is a
need for medical intervention from a professional. Inmates have the same medical needs
as someone who is not incarcerated and display the same behaviors that indicate they
are in need of medical care. (CO7-10.1.1)
Maintaining a high level of cleanliness in housing units containing inmates with medical
needs is important to reduce the spread of communicable diseases. The officer should
increase use of universal precautions because an inmate with certain medical needs or
diseases may be contagious.
In some facilities, medical passes are available to make the officer aware that an inmate
has a medical issue. The officer should make sure the pass is valid and follow the
procedures outlined in the pass, while maintaining officer safety. For example, situational
awareness of certain medical conditions may require additional meals, snacks, and
supplements. Inmates with other diagnosed medical conditions may require additional
observation to prevent unintentional self-injury, such as seizures or dizziness.

OBJECTIVES
CO7-10.1.1 Identify changes in an
inmate’s behavior that may indicate
a medical need.
CO7-10.1.2 Describe special
considerations to employ when
monitoring inmates with medical
needs.
CO7-10.1.3 Differentiate the use of
force considerations between an
inmate with medical needs and the
general population inmate.
CO7-10.1.4 Describe special
considerations to employ when
monitoring a terminally ill inmate.
CO7-10.1.5 Describe special visitation
considerations for a terminally ill
inmate.

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If an inmate has an obvious medical need, the officer should immediately seek backup, request support staff,
refer the inmate to medical services, or accommodate his or her medical need where authorized. (CO7-10.1.2)
Use of force with an inmate with medical needs is not different from the use of force with a general population
inmate. The officer should use only the amount of force necessary to control the situation. During situations
like this, the officer may have to physically help the inmate into the prone position or assist the inmate in
placing his or her arms in the proper position. (CO7-10.1.3)
Terminally ill inmates may be at a higher risk for suicidal thoughts or attempts. The officer should increase
the frequency of security checks to ensure that the inmate has not decided to attempt or committed suicide.
(CO7-10.1.4)
Administration may permit the family, clergy, or authorized visitor of a terminally ill inmate for whom death
is imminent to visit the inmate under close, isolated supervision. (CO7-10.1.5)

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UNIT 11 | INMATES IN CONFINEMENT
LESSON 1 |

Confinement

Disciplinary confinement is a type of formal punishment in which the officer
segregates an inmate for a length of time to an individual cell because a disciplinary
committee has found him or her guilty of committing a violation of agency rules. The
officer should house inmates with other inmates of like status or segregate them within
their own housing unit. Inmates may also incur personal property and privilege
restrictions. There is no visitation or phone calls. The inmate’s behavior can determine
the allowable privileges. (CO7-11.1.1)
Administrative confinement is the temporary removal of an inmate from the general
population to provide for safety and security until a more permanent inmate
management process is in place. When an inmate commits an infraction, the inmate can
be placed in administrative confinement until a determination of guilt or innocence is
established. Inmates placed in administrative confinement may also be participating in
an investigation as a witness or victim. (CO7-11.1.2)

Protective management is a form of confinement where an inmate is placed into
segregated housing because of concerns for his or her safety. Safety concerns may be
mentioned by the inmate or noticed by the staff. The inmate can request protective
management. The validity of this request will be determined by the agency on a caseby-case basis. The inmate can appeal the disposition if denied. An inmate can be
temporarily placed into administrative confinement pending a protective management
review. Protective management inmates are housed with inmates of similar status or by
themselves. When staff approves the request for protective management, staff relocates
either the inmate requesting protection or the threatening inmate. (CO7-11.1.3)
An officer needs to be professional while using clear and direct communication with
confined inmates as they would with any other inmate. Confinement officers need to
adhere to a formal inmate request process to avoid being manipulated by the inmate.
(CO7-11.1.4)

OBJECTIVES
CO7-11.1.1 Define disciplinary
confinement.
CO7-11.1.2 Define administrative
confinement.
CO7-11.1.3 Define protective
management.
CO7-11.1.4 Identify the requirements
for communicating with inmates in
confinement.
CO7-11.1.5 Identify the requirements
for increased monitoring of inmates
in confinement.

Section Vocabulary
administrative confinement
disciplinary confinement
protective management

The officer needs to be aware of how inmates in confinement communicate with each
other through hand signals, fishing, kites, or talking through air ducts connecting the
cells. The officer should decrease and vary the time between intervals of monitoring
inmates in confinement, not to exceed 15 or 30-minute rounds. Specific support staff
are assigned to routinely evaluate inmates in confinement. Inmates may not obstruct the
officer’s visibility of their cell or housing unit and should allow the officer visual access
at all times to conduct security checks. The officer will document all daily activities of
an inmate in confinement, whether the activity is a right or a privilege. (CO7-11.1.5)

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UNIT 12 | DEATH ROW INMATES
LESSON 1 |

Monitoring Death Row Inmates

OBJECTIVES
CO7-12.1.1 Define death row inmate.
CO7-12.1.2 Describe the psychological
characteristics of a death row
inmate.
CO7-12.1.3 Describe various security
issues when monitoring death row
inmates.
CO7-12.1.4 Describe special
considerations to employ when
monitoring death row inmates.

Section Vocabulary
death row inmate

A death row inmate is a person whom, upon conviction of guilt or adjudication of a
capital felony, the court has sentenced to death. A death row inmate is housed in an
administrative confinement status until the death warrant is carried out or until the
sentence is overturned to a lesser penalty. (CO7-12.1.1)

Psychological Issues
A death row inmate’s psychological issues can range from depression, to paranoia, to
high levels of anxiety, not unlike inmates in the general population. What is different is
the intensity of their psychological issues. These inmates may not have learned to control
their impulses or manage their anger. Some inmates cannot be housed safely on death
row, as their psychological issues become so intense that they are admitted to an intensive
mental health treatment program. However, the majority of death row inmates can
manage their psychological issues with mental health appointments as needed.
(CO7-12.1.2)

Security Issues
Security measures for monitoring death row inmates differ from those for monitoring
the general population inmate, as security is heightened based on the court-ordered
penalty. When inside the facility, the death row inmate is handcuffed prior to being
removed from his or her cell and before an unclothed search. Often, an increased
number of officers should be present and an increased number of restraints used when
escorting a death row inmate.
Death row inmates may have different property privileges that officers should be aware
of when conducting cell searches. They have an increased amount of legal work, among
which the inmate will often hide contraband. (CO7-12.1.3)
The officers supervising death row inmates should work together to monitor each inmate
housed on death row and should report any noticeable odd behavior to the mental health
specialist. Often death row inmates will refuse mental health services, making it difficult
for the officer to notice any issues until the inmate is in extreme distress.
The officer should monitor death row inmates every 15 to 30 minutes. Officers need
to be aware that inmates housed in death row, where they do not have many privileges,
have a heightened awareness of their surroundings. (CO7-12.1.4)

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CHAPTER 8
Responding to Incidents and Emergencies
UNIT 1: IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
LESSON 1: Responding to an Emergency Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
LESSON 2: Emergency Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

UNIT 2: DETERMINING LEVEL OF RESPONSE ASSISTANCE
LESSON 1: Determining Level of Response Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

UNIT 3: TYPES OF EMERGENCIES
LESSON 1: Inmate Escapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
LESSON 2: Medical Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
LESSON 3: Riots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
LESSON 4: Hostage Incidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
LESSON 5: Outside Threats to a Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
LESSON 6: Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
LESSON 7: Hazardous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
LESSON 8: Bomb Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
LESSON 9: Man-Made or Natural Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201

UNIT 4: INVESTIGATING CRIMES
LESSON 1: Crime Scene Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
LESSON 2: Managing Victims, Witnesses and Suspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
LESSON 3: Investigations and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
LESSON 4: Chain of Custody for Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207

One of the most important duties of a correctional officer is to apply knowledge, training, and reasonable
judgment during an emergency. An officer’s first priority is the safety and security of all individuals. Any
incident can develop into an emergency; the officer is expected to be effective in the use of equipment, crime
scene control, chain of custody procedures, and documentation of involvement. The officer should be aware
of agency policies, procedures, and emergency plans, as well as post orders, which are job-specific documents
that outline how to handle daily responsibilities and operations.

Ch 8 Responding to Incidents and Emergencies

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UNIT 1 | IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

LESSON 1 |

Responding to an Emergency Situation

OBJECTIVES
CO8-1.1.1 Identify staff to notify during
an emergency situation.
CO8-1.1.2 Describe evacuation
guidelines.
CO8-1.1.3 List the steps needed to
resolve an emergency situation.

An officer who is knowledgeable and prepared during emergencies is able to fulfill his
or her responsibilities for the care, custody and control of inmates, and the safety and
security of staff and visitors. Properly responding to an incident or emergency requires
a variety of procedures, techniques, and equipment.
An emergency is characterized by an increase in magnitude of an incident that requires
strict, urgent, and immediate response. When an emergency happens, an officer must
use good judgment. In order to respond effectively to an emergency, individuals and
organizations must remain flexible, and be able to adapt to necessary changes without
having a negative impact on facility operations.
Emergencies often occur because of a disturbance or an escape attempt. Escape attempts
often occur during work details inside or outside the correctional facility, during
transports, and during recreational activities. When an emergency disrupts the normal
operations within a facility, it is important that an officer know the details of the agency’s
emergency plan, facility layout, evacuation routes, and the locations of emergency exits,
equipment and keys so that he or she may respond properly. Tasks assigned during an
emergency could include forming perimeters, using a radio to communicate, executing
evacuations, and applying use of force.

Verify the Incident or Emergency
Responding to an emergency situation requires officers to accurately assess the
emergency, effectively isolate or evacuate people, and aid in resolution.
When verifying the type of emergency, an officer needs to assess the threat properly
and use discretion and caution when approaching the scene. While identifying the
type of emergency, the officer should communicate with control room staff, command
post personnel, and supervisory staff to coordinate a response in line with the
emergency plan. Assess the severity of the emergency from minor to major. As an
officer communicates with the control room, he or she should be prepared to describe
the nature and location of the emergency, give the number of people involved, describe
the nature of any injuries, and report if hazardous materials or weapons are involved.
(CO8-1.1.1)

Setting up a Perimeter
Officers should secure and isolate the situation so that it does not spread to other areas.
Limit movement of the inmates, such as locking down the cell block or dorm. Contain
the isolation to a limited space if possible, depending on the severity of the incident. For
example, an inmate suicide may require a facility-wide lock down, with correctional

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officers ordering all inmates to return to their individual cell areas or bunks. An officer may need to begin the
process of setting up a perimeter by using structures, such as internal gates, sally ports, roll gates, doors, and
cross fences. He or she may also need to evacuate all individuals present, including non-essential personnel,
as soon as it is safe to do so.

Evacuations
Evacuation routes should take evacuees as far away from the threat as necessary, and be accessible by the
quickest and easiest route possible. Evacuations may not always be possible due to time constraints or other
factors. Officers may not have enough time to properly restrain inmates or may need to group inmates together
that are not normally combined. In such cases, it may be necessary to wait to begin an evacuation. Evacuating
or isolating individuals from a threat may involve a lock down. Lock down can differ from agency to agency
as it relates to the level of restricting movement or use of security measures.
Each agency’s emergency plan includes evacuation instructions for emergency situations and anticipated events,
such as a hurricane. Alerting the Incident Command System (ICS) to the emergency may be part of the
agency’s emergency plan. ICS is a nationwide system that conveys emergencies to designated individuals; it is
a system or protocol that will be followed depending on the nature of the emergency. Emergency plans formed
through an ICS may require specific training. The ICS will identify levels of responses and certain teams that
will respond to different types of emergencies.
Guidelines to follow during an evacuation include:
• Upon direction of a supervisor, move people in an orderly fashion to a safe, secure area.
• Obtain copies of inmate rosters for identification and counting.
• Give clear and concise commands.
• Close or open windows and doors, if so directed, along evacuation routes if time permits.
• Do not use elevators for evacuation.
• Conduct an inmate count when reaching the evacuation area.
• Account for everyone who was in the facility. (CO8-1.1.2)
To maintain safety and security and preserve possible evidence, do not leave an inmate who may be a victim
or perpetrator unsupervised. As conditions escalate, inmates who were not participating may be drawn to the
incident and become involved. Officers must therefore maintain focus on proper procedures and execute the
emergency plan quickly and efficiently.

Resolve the Incident or Emergency
Resolving an incident or emergency involves defusing the situation, and returning the facility to normal
operations. Although the resolution of an emergency is usually the responsibility of supervisory staff or
specialized response teams, any staff member involved in an emergency incident can play a part in these efforts.
In response to an emergency, an officer may be called on to transport, escort and supervise persons; use physical
force or control; provide first aid; record events; serve as a witness in investigations; and debrief. (CO8-1.1.3)

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Section Vocabulary
Incident Command System (ICS)

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Each agency will determine the roles and responsibilities of its staff members and provide
an emergency plan. Any emergency presents inherent dangers and, therefore, liabilities
exist in the actions and choices an officer makes to keep all individuals safe and secure.
To reduce liability while resolving emergencies, an officer must observe his or her
surroundings, take note of activities as they occur, respond within the scope of his or her
training, and use reasonable judgment in responding, all the while practicing officer
safety. It is important to review report details and confirm information for further
investigation during the deactivation and debriefing process.

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Responding to Incidents and Emergencies Ch 8

UNIT 1 | IDENTIFYING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

LESSON 2 |

Emergency Plans

Chain of Command
Chain of command defines the order of authority and responsibility that joins one level
of an organization to another, and which outlines the coordination of resources in an
emergency situation. Different agencies use different titles to identify personnel in the
chain of command, such as command post staff or incident command post staff, control
center personnel, or supervisors. The emergency plan, which can include an ICS, will
determine the protocols for chain of command.

OBJECTIVES

CO8-1.2.1 Describe the chain of
command in an emergency.
CO8-1.2.2 Describe details to include in
documenting an emergency.

An agency’s emergency plan identifies the person in charge. As the first person on the
scene, you begin the chain of command. The officer must make decisions and is
considered the person in charge until relieved by command staff (CO8-1.2.1). Officers
should strive to operate within the chain of command at all times and keep supervisors
informed of their activities.
During an emergency, it may become necessary to set up a command post at a strategic
point away from the emergency. Some control rooms or central towers may move if there
is an emergency. People in the command post may use radio bands or other
communication devices designated specifically for them, separate from the non-emergency
devices. The person in command on the scene will be responsible for keeping staff
members updated about the status of the emergency. The command post staff will receive
all communications and make all major decisions during an incident or emergency.

Document the Emergency
Although officers may not be directly involved in a particular emergency, they must
submit a report about what was observed. It is important that reports are complete and
accurate as they may be needed for reference during an investigation or for other
purposes. When documenting an emergency response, an officer should include details
of the date, time, place, people involved, when they arrived and left, what time outside
agencies such as emergency services were contacted, and the scope, nature, and status
of the emergency. Each agency will determine the proper report format, and should
include guidelines for writing the report in a clear and concise manner. (CO8-1.2.2)

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UNIT 2 | DETERMINING LEVEL OF RESPONSE ASSISTANCE

LESSON 1 |

Determining Level of Response Assistance

OBJECTIVES

CO8-2.1.1 Identify the type and severity
of an emergency.
CO8-2.1.2 Determine the level of
emergency assistance needed.
CO8-2.1.3 Request assistance for
emergency response.
CO8-2.1.4 Identify resources available
for emergency response.

Determining the Level of Response
Assistance
An officer should attempt to correctly identify the type of an emergency, such as medical,
fire, HAZMAT, or criminal act. The severity of an incident determines what type and
level of response is needed, such as invoking PREA (Prison Rape Elimination Act) for
a sexual assault. An officer should examine the facts, and practice good situational
awareness and officer safety. (CO8-2.1.1.)
An officer must not engage in unsafe behavior when approaching a dangerous situation,
such as investigating suspicious items by touching or smelling them. If an incident
poses a security threat, it is important to respond to the threat appropriately and notify
a supervisor.
Emergencies can involve more than one type of incident. Emergencies can also be
intentional distractions planned by inmates so they can accomplish other objectives.
For example, inmates could use a fight as a distraction during an escape attempt or as a
cover for other illegal acts. The officer needs to request additional assistance if there is
a possibility of being overpowered in the situation. The level of additional assistance is
determined by the level of threat (CO8-2.1.2). The officer should request additional
assistance if a situation is not successfully being resolved. When requesting additional
assistance, it is important to use protocol and chain of command, and document the
details of the emergency and any actions taken to resolve it. (CO8-2.1.3).
Each agency will have specific equipment for different emergency responses, such as
different types of communication devices, vehicles, medical equipment, and fire
equipment. An officer should know where needed equipment is located, and maintain
certifications for using equipment. (CO8-2.1.4)

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 1 |

Inmate Escapes

One of the responsibilities of an officer is preventing escapes. Escapes commonly occur
during participation in work-release programs outside the correctional facility, or during
transport. While a violation, an inmate in an unauthorized area is not necessarily
considered an escape. An escape occurs when an inmate has illegally removed him- or
herself from custody (CO8-3.1.1). Indicators that an escape is likely include an inmate
not in his or her designated area, suspicious behavior, odd phone conversations, finding
maps or civilian clothes, an inmate creating tools, or finding alterations to the facility’s
structure. (CO8-3.1.2)
Officers can directly affect whether escape attempts occur by taking preventive measures.
Some measures are conducting constant surveillance, keeping an unpredictable schedule,
using mobile or stationary posts, and using regular and irregular searches. Searches
should include body searches, searches of cells and all general facility areas, and should
include identifying and counting inmates. Officers need to observe their surroundings
and take note of irregular or unusual behavior. They must also monitor areas where
inmates can escape, whether through ventilation access routes, doors taken off the
hinges, or windows broken with projectiles. (CO8-3.1.3)

OBJECTIVES

CO8-3.1.1 Describe an inmate escape.
CO8-3.1.2 Identify indicators of
involvement in an escape.
CO8-3.1.3 Describe measures to
prevent an escape attempt.
CO8-3.1.4 List equipment needed when
responding to an escape or
attempted escape.
CO8-3.1.5 Identify standard procedures
in the event an escape occurs.

Equipment
Necessary equipment used to intervene in, and resolve, an escape or escape attempt may
vary by agency.
The following is a list of common equipment used in escape attempts:
• canine teams
• communication equipment
• cameras or video equipment
• vehicles
• face-sheets (identification of inmates, e.g., pictures, alias, or tattoos)
• information about known associates
• mechanical restraints
• manual inmate counting and electronic identification devices
• flashlights
• local maps of the area
• weapons (CO8-3.1.4)

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Standard Procedures
When an escape is believed to have happened, or is in progress, an officer or group of officers will verify the
location of the escape and escape routes. It is important to communicate effectively with supervisors and other
staff members. Escaped inmates are considered dangerous; therefore, take extreme caution. Standard
procedures in the event of an escape are as follows:
• Secure all inmates as quickly as possible.
• Lock down the facility, when appropriate, to aid in searches and investigations. Different actions may
be taken depending upon the agency and location.
• Conduct a master roster count of the inmates to confirm an escape has occurred.
• Relay information that an escape has occurred to the control center or supervisors as soon as possible
including the number of escaped inmates, their name(s), clothing, and direction of travel.
• Secure and isolate the surrounding area and remove all inmates and uninvolved personnel from the
suspected escape location. Keep the area clear of contaminants, because it is considered a crime scene.
• After the escaped inmates have been identified, collect articles of their clothing without contaminating
them. These articles will be used as scent items for canines. Review mail and phone communications in
an effort to determine possible destinations.
• If the escape happens outside the facility, such as during a work squad or transport, the officer will
secure the remaining inmates and follow standard procedures. (CO8-3.1.5)

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 2 |

Medical Emergencies

A medical emergency is an event in which an individual experiences medical or
psychological distress, a severe illness, or injury (CO8-3.2.1). Signs and symptoms of a
medical emergency may be indicated by unusual or excessive bleeding, pain, medical
distress (e.g., sweating, nausea, shortness of breath, paralysis), or loss of or altered
consciousness (CO8-3.2.2). If the inmate uses medical devices (e.g., intravenous (IV)
lines or monitors), this equipment may become dislodged.

Equipment
All emergency situations are different; each officer must assess the situation to determine
the proper equipment to use. The officer should refer to first aid or other pertinent
training to correctly use medical equipment and supplies during a medical emergency.
Resources used to address a medical emergency include staff, onsite medical personnel,
or outside Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (CO8-3.2.3). Equipment available during
a medical emergency may include personal protective equipment (PPE), e.g., gloves and
masks, an automated external defibrillator (AED), and a first aid kit (CO8-3.2.4).
Medical equipment must be used according to training and agency policy. Officers need
to observe universal precautions to avoid contact with a person’s body fluids and treat
every person as if he or she is infected, to minimize risk of infection when rendering aid.

OBJECTIVES

CO8-3.2.1 Describe a medical
emergency.
CO8-3.2.2 Identify signs and symptoms
of medical distress.
CO8-3.2.3 Describe medical resources
available in an emergency
response.
CO8-3.2.4 List equipment needed when
responding to a medical
emergency.
CO8-3.2.5 Identify standard procedures
to resolve a medical emergency.

Standard Procedures
To resolve a medical emergency, follow these standard procedures:
1. Identify the severity of the medical emergency to determine the level of response.
If the inmate is conscious, ask “Are you declaring a medical emergency?”
2. Ensure that the area is secure and safe. Enforce crowd control by removing all
inmates and uninvolved personnel from the area.
3. Notify medical staff and supervisors—inform staff of the number of affected
persons, their location, and the nature of the emergency.
4. Render aid using PPE to observe universal precautions. Provide assistance only
within the scope of officer training.
a. Administer first aid as appropriate until medical help arrives.
b. Protect inmates against self-inflicted injury or death; if an inmate has
attempted hanging, call for assistance as the situation dictates. Proceed
according to agency policy whether the inmate is injured or deceased.
c. Wait for assistance as necessary.
5. Transport to a medical facility, or if applicable, designate staging areas for outside
agencies. (CO8-3.2.5)

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 3 |

Riots

OBJECTIVES

CO8-3.3.1 Describe a disturbance in a
correctional setting.

CO8-3.3.2 Differentiate between riot
and disturbance.
CO8-3.3.3 Describe conditions that
prompt a riot or disturbance.
CO8-3.3.4 Describe indicators
preceding a riot or disturbance.
CO8-3.3.5 List equipment needed when
responding to a riot or disturbance.
CO8-3.3.6 Identify procedures used to
respond to and contain a
disturbance or riot.

Any incident that disrupts the normal operations within a facility is a disturbance. A
food strike, inmates refusing to return to a work squad, or a fight between two inmates
in a dorm could be considered minor. Such disturbances can usually be handled with
minimal staff. However, disturbances can escalate into a riot very quickly (CO8-3.3.1.).
A riot is uncontrolled violence by inmates, usually directed at the administration. An
example of a riot could be fights breaking out in several locations at once, significant
property damage, or hostage situations. External support, such as local law enforcement,
may be needed to contain or control a riot. (CO8-3.3.2)
Conditions that may lead to a riot or disturbance can include overcrowding, racial tension,
poor living conditions, STG activity, dissatisfaction with food, mail, or medical service,
policy changes, loss of privileges, and fights (CO8-3.3.3). Officers should be aware of
indicators that precede a riot, such as changes in the behaviors of inmates, food hoarding,
weapons manufacturing, unusual groupings of inmates, and an elevation in fights and
requests for protective custody. An inmate may also share specific information about an
impending riot or disturbance with officers, or suggest the officers take a day off.
Staff should exhibit a heightened sense of awareness when the normal routine changes
and inmates seem tense. Abrupt changes within the correctional facility (e.g., it gets too
quiet or too loud) may be an indicator that a disturbance or riot is pending.
(CO8-3.3.4)

Equipment
Officers need to be aware of post orders and emergency procedures, and be prepared to
use any equipment necessary to resolve a riot or disturbance. Equipment will vary
according to each agency’s resources, but can include restraints, chemical agents,
electronic control devices (ECDs), firearms, nonlethal and impact weapons, shields,
emergency keys, and communication devices. (CO8-3.3.5)

Standard Procedures
Officers handle disturbances or riots in similar ways; the level of response will be
reduced for a disturbance. The officer needs to make quick decisions regarding
immediately exiting the area or directing any non-certified staff to safety. Techniques
for responding to a disturbance or riot include increasing communications among
staff, or freeing up additional personnel and resources to respond simultaneously to
the threat with appropriate use of force. Due to the nature of riots, the emergency can
move into other areas. Procedures to contain a riot may involve the use of structures,
such as internal gates, roll gates, doors, and cross fences and posting of additional
security personnel. During a riot or disturbance, the officer should provide the control

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room with as much information as possible. Include the location, status and scope, approximate number of inmates
and bystanders involved, and if weapons are observed. (CO8-3.3.6)
Post-riot procedures may include the following:
• accounting for all on-duty staff and visitors
• checking security of the facility
• administering first aid to the injured
• separating ringleaders and agitators
• performing a strip search of all involved inmates according to agency policy
• conducting an institutional inmate count
• debriefing staff
• conducting a thorough investigation of the riot
• repairing damage

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 4 |

Hostage Incidents

OBJECTIVES

CO8-3.4.1 Describe a hostage
situation.
CO8-3.4.2 List equipment needed when
responding to a hostage situation.
CO8-3.4.3 Identify general hostage
situation procedures.

CO8-3.4.4 Describe procedures to
follow if taken hostage.

A hostage situation can occur with or without warning when one or more individuals
are held against their will by another person or group with the purpose of achieving a
specific goal. Any person can be held hostage, including inmates, civilians, officers,
visitors, and staff. When officers respond to an incident or a riot, they may be taken
hostage. (CO8-3.4.1)

Equipment
Equipment available for use during a hostage incident may vary according to each
agency’s resources. It can include restraints, chemical agents, lethal and nonlethal impact
weapons, emergency keys, and monitoring equipment such as camcorders and closedcircuit televisions, or cameras. Building blueprints and floor plans could be required.
Officers will use communication devices, such as radios, megaphones, or cell phones
(CO8-3.4.2). Additional equipment and technical assistance may vary among agencies
and departments and will be based upon the conditions encountered and decisions made
during the incident.

Standard Procedures
The goal in any hostage situation is to resolve the conflict without injury or loss of life.
In a hostage situation, response varies depending on agency resources, policies and
procedures. The steps taken during a hostage crisis change according to its
circumstances, status, and severity. Different teams may be involved, such as tactical and
negotiation teams.
General hostage situation procedures include the following:
• notifying a supervisor immediately, following the chain of command
• containing the subject(s) in the smallest area possible
• restricting the movement of the subject if possible, always keeping officer safety
in mind
• gathering information, such as taking pictures or recording the situation
• moving non-participants as far from the hostage situation as possible—inmates
may be locked down
• providing assistance and support to specialized teams as needed (CO8-3.4.3)
When initially responding to a hostage incident, contain the situation to prevent more
hostages from being taken and try to stabilize it. Be careful not to agitate the hostage
taker; build rapport and actively listen. Gather as much information as possible,
including the location, the names and number of hostages, the names and numbers of
hostage takers, if known, injuries, weapons involved, and demands of the hostage takers.

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A staff member being held hostage is not viewed as having rank or authority in the incident. If you are taken
hostage, recognize that you have no authority to make any decisions. Do not interfere with discussions being
conducted between response teams and the hostage taker. Do not try to be a hero.
Procedures to follow if you are taken hostage include:
• cooperate with, but do not enable, the hostage taker
• recognize that staff will respond as soon as possible
• avoid using insults, trigger or hot words (words that may empower the hostage taker), such as prisoner,
guns, or police
• avoid being confrontational by keeping a low profile
• if possible, avoid giving up your uniform
• keep your face down or avoid eye contact
• remain calm, rest when possible, and try to only eat food provided by the negotiating team
• cooperate fully with any response team member (CO8-3.4.4)

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 5 |

Outside Threats to a Facility

OBJECTIVES

A facility assault is a physical attack from outside the facility, by an individual or
individuals, or any other assault that creates physical damage to the correctional facility.
Attackers may be on foot, or the assault may include a speeding vehicle approaching the
perimeter and failing to yield, gun shots, or an aircraft flying in close proximity.

CO8-3.5.2 List equipment needed when
responding to a facility assault.

CO8-3.5.4 Describe measures to
resolve a facility assault.

Indicators of a facility assault may include an outside threat on a person’s life or someone
coordinating an escape attempt. Correctional officers should be aware of any threats to
the security of the facility, including demonstrators, media, or high-profile inmates
(inmates associated with a drug cartel or death row inmates) (CO8-3.5.1). Known
associates of high-profile inmates may use technology to see the layout of the prison. Be
cautious of unknown individuals around the outside of the facility. Another threat to
security is the arrest and transfer of high-profile inmates.

CO8-3.5.5 Identify standard procedures
in the event of a facility assault.

Facility Assault—Equipment

CO8-3.5.1 Describe indicators of a
facility assault.

CO8-3.5.3 Describe measures to
prevent a facility assault.

Common equipment used for responding to a facility assault includes barriers, nonlethal
and impact weapons, electronic control devices, firearms, shields, vehicles, megaphones,
restraints, chemical agents, and communication devices. Correctional officers may need
to use recording devices or cameras (CO8-3.5.2). Correctional officers also may need to
call external law enforcement, such as SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics Team).

Standard Procedures
Facility assault incidents are very rare. To prevent a facility assault, it is very important
to have high-quality, effective and visible security measures, alert systems, perimeter
controls, or appropriate warning techniques. Be aware of people who have permission
to be on the facility grounds. Notify correctional staff of impending protests, staging
areas for protestors or media, or the presence of outside agencies (CO8-3.5.3). To
contain an assault, some agencies may approve an officer’s use of force. Staff
assignments may vary according to agencies’ resources or policies and procedures. There
may also be a show of force (a visible presence of authority). Correctional officers
maintain order and safety of the inmates within the facility, which may include locking
down inmates. Local law enforcement may be contacted to contain incidents outside
of the facility. The Incident Commander may deploy specially trained teams, such as
CERT (Correctional Emergency Response Team) in an assault (CO8-3.5.4). Incidents
can escalate into emergencies during a facility assault, such as a hostage situation, an
escape, or a medical emergency.

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The following standard procedures should be followed in the event of a facility assault:
• Notify the appropriate staff and communicate with the response teams. Communication should include
the area of the compound or perimeter affected, the nature of the assault, extent of the damage to the
perimeter, the number of assailants and weapons, and direction of travel.
• Follow evacuation protocols according to the agency’s emergency plan. Move inmates and staff members
to a safe location. Be aware that the assailant may change tactics or methods that result in blocking or
damaging planned evacuation routes. It is very important to pay attention to radio communications,
including updates on the situation.
• Set up barricades.
• Establish perimeter security including surveillance.
• Maintain safety and security procedures, such as moving to cover and relocating to a tactically
advantageous position.
• Debrief after the incident. This may involve reviewing report details for further investigation.
(CO8-3.5.5)

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 6 |

Fires

OBJECTIVES

CO8-3.6.1 List major components of
a fire.
CO8-3.6.2 List indicators of a fire.
CO8-3.6.3 Describe five classes of fire.
CO8-3.6.4 Describe use of
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA).
CO8-3.6.5 Describe the use of fire
hoses.
CO8-3.6.6 List equipment needed when
responding to a fire.
CO8-3.6.7 Describe types of fire
extinguishers.

CO8-3.6.8 Identify uses of different
types of fire extinguishers.
CO8-3.6.9 Apply techniques for
extinguishing a fire in a correctional
facility.
CO8-3.6.10 Demonstrate use of fire
extinguishers.
CO8-3.6.11 Identify inmate control
issues while responding to a fire.

The potential for fire exists in all areas of the facility. Though rare, fires are extremely
dangerous because they can spread very quickly and can be difficult to contain. The
kitchen is the most common area where fires occur. However, fire also could occur
anywhere throughout the facility grounds, such as in a laundry area or dormitory. Staff
should always be vigilant and cautious of fire hazards, including cooking grease, dryer
lint, improperly stored cleaning agents, and lightning strikes.
Maintaining the safety of staff and inmates is the first priority in the event of a fire. The
major components of a fire are heat, fuel, oxygen, and chemical chain reactions
(CO8-3.6.1). Indicators of a fire include the smell of smoke, alarm notifications, and
heat, light and flame (CO8-3.6.2). The type of fire determines which extinguishing
agent to use. For example, using water on a flammable liquid will increase the fire.
Likewise, using water on an electrical fire can create great danger of electrical shock.
There are five classes of fire.

Fire Classes:
• Class A: ordinary combustibles; e.g., wood, cloth, paper
• Class B: flammable liquids; e.g., gasoline and diesel fuels, kerosene, propane,
butane, alcohol, motor oil, paint, paint thinners
• Class K: subcategory of Class B (kitchen fires; cooking oils or fats)
• Class C: electrical; e.g., appliances, panels, switches
• Class D: combustible metals; e.g., magnesium, titanium, potassium, sodium
(CO8-3.6.3)

Equipment
Each agency will determine the availability of specialized equipment to use during a
fire. Equipment needed to respond to a fire may include:
• portable extinguishers
• fire alarms
• fire suppression systems (fire extinguishers set into the wall that run into piping
when the system is activated, sprinklers, and smoke detectors)
• Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) (used during a fire to help prevent
smoke inhalation, with proper training) (CO8-3.6.4)
• facility map
• emergency keys

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• restraint devices
• fire hydrants
• fire hoods
• fire hoses (staff must be specially trained to use this equipment) (CO8-3.6.5) (3.6.6)
The type of fire will determine which fire extinguisher will be used. Types of commonly used, portable fire
extinguishers include the following:
• ABC (used for ordinary combustibles, flammable liquids, and electrical)
• ABCD (used for metal fires, such as magnesium fires. If a class D extinguisher is not available, you can
use sand or dirt to extinguish a class D fire)
• K (used for kitchen fires; easier to clean up than other extinguishing agents)
• water-based (used for ordinary combustibles)
• CO2 (used for class B and C fires such as flammable liquid and electrical fires; useful to protect electrical
equipment because these extinguishers leave less residue and displace oxygen. After using them, you
need to exit the room quickly, especially in confined areas.) (CO8-3.6.7, CO8-3.6.8)
The portable fire extinguisher may be all that is necessary to extinguish a small fire. Basic procedures for using
a fire extinguisher in a correctional facility include performing a safety check, which should be done during
every shift. This involves checking the gauge on the extinguisher to see if the charge is adequate. If it is adequate,
the needle will be in the green area. If the charge is not adequate, do not use that extinguisher. Notify the
control room immediately if the fire extinguisher fails. The safety check should also include the hose and
nozzle to confirm that they are free of cracks or obstructions. (CO8-3.6.9)
The basic steps for using a portable fire extinguisher are:
1. Pull the pin.
2. Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire from a distance, usually about 10 feet.
3. Squeeze the handle.
4. Sweep the base of the flame (from side to side and front to back). (CO8-3.6.10)

Standard Procedures
If you see fire or smell smoke, assess the situation. Notify the control room immediately with the exact location
and size of the fire; activate the agency’s emergency plan. Pull the manual fire alarm in the officer’s station; there
may also be an automatic fire alarm. Attempt to extinguish the fire if it is small enough. Begin evacuation
procedures if the fire is out of control. Follow posted evacuation routes.
You will be required to maintain control of inmates during an evacuation. During inmate movement, it may
not be possible to group inmates according to their classification and custody levels. Use a sufficient number
of officers, especially when moving high-risk inmates or large groups. Conduct and continuously update an
inmate count (CO8-3.6.11). Account for everyone in the area, including staff and visitors. Make sure the
perimeter is intact and secure. Be alert; fires can also be used as a distraction during escape attempts
and assaults.

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It is extremely important to become thoroughly familiar with the posted evacuation routes. Available routes
change according to the location of the fire and the volume of smoke. Time permitting, doors and windows
should be shut along the way. Ideal evacuation routes would be those that allow everyone to get as far away as
possible and upwind from the threat (CO8-3.6.12). A count should be conducted prior to evacuation, if time
allows. Evacuate all inmates and staff in the vicinity as soon as it is safe to do so. If there is a discrepancy with
the count, call your supervisor; it will be treated as an escape until further notice. Immediately notify your
supervisor if someone is trapped or not accounted for. If the fire is substantial and someone is trapped, rescue
will be delegated to the local fire department or staff with proper training. (CO8-3.6.13)

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 7 |

Hazardous Materials

Hazardous materials are used throughout a correctional facility or work details. They
include cleaning agents, such as floor wax, bleach, laundry detergent, fuels, pesticides,
or fertilizer. A hazardous materials incident also could occur during a fire. A hazardous
material emergency occurs when a substance capable of causing harm to people, the
environment, and property is released—or not properly controlled (CO8-3-7.1).While
inmates are on work details, they could accidentally combine common chemicals such
as bleach and ammonia, creating a hazardous environment.
Inmates could use containers to transport hazardous materials or bio-hazardous
materials, such as urine. Urine or other body fluids, including contaminated blood,
could be considered hazardous materials. Be diligent in your searches when inmates
return from work assignments. A group of inmates could deliberately work together
and separately take items that are hazardous when combined.
People can be contaminated with hazardous materials through inhalation, ingestion,
absorption, and injection. Hazardous materials can pose immediate and long-term
health hazards, such as asphyxiation, chemical burns, tissue destruction, cancer, or death.
They can also cause harm to the environment, such as water, air, and land pollution, as
well as death or serious injury to wildlife and domestic animals.
Hazardous materials may have certain smells, but not all hazardous materials have an
odor. There may be no warning of a hazardous materials emergency. Never check a
container by smelling or tasting it. You can rotate a closed container to test its weight
and consistency; a shampoo bottle filled with bleach will be more fluid.
Because of their nature, hazardous materials emergencies:
• are more likely to cause a need for outside assistance
• require multiple agency response
• may be long lasting

OBJECTIVES

CO8-3-7.1 Describe a hazardous
material emergency in a
correctional setting.
CO8-3-7.2 Identify the Department of
Transportation (DOT) hazard
classes of hazardous materials.
CO8-3-7.3 Explain dangers associated
with each class of hazardous
materials.
CO8-3-7.4 Identify hazardous materials
information on Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS).
CO8-3-7.5 Describe indicators of
hazardous materials.
CO8-3-7.6 List equipment needed when
responding to hazardous materials.
CO8-3-7.7 Evacuate an area affected
by hazardous materials.
CO8-3-7.8 Contain emergency to the
affected area.
CO8-3-7.9 Restrict access to the
affected area.
CO8-3-7.10 Resolve a hazardous
materials emergency.

• may involve unseen hazards
During a HAZMAT incident, the Department of Transportation (DOT) Emergency
Response Guide (ERG) is a resource used as a guide. A first responder’s initial actions
include the identification of hazardous materials, areas of personal protection, and initial
safety plan. The following is a list of the classes of hazardous materials and the dangers
associated with each class, according to the DOT ERG, a copy of which will be available
to all staff.

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• Class 1 explosives: exposure to heat, shock or contamination could result in thermal and
mechanical hazards
• Class 2 gases: container may rupture violently under pressure (or as a result of a fire); may become
flammable, poisonous, a corrosive, an asphyxiate, and an oxidizer; may cause frostbite
• Class 3 flammable and combustible liquids: container may rupture violently from heat/fire; may be
corrosive, toxic, and thermally unstable
• Class 4 flammable solids: some are spontaneously flammable; may be water reactive, toxic, and corrosive;
may be extremely difficult to extinguish
• Class 5 oxidizing substances: supports its own combustion through using oxygen; sensitive to heat,
shock, friction, and contamination
• Class 6 poisons and infectious substances: toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin and eye absorption;
may be flammable
• Class 7 radioactive substances: may cause burns and biologic effects; can cause contamination of
surroundings
• Class 8 corrosives: causes disintegration of contacted tissues; may be fuming, water reactive, and
destructive to metals
• Class 9 Other Regulated Materials (ORM): miscellaneous (CO8-3-7.2, CO8-3-7.3)
A material safety data sheet (MSDS) is required for any hazardous substance shipped to and from a
correctional facility, and must be located where a potentially hazardous material is stored or used. Officers
must be aware of all hazardous materials in their assigned area and what they are used for. MSDSs are essential
for identifying and understanding information regarding a hazardous material and must be made available to
staff and inmates. Officers are responsible for consulting the MSDS.
The MSDS aids in interpreting safety hazards and precautions, as well as health hazards, by including
the following:
• manufacturer’s name
• product name (chemical or generic name)
• hazardous ingredients
• physical data
• toxicological information
• health hazard data
• reactivity data
• spill and leak procedures
• special protection information (CO8-3-7.4)
Hazardous materials are indicated by placards, markings, shipping papers, MSDSs, or storage containers. Refer
to the DOT ERG for exact information. Use extreme caution when using your senses at a hazardous materials
incident, including the following:

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• vision—officers may use their vision to see indicators of the presence of hazardous materials, smoke,
fire, vapor or gas clouds; when light or visibility is poor, these signs are harder to see.
For example, green smoke is a particularly dangerous sign. Also, watch out for hazardous material
placards.
• hearing—important, especially when interacting with witnesses or identifying unusual sounds, such as
hissing from a gas leak or a tanker spill, or a bubbling sound from mixing chemicals
• taste, touch, or smell—use of these senses risks exposure to the substance; they therefore should not
be used intentionally in an incident (CO8-3-7.5)

Equipment
Each agency will determine the availability of equipment to use during a hazardous materials incident. Some
of the equipment may include PPE to observe universal precautions, such as a face mask, protective gloves,
masks and gowns; a hazmat suit; SCBA; a bloodborne pathogens clean up kit, and barriers (CO8-3-7.6). Refer
to the ERG for a detailed description of, and instructions for, appropriate use of equipment related to hazardous
materials incidents or emergencies. It is important to have a current version of all reference guides.
Equipment, informational guides, and hazardous materials references may be managed by a supervisor.

Standard Procedures
Due to the inherent dangers associated with hazardous materials incidents, the officer should be aware of his
or her surroundings and take note of activity, practice officer safety, and follow special precautions at all times.
Each agency’s policies, procedures, and emergency plan will dictate the roles and responsibilities of each staff
member. An officer may be the first person on the scene, but the resolution of a hazardous materials incident
is usually the responsibility of supervisory staff and specialized response teams. As an officer, you should only
respond within the scope and level of your training.
When looking for hazards and investigating an incident, an officer needs to maintain constant awareness and
be prepared to relay information. Even when assisting in clean up, an officer must follow officer safety, universal
precautions, and the MSDS. An officer should avoid tunnel vision and be aware of the variety of complications
that might arise, since hazardous materials situations can be dynamic and evolving. For example, do not
immediately run over to assist if you suspect a hazardous materials incident.
Consider all hazardous materials a life or death situation. Remain calm and focus on a resolution.
Resolving a hazardous materials situation involves the following:
• Locate and verify the nature of the hazardous materials emergency.
- Observe from a safe distance.
- If the spill is minor, respond according to the MSDS guidelines. For example, dilute a bleach spill
and ventilate the area.
• Refer to the posted MSDS for the hazardous materials. Make sure a copy of the MSDS is readily
available for any emergency personnel.

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• Communicate with control room staff and supervisors, who may coordinate response activities.
Relay the following information:
- types of substances or hazards (Do not attempt to smell or taste the substance.)
- areas affected
- any medical emergencies or injuries
- wind direction (for example, is any vapor or smoke blowing towards the dining hall)
• Enter the area only when it is safe to do so.
- Use PPE immediately, such as a face mask, protective gloves and gown. Use disposable equipment
as much as possible.
• Provide first aid for the injured.
- Separate contaminated persons.
• Evacuate areas affected by hazardous materials.
- All persons should be evacuated as soon as it is safe to do so.
- Ideal evacuation routes will take people as far away from the incident as possible, and be upwind
and uphill from the threat.
- Follow the posted evacuation diagrams. There may be instances in which evacuation may not be
possible. (CO8-3-7.7)
• Isolate the situation so that it does not spread to unaffected areas. Shut down air conditioning units and
close doors and windows.
- Stay as far away as practical (a minimum of 500 feet if possible), and keep others away.
- Use binoculars or video surveillance if available, or approach from upwind.
- Don’t take an ignition source into the affected area (a vehicle can be an ignition source).
• Create a barrier or perimeter around, and restrict access to, the affected area.
- Use signs, warning tape and physical barriers, such as a mound of dirt, or officers stationed outside
a secured area. Structures such as internal gates, roll gates, doors, and cross fences can greatly aid
in accomplishing these efforts. (CO8-3-7.8)
Observe special precautions when dealing with decontamination efforts.
• Make sure that contaminated victims and equipment are decontaminated prior to your contact
with them.
- If you become contaminated, make sure that you and your clothing are fully decontaminated as
soon as possible.
Restrict or control access to the affected area, until the area is declared safe by emergency personnel.
• Supervisors will issue a direct order for no one to enter the area, except for emergency personnel.
(CO3.7.9)
• Keep a record of the events and complete follow-up documents as directed by the agency. (CO8-3-7.10)

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Assistance during a hazardous materials/waste spill can be obtained by contacting the
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC) at 1-800-424-9300.
CHEMTREC has the capability to contact the shipper, manufacturer, or other sources
for more detailed assistance and follow-up support. For example, if a spill occurs in the
area where the MSDS is located, and you are not able to access the information on or
identify the substance, an officer can contact CHEMTREC for immediate help.

Section Vocabulary
Emergency Response Guide (ERG)
hazardous material (HAZMAT)
material safety data sheet (MSDS)

UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 8 |

Bomb Threats

A bomb threat is any threat of an explosive device, whether mechanical, incendiary
or chemical. Every threat must be taken seriously. A supervisor may determine how
a threat should be handled. All personnel need to maintain a heightened sense of
awareness during a bomb threat. Bomb threats could be used as a distraction for an
escape attempt. Indicators of a bomb threat may be the discovery of a suspicious
device or package, or a bomb threat delivered by mail, phone, electronically, or in
person. (CO8-3.8.1)

OBJECTIVES

Equipment

CO8-3.8.3 List equipment restrictions
when responding to a bomb threat.

During routine inspections, searches, or facility checks, an officer may find a suspicious
device. Do not touch, inspect, or remove it. An officer needs to be alert and use good
observational skills; look for something out of the ordinary. When responding to a bomb
threat, an officer may use the following equipment: mounted long-range cameras, or
non-electrical communication devices, such as landline phones, or pens, pencils, and
paper (CO8-3.8.2). Contact your supervisor, but do not use cell phones, radios, or any
other electronic device that could emit electro-magnetic signals, as these may create a
spark (CO8-3.8.3). Outside agencies may use bomb-detecting dogs or explosive
ordinance devices (bomb-defusing robots).

CO8-3.8.4 Identify standard procedures
to follow in the event of a bomb
threat.

CO8-3.8.1 Describe indicators of a
bomb threat.
CO8-3.8.2 List equipment needed when
responding to a bomb threat.

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Standard Procedures
If a suspected bomb or suspicious package is discovered, it should not be touched or tampered with in
any way whatsoever.
Each agency will determine when to call 911, or when to contact a specialized response team. Correctional
facility staff should communicate verbally, in writing, or by using a landline phone. It is important to remain
calm and communicate clearly so that control room and supervisory staff may coordinate response activities.
When writing, use legible handwriting.
Standard procedures for responding to a bomb threat may include the following:
• Notify the supervisor or command staff of the exact location of the device and its description, or if a
bomb threat is received.
• Supervisors or command staff will give an order to stop using all electronic devices including microwaves,
radios, phones, car alarms, or remote keys for cars.
• If a device is found, officers should establish a secure perimeter around the device.
If a threat is received, lock down the inmates and conduct a controlled search of the facility.
• Follow evacuation protocols according to the agency’s emergency plan.
• The officer who receives a bomb threat via phone must follow protocol, such as using a checklist while
talking, keeping the caller on the line as long as possible, and if appropriate, using the telephone tracer feature
on the phone. (CO8-3.8.4)

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UNIT 3 | TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

LESSON 9 |

Man-Made or Natural Disasters

A man-made disaster is an event caused by people that brings great damage, loss, or
destruction to the facility, such as chemical spills, a water main breaking, a plane crash,
a train derailment, or a fire (CO8-3.9.1). It may be intentional or accidental.

OBJECTIVES

A natural disaster is an event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences,
such as a hurricane, earthquake, tornado, flood, lightning, or wild fire (CO8-3.9.2). It
is unpredictable and unplanned.

CO8-3.9.2 Define a natural disaster.

Equipment
The equipment used to address a man-made or natural disaster will depend upon the
type of event and its severity. Each agency may have resources identified for different
emergencies. Outside agencies may also be called upon to assist. Properly identifying
the type of disaster and methods of communication plays a vital role in responding
to the emergency.
Equipment needed in a natural or man-made disaster includes:
• backup communications equipment
• backup power source
• flashlights with batteries
• emergency food supplies (non-perishable)

CO8-3.9.1 Define a man-made disaster
in a correctional facility.

CO8-3.9.3 List equipment needed when
responding to a man-made disaster.
CO8-3.9.4 List equipment needed when
responding to a natural disaster.
CO8-3.9.5 Describe use of equipment
needed when responding to a manmade disaster.
CO8-3.9.6 Describe use of equipment
needed when responding to a
natural disaster.
CO8-3.9.7 Identify standard procedures
to resolve a man-made or natural
disaster.

• stored water
• medical supplies
• tents or temporary shelters
• additional bedding or linens
• vehicles
• weapons (CO8-3.9.3, CO8-3.9.4)
An officer must be properly trained and familiar with the equipment he or she may use
during an emergency. Each agency will determine the focus and level of training for
equipment use in emergency situations.
If communications are disrupted, use backup communication systems such as a
temporary or mobile command center. You may also need to use secondary radio
systems. Officers may need to render first aid to ill or injured staff or inmates. Distribute
drinkable water and emergency food supplies. The facility may only be operating off of
generators, and not at full power. If necessary, erect temporary shelters. If an evacuation
is necessary, multiple vehicles will be used. (CO8-3.9.5, CO8-3.9.6)

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Section Vocabulary
man-made disaster
natural disaster

FL BRT Program: Corrections, Volume 1

Standard Procedures
The nature and extent of the man-made or natural disaster will determine what
procedures to follow. An emergency plan addresses the procedures for enhanced security
measures and transportation needs that could arise. Standard procedures to resolve a
natural or man-made emergency are as follows:
• Verify and communicate the emergency by notifying the control room or a
supervisor of the event.
• Conduct an institution inmate count, accounting for all inmates and staff.
• Inspect for structural damage, making sure there is no breach in the perimeter.
• Activate the emergency plan.
• Evacuate all persons to a safe place.
• Provide first aid and medical treatment.
• Document the incident.
• Debrief after the incident. (CO8-3.9.7)

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UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES

LESSON 1 |

Crime Scene Control

Some crimes in the facility will be crimes against persons, such as assault or battery.
Different crimes require different responses. For example, an inmate stealing another
inmate’s property might result in an incident report. An inmate stealing keys will result
in a facility-wide lock down and thorough search. A sexual assault will require activation
of PREA; all PREA guidelines must be followed. You need to isolate any sexual assault
victim to prevent loss of evidence by putting the victim in a dry cell (a cell where they
cannot clean themselves).
If a crime has been committed, inform your supervisor and any additional personnel
needed. If known, include the type of crime, as well as the severity, any injuries, and
the location. If necessary, make requests for assistance or backup. Provide the names of
the inmates who were in the area. Mention any details, such as blood spatter or
weapons. (CO8-4.1.1)
When a crime occurs, there may or may not be a crime scene. If the officer determines
that a crime scene exists, notify the appropriate staff. Notify a supervisor, medical staff,
or control room staff. Inform them of the location of an established crime scene area
using a radio, phone, or verbal communication (CO8-4.1.2). Be aware that authorities
and divisions, such as medical staff, may be informed simultaneously. Outside agencies,
such as law enforcement, may be contacted.
A crime scene should be immediately cleared of aggressors and all other unauthorized
persons. Take note of all actions taken. Monitor the area; give verbal commands
to inmates to return to their cells for a lock down (CO8-4.1.3). Control access and
isolate the crime scene by restricting access to unauthorized personnel. (CO8-4.1.4,
CO8-4.1.5).
The officer should determine if the crime scene is safe prior to entering by visually
scanning the area and listening for hazards, and using other senses. (CO8-4.1.6)

OBJECTIVES

CO8-4.1.1 Notify staff that a crime has
occurred.
CO8-4.1.2 Notify staff of a crime
scene area.
CO8-4.1.3 Remove unauthorized
persons from a crime scene area.
CO8-4.1.4 Control access to the
crime scene.
CO8-4.1.5 Isolate the crime scene area.
CO8-4.1.6 Determine whether a crime
scene is safe to enter.
CO8-4.1.7 Assess physical condition of
inmate, staff, or visitor at an
emergency scene.
CO8-4.1.8 Protect a crime scene.
CO8-4.1.9 Establish a perimeter around
the crime scene.
CO8-4.1.10 Create a crime scene
barrier.
CO8-4.1.11 Record activities at a
crime scene.

If an officer must enter a crime scene to render aid, do not rearrange or move anything.
Be very careful not to disturb evidence, such as bloody prints or possible objects used
to commit the crime. Once backup arrives, and if it is safe to do so, officers should
conduct a medical assessment. You will learn more about conducting medical
assessments in First Aid. Continue rendering aid until specialized personnel, such as
EMTs, firefighters or trained medical personnel, arrive. (CO8-4.1.7)
Once a crime scene has been cleared of any victims, witnesses, or suspects, secure the area
and make sure no one enters that area. Protect the scene by preserving the area as well
as possible evidence to minimize contamination. (CO8-4.1.8)

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In order to secure the crime scene, tape off the area or create a perimeter or barrier. A perimeter should be
established with the use of physical barriers, such as fences, barrels, or crash gates (which separate the different
parts of an institution that is all under one roof ). Personnel that act as a barricade should be stationed
far enough away from the crime scene so that other individuals cannot contaminate the scene. (CO8-4.1.9,
CO8-4.1.10).
Each agency may have its own procedures for documenting a crime scene including photographs, images from
cameras, standard forms, and items moved, removed or altered. The on-scene officer needs to keep a continuous
log of the activities happening at the crime scene, which should include which authorized personnel enter and
exit the scene, along with date and time. (CO8-4.1.11)

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UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES

LESSON 2 |

Managing Victims, Witnesses, and Suspects

An officer may be the first responder when a crime is committed in a facility and should
know how to manage victims, witnesses, and suspects until a supervisor or agency
investigator arrives.

OBJECTIVES

Isolate and restrain any inmates who look suspicious, are breathing hard as if they’d
been in a fight, are bleeding, have abrasions, or have torn or missing clothes. Even after
being ordered to be quiet, inmates may talk amongst themselves and reveal information
about the crime. However, do not begin questioning inmates. The investigator will
conduct a formal interview later.

CO8-4.2.2 Identify victims, witnesses,
and suspects of an incident.

Conduct an inmate count as soon as possible. The officer should separate the individuals
involved before trying to determine who the victims, witnesses, and suspects are
(CO8-4.2.1). Potential victims, witnesses, or suspects may be identified through initial
observation and questioning of individuals in the area (CO8-4.2.2). Each person should
be separated from the others in order to preserve evidence and information, and for
clarity in dealing with and assessing the situation. Separating individuals will minimize
possible threats and collaboration that may confuse the investigation. (CO8-4.2.3)

CO8-4.2.1 Separate victims, witnesses,
and suspects.

CO8-4.2.3 Explain the purpose of
separating victims, witnesses,
and suspects.
CO8-4.2.4 Secure victims, witnesses,
and suspects.
CO8-4.2.5 Determine role of those
involved in an incident.
CO8-4.2.6 Identify physical indicators of
inmate involvement.

The officer should also restrain individuals if appropriate and place them in secure areas
in order to provide a safe environment for the interview process. Due to liability issues,
do not put victims out of sight and sound, because of the possible need for medical or
psychological support (CO8-4.2.4). Follow the investigator’s or supervisor’s instructions
while dealing with victims. Do not leave the individual alone—evidence may be
removed or purposely contaminated.
Determining the role of persons suspected of being involved in criminal activity is done
by obtaining statements from others, employing interviewing techniques, and making
observations based upon physical evidence (CO8-4.2.5). Physical indications that an
inmate may have been involved in a crime include suspicious activity, injuries, labored
breathing, possession of weapons, or presence of contraband. (CO8-4.2.6)

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UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES

LESSON 3 |

Investigations and Reporting

OBJECTIVES

Learning the components of an investigation will help you to participate in an
investigation, follow proper protocol, and avoid contaminating evidence. Participating
in or having any type of involvement in an investigation will be directed by a supervisor
or lead investigator.

CO8-4.3.2 Document details of
investigation.

An officer may be asked to take statements from victims, witnesses or suspects, and then
give the information to an investigator. If you are tasked with making a report, carefully
question the individual; you may empathize by verbally comforting the individual, but
do not touch him or her (this includes hugs or pats on the back). If you are not directly
questioning an individual, it is nonetheless appropriate to let them talk on their own if
you are in their presence. Document what you hear, but do not encourage the individual
to interact with you. You may also be called upon to testify in court. Investigation
techniques may include collecting and preserving evidence, taking statements, taking
photographs or video recordings, and working with other agencies or departments to
process evidence or investigate facts (CO8-4.3.1). Maintain awareness of the chain of
command, and proceed only within the scope of instructions given to you in the
investigative process.

CO8-4.3.1 Apply basic investigative
techniques.

CO8-4.3.3 Write an incident report.

Documenting an incident could involve filling out a template, or writing a standard
incident report of the details of an incident for an investigation. Each agency will
determine the criteria and methods required for writing a clear and concise report, as
well as the timeline for submitting reports. It is important to clarify the details you write
in a report, representing details as either approximate or absolute, such as “I entered at
approximately 9:00 a.m.,” as opposed to, “I went in at 9:00 a.m.” (CO8-4.3.2). Always
keep copies of reports you submit, and refer to your written report when recalling facts
during questioning in an investigation. Your reports will be helpful during legal matters
and issues regarding investigations of incidents. Referring to them will also help you
maintain consistency with your own account. If you intentionally give false information
during an investigation you may be terminated. (CO8-4.3.3)

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UNIT 4 | INVESTIGATING CRIMES

LESSON 4 |

Chain of Custody for Evidence

Inmates may try and destroy evidence. In order to aid future investigations, it is
important to use caution and tact while securing the scene. Each agency may determine
the methods and materials to use for proper evidence gathering. Evidence at a crime
scene is any item or fact that may exonerate a person from guilt or may be considered
proof that a crime has been committed, such as clothing, sheets, body fluids, or any
other item that could be related to, or affected by the crime (CO8-4.4.1). Use the
techniques determined by your agency to collect and preserve evidence, and be careful
not to contaminate the evidence or the crime scene. This involves properly bagging
items, taking pictures or videos according to instructions, and initiating proper chain of
custody procedures. (CO8-4.4.2)
Elements to properly handle evidence may include the following:
• Use personal protective equipment (PPE), which must be put on outside of the
crime scene.

OBJECTIVES

CO8-4.4.1 Identify evidence of a
crime scene.
CO8-4.4.2 Gather evidence of an
incident.
CO8-4.4.3 Demonstrate evidence
handling techniques.
CO8-4.4.4 Identify the main
components of chain of custody
procedures.

• Properly document and secure the item through appropriate chain of custody.

CO8-4.4.5 List information necessary to
establish the chain of custody.

• Correctly identify the type of bag or container to use for the type of evidence
being gathered. (CO8-4.4.3)

CO8-4.4.6 Apply chain of custody
procedures.

Chain of custody is documentation of how evidence is handled and preserved in order
to ensure the integrity of the evidence. The chain of custody also proves that any
evidence submitted in court or at a disciplinary hearing is the same evidence that was
collected at the crime scene (CO8-4.4.4). Information necessary to establish a chain of
custody may include what the evidence consisted of, who handled the evidence, where
the evidence was found, when the evidence was discovered, and how it was handled,
transferred, and preserved (CO8-4.4.5). Your agency may require a detailed account of
the chain of custody for evidence that may be part of an investigation or incident. This
involves employing methods to track and verify evidence as it is handled using charts,
logs, and electronic databases. Some agencies may require that information involved in
chain of custody procedures remain confidential. (CO8-4.4.6)

CO8-4.4.7 Describe safeguards to
maintain the chain of custody.

Following the agency’s chain of custody policy or procedure is vital for evidence
preservation as it may be years before evidence is examined. Established safeguards
include following specific protocols for handling and storing evidence. Designated
personnel will be in charge of evidence storage areas, and specific protocol must be
followed for accessing the areas where evidence is stored. Interagency collaboration may
involve addressing different procedures for chain of custody protocol to transfer
evidence. This activity should be directed by a corrections supervisor. (CO8-4.4.7)
A suspected crime scene, or an area where a disruption may have occurred, is not to be
cleaned up until it is ruled out as a crime scene. The lead investigator dictates all action
within it and will release the crime scene.

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GLOSSARY
A
acting within the scope of employment: the range of reasonable and
foreseeable activities that an officer does while carrying out the agency’s
business (Introduction to Corrections)

clinical restraints: restraints used to keep the inmate-patient from
injuring him- or herself in a medical facility (Supervising in a
Correctional Facility)

active listening: a learned skill that allows officers to quickly determine
the context, threat, and relevance of events that may be unfolding around
them (Officer Safety)

clinical seclusion: isolation of the inmate-patient from the general
population at a medical facility for medical and safety reasons; may
include placing the inmate in a padded room for his or her safety
(Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

administrative confinement: temporary removal of an inmate from the
general population to provide for safety and security until a more
permanent inmate management process is in place (Supervising Special
Populations)

close custody grade: state custody grade that refers to inmates who must
be maintained within an armed perimeter or under direct, armed
supervision when outside a secure perimeter (Intake and Release)

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): provides provisions for inmates
with disabilities (Supervising Special Populations)

command presence: body language that projects an image of confidence
in your skills and abilities (Officer Safety)

arrest papers: paperwork generated by an arresting officer that allows for
a subject to be arrested and taken to a county detention facility for
admission (Intake and Release)

commitment papers: paperwork, documents or orders generated by the
court that confine an inmate to a correctional facility after being found
guilty of a crime (Intake and Release)

B

community control (house arrest): a form of community supervision
that is closely monitored and is more restrictive than probation or parole
(Introduction to Corrections)

Baker Act: provides for emergency services and temporary detention for
evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient
treatment (Introduction to Corrections)

C
chain of command: the order of authority within an organization
(Introduction to Corrections)
chain of custody: documentation of everyone who handled evidence as
well as when, why, and what changes, if any, were made to it
(Introduction to Corrections)
chronological order: the grouping of recorded facts by date and timeline
of event occurrence, usually from the first event to the last
(Communications)
civil liability: responsibility for a wrongful act or the failure to do an act
that an officer has a duty to perform, which results in injury to another
person or property and most often involves negligence (Introduction to
Corrections)
civil rights violation: an unlawful interference with the fundamental
rights of another person, such as the right to due process and equal
protection under the law (Introduction to Corrections)
classification: a management tool used to assist facilities in defining
inmate custody or security levels (Intake and Release)

community custody grade: a state custody grade that refers to inmates
who are eligible for placement at a community residential facility (Intake
and Release)
contact visits: visits in which both the visitor and the inmate are in the
same room without a physical barrier, and can have limited physical
contact (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)
content: the significant facts of an incident or occurrence in a report
(Communications)
contraband: any unauthorized article or any authorized article in excessive
quantities or altered from its intended purpose (Introduction to Corrections)
controlled behavior: avoiding such distracting behaviors as foot tapping,
nail biting, and fidgeting, which demonstrates the officer is confident and
in control (Officer Safety)
correctional officer: any person who is appointed or employed full time
by the state, county, or contracted private entity, whose primary
responsibility is the supervision, protection, care, custody, control, or
investigation of inmates within a correctional institution; does not include
any secretarial, clerical, or professionally trained personnel (Introduction
to Corrections)
209

correctional setting: any location where inmates are managed and
supervised (Communications)
corrective action: steps that are taken to eliminate the cause of
inappropriate or unlawful behavior in order to prevent recurrence
(Supervising in a Correctional Facility)
counseling: an in-depth explanation of a rule violation including
suggestions for the inmate to correct his or her behavior (Supervising in a
Correctional Facility)
courtesy: behavior that involves showing consideration, respect, and
cooperation when interacting with others (Communications)
criminal act: a violation of the law; in Florida, a crime is designated as
either a felony or misdemeanor according to §775.08(4), F.S.
(Introduction to Corrections)
criminal gang: a formal or informal ongoing organization, association, or
group that has as one of its primary activities the commission of criminal
or delinquent acts (Supervising Special Populations)
criminal justice: the structure, functions, and decision-making processes
of the agencies that deal with the management and control of crime and
criminal offenders (Introduction to Corrections)
criminal liability: when an officer is found guilty of committing a crime
(Introduction to Corrections)

D
death row inmate: a person who has been convicted by the court and has
been sentenced to death (Supervising Special Populations)

effective listening: the giving of full attention to what is being said and
taking time to understand the message without interruption
(Communications)
elderly inmate: an inmate 50 years of age or over (Supervising Special
Populations)
Emergency Response Guide (ERG): a resource used to guide a first
responder’s initial actions to a HAZMAT incident including the
identification of hazardous materials, areas of personal protection, and
initial safety plan (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies)
escort: a correctional officer or staff member accompanying the
movement of an inmate from one point to another (Supervising in a
Correctional Facility)
ethics: the principles of honor, morality, and accepted rules of conduct
that direct an individual or group (Introduction to Corrections)
evidence: anything tangible that proves or disproves a fact in a judicial
case or disciplinary hearing (Introduction to Corrections)

F
face sheet: a document that has a current picture of the inmate, name,
inmate identification number, physical description, incarceration date,
date of birth and end of sentence date (EOS) and inmate’s
classification/custody level (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)
felony: any criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state by
death or imprisonment in a state facility for a period exceeding one year
(Introduction to Corrections)

deception: misleading, tricking, or fooling another person (Officer Safety)

format: the way information is organized and presented in a report
(Communications)

disabled person: someone who may have one or more medical or mental
impairments causing disability and substantially limiting one or more of
their major life activities (Supervising Special Populations)

fruits of a crime: anything gained or obtained by committing a crime
(Introduction to Corrections)

disciplinary confinement: formal punishment in which the officer
segregates an inmate for a length of time to an individual cell because a
disciplinary committee has found him or her guilty of committing a
violation of agency rules (Supervising Special Populations)

G
gang: a formal or informal ongoing organization, association, or group
that has as one of its primary activities the commission of criminal or
delinquent acts (Supervising Special Populations)

disciplinary report (DR): a detailed report of the facts surrounding an
inmate’s rule violation (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

gratuity: money given to qualified inmates discharged from the custody
of the Department of Corrections in accordance with 33-601.502, FAC
(Intake and Release)

discipline: the enforcement of a penalty or consequence for a violation of
established rules used to ensure compliance and obedience to established
rules (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

grid search pattern: a variation of the strip/line search pattern; it overlaps
a series of lanes in a cross pattern, making the search more methodical and
thorough (Officer Safety)

E

H

editing: the process of ensuring that all pertinent facts have been included
in a report in an organized and accurate manner (Communications)
210

hard/hazardous contraband: any item that poses a serious threat to the
safety and security of the staff, inmates, and facility (Officer Safety)

hazardous material (HAZMAT): a substance capable of causing harm
to people, the environment, and property (Responding to Incidents and
Emergencies)

I
Incident Command System (ICS): an advanced emergency response plan
(Responding to Incidents and Emergencies)
inmate manipulation: when an inmate attempts to get something he or
she wants by influencing the officer to do something the officer ordinarily
would not do (Officer Safety)
institutional homosexuality: the changing of an inmate’s sexual
preference from heterosexuality to homosexuality only while incarcerated
(Supervising Special Populations)
insubordination: failure to follow lawful orders from supervisors
(Introduction to Corrections)
intake: the process in which an inmate is admitted to a county detention
facility (Intake and Release)
interpersonal communication: the exchange of thoughts, messages or
information between two or more people through speaking, writing, or
behavior to effect some kind of action (Communications)
interview: a conversation between a correctional officer and an
interviewee (inmate, visitor) with the goal of obtaining factual
information (Communications)
introduction of contraband: any attempt to bring or send contraband
into a correctional facility (Introduction to Corrections)
instrumentalities of a crime: anything used to commit a crime
(Introduction to Corrections)

J
jargon: the technical vocabulary of a particular profession that has
meaning specific to people who work in that field (Communications)
juvenile adjudication: occurs when the court charges, sentences,
adjudicates as delinquent (including nolo contendere), and commits a
juvenile under the age of 18 years to the Department of Juvenile Justice
(Supervising Special Populations)
juvenile inmate: an inmate that is not legally an adult or adjudicated as
an adult; may be assigned to the Department of Juvenile Justice
(Supervising Special Populations)

K
kickback or three-way mail: a method used by inmates to try to send
unauthorized communications to other inmates within the same facility or
other institutions (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

L
law enforcement: an organization responsible for the enforcement of laws
and civil order (Introduction to Corrections)
legal mail: a category of mail that includes mail to and from municipal,
county, state and federal courts, and state attorneys, private attorneys,
public defenders, legal aid organizations, and agency clerks (Supervising in
a Correctional Facility)

M
man-made disaster: an intentional sabotage or an accident resulting in
structural failure or damage to utilities (Responding to Incidents and
Emergencies)
material safety data sheet (MSDS): required for any hazardous material
shipped to and from a correctional facility; it includes the manufacturer’s
name, the product name, and spill and leak procedures (Responding to
Incidents and Emergencies)
maximum custody grade: a state custody grade that refers to inmates
who are sentenced to death (Intake and Release)
maximum security level: county custody, or security risk levels for
inmates considered high risk: those who have serious or violent felony
charges pending or who pose a threat to the safety of staff and security of
the facility (Intake and Release)
medium custody grade: state custody grade that refers to inmates who are
eligible for placement at a work camp with a secure perimeter but who are
not eligible for placement in an outside work assignment without armed
supervision (Intake and Release)
medium security level: county custody, or security risk levels for inmates
considered moderate risk (those who have adjusted to being incarcerated
in the past and have limited violence in their criminal history) (Intake
and Release)
minimum custody grade: state custody grade that refers to inmates who
are eligible for outside work assignments but not for placement in a
community residential center (Intake and Release)
minimum security level: county custody, or security risk levels for
inmates considered low risk (those who have adjusted well to being
incarcerated, have a minimal criminal history with no violent charges in
their history, or are currently charged with a nonviolent crime) (Intake
and Release)
Miranda warnings: provide protection by the Fifth Amendment right
against self-incrimination when a suspect in custody is interrogated in a
criminal investigation (Introduction to Corrections)
misdemeanor: any criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state
by a term of imprisonment for less than one year in a county correctional
facility (Introduction to Corrections)
211

N
natural disaster: an event that causes structural failure or damage to
utilities as a result of a weather or a geological incident (e.g., hurricane,
earthquake, tornado, flood, or wild fire) (Responding to Incidents
and Emergencies)
negligence: failure to use due or reasonable care in a situation where an
officer has a duty to act, and which results in harm to another
(Introduction to Corrections)
non-contact visits: visits in which the inmate and visitor are physically
separated by some kind of barrier or communicate using electronic
equipment (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)
note taking: the brief written notations by an officer concerning the
many aspects of his or her usual and unusual job occurrences
(Communications)
nuisance contraband: includes excessive clothing, linen, laundry items,
canteen and hygiene items, photos, reading materials, medication and
letters (Officer Safety)

privileged communication: inmate communications that are given
special privacy considerations, such as between an inmate and attorney
(Introduction to Corrections)
privileged mail: a mail category that includes mail to and from public
officials, governmental agencies and the news media (Supervising in a
Correctional Facility)
probation: a court-ordered sentence that places a person under the
supervision of a probation officer under specified court-ordered terms and
conditions as an alternative to or supervision after incarceration
(Introduction to Corrections)
probable cause: a fair probability or reasonable grounds to believe that a
crime was committed, based on the totality of the circumstances
(Introduction to Corrections)
professionalism: behavior that demonstrates good character and is
marked by pride in self and career (Introduction to Corrections)

O

proofreading: the checking of a report to ensure that all words are spelled
correctly, punctuation is used accurately, appropriate words are capitalized,
and proper grammar is used (Communications)

observing: an awareness of any occurrence or activity, erratic mood
changes, emotional outbursts, acting out, threatening behavior, and
changes in inmate energy levels that may signify safety and security
problems (Officer Safety)

protective management: a form of confinement where an inmate is
placed into segregated housing because of concerns for his or her safety
(Supervising Special Populations)

organization: a group of two or more people who cooperate to accomplish
an objective or multiple objectives (Introduction to Corrections)

P

Q
qualified immunity: protects the officer from personal liability
(Introduction to Corrections)

R

parole: the release of an inmate from a correctional institution prior to the
conclusion of the inmate’s court-imposed sentence (Introduction to
Corrections)

reasonable force: the type and amount of force that the officer reasonably
believes to be necessary to overcome resistance (Introduction to Corrections)

perimeter: a secure area that surrounds a facility and is an element of
security (Facility and Equipment)

reception: a multi-faceted process in which an inmate is admitted to a
state institution (Intake and Release)

person with disabilities: someone who may have one or more medical or
mental impairments that causes their disability and substantially limits
one or more of their major life activities (Supervising Special Populations)

release: the process in which an inmate is discharged from a county
detention facility or state correctional institution (Intake and Release)

posture: holding the body in such a way as to show strength, confidence,
interest, and control to the inmates (Officer Safety)
positioning: placing yourself in a tactically advantageous location to
observe what is occurring in an area (Officer Safety)
Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA): a law enacted by Congress to
address the problem of sexual abuse of persons in the custody of U.S.
federal, state or local correctional agencies; implemented to make rape
prevention and awareness in a correctional setting a top priority
(Introduction to Corrections)
212

report: a written document prepared by a correctional officer that gives
information about an incident, event, situation, or person encountered by
the officer (Communications)
riot: any incident that disrupts the normal operations within a facility and
which involves multiple inmates on a broad scope; a riot is not necessarily
localized (Responding to Incidents and Emergencies)
routine mail: all mail received by inmates including publications, except
legal mail and priveleged mail (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

rule violation or infraction: an activity or behavior that is not permitted
in the correctional facility (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

S
sally port gate: is a system of two openings (doors or gates) designed to
open only one at a time (Facility and Equipment)
search: defined as governmental intrusion into a place where a person has
a reasonable expectation of privacy (Introduction to Corrections)
security equipment: any item or technology used to enhance or maintain
protection, and to ensure safety (Facility and Equipment)
security threat group (STG): a criminal enterprise, an organization of a
continuing nature that engages repeatedly in acts of crime, and individually
or collectively poses a safety and/or security threat within as well as outside
of a correctional facility (Supervising Special Populations)
seizure: the act of taking possession of evidence or contraband for a
violation of rule or law (Introduction to Corrections)
sexual abuse: engaging in or attempting to engage in a sexual act with
another person or the use of threats, intimidation, inappropriate touching,
or other actions or communications aimed at coercing or pressuring
another person to engage in a sexual act (Supervising Special Populations)
situational awareness: an officer’s knowledge and understanding of the
totality of circumstances, which helps facilitate effective decision making
(Officer Safety)
slang: informal vocabulary composed of invented words, or arbitrarily
changed words, that are often used by a specific group, region, trade, or
profession (Communications)
sort by category: the grouping of recorded facts into types of collection
sources (Communications)
sovereign immunity law: a list of circumstances and requirements that
must be met before the agency or any of its employees can be sued in a
state tort action; provides protection for state and county (governmental)
correctional agencies and its employees as per §768.28, F.S. (Introduction
to Corrections)
special populations: different classifications of inmates that an officer
may encounter in their day-to-day routines that require different
interactions or services from the officer (Supervising Special Populations)
spiral search pattern: begins at a central point and traverses in
increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area
(Officer Safety)
squelch: a circuit that suppresses the output of a radio receiver if the
signal strength falls below a certain level (Communications)

statement: a permanent verbal or written record of a person’s account of
an incident or occurrence that may or may not be made under oath
(Communications)
strip/line search pattern: usually used in a predetermined area by several
people; the search area is divided into lanes that are searched by one or
more people in both directions until the entire area has been examined
(Officer Safety)
substance abuse: the use of any substance, manmade or natural, that alters
the mood or state of mind of the user (Supervising Special Populations)

T
taggings: markings of an security threat group (STG) territory on a wall,
fence, or ground (Supervising Special Populations)
tort: a civil wrong in which the action or inaction of an officer or entity
violates the rights of another person (Introduction to Corrections)
trailing or chase vehicle: an armed escort vehicle utilized during
transport to follow an inmate transport vehicle and to provide additional
security (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)
transgender: “…an umbrella term used to describe people whose gender
identity (sense of themselves as male or female) or gender expression
differs from that usually associated with their birth sex” (as defined by the
American Psychological Association) (Supervising Special Populations)
transport: when an inmate is removed and escorted from the confines of a
secure facility to another location (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

U
unusual occurrence: an incident that is out of the ordinary and disrupts
the normal facility operations and routine daily activities (Supervising in a
Correctional Facility)

V
values: principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or
desirable; core beliefs or desires that guide or motivate a person’s attitude
and actions (Introduction to Corrections)
verbal command: the authoritative statement used to direct, influence, or
give orders to a person or group (Communications)
verbal direction/warning: a statement directed to the inmate that he or
she has committed a rule violation and should stop the behavior
immediately (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

W
written warning: an agency-specific form that documents an inmate rule
violation (Supervising in a Correctional Facility)

213

Y
youthful offender: any offender younger than the age of 24 years, who
has either been sentenced as an adult by the judge or assigned youthful
offender status by the Department of Corrections (Supervising Special
Populations)

Z
zone/quadrant search pattern: used for an area that is large; the area
should be divided into four different sections (Officer Safety)

214

U.S. COURTS AND CODE INDEX
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Corrections
18 U.S.C. §242, p. 24 (civil rights)
42 U.S.C. §1983, p. 24 (civil rights)
45 CFR §164 F.S., p. 14 (HIPAA; Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act)
Graham v. Connor 490 U.S. 386 (1989), p. 20 (use of force)
Hudson v. McMillan 503 U.S. 1 (1992), p. 20 (use of force)
Harlow v. Fitzgerald 457 U.S. 800, 818 (1982), p. 25 (immunity)
Miranda v. Arizona 384 U.S. 436, 86 S. Ct. 1602 (1966), p. 12–13
PREA, P.L. 108–79, p. 14 (Prison Rape Elimination Act)

CHAPTER 7 Supervising Special Populations
42 U.S.C. 126 §12101, pp. 171 (Americans with Disabilities Act)

FLORIDA STATE STATUTES AND ADMINISTRATIVE CODE INDEX
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Corrections

CHAPTER 4 Facility and Equipment

11B-27 F.A.C., p. 5 (standards of moral character)

33 F.A.C., p. 88 (food service operations)

11B-27.0011(4)(c)1 F.A.C., p. 5 (excessive use of force)

64E-11 F.A.C., p. 88 (food service operations)

11B-27.0011(4)(c)9 F.A.C., p. 5 (subverting exam and promotion process)

§944.31 F.S., p. 89 (sanitation)

11B-27.00225 F.A.C., p. 5 (controlled substances)
11B-30.009(3) F.A.C., p. 5 (subverting exam process)

CHAPTER 5 Intake and Release

Ch. 111 F.S., p. 24 (qualified immunity)

33-601.210 F.A.C., p. 104 (custody grades)

§112.313 (6) F.S., p. 5 (misuse of position under color of law)

33-601.502 F.A.C., p. 106 (gratuity)

§394.455(18) F.S., p. 14 (Baker Act)

§901.211 F.S., p. 97 (strip searches)

§768.28 F.S., pp. 25 (sovereign immunity)

§925.11 F.S., p.106 (DNA)

§775.08(4) F.S., p. 17 (felony and misdemeanor)

§943.325 F.S., p. 106 (DNA)

Ch. 776 F.S., pp. 20, 25 (use of force)

Ch. 960 F.S., p. 94 (victim contact notification)

§776.07(02) F.S., p. 21 (inmate escape)
Ch. 870 F.S., p. 25 (use of force in riots)

CHAPTER 6 Supervising in a Correctional Facility

§932.704 F.S., p. 16 (destruction of contraband)

33-601.714 F.A.C., p. 127 (visitation)

§932.7055 F.S., p. 16 (destruction of contraband)

33-601.314 F.A.C., p. 117 (prohibited inmate conduct)

§943.085–943.255 F.S., p. 3 (correctional officer certification requirements)

§944.09 F.S., p. 117 (inmate contact)

§943.10(2) F.S., p. 2 (defining a correctional officer)

§944.39 F.S., p. 128 (visitation and identification)

§943.12 F.S., p. 3 (CJSTC duties)
§943.13 F.S., p. 3 (standards of officer certification)

CHAPTER 7 Supervising Special Populations

§943.1395(6) F.S., p. 5 (revocation of officer certification)

§874.03 F.S., p. 145 (definition of criminal gang)

Ch. 944 F.S., p. 20 (use of force)

§893.01 F.S., p. 155 (Florida Comprehensive Drug Abuse Control Act)

§944.105(4) F.S., p. 21 (inmate escape from private correctional facilities)

§958.03(5) F.S., p. 160 (youthful offender)

§944.35(3) F.S., p. 5 (relationships of a sexual nature)

§958.04 F.S., p. 160 (youthful offender)

§944.35 F.S., p. 21 (use of force)

§985.265(5)(b) F.S., p. 162 (housing juveniles)

§944.47 F.S., p. 16 (contraband)
§951.22 F.S., p. 16 (contraband)

215

INDEX
A
active listening, 55
AFIS (see Biometric Identification Solution)
Amendments:
First, 11
Fourth, 11
Fifth, 12
Sixth, 12
Eighth, 12
Fourteenth, 12
American Correctional Association, 6
Code of Ethics, 6–7
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 171–172
arrest papers, 94
assignment, facility, 94
automatic external defibrillator (AED), 185

B
Baker Act, 14, 158
ballooning, 130
base station, radio, 33, 34
Bill of Rights (see Rights, Bill of )
Biometric Identification Solution (BIS), 100, 101

C
chain of command, 9
chain of custody, 19, 64, 207
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC), 199
civil rights, see rights, civil

control, 11
community custody grade, 104
confinement
administrative, 175
disciplinary, 175
protective management, 175
conflict of interest
and ethics, 7
contraband, (see also §944.47 and §951.22 in Court and Statutes Indexes), 16–17,
62–65
as evidence, 17 (see also §932.704 in Court and Statutes Indexes)
collecting, 63–64
disposition of, 64
documenting, 64
escort, 131
facility issued items, 99
hard/hazardous, 62
inmate release, 106
intake, 97
medication, 65
nuisance, 62
photographing, 64
STGs, 152
security, 84
transport, 134
visitors, 130
work squads, 139
controlled behavior, 54
corrective action, 118–119
counseling inmates, 119

clinical restraints, 141

counts, inmate, 121–123
procedures, 121–122
roster, 184
types of, 121
work squads, 137

classification, 104
objective of, 105
personnel, 105
clinical seclusion, 141

county jail, 10

close custody grade, 105

court system, 10

command presence, 30, 54
safety and security, 54

courtesy, 31
ethics, 6

command, verbal, 30

crime, elements of, 18

commitment papers, 94
features of 94–95

crime, fruits of, 18

communication
barriers to effective, 29
interpersonal, 28–31
nonverbal, 28–29
telecommunication, 28
written, 28
verbal, 28

crime scene control, 203–204

communication, privileged, 15

216

crime, instrumentalities of, 18
crimes
investigating and reporting, 206
victims, witnesses, and suspects, 205
criminal act (see also §775.08(4) in Court and Statutes Indexes), 17–19
Criminal Justice Professionalism Program (CJPP), 3

Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission (CJSTC) (see also §943.12
in Court and Statutes Indexes),
discipline, 4–5
ethics, 6–7
scope, 2–3
use of force, 21–22

hazardous, 74
HAZMAT, 197
inspection, 72
inventorying, 73–74
issuing, 72–73
management of, 72–74
security, 79
storage, 74
surveillance, 111–112
visitation security, 128

criminal justice system, components 10–11
cues, nonverbal, 29
custody, chain of, 19, 207
custody grades and levels, 104–105

D
damages, 23
death row, 176

escape (see emergencies, types of )
escort, 131
ethics, 6–7
evacuation, 179

defensive tactics, 131

evidence, 18–19
contraband as, 64
crime scene, 205
gathering, 207
integrity of, 19

dining, inmate, 123–124

Extended Day Program (EDP), 162

disabled inmates, 171
services for, 172–173

extremism, 151–152

disciplinary action,
ethics, 6–7
interviews, 35
officer, 4–5

F

disciplinary report, 46, 119

facts, organizing, 43

discipline, inmate, 117 (see also inmates, discipline)

FCIC/NCIC, 102–103

discrimination, 7

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 100, 102

deception
during questioning, 37
inmate, 59

face sheets, 135
facility assault, (see emergencies, types of, and see equipment)

disturbances, signs of, 112–113

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 32

diversity, 144

felony, 17

duty of care, 20

fingerprinting, 100–102

E

first aid, 185

editing, 48

Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.), (see F.A.C. Index)

elderly, 164–166

Florida Comprehensive Drug Abuse Control Act, 155

fire, (see emergencies, types of, and see equipment)

emergency doctrine, 25

Florida Correctional Accreditation Commission (FCAC), 88

Emergency Medical Services (EMS), 185

Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), 105

Emergency Response Guide (ERG), 195, 197

Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), 3
and fingerprinting, 100–102
Florida Mental Health Act (see Baker Act, see also §394.455(18) in Court
and Statutes Indexes)

emergency situations, 181
emergencies, types of
bomb threats, 199–200
escape, 183–184
fires, 192–194
HAZMAT, 195–199
hostage incidents, 188–189
man-made disasters, 201
medical, 185
natural disasters, 201
outside threats, 190–191
riot, 186–187
equipment
facility assault, 190
fire, 192–193

Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS), 2, 88, 89, 93
Florida Safety Belt Law, 135
Florida Statutes (see Court and Statutes Indexes)
force
reasonable, 20
use of, 20–22, 35
deadly, 20–21 (see also §944.35 in Court and Statutes Indexes)
to prevent escape, 21 (see also §776.07, §944.35, and §944.105 in Court and
Statutes Indexes)
excessive use of, 21
failure to report, 22 (see also §944.35 in Court and Statutes Indexes)
inmates with medical needs, 174

217

G
gang(s), (see Security Threat Groups)
gestures, nonverbal, 29
gratuity, 106

interview, 35–36
inventory (see equipment, and see property)

J
jargon, 46

H
harassment, 7
hazardous materials (HAZMAT), 77, 91
classes of, 195–196
emergency, 195
visitation, 130
health, environmental, 90–91
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (see also 45 CFR
§164 in Court and Statutes Indexes), 13–14

juvenile adjudication, 160
Juvenile Assessment / Detention Center, 11
juveniles, 160–163
intake, 105
offenders, 105

L
law enforcement, 10
legal defenses, 25

homosexuality, institutional, 170

liability, 23–26

hospital assignments, 140–141

listening, 30

hostage, (see emergencies, type of )
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), 91

M
mail, inmate, 125–127

I

manipulation, inmate, 59–61

identification
inmate, 56–58
visitor, 125, 128–129

maximum custody grade, 105

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), 76, 196
maximum security level, 104

immunity, 24–25

medical assessments, 96

Incident Command System (ICS), 179

medical emergency (see emergencies, types of )

incident commander, 190

medium custody grade, 104

incident reports, 40

medium security level, 104

inmate rights, 13–15

mental illness, inmates with, 156–158

inmates
counts (see counts)
dining (see dining)
discipline, 117
death row (see death row)
escort (see escort)
female, 167–168
in distress, 115
juvenile, 160–163
mail (see mail)
monitoring and observing, 110–113
medical issues, 141, 164–165
mental illness among (see mental illness)
mental retardation (see mental retardation)
notification of visit, 129
physical disabilities, 171
search before visit (see search)
sexual abuse of, 168–169
sexuality issues, 170
transgender, 170
transport (see transport)

mental retardation, 159

inspection, 82–83
insubordination, 9

Methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), 91
minimum custody grade, 104
minimum security level, 104
Miranda, 12–13 (see also Court Index)
misconduct, sexual, 5
misdemeanor, 17
MSDS (see Material Safety Data Sheet)

N
National Detention Standards (NDS), 88
negligence, 23
note taking, 38–39

O
observing, 54
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 76
offenses, classes of, 17–19
officer, correctional (see also §943.10 in Court and Statutes Indexes), 2–6
certification, 3–4 (see also §943.13 in Court and Statutes Indexes)
revocation, 5

intake, 94–95

oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray, 75

interpersonal communication (see communication, interpersonal)

organization, 9

218

P
parole, 11
penalties, 10
perimeter, 79
crime scenes, 204
emergencies, 178–179, 190
patrols, 86
security, 86

rights, civil (see also U.S. CODE 18 U.S.C. §242 and see also 42 U.S.C. §1983),
ethics, 6
violations, 24
riots, (see emergencies, types of )
rule violations, 117–118

S

prison, 10

safety and security, 52–55
identification and, 56
in emergencies, 179–180
manipulation and deception and, 59
medical staff and, 140
officer stress and, 52–53
perimeter security and, 86
security deficiency and, 82–83, 85, 86
security standards and, 84–85
situational awareness and, 53–54, 84
standards, 87

Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA), 14–15, 64, 95, 168–169

sally port gate, 80

probation, 11

sanitation, 89–91

professionalism,
chain of command and, 8–9
communication and, 28
ethics, 6
interviews, 36
report writing, 44

scope of employment, 24–25

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), 66, 125, 185, 198, 207
photographing,
contraband, (see contraband, photographing)
intake, 103
positioning, 30, 54
posture, 30, 54
precautions, universal (see universal precautions)
prejudice (see stereotype)

proofreading, 48
property, inmate, 97–99

R
radio (see also telecommunications), 32–34
rape (see PREA)
reasonable force (see force)
referral, 114–115
release, 106–107
report, 39
common forms used in, 40
computers in, 42
content, 44
editing, 48–49
efficacy, 44–47
elements, 44–47
evaluating, 48
finalizing, 49–50
format, 44
information in, 40–41
jargon in, 46
readers of, 39–40
slang in, 46
steps, 38
uses of, 39
writing, 38–50
response assistance, 182
Rights, Bill of, 11–12

search, 12
before visit, 129
end of visit, 130
equipment for, 68
escort and, 131
inmate transport and, 134
pat, 97
patterns, 67–68
safety and security and, 66
scanning devices and, 66, 68
strip, 97
types of, 13, 66–69
transport vehicle, 134
visitors, 66
work squads and, 138
security (see safety and security)
security equipment (see equipment, security)
Security Threat Groups (STGs), 145–153
activity and emergencies, 186
contraband and, (see contraband, STG)
search and seizure (see Amendment, fourth, and see also search, and see also seizure)
seizure, 12
Self–Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), 192, 197
sensitive supplies (see supplies, sensitive)
shank (see weapons, inmate)
situational awareness, 53 (see also safety and security)
slang, 46
societies, inmate, 144
squelch, 33
State Officer Certification Examination (SOCE), 4
statement, 36
stereotype, 8
substance abuse, 154–155

219

suicide
inmates with medical needs and, 174
inmates and, 105
screening, 95
supplies, sensitive, 77–78

T
tagging, 152
telecommunications, 32–34
torts, 23
transgender (see inmates, transgender)
transport, inmate, 133–136
Treatment and Evaluation Center, 10
tuberculosis (TB), 91

U
universal precautions, 63
HAZMAT, 197
inmates with medical needs and, 173
medical emergencies, 185
unusual occurrence (see also disturbances) 112–113
use of force (see force)

V
values, 6–7
verbal command (see command, verbal)
verbal warning, 119
visitation, 127–130

W
weapons
correctional facility, in a, 75
inmate, 62–63
work squads, 137–139
written warning, 119

Y
youthful offender, 160

220

REFERENCES
Chapter 1 Introduction to Corrections
American Correctional Association. (1994). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aca.org/
Florida Sheriffs Association. Florida model jail standards. Retrieved from http://www.flsheriffs.org/
Garner, B. A. (Ed.). (1999). Black’s Law Dictionary. (7th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing CO.

Chapter 2 Communications
FCC Portable Radio Rules. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_6831218_fcc-portable-radio-rules.html
Goodman, D. J. (2007). Report It in Writing. 4th Edition. Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hunter, R. D., Barker, T. (2011). Police-Community Relations and the Administration of Justice. 8th Edition.
Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hurst, C. H. (2005). Self-Talk—Keep the Arrows Up. Booksurge LLC. (Amazon.com).
New Jersey Department of Corrections. (2004). Basic Course for State Corrections Officers,
Report Writing for Corrections.
State of Connecticut Department of Correction, Pre-service Correctional Training. (2002). Report Writing.

Chapter 4 Facility and Equipment
Florida Department of State, Division of Library and Information Services. (2012). Florida Administrative Weekly and
Florida Administrative Code - county and municipal jails. Tallahassee, Florida:
https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=63G-2
Florida Department of State, Division of Library and Information Services. (2012). Florida Administrative Weekly and
Florida Administrative Code—Department of Corrections. Tallahassee, Florida:
https://www.flrules.org/gateway/Division.asp?DivID=404
Florida Sheriffs Association. (2012). Florida Model Jail Standards (FMJS): http://www.flsheriffs.org/our_program/floridamodel-jail standards/?index.cfm/referer/content.contentList/ID/408/
United States Department of Transportation (DOT). (2012). Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). Washington D.C.

Chapter 5 Intake and Release
Garner, B. A. (Ed.). (1999). Black’s Law Dictionary. (7th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing CO.

 

 

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