A Proposed National Corrections College, Jacobs & Cooperman, 2012
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A Proposed National Corrections College James B. Jacobs* & Kerry T. Cooperman** I. INTRODUCTION In 1971, Chief Justice Warren E. Burger proposed the establishment of a “National Corrections Academy.”1 Chief Justice Burger explained that “the management and operation of penal institutions have desperately needed such a nationally coordinated program to train every level of prison personnel . . . as the Department of Justice has done with police administrators.”2 [B]ricks and mortar do not make a sound correctional institution any more than bricks and mortar make a university, a newspaper, or a hospital . . . . “Just anybody” cannot make a sound correctional institution any more than “just anybody” can make a good parent or a good teacher. . . . Well-trained personnel are [essential] . . . . We have yet to understand that the people who operate prisons, from the lowest guard to the highest administrator, are as important in the whole scheme of an organized society as the people who teach in the schools, colleges and universities.3 * Warren E. Burger Professor of Law, New York University School of Law; B.A., Johns Hopkins; J.D., Ph.D., University of Chicago. ** Litigation Associate at Stroock & Stroock & Lavan; Former Fellow, Center for Research in Crime and Justice; J.D., New York University School of Law. 1. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, Remarks at the National Conference of Corrections, Williamsburg, Virginia (Dec. 5-8, 1971) [hereinafter Burger Remarks at Williamsburg]. 2. Id. In public speeches in 1967 and 1970, Chief Justice Burger had similarly observed that “[h]aving found the accused guilty . . . we seem to lose our collective interest in him . . . . Few things characterize our attitude toward prisoners and prisons more than indifference.” Warren E. Burger, Ripon College Commencement Lecture on Crime and Punishment, Ripon, Washington, (May 21, 1967); Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, For Whom the Bell Tolls: Penal Reform, Address Before the Association of the Bar of the City of New York (Feb. 17, 1970). 3. Burger Remarks at Williamsburg, supra note 1. A year earlier, Burger had observed that effective correctional leadership training “requires a monumental effort with the best leadership and brains of labor unions, industry, the Departments of Justice, of Labor, and of Health, Education and Welfare.” Id. 57 58 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 In 1974, Burger’s lobbying contributed to the creation of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC),4 a small federal agency tasked with providing management training and best-practices recommendations to prisons, jails, and community-corrections systems.5 Although an important step forward, the NIC was not the prestigious and high-powered academy that Burger had in mind.6 Thus, in early 1981, he reprised his proposal for a national corrections academy that would be similar to the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia.7 [The FBI Academy is] one of the great, and perhaps most lasting contributions of the Federal Bureau of Investigations . . . [It] has vastly improved the quality of law enforcement in America, both in terms of efficiency and the kind of law enforcement a decent society should achieve . . . The cost of creating and maintaining the FBI Academy is but a tiny fraction of the benefits it has conferred.8 Burger explained that, like the operation of a large police department, the “operation of a correctional or penal institution is no place for amateurs. It calls for substantial professional training.”9 However: At present, there is no single, central facility for the training of prison and correctional personnel . . . . In all too many state penal institutions the personnel . . . are poorly trained and some are not trained at all for the sensitive role they should perform . . . . The time is ripe to extend [the correctional training enterprise to include] a National Academy of Corrections to train correctional personnel much as the F.B.I. has trained State and local police.10 4. Other advocates for the formation of a national corrections academy included U.S. Attorneys General John Mitchell and William French Smith, the American Correctional Association, and the NIC advisory board, including University of Chicago law professor Norval Morris. Anthony P. Travisono & Mary Q. Hawkes, ACA and Prison Reform, 57 CORR. TODAY 70 (1995). 5. 18 U.S.C. § 4351(a) (2006) (“There is hereby established within the Bureau of Prisons a National Institute of Corrections.”). 6. See History, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., http://nicic.gov/History (last visited Oct. 31, 2011). 7. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, Commencement Address, at George Washington University, (May 24, 1981), available at http://encyclopedia.gwu.edu/gwencyclopedia/ index/php?title=commencements:_address_of_chief_justice_warren_burger%2c_1981 [hereinafter Burger Commencement Address]. 8. Burger Commencement Address, supra note 7 (suggesting the possibility of grafting a national corrections academy onto the FBI Academy). 9. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, Agenda for Crime Prevention and Correctional Reform, 67 A.B.A. 988, 990 (1981); Burger Commencement Address, supra note 7. 10. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, Agenda for Crime Prevention and Correctional Reform, 67 A.B.A. 988, 988-90 (1981). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 59 In late 1981, the NIC established its National Corrections Academy on the campus of the University of Colorado at Boulder.11 While an important step toward implementing Burger’s vision,12 the academy was a small and modestly funded operation in comparison to the FBI Academy.13 It remains so today, with just ten full-time program specialists and a $2.5 million annual budget that has not increased since 1995.14 Corrections has no equivalent to the FBI Academy’s leadership course, which lawenforcement executives view as an essential professional credential. Chief Justice Burger had a good idea in 1971. It is an even better idea today in an era of mass incarceration.15 Nationally, there are now almost as many correctional employees as local police officers.16 Although the NIC’s academy, state departments of corrections, some professional correctional associations, and some college and university criminal justice departments offer education and training for top correctional officials, none of these are a “brain center” for research, curriculum development, and leadership training. A National Corrections College (NCC) devoted to improving the human infrastructure of American and even foreign prison, jail, and community-corrections systems is sorely needed and long overdue. Part I explains the need for a National Corrections College. Part II demonstrates why our current educational infrastructure for high-level 11. Travisono & Hawkes, supra note 4, at 70; Telephone Interview with Robert Brown, Chief, Academy Div., Nat’l Inst. of Corr. (Dec. 1, 2010). In the 1970s, the NIC conducted its training programs in classrooms and conference rooms rented from universities. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, More Warehouses, or Factories with Fences?, 8 NEW ENGLAND J. ON PRISON L. 111, 113 (1982). In October 1981, the NIC established the National Corrections Academy in rented space on the campus of the University of Colorado Boulder. Id. The Academy Division moved to a new facility in Longmont, Colorado in 1987 and then to Aurora, Colorado in 2007, where it shares a building with Federal Bureau of Prison’s Management and Specialty Training Center. Telephone Interview with Robert Brown, Chief, Academy Div., Nat’l Inst. of Corr. (Dec. 1, 2010). In the spring of 2011, the Academy Division moved to a new, slightly larger building in Aurora. Id. 12. See Chief Justice Warren Burger, More Warehouses, or Factories with Fences?, 8 NEW ENGLAND J. ON PRISON L. 111, 113-14 (1982). 13. Email from Robert Brown, Chief, Academy Div., Nat’l Inst. of Corr., (Nov. 28, 2011). 14. Id. 15. Prison Overcrowding: What are Other States Doing?, INFORMANT (2010), available at http://informant/kalwnews.org/2012/12/prison-overcrowding-what-are-otherstates-doing/. 16. There are roughly 698,000 local police officers and 518,200 correctional officers in the United States. U.S. DEP’T OF LABOR, OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK: POLICE & DETECTIVES 476 (2010-2011), available at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos160.htm; U.S. DEP’T OF LABOR, OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK: CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS 469 (2010-2011), available at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm [hereinafter CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS]. 60 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 corrections administrators is inadequate. Part III contrasts our national investment in correctional-leadership development with leadershipdevelopment investments in private corporations, the military, and police. Part IV sketches what a national college of corrections might look like, how it would run, who would staff it, whom it would serve, and how it would fit into the nation’s existing correctional-training infrastructure. The conclusion argues that cost should not thwart the proposal. II. THE LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES FACING CORRECTIONS Effective administration of United States prisons, jails, and communitycorrections programs requires a huge corps of executives, senior-level leaders, managers, and supervisors17 who can set budgets and priorities, evaluate organizational performance, motivate staff to work ethically and humanely under difficult conditions, recognize and resolve inmates’ problems and complaints, lobby executive- and legislative-branch officials for necessary resources, and work productively with community groups.18 In addition, it is increasingly recognized that corrections officials must take responsibility for preparing prisoners for reentry into society, thereby reducing recidivism rates.19 Given the importance of jails and prisons for socializing a significant percentage of the population, for social control generally, and for the United States’s image in the world, recruitment, nurturing, and professional development of correctional leaders should be regarded as national priorities. A. The Size and Cost of Corrections in the United States The scale of the American corrections system is daunting. There are some 3376 county jails and 116 federal prisons,20 1320 state prisons, and 17. See infra Table 1. The National Institute of Corrections’ Core Competencies Project identified four levels of corrections leaders (supervisors, managers, senior-level leaders, and executives), the various positions in each level, and the leadership competencies for each level. See U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, NICIC (July 2005), available at http://static.nicic.gov/Library/020474.pdf [herinafter Executive and Senior-Level Leaders]. This article adopts these labels and categories. 18. See Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, supra note 17; DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Manager and Supervisor Levels, NIC, (Dec. 2006), available at http://static.nicic.gov/Library/020475.pdf [herinafter Manager and Supervisor Levels]. 19. See, e.g., U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., OFFENDER WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT DIV., Administrative Guide, Offender Workforce Development Specialist Partnership Training Program, NIC Accession No. 022173, (Aug. 2007), available at http://nicic.gov/Library/022173.pdf. 20. U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, SOURCEBOOK OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS, 90 tbl.1.94 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 61 264 privately-run penal facilities.21 On any given day, these “total institutions”22 house, feed, clothe, supervise, recreate, educate, and provide physical and psychological care to nearly 2.3 million inmates,23 including about 90,000 juvenile inmates.24 County jails admit and process thirteen million people annually.25 Probation and parole officers supervise an additional five million people.26 All told, at any point in time, correctional personnel supervise and provide services to nearly one in thirty-one Americans.27 A large infrastructure is needed to administer this massive correctional complex.28 Approximately 43,500 executives, senior-level leaders, managers, and supervisors29 oversee 474,700 lower-level employees, as (Kathleen Maguire & Anne L. Pastore eds., 2002), available at http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/pdf/t1102.pdf. 21. Id. at tbl.1.102. 22. ERVING GOFFMAN, ASYLUMS 11 (1968). Erving Goffman coined the term “total institution” to denote “a place of residence and work where a large number of like-situated individuals cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period of time together lead an enclosed formally administered round of life.” Id. at xiii. 23. CORRECTIONAL POPULATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES (2009), http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus09.pdf [hereinafter CORRECTIONAL POPULATIONS]; see also Adam Liptak, U.S. Prison Population Dwarfs That of Other Nations, N.Y. TIMES, Apr. 23, 2008. 24. U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, Juveniles in Corrections: Custody Data (1997-Present), http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08201.asp?qaDate=2007. 25. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS, supra note 16. 26. U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, Community Corrections (Probation and Parole), http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=15 (last revised Nov. 13, 2011). 27. See PEW CENTER ON THE STATES, 1 IN 31: THE LONG REACH OF AMERICAN CORRECTIONS, (2009), available at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/ PSPP_1in31_report_FINAL_WEB_3-26-09.pdf [hereinafter PEW CENTER]. Moreover, as of March 2009, one in eighteen men and one in eleven African American men were under some form of correctional control. Id. “In 2009, over 7.2 million people were on probation, in jail or prison, or on parole at year-end—3.1% of all U.S. adult residents or 1 in every 32 adults.” Total Correctional Population, BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS, www.bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 28. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that the number of correctional officers will grow 9% between 2008 and 2018. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS, supra note 16. Increasing demand for correctional officers will stem from population growth and rising rates of incarceration. Mandatory sentencing guidelines calling for longer sentences and reduced parole for inmates are a primary reason for increasing incarceration rates. . . . Some employment opportunities also will arise in the private sector, as public authorities contract with private companies to provide and staff corrections facilities. Id. 29. Id. 62 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 well as 2.5 million adult and juvenile inmates.30 Every state prison and large county jail system—there are at least 170 county jail systems with 1,000 or more beds31—requires a corps of competent leaders, including a director and assistant directors of adult facilities, juvenile facilities, financial operations, community relations, and legal departments.32 Each of America’s 5,000 correctional facilities also needs a capable warden, assistant wardens, a top security officer, a physical plant manager, heads of health and recreation services, chiefs of budget and personnel, and supervising disciplinary officers.33 Correctional facilities also need effective leaders at the middle-management levels, for example, shift commanders and lieutenants or sergeants in charge of cell houses (including administrative and disciplinary segregation units), food services, workshops, medical services, and the school.34 Leaders must be constantly replenished due to retirements, resignations, and prison expansion. Thus, there is a pressing need to constantly improve the leadership skills of incumbent administrators and to identify and train the next generation of leaders. B. Correctional Leaders Require Wide-Ranging Knowledge and Skills Corrections executives, senior-level leaders, managers, and supervisors must exert leadership under challenging conditions. They must maintain order, discipline, and good morale among troubled, anti-social, and often dangerous inmates35 who live under conditions of extreme deprivation.36 30. SOURCEBOOK OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS, EMPLOYEES OF FEDERAL, STATE PRIVATE ADULT CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES (2003), available at http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/pdf/t1104.pdf. 31. Email from Virginia Hutchinson, Chief of the NIC’s Jails Division, Nov. 23, 2010. The top ten largest county jails in the U.S., from largest to smallest, are in Los Angeles, New York City, Cook County (Ill.), Maricopa County (Ariz.), Philadelphia, Miami-Dade County (Fla.), Dallas County (Tex.), Orange County (Cal.), and Shelby County (Tenn.). Jesse Bogan, America’s Jail Crisis, FORBES MAGAZINE, July 13, 2009, available at http://www.forbes.com/2009/07/10/jails-houston-recession-business-beltway-jails.html. The Los Angeles County Jail holds nearly 20,000 inmates per day. Id. 32. See also Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, supra note 17; see generally, James B. Jacobs & Elana Olitsky, Leadership and Correctional Reform, 24 PACE L. REV. 477 (2004). 33. See Jacobs & Olitsky, supra note 32; DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. OF CORRECTIONS, supra note 32; see also infra Table 1. 34. See Jacobs & Olitsky, supra note 32; infra Table 1. 35. U.S. DEP'T OF JUSTICE, Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities 2000, available at http:// www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/csfcf00.pdf (last visited Nov. 13, 2011) [hereinafter Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities] (demonstrating that the number of inmate-on-inmate assaults in correctional facilities rose from 25,948 to 34,355 AND 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 63 Often, they must cope with severe inmate crowding,37 deteriorating physical plants, inadequate budgets, a constant flow of lawsuits,38 and health problems like AIDS, tuberculosis and hepatitis.39 Increasingly, they are being asked to prepare inmates for successful post-incarceration reentry. The current economic recession forces corrections leaders to address all of these challenges with diminished resources.40 from 1995 to 2000, and assaults on staff rose from 14,165 to 17,952). However, more recent data show that, in some jurisdictions, e.g. New York State, intra-prison violence has dropped dramatically. Bert Unseem, New York’s Prison Turnaround, CITY JOURNAL, (2010), http://www.city-journal.org/2010/20_3_snd-ny-imprisonment-rates.html; see Jacobs & Olitsky, supra note 32, at 480. 36. See generally Dwight F. Blint, Gang Worries Prison Workers, HARTFORD COURANT, Oct. 13, 2003, http://articles.courant.com/2003-10-13/news/0310130509_1_latinkings-bloods-gang-members; Mark S. Fleisher & Scott H. Decker, An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs, 5 CORRECTIONS MGMT. Q. 1 (2001). 37. Prison Overcrowding: What are Other States Doing?, INFORMANT (2010), http://informant.kalwnews.org/2010/12/prison-overcrowding-what-are-other-states-doing/; see also Jacobs & Olitsky, supra note 32, at 480. 38. American penal history is full of examples of penal institutions degenerating into squalor and violence. Federal courts (and the parties themselves) have responded with hundreds of orders and consent decrees mandating improved conditions and operations. Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, supra note 35, at 9. In 2000, 357 prison facilities were operating under consent decree or court order. Id. Perhaps because of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, Pub. L. No. 104-134, 110 Stat. 1321 (1996) (codified at 11 U.S.C. § 523; 18 U.S.C. §§ 3624, 3626; 28 U.S.C. §§ 1346, 1915, 1915A; 42 U.S.C. §§ 1997-1997h), the number of prisons under remedial court orders for staffing, counseling, library services, or food services has decreased dramatically since 1995. Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, supra note 35, at 10. Prison litigation has been effective in exposing and remediating deplorable conditions and abuses, and in spawning new roles in prison like law librarians, substance abuse counselors, nutritionists, and compliance personnel. James B. Jacobs, The Prisoners' Rights Movement and Its Impacts 1960-80, 2 CRIME & JUST. 429, 429 (1980). It has been less effective in creating decent conditions and operations, and ineffective in creating excellent conditions and operations. Id. 39. In 1997, released inmates accounted for 20-26% of the HIV/AIDS cases in the United States, 12 to 16% of hepatitis B infections, 29-32% of hepatitis C infections, and 39% of tuberculosis cases. Theodore M. Hammett et al., The Burden of Infectious Diseases Among Inmates and Releasees From U.S. Correctional Facilities, 1997, 92 AM. J. PUB. HEALTH 1789, 1792 (2002). Chief Justice Burger observed that “a prison is not a pleasant place, it is not even a comfortable place. It probably can never be made either comfortable or pleasant; . . . At its best, it is barely tolerable.” Burger Commencement Address, supra note 7. 40. By the end of 2011, forty-two states will face budget shortfalls totaling $130 billion (15.9% of state budgets). Elizabeth McNichol et al., CTR. ON BUDGET & POLICY PRIORITIES, States Continue to Feel Recession’s Impact (2011), http://www.cbpp.org/ cms/?fa=view&id=711. California will have a budget gap of $23 billion and New York will have a budget gap of $10 billion. Id. Forecasts for 2012 are nearly as dismal, with total state budget shortfalls expected to approach $103 billion. Id. 64 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 Corrections leaders must motivate and manage workforces that are frequently understaffed,41 poorly educated,42 under-trained,43 poorly paid,44 unappreciated,45 vulnerable to threats and assaults,46 and embroiled in interpersonal and inter-group frictions.47 Inmates generally resent, and sometimes act hostilely toward48 corrections employees.49 Unpleasant and unsafe duties and working conditions often result in low job satisfaction50 and high turnover.51 41. See, e.g., Wyo. Struggles with Understaffed Prison, USA TODAY (May 6, 2007) http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-05-06-wyoming-prison-staff_N.htm (noting that in one correctional facility, more than a third of the jobs were unfilled). 42. Most state prisons require entry-level corrections employees to have a high school diploma or graduation equivalency degree. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS, supra note 16. 43. See, e.g., Nate Blakeslee, Shades of Gray: In Texas Prisons, It’s Hard to Tell Who Your Enemies Are, AUSTIN CHRON., Apr. 28, 2000, http://www.austinchronicle.com/ gyrobase/Issue/story?oid=oid%3A77012 (discussing the “poor training” of corrections officers in Texas). 44. See CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS, supra note 16. However, California officers earn $44,000 to $74,000 per year. STATE OF CAL., DEP’T OF CORR. AND REHAB., COMPENSATION FOR CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS (2007), available at http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Career_Opportunities/por/docs/POASForms/CO%20Salary%20Co mpensation.pdf. 45. See Robert M. Freeman, Here There Be Monsters: Public Perception of Corrections, 63 CORR. TODAY 108 (June 2001) (detailing a study of the demoralizing impact of the media’s negative image of prisons on prison staff); Tim Kneist, Old Habits Die Hard: Corrections Professionals Constantly Struggle Against Negative Stereotypes, 60 CORRECTIONS TODAY 46-48 (Feb. 1998). 46. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS, supra note 16. 47. See generally D. J. VODICKA, THE GREEN WALL: A PRISON GUARD’S STRUGGLE TO EXPOSE THE CODE OF SILENCE IN THE LARGEST PRISON SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES (2009). 48. Nationally, the number of inmate-on-inmate assaults in correctional facilities rose from 25,948-34,355 from 1995-2000, and assaults on staff rose from 14,165-17,952. Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, supra note 35. 49. CORRECTION OFFICERS, supra note 16. “Correctional officers and jailers have one of the highest rates of nonfatal on-the-job injuries” of any occupational group. Id. 50. Ben M. Crouch & Geoffrey P. Alpert, Prison Guards’ Attitudes Toward Components of the Criminal Justice System, 18 CRIMINOLOGY 227, 227 (1980); Francis T. Cullen, How Satisfying is Prison Work: A Comparative Occupational Approach, 14 J. OFFENDER COUNSELING, SERVICES & REHABILITATION 89 (1989) (“[T]he level of officer job satisfaction [of southern prison guards was] lower than that of any other occupational category.”). 51. In 1981, Chief Justice Burger cited a study that found an “astonishing rate of turnover of correctional personnel . . . [o]ne state has 54%, one 60%, another 65% and another 75% turnover.” Burger Commencement Address, supra note 7, at 3. Burger rhetorically asked how “any human enterprise [can] be effective with that rate of turnover” and suggested “that there is a correlation between . . . the rapid turnover and the amount of 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 65 Running a prison or large jail under these conditions requires a diverse set of skills.52 For example, correctional leaders should be thoroughly versed in applicable legislation, case law, and administrative rules. Strong interpersonal skills, including the ability to define goals and motivate and communicate expectations to staff and inmates, are also vital. Administrators must be good problem-solvers and capable strategists, designers, and implementers of short-, medium- and long-term plans for preventing violence, improving living conditions, solving individual and organizational problems, and preparing inmates for reentry. To achieve these goals, corrections leaders must be able to deal effectively with staff, union leaders,53 legislators,54 the courts, executive-branch officials, lawenforcement officers,55 civil rights organizations, psychological and training.” Id.; see also Ojmarrh Mitchell et al., The Impact of Individual, Organizational, and Environmental Attributes on Voluntary Turnover Among Juvenile Correctional Staff Members, 17 JUST. Q. 333 (2000) (providing an insightful study of how organizational factors create stress and turnover). One study found that turnover rates among correctional officers are 15.4% in publicly run prisons and 40.9% in privately run prisons. Tracy Huling, Building a Prison Economy in Rural America, in INVISIBLE PUNISHMENT: THE COLLATERAL CONSEQUENCES OF MASS IMPRISONMENT 202 (Marc Mauer & Meda Chesney-Lind, eds., 2002). George Camp’s 1996 study found that while prison populations were rising, prison staffs were shrinking. Turnover rates could be as high as 50% in some institutions, though not in entire systems. See NAT'L INST. OF CORR., U.S. DEP'T OF JUSTICE, Managing Staff: Corrections' Most Valuable Resource 19-20 (1996), available at http://www.nicic.org/pubs/ 1996/013216.pdf. Another problem is the brief tenure (an average of approximately three years) of state prison directors. Directors typically leave office when a new governor takes office or if there is a prison scandal or crisis. Telephone Interview with Bob Brown, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., ACAD. DIV. (Oct. 20, 2003). Whether a leader can be effective with such a short tenure is subject to serious question. Id. The staff’s expectation that the head of the system will soon be gone is itself a recipe for organizational stagnation. Id. 52. Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, supra note 17, at vii. An NIC study observes, “The nature of the correctional environment has changed significantly in recent years. The technological revolution, globalization, and evolving workforce demographics are just a few of the factors that are influencing and changing correctional agencies/organizations.” Id. 53. In some states, unions have substantial influence over correctional operations. For example, the California Correctional Peace Officers Association (CCPOA), representing more than 30,000 California prison employees, is one of the most influential lobbyists in CORR. PEACE OFFICERS ASS’N, California politics. About Us, CAL. http://www.ccpoa.org/union/about. 54. See Richard P. Seiter, The Leadership and Empowerment Triangle, 3 CORRECTIONS MGMT. Q. at iv (1999). 55. See Collaboration and the Community Corrections Field, COLLABORATIVE JUSTICE, http://www.collaborativejustice.org/corrections/main.htm (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). Prisoners-rights lawyers and inmates themselves generate a flow of lawsuits that requires correctional leaders to deal effectively with government lawyers, justify and document decisions, and ensure that prison policies comply with statutes and court decisions. TODD R. CLEAR, GEORGE F. COLE, & MICHAEL D. REISIG, AMERICAN 66 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 physical healthcare providers, advocacy and volunteer groups, and the media.56 III. THE CURRENT CORRECTIONAL LEADERSHIP TRAINING INFRASTRUCTURE IS INSUFFICIENT The country’s infrastructure for correctional-leadership development consists of a hodgepodge of training programs run by state departments of corrections, the NIC, the Federal Bureau of Prison’s (FBOP) Staff Training Academy, the American Correctional Association (ACA), other professional correctional associations, individual correctional facilities, and some colleges and universities. There is no national institution to identify and prioritize correctional-leadership-development needs, evaluate best training practices, develop and disseminate quality curricula, conduct cutting-edge research, and deliver training to a significant number of highlevel corrections leaders. Indeed, there are no national standards for corrections training or a corrections-training equivalent to the organizations that accredit American institutions of higher education. In 1981, Chief Justice Burger observed that the states “have no real training resources available”57 and that “[w]ithout special training, prison personnel can become part of the problem rather than part of the solution.”58 A leading corrections textbook, published in 1990, stated that inadequate correctional-leadership development leaves American prison administration “dominated by uncreative thinking, ungrounded and idiosyncratic conceptualization, and an unwarranted commitment to traditionalism.”59 In 2011, correctional leadership and skills training is, in many ways, even less adequate.60 This is due in part to: the downsizing or CORRECTIONS 121-22 (9th ed. 2011). 56. Add to these factors the effect of privatization on the prison system. Between 1995-2000, the number of private penal facilities rose from 110-264. Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, supra note 35. Many prison reformers and reform organizations are opposed to private prisons as a matter of principle. Others point to poorly performing private prisons. For example, in 2000, thirty-three private prisons were operating under court order or consent decree, up from fifteen in 1995. Id. at 9. Privately-run prisons also tend to have higher staff turnover (probably due to lower pay) and higher inmate escape rates. See Scott D. Camp & Gerald G. Gaes, Growth and Quality of U.S. Private Prisons: Evidence from a National Survey, 1 CRIMINOLOGY & PUB. POL'Y 427 (2002). 57. Warren E. Burger, Commencement Address of Chief Justice Warren Burger, 1981, THE GW AND FOGGY BOTTOM HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA (Jan. 31, 2007), http://encyclopedia.gwu.edu/gwencyclopedia/index.php?title=Commencements: Address_of _Chief_Justice_Warren_Burger%2C_1981. 58. Id. 59. TODD R. CLEAR & GEORGE F. COLE, AMERICAN CORRECTIONS 151 (2d ed. 1990). 60. See generally, Billy S. Humphrey, Respectable Leadership and the Future of Corrections, available at http://www.corrections.com/news/article/29132-respectable- 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 67 elimination of state-level correctional-training programs in the current public-sector budget crisis;61 high turnover of correctional executives leaving insufficient numbers of experienced personnel to show new leaders the ropes; understaffing of prisons, jails, and community-corrections programs, leaving little or no time for training; and the perception, by legislators, policymakers, and the public, that correctional management does not require extensive training.62 Furthermore, four decades of prison growth has caused many mid- and senior-level managers to be promoted to top positions much faster, and with much less training, than their predecessors.63 One study found that 90% of new wardens did not receive any orientation prior to, or just after, assuming their position.64 Over half reported no formal mentoring.65 A. State and County Correctional Leadership Training Most state prisons and county jails treat any training beyond entry-level as a luxury.66 Most state corrections systems lack sufficient manpower to leadership-and-the-future-of-corrections (last visited Sept. 5. 2011). 61. Telephone conversation with Robert Brown, Ph.D, Chief of Nat’l Inst. Of Corr. Acad. Div (Nov. 22, 2010). 62. Eric G. Lambert, To Stay or Quit: A Review of Literature on Correctional Staff Turnover, 26 AM. J. CRIM. JUST. 61, 62 n.1 (2001). As much as $20,000 is spent recruiting, testing, hiring, and training each new correctional staff member. Id. 63. Corrections officers used to spend decades “in the trenches” before being promoted to top leadership. “The timeline to earning a warden’s or senior executive’s appointment at headquarters can be measured in a years rather than decades.” Rick Rudell, Ten Steps to Developing Effective Leadership Training, CORRECTIONS TODAY, Feb. 1, 2010, at 80, available at http://periodicals.faqs.org/201002/2001948291.html; Telephone Interview with Robert Brown, Ph.D, Chief of Nat’l Inst. of Corr. Acad. Div. (Oct. 20, 2003). 64. SUSAN W. MCCAMPBELL ET AL., CTR. FOR INNOVATIVE PUBLIC POLICIES, INC., RESOURCE GUIDE FOR NEWLY APPOINTED WARDENS 5 (2002), available at http://www.cipp.org/survivial/Resources.pdf. 65. Id. Perhaps the need for a new-wardens-orientation manual indicates a lack of formal training for wardens. Id. 66. Entry-level training includes instruction on such topics as “constitutional law and cultural awareness, inmate behavior, contraband control, custody and security procedures; fire and safety; inmate legal rights, written and oral communication, use-of-force, first aid, . . . and physical fitness training.” Jess Maghan, CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: 21ST CENTURY—USA 4 (2002), available at http://www.jmfcc.com/CorrOfficersChangingEnvirnmnt.pdf. Among the forty-two state and federal correctional agencies included in a recent survey, introductory or basic training can range from 40-400 hours of introductory training, which includes both classroom and onthe-job training. RICHARD P. SEITER, CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION: INTEGRATING THEORY AND PRACTICE 324 (1st ed. 2001). See Table 2 (providing a summary of the most comprehensive state correctional training programs). 68 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 release key personnel for weeks, or even days, of training.67 Some correctional-leadership-development initiatives have been discontinued on account of a budget crisis or a new administration’s different priorities.68 Probably no state has the resources to pay for a first-rate training program.69 Indeed, it makes little sense for a state to invest heavily in correctionalleadership training because other states will simply recruit the expensively trained executives.70 It is in every state’s economic self-interest to spend as little money as possible on training and to use incentives and bonuses to hire effective leaders away from the corrections departments and facilities that trained them (i.e. a race to the bottom).71 Economies of scale also stand in the way of each state creating its own correctional college with a fullfledged faculty and curriculum.72 Only the largest states could generate a large enough flow of leadership candidates to justify maintenance of a high-quality training facility.73 B. National Institute of Corrections In 1974, two years after the Attica Prison riot and bloody retaking,74 Congress established the NIC as an agency within FBOP.75 The Law 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. Jacobs & Olitsky, supra note 32, at 480. Id. at 486, 487 n.38, 489 n.40. Id. at 489. Id. Mark J. Terra, Increasing Officer Retention Through Educational Incentives, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Feb. 2009, at 11, 13. 72. See Honorable Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the U.S., Remarks at the Centennial Convocation of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York (Feb. 17, 1970), in The Record of the Association of the Bar of the City of N.Y., 25 The Ass’n of the Bar of the City of N.Y. Supp., no. 3, 1970, at 14, 20-21. 73. Berger stated: [Correctional leadership training] cannot be done efficiently with 50 states unless there is some degree of coordination between the states, and between states and the federal system. . . . It makes little sense in the Twentieth Century to have each state suffer the waste and inefficiency which accompanies the maintenance of a complete range of facilities. Only the large states can [avoid this inefficiency]. Chief Justice Warren Burger, Remarks: For Whom the Bell Tolls, Association of the Bar of the City of New York, (Feb. 17, 1970). 74. Eleven correctional staff members and thirty-two inmates were killed in the riot. Vigil to Mark Attica Riot, N.Y. TIMES, Sept. 3, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/03/ nyregion/vigil-to-mark-attica-riot.html; James B. Jacobs, Norval Morris as Penologist: An Exception Who Proved the Rule, 21 FED. SENTENCING REP. 261, 262 (2009) (noting that Congress established the NIC partly in response to the Attica Prison riot). 75. 18 U.S.C. § 4351(a) (2006); see S. REP. NO. 93-1011 (1974), reprinted in 1974 U.S.C.C.A.N. 5383, 5284, 5312-13, 5315; see also H.R. REP. NO. 93-1298 (1974), reprinted 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 69 Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)76 provided the NIC with its first three years of seed money ($5 million per year).77 Congress made the NIC’s budget a line item in FBOP’s budget for only one year (1977).78 Since then, FBOP has been responsible for deciding the NIC’s budget (which ranged from $10-$15 million from the late 1970s through the early 1990s).79 In 1995, FBOP increased the NIC’s budget to $20 million.80 The budget has remained the same ever since, despite inflation and the vast expansion of prisons, jails, and community corrections.81 The NIC is headquartered in Washington, D.C.82 and is divided into seven divisions.83 Its main training unit is the Academy Division,84 located in 1974 U.S.C.C.A.N. 5333, 5340. The U.S. Attorney General appoints the NIC director as well as a sixteen-member advisory board. U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, About Us, http://nicic.gov/AboutUs (last visited Oct. 26, 2011). Co-author, James B. Jacobs, is a member of the NIC advisory board. NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Report to the Nation FY 2010 (2010), available at http://static.nicic.gov/library/02483.pdf. 76. The LEAA, a former agency within the U.S. Department of Justice, was established by the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 and abolished in 1982. In addition to administering federal money to state and local law enforcement agencies, it funded law-enforcement-related educational programs and research. LEAA’s successor agency is the Office of Justice Programs. LEAA/OJP Retrospective: 30 Years of Federal Support to State and Local Criminal Justice, U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/164509.pdf (last visited Oct. 26, 2011). 77. Telephone Interview with Tom Beauclair, Deputy Director, Nat’l Inst. Of Corr. (Dec. 7, 2010). 78. Id. 79. Telephone Interview with Robert Brown, supra note 11. 80. Id. 81. Approximately 50% of NIC’s budget goes to staff salary and 50% to programs, events, overhead, equipment, and travel. Each of NIC’s seven divisions (Academy, Community Corrections, Jails, Prisons, Information Center, Transition and Offender Workforce Development and Research and Evaluation) receives $2-$2.5 million per year. See generally Office of the Inspector General, Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2010, U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE (Jan. 2011), available at http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/BOP/a1114.pdf. 82. NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Overview, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/AboutUs (last visited Oct. 26, 2011). 83. NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Divisions, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/Divisions (last visited Nov. 9, 2011). 84. Divisions, supra note 83. NIC’s prisons, jails, and community services divisions also offer training programs. See NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Prisons Division, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/Prisons (last visited Nov. 9, 2011); NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Jails Division, http://nicic.gov/JailsDivision (last visited Nov. 9, 2011); NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Community Services Division, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/CC (last visited Nov. 9, 2011). For example, the Prisons Division offers specialized training related to prison operations and the Jails Division conducts programs on jail administration, inmate behavior management and new jail planning. NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Prisons Division, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/Prisons (last 70 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 on two floors of a four-story building in Aurora, Colorado, and called the National Corrections Academy.85 The Academy Division’s annual budget, like the budgets of NIC’s other six divisions, is around $2.5 million.86 This is much less than the leadership training budgets of many corporations.87 For example, Intel University has an annual budget of more than $150 million and Motorola University has an annual budget of more than $120 million.88 The Academy Division’s ten full-time instructors, (called “correctional program specialists”),89 plus approximately 100 part-time consultants who are practicing or retired correctional leaders and a few academics,90 teach or run in-residence courses, online-broadcast courses, E-Learning Center courses, virtual-online courses, training initiatives, and technical assistance events.91 The Academy’s three flagship leadershipvisited Nov. 9, 2011); NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Jails Division, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/JailsDivision (last visited Nov. 9, 2011). In conjunction with the National Sheriff’s Association, the NIC also offers an annual executive development program for up to thirty first-term sheriffs (since most county jails are under the authority of the counties’ sheriffs). Legacy of Leadership, NAT’L SHERIFF’S INST., http://sheriffs.org/content/nationalsheriffs-institute-nsi (last visited Nov. 9, 2011). The Community Corrections Division trains probation and parole officers and provides technical assistance on issues such as caseload management, victims programs, employee safety, classification and assessment, and intermediate sanctions. NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Community Services Division, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/CC (last visited Nov. 9, 2011). 85. FED. BUREAU OF PRISONS, About Staff Training Centers, BOP, http://www.bop.gov/about/train/index.jsp. (last visited Oct. 26, 2011). 86. Interview with Robert Brown, supra note 11. 87. A. Blanton Godfrey, Quality Management, QUALITY DIG., http://www.qualitydigest.com/aug/godfrey.html (last visited Oct. 26, 2011). 88. Id. 89. Telephone Interview with Robert Brown, supra note 11. 90. Id. The consultants provide approximately ten to thirty days of service to NIC each year. Id. 91. Id. Approximately 120 senior- and executive-level corrections officers take either the Executive Excellence Program or the Correctional Leadership Development Program inresidence at the Academy’s headquarters. Id. The Academy’s instructors train an additional 500 mid-level managers at those participants’ own correctional facilities. Id. This involves sending a team of program specialists and consultants to each facility. Id. More than 2000 line- and supervisory-level officers participate in “regional training initiatives” taught by the Academy’s instructors (or Academy-trained instructors) in venues all over the country. Id. Approximately 450 corrections personnel, from line- to executive-level, receive technical training via one of the Academy’s “technical assistance events,” which focus on such topics as safety technology, self defense, and legal rules. Id. The Academy Division also provides three types of distance-learning (i.e. online) courses. Id. More than 45,000 corrections officers, from line- to senior-level, participate in live online-broadcast courses, which range in duration from three hours to thirty-two hours. Id. More than 10,000 supervisors, managers, and executives participate in the Academy’s 200 online E-Learning Center courses, which range from one to four hours in duration. Id. In 2010, the Academy also 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 71 development courses are the Executive Excellence Program, the Correctional Leadership Development Program, and the Management Development for the Future Program.92 Its other two core leadership courses are Essential Skills for New Supervisors and Unleash Your Leadership Competency Potential.93 In 2010, the Academy Division delivered training, mostly via distancelearning modules, to nearly 59,000 corrections personnel, from line-level officers to executives.94 However, only 120 executive-level officers each year receive training lasting more than four hours95 whereas the FBI National Academy provides weeks of training to approximately 1000 federal, state, local and foreign law-enforcement leaders per year.96 Indeed, over 90% of participants in the Academy Division’s training programs receive online instruction of four hours or less and fewer than 800 students per year (very few of whom are executives or senior-level leaders) receive any kind of training in excess of four hours.97 Moreover, the Academy Division is not effectively linked to academia. Although the NIC plays an important role in providing state and local correction’s departments with various types of training and technical assistance, it is only a kernel of the NCC that we are proposing. The NIC’s National Corrections Academy seeks to provide training, policy recommendations, and a site for professional interchange among correctional executives. But it has never been funded at anything close to the level needed to fulfill Burger’s vision of a correctional equivalent of the FBI Academy. Whereas the FBI Academy has a 385-acre campus, the National Corrections Academy is located in one small building.98 Whereas the FBI Academy has a large library, two dormitories, a mock town, research centers, and laboratory buildings, the National Corrections began offering virtual courses in which an Academy instructor and ten to twenty corrections supervisors and/or managers meet online to study subjects such as crisis management and building morale among subordinates. Id. Approximately eighty participants took these virtual online courses between January and October 2010. Id. 92. See infra Table 3. 93. See NAT’L INST. CORR., Essential Skills for New Supervisors, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/Library/024013 (last visited Nov. 9, 2011); NAT’L INST. CORR., Unleash Your Leadership Competency Potential, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/unleash (last visited Nov. 9, 2011). 94. See supra note 91. 95. Interview with Robert Brown, supra note 11. 96. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATIONS, The National Academy, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/national-academy (last visited Oct. 31, 2011). 97. Interview with Robert Brown, supra note 11. 98. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATIONS, FBI Academy, FBI, http://fbi.gov/aboutus/training (last visited Nov. 7, 2011); Interview with Robert Brown, supra note 11. 72 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 Academy has only a few rooms for classes and conferences.99 C. Professional Associations Several professional associations, comprising different categories of corrections personnel, offer various courses of varying quality.100 There has never been a comprehensive study of this corpus of instruction and curricula. But there is good reason to believe that, with few exceptions, the quality is not high. Significantly, for our purposes, few of these courses are addressed to the top echelons of corrections administrators. Moreover, the vast majority of correctional associations’ training programs run only a few hours long (not nearly enough time for substantial learning or collaboration); run only a few days per year (not nearly enough capacity to train even a small percentage of the American correctional leadership corps); do not rigorously evaluate the participants (the majority of courses have no or very easy exams and quizzes); and are not accredited or rated by an independent educational body. Corrections’ largest professional association is the American Correctional Association (ACA), which has more than 20,000 members.101 ACA’s Leadership Development for the Corrections Professional Program is a seventy-two hour course taught approximately seven hours per day for ten days by current and retired senior- and executive-level correctional officers at participants’ home correctional facilities.102 Participants include correctional supervisors, managers, senior-level leaders, and executives.103 Those who complete the course receive an ACA certificate as well as continuing education credit from Sam Houston State University’s Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice.104 Other correctional associations also provide training programs of various duration, scope, and quality. The Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) runs an annual two-day All Directors Training 99. 100. 101. Id. See infra Table 4. AM. CORR. ASS’N, Past, Present, & Future, ACA, http://www.aca.org/pastpresentfuture/history.asp (last visited Oct. 26, 2011). 102. AM. CORR. ASS’N, Leadership Dev. for the Corrections Professional Program, ACA, https://www.aca.org/development/leadership.asp (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). The course is customized to each participating penal institution and covers, among other things, The Role of the 21st Century Leader; Team Building and Empowering Employees; Assessing Organizational Cultures; Managing and Leading Change; and Fostering Innovation. Id. 103. Id. 104. Some correctional agencies favorably consider continuing education credits when evaluating staff for promotions or pay increases. AM. CORR. ASS’N, Continuing Education Opportunities, ACA, https://www.aca.org/development/ceo.asp (last visited Oct. 26, 2011). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 73 Program and a three-day New Directors Training Program, where the directors of state departments of corrections (the heads of the state prison systems) meet to share information and ideas on issues such as communicating with the media, fiscal management, racial disparity, and inmate reentry.105 These operate like professional conferences at which the various state corrections leaders meet to share experiences.106 But there are no comprehensive curricula or formal evaluations.107 The American Jail Association (AJA) recruits high-level jail administrators (two per seminar) to lead more than thirty two-, three-, fourand five-day “professional development seminars” (twenty to fifty students per seminar) annually for mid- and senior-level managers.108 In 2009, AJA also partnered with the Correctional Management Institute of Texas (CMIT), the National Association of Counties (NAC), and Sam Houston State University (Texas) to form the National Jail Leadership Command Academy (NJLCA), a one-week in-residence course at Sam Houston State University where thirty-six mid-level corrections managers (above linelevel supervisors)109 focus on such topics as Hiring and Keeping the Best, Big-Picture Thinking, Collaborative Partnerships, and Essential Leadership Skills.110 Although the NJLCA is among the most intensive and 105. New Directors Training Program, ASS’N STATE CORR. ADMIN, http://www.asca.net/articles/913 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011); All Directors Training Program, ASS’N STATE CORR. ADMIN, http://www.asca.net/articles/349 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011); All Directors Training Program, CORRECTIONS DIRECTIONS (ASCA, Middletown, CT), Nov. 2008, at 12-15, available at http://www.asca.net/system/assets/attachments/2389/ NovCorrectionsDirections.pdf?1299516406 [hereinafter CORRECTIONS DIRECTIONS]. 106. CORRECTIONS DIRECTIONS, supra, note 105, at 12. 107. See ASS’N STATE CORR. ADMIN., All Directors Training Program (Description), http://www.asca.net/system/assets/attachments/1584/All_Directors_Training_Program4.pdf?1292337370; ASS’N STATE CORR. ADMIN., New Directors Training Program, http://www.asca.net/articles/1167. 108. Telephone Interview with AJA Representative, Dec. 14, 2010. AJA does not evaluate the seminar students’ performance or knowledge (i.e. there are no quizzes, exams or final projects). Id. 109. The February 2011 application states, “The mid-level manager is primarily responsible for the oversight and management of a section, unit, shift, program, or team, as well as the implementation of organizational policy.” Overview, NAT’L JAIL LEADERSHIP COMMAND ACAD. APPLICATION, http://www.nationaljailacademy.org/documents/NJLCA Application--ebruary2011_000.pdf. 110. About, NAT’L JAIL LEADERSHIP COMMAND ACAD., http://www.nationaljailacademy .org/ (last visited Oct. 31, 2011). The NJLCA offers a scholarship for each class. Nat’l Jail Leadership Command Acad., http://www.nationaljailacademy.org (last visited Nov. 8, 2011). Students must apply for admission. Id. Students are assigned homework and a research project. Id.; Telephone Interview with Sharese Hurst, Executive Director, Texas Jail Ass’n (Dec. 14, 2010). 74 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 comprehensive training initiatives in American corrections, it is not designed for senior- or executive-level corrections leaders, it trains fewer than 120 corrections officials per year, and it provides only one week of instruction. This demonstrates that even the best correctional-training programs cannot provide long-term, sustained training to even a modest percentage of the nation’s prison, jail, and community-corrections leaders. The American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) runs semiannual three-day “training institutes” at which correctional executives, subject-matter experts (e.g. victim advocacy, reentry, juvenile justice, women in corrections), policymakers, and researchers conduct workshops for different levels of probation, parole, and juvenile justice personnel on such topics as officer safety, sex-offender management, and reentry.111 We know of no independent evaluation of these courses. But even if their quality is high, three days of training, while better than no training, is insufficient to prepare current and future leaders for the many and diverse responsibilities of running a correctional system. Some international correctional associations offer trainings or develop training resources. For example, the International Association of Correctional Training Personnel (IACTP) sponsors an annual three-day conference for correctional trainers and educators from various countries (but primarily from the United States), providing around two dozen ninetyminute workshops on issues such as A Multigenerational Workforce and Preparing Supervisors to be Change Leaders.112 The International Corrections and Prisons Association (ICPA) does not offer training programs, but does produce and distribute a Basic Training Manual for Correctional Officers and the United Nations Handbook for Prison Leaders.113 Like the American correctional associations, these international associations do not operate like a school, do not have full-time faculty, do not develop curricula and do not sponsor comprehensive research. D. University-Based Programs There are hundreds of college- and university-based Criminal Justice departments, in the United States and abroad, that provide education for 111. Workshops at a Glance, AM. PROBATION AND PAROLE ASS’N, http://www.appanet.org/institutes/2011_orlando/attendee/docs/workshops_AG.pdf (last visited Sept. 20, 2011). The 2011 program’s workshops included Underage Drinking; Reentry; Probation, Parole and the Victim; Supervising the Burned Out Officer; Comprehensive Approach to Sex Offender Management; Partnerships in Addressing DWI Offenders; and Implementing Business Intelligence Tools for a Performance-Driven Agency. Id. 112. 27th Annual Trainers’ Conference, INT’L ASS’N OF CORRECTIONAL TRAINING PERSONNEL, http://www.iactp.org/conferences.htm (last visited Sept. 20, 2011). 113. About ICPA, INT’L ASS’N OF CORRECTIONAL TRAINING PERSONNEL, http://www.icpa.ca/pages/about-icpa (last visited Sept. 20, 2011). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 75 undergraduate and graduate students pursuing degrees. Indeed, at least 350 criminal justice departments in the United States offer masters degrees and fifty-nine offer Criminal Justice doctoral degrees.114 A handful of collegeand university-based Criminal Justice programs offer shorter, non-degree leadership training courses to correctional personnel aspiring to leadership positions.115 These university-based programs do not provide professionaldevelopment training for high-level correctional administrators. They are most valuable for providing background education for young people who might seek careers in the field. IV. CONTRASTING OUR NATIONAL INVESTMENT IN CORRECTIONAL LEADERSHIP WITH LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS IN OTHER SECTORS Leadership training is pervasive in both the public and private sectors of the United States.116 Private companies, large and small, spend billions of dollars per year grooming promising junior employees for future leadership roles and sharpening the skills of current managers and executives. The military runs more than a dozen graduate colleges to train its senior-level leaders for top-level assignments and posts. The FBI Academy runs a prestigious police-leadership training course, which has come to be seen as a de facto prerequisite for promotion to chief or sheriff of a large police department. Many municipalities run or sponsor their own training academies for police and other civil servants. The New York City Leadership Academy, for example, recruits and develops public-school leaders. A. Corporate “Universities” Many large corporations devote enormous resources to their leadershiptraining facilities, often called “corporate universities.”117 More than 3000 114. List of Criminal Justice Masters Graduate Programs, GRADSCHOOLS, http://www.gradschools.com/search-programs/criminal-justice/masters (last visited Sept. 20, 2011); List of Criminal Justice Doctorate Graduate Programs, GRADSCHOOLS, http://www.gradschools.com/search-programs/criminal-justice/doctorate (last visited Sept. 20, 2011). 115. See, e.g., UNIV. OF PENN., Senior Management Program, UPENN, http://executiveeducation.wharton.upenn.edu/open-enrollment/senior-managementprograms /\Advanced-Management-Program.cfm (last visited Dec. 2, 2011). 116. See Bernard Wydra, Entry Selection, Training, and Career Structure in the Public Penitentiary Service, (2006), available at http://www20.gencat.cat/docs/Justicia/Documents /ARXIUS/doc_17765534_1.pdf (detailing foreign leadership training programs); E-mail from Martin Horn, Lecturer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and former Director, New York City Department of Corrections (Dec. 4, 2010) (on file with the author). 117. Denise R. Hearn, Education in the Workplace: An Examination of Corporate 76 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 companies worldwide, including Disney, Boeing, Motorola, and McDonalds, have facilities and faculties to train managerial- and executivelevel leaders.118 Many spend millions (and some tens or hundreds of millions) of dollars per year on skills and leadership training. For example, McDonald’s Hamburger University, established in 1961, is headquartered on an eighty-acre campus in a Chicago suburb.119 It has nineteen full-time faculty members (restaurant operations experts) who, each year, teach four different curricula (Crew Development, Restaurant Managers, MidManagement, and Executive Development) to more than 5000 in-residence students (managers and franchise owners) from more than 119 countries.120 The university’s campus has thirteen classrooms, three kitchen laboratories, a 300-seat auditorium, and twelve interactive “education-team” rooms as well as dormitories and faculty offices.121 Hamburger University has satellite campuses in Sydney, Munich, London, Tokyo, Hong Kong, and Brazil.122 Each of the university’s four curricula is delivered via a combination of classroom instruction, hands-on laboratory work, restaurant simulations, and computer e-learning modules.123 The Mid-Management and Restaurant-Managers curricula are accredited by the American Council on Education. Thus, students who complete these programs earn, in addition to a diploma, approximately twenty-one college credits (roughly one semester of college-level work).124 Like most corporate universities’ training programs, Hamburger University also encourages employees to return to the university at key points in their McDonald’s careers to obtain skills and competencies necessary for succeeding at the next corporate level. Over the past fifty years, Hamburger University has trained more than 80,000 restaurant managers, mid-managers, and franchise owners/operators. University Models, available at http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Hearn721.html (last visited Sept. 19, 2011). 118. Id. 119. Our Facility, MCDONALDS, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/careers/ hamburger_university/our_facility.html (last visited Sept. 19, 2011). 120. Our Curriculum, MCDONALDS, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/careers/ hamburger_university/our_curriculum.html (last visited Sept. 19, 2011). 121. Our Facility, MCDONALDS, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/careers/ hamburger_university/our_facility.html (last visited Sept. 19, 2011). 122. Id. 123. Our Curriculum, MCDONALDS, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/careers/ hamburger_university/our_curriculum.html (last visited Sept. 19, 2011). 124. The American Council on Education has approved many Restaurant Manager and Mid-Management curricula for college credit. Careers, MCDONALDS, http://www.about mcdonalds.com/mcd/careers/hamburger_university/college_credit_connection/earn_college _credits/calculate_your_credits.html (last visited Sept. 18, 2011). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 77 That McDonald’s Corp. spends far more money to train its leadership cadre than does the government in training the nation’s high-level corrections leaders is telling. McDonald’s invested $40 million in 1983 to give its training facility the resources to operate a year-round university.125 In 1991, Motorola University’s operating budget was $70 million.126 In 2005, Intel Corp. allocated $377 million for leadership development.127 By contrast, in 2011, the federal government’s National Corrections Academy has a $2.5 million annual operating budget, even though annual corrections expenditures are approximately $70 billion. B. Military Graduate Colleges The fourteen American military graduate colleges and nine federal service academies demonstrate the quantity and quality of leadership training that the United States government is capable of providing.128 The Army War College and Naval War College, for example, offer multi-month (or longer) residential and non-residential courses, award diplomas and/or bachelors, masters and Ph.D. degrees, and prepare military and civilian leaders for high-level commands.129 Consider the Army War College (AWC), established in 1901 in response to revelations of Army failures during the 1898 Spanish-American War.130 AWC’s mission is: 125. Our Facility, MCDONALDS, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/careers/ hamburger_university/our_facility.html (last visited Sept. 18, 2011). 126. Tammi Harbert, Alma Motorola, CIO, Oct. 15, 1991, at 48. 127. Manal Khalil, Human Resource Training and Development: Expensive or Investment?, THE CERTIFIED ACCOUNTANT 52-53 (2007), available at http://www.lacpa.org. lb/Includes/Images/Docs/TC/newsletter30/9.%20Manal%20Khalil.pdf. 128. U.S. OFFICE OF PERS. MGMT., PREPARING FOR THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE: THE FEDERAL CANDIDATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (2004), available at http://www.opm.gov/fedcdp/opm_candidate.pdf (stating the purpose is to “train outstanding leaders of the future for the Federal Government who will guide us through the challenges and opportunities of the 21st Century.”). This fourteen-month program includes three nonconsecutive weeks of residential training (a one-week initial assessment period, a oneweek Focused Skills seminar and a one-week Strategic Leadership Seminar), several oneday skills-training workshops, a group leadership project and other meetings and workshops with mentors, instructors and team members. Id. Students’ sponsoring agencies pay tuition and expenses. Id. 129. Academic Programs, U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawe /about/academicPrograms.cfm (last visited Nov. 25, 2011); About, U.S. NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, http://www.usnwc.edu/About.aspx (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 130. Army War College Evolution, U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, http://www.carlisle. army.mil/usawc/about/Historic.cfm (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 78 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 To prepare selected military, civilian, and international leaders for the responsibilities of strategic leadership; educate current and future leaders on the development and employment of landpower in a joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational (JIIM) environment; research and publish on national security and military strategy; and engage in activities that support the Army’s strategic communication efforts.131 AWC seeks to develop “senior leadership competencies necessary for success in the contemporary operational environment that contributes to the development of senior leaders.”132 AWC’s full-time faculty, headed by a “commandant” (an Army majorgeneral),133 consists of more than sixty military and civilian professors with impressive academic credentials.134 Most AWC students are United States Army officers, from senior captains (eight to ten years experience) to lieutenant general (thirty to thirty-five years experience).135 However, there are also students from the other United States military branches, foreign militaries, and civilian United States government agencies, such as the Pentagon, State Department, and National Security Agency.136 AWC offers two graduate-level academic programs. The Resident Program, for approximately 380 students per year, is a ten-month-long course of study aiming to hone the commander’s ability to formulate and communicate a vision for their commands; understand and develop strategic concepts; improve such leadership skills as critical thinking, selfawareness and consensus-building; draw lessons from the history of warfare; “develop broader intellectual and professional horizons”; understand the political, economic, military and informational elements of national power; and “cultivat[e] values-based, [sic] ethical climates and 131. U.S. DEPT. OF THE ARMY, Organization and Function United States Army War College, TRADOC Regulation 10-5-6, at 5 (Ft. Monroe, Virginia: United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, Sept. 15 2006), available at http://www.tradoc.army.mil/ tpubs/regs/r10-5-6.pdf. 132. About the U.S. Army War College, U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/about/aboutUs.cfm (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 133. See U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/about/docs/ Martin.pdf (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). Several colonels and a former ambassador to Iceland make up the rest of the AWC’s leadership cadre. U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/about/docs/van%voorst.pdf (last visited Oct. 1, 2011); U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/about/leadership.cfm (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 134. Telephone Interview, AWC representative (Dec. 2, 2010). 135. About, U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/about/ programOverview.cfm (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 136. Id. 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 79 cultures throughout their commands [in ways that will] inspire others to think and act.”137 The curriculum includes six core courses, five elective courses, a national security seminar, a strategic decision-making seminar, several specialized seminars (e.g. Military Leaders and the Media, Economics of National Security, Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century and War-Torn Societies) and a research project on military strategy.138 Those who successfully complete these requirements receive a Master of Strategic Studies degree.139 Students in the Distance Education Program, approximately 500 per year, take the same curriculum online over a twoyear period.140 AWC hosts research institutes that provide data, research findings, reports and recommendations to students and faculty.141 For example, the Strategic Studies Institute, staffed by more than twenty-five civilian faculty members, high-ranking military officers and others, publishes studies and strategic recommendations for Defense Department officials, Congress, universities, news media, think tanks and military institutes.142 Each year, the Chief of Staff of the Army invites international fellows from select countries to visit AWC in order to “study, research, and write on subjects of significance to the security interests of their own and allied nations.”143 Imagine an NCC whose mission was to prepare selected correctional leaders for the responsibilities of strategic leadership; educate current and future leaders on the development and employment of correctional authority in a joint, multiregional and interagency environment; conduct 137. 138. Id. See Office of the Registrar, Curriculum Catalog, U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/Registrar/pdf/catalogue.pdf (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 139. U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., U.S. Army War College Academic Programs, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/asawc/about/academicPrograms.cfm (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). AWC also runs shorter leadership-training courses, including a one-week Adjutants General National Security Seminar, a two-week Joint Flag Officers Warfighting Course, a one-week Joint Forces Land Component Commander Course and a one-week Senior Reserve Component Officer Course. Id. For less-senior officers, AWC’s Pre-Senior Level College offers a thirteen-week (in-residence and online) course called Basic Strategic Art and a six-month course called Defense Strategy. Id. 140. Id. 141. See, e.g., Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/ (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 142. See Faculty and Staff Directory, STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE, U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/about/faculty-staff.cfm (Nov. 25, 2011); All Publications by Date, STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE, U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/year.cfm (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 143. Academic Policies and Procedures, U.S. ARMY WAR COLL., http://www.carlisle. army.mil/usawc/Registar/policies.cfm (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 80 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 and publish research on correctional strategy; and engage in activities in support of state and local correctional systems’ strategic communication efforts.144 Such a college would train senior and executive level correctional officials to formulate, communicate and achieve goals via critical thinking, self awareness, consensus-building skills, and learning from successes and failures. C. The FBI Academy The FBI Academy is recognized throughout the world as the leading institution for training police officials. Located on a Marine Corps base in Quantico, Virginia, the Academy’s campus includes two dozen classrooms, eight conference rooms, three dormitories (accommodating over 900 occupants),145 a 1000-seat auditorium, forensic laboratories, a library, and dining halls.146 It has approximately 180 full-time faculty members and a roughly $75 million annual budget.147 The FBI Academy has two flagship programs dedicated to leadership development.148 Its National Academy is a ten-week in-residence course of study, offered four times per year, to high-level American and foreign lawenforcement leaders.149 Admission is highly competitive. The course trains approximately 250 executives and managers of police departments, sheriffs’ departments, military police organizations, and other lawenforcement agencies from the United States and over 150 foreign countries150 on such subjects as law, behavioral and forensic science, 144. Cf. About the U.S. Army War College, U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/about/aboutUs.cfm (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 145. These dormitories are filled virtually year-round. Indeed, the FBI Academy often rents additional rooms in area hotels to accommodate students and visiting fellows. Telephone Interview with FBI Academy representative, FBI Headquarters, Washington D.C., (Dec. 14, 2010). 146. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, The FBI Academy: A Pictorial History, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2007/may/acad_history051407 (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 147. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, FY 2011 BUDGET REQUEST AT A GLANCE (2011), available at http://www.justice.gov/jmd/2011summary/pdf/fy11-fbi-bud-summary.pdf. 148. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, Leadership Development Institute, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/overview (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 149. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, The National Academy, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/national-academy (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 150. Id. Applicants must be nominated by a commissioner, superintendent, police chief, head of a county police agency or head of a state police or highway patrol organization. Applicants must be at least twenty-five years old, must have attained the rank of lieutenant, must have a high-school diploma, and must agree to remain in law enforcement for at least three years after graduation. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, Nomination of Law Enforcement Officers to Attend the National Academy, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/national-academy/na-nominations (last visited Oct. 1, 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 81 terrorism, leadership development, communication, and fitness.151 This includes foreign police officers facilitating good relations between American police and their foreign counterparts and building general goodwill with foreign countries.152 It aims “to support, promote, and enhance the personal and professional development of law enforcement leaders by preparing them for complex, dynamic, and contemporary challenges through innovative techniques, facilitating excellence in education and research, and forging partnerships throughout the world.”153 Successfully completing the National Academy has become a de facto prerequisite for achieving top positions in state, federal, and local policing.154 One Assistant U.S. Attorney called the FBI Academy “the temple where leaders of law enforcement come to receive their mission.”155 The FBI Academy provides leadership training via its Leadership Development Institute (LDI),156 which seeks to “foster innovative, applicable, and effective leadership practices and encourag[e] a spirit of respect and cooperation between and among FBI employees and our law enforcement and intelligence community colleagues worldwide.”157 LDI is in charge of leadership education in the following FBI subunits: (1) The National Executive Institute (NEI), which provides a one-week leadership 2011). 151. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, The National Acad., FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/ about-us/training/national-academy (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 152. See FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, International Training, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/ilea (last visited, Oct. 1, 2011). The FBI Academy also trains 800 new agents per year. New Agent Training, FBI ACADEMY, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/sat (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). The twenty-week inresidence new-agent training program includes 850 hours of instruction in academics (e.g. law, ethics, intelligence, behavioral and forensic science and interrogation), case exercises (in a mock town on the FBI’s Academy’s campus called Hogan’s Alley), firearms training (handgun, shotgun, submachine gun) and operational skills (e.g. physical fitness, selfdefense and surveillance). Id. By contrast, the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ (FBP) training program for new federal correctional employees is a three-week in-residence course called Introduction to Correctional Techniques. About Staff Training Centers, FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS, http://www.bop.gov/about/train/index.jsp (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). The Staff Training Academy also offers a few specialized courses, e.g. Bus Operations, Marksman Observer, and Witness Security. Id. 153. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, The National Academy, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/ about-us/training/national-academy (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 154. Id. 155. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, Leadership Development Institute, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/ldi (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 156. Id. 157. Id. LDI has two units: the Community Leadership Develop Unit and the FBI Leadership Development Unit. Id. 82 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 course, several times per year, to the chiefs of the largest law enforcement agencies (agencies with more than 500 officers serving a population of at least 250,000) in the United States, Canada, the U.K., and Australia;158 (2) The Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar (LEEDS), a five day leadership course offered several times per year to the chiefs of midsize (50-500 officers) police departments;159 and (3) Regional Command Colleges, which provide a forty-hour leadership course, nearly two dozen times per year, to the top officers of smaller (fewer than fifty officers) police departments.160 The federal government is far more committed to excellence in policing at all levels of government than excellence in incarceration.161 The 1994 Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act established the Community Orientated Policing Services (COPS Program) to help state and local police departments: (1) increase the number of police officers deployed in American communities; (2) foster interaction between police officers and communities; (3) encourage innovation in policing; and (4) develop new technologies for assisting officers in reducing crime.162 Congress allocated $8.8 billion for the COPS Program over six years.163 This money flowed as grants to state and local police departments, primarily to hire additional officers.164 The COPS Program is still funded at 158. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, The National Executive Institute, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/ldi/nei (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 159. Command Institute for Law Enforcement Executives, FBI LEEDA, http://www.leedafbi.org/i4a/pages/Index.cfm?pageID=3294 (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). There are additional programs for supervisors, executives, and managers. See, e.g., Supervisor Leadership Institute, FBI LEEDA, http://www.leedafbi.org/i4a/pages/Index. cfm?pageID=3296 (last visited Oct. 1, 2011); Training: The Executive Survival Policing in the 21st Century, FBI LEEDA, http://www.leedafbi.org/i4a/pages/Index.cfm?pageID=3293 (last visited Oct. 1, 2011); Regional LEEDS Program, FBI LEEDA, http://www.fbileeda.org/ i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3282 (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 160. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar (LEEDS) & Regional Command Colleges, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/ training/ldi/leeds (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). LDI also collaborates with the faculty of Northwestern University’s Kellogg Graduate School of Management to provide additional means of training. FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, Leadership Development, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/ldi /leeds (last visited Oct. 1, 2011). 161. See, e.g., Jeffrey A. Roth & Joseph F. Ryan, U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. OF JUSTICE, THE COPS PROGRAM AFTER 4 YEARS—NATIONAL EVOLUTION 1 (Aug. 2000) available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/183644.pdf. 162. U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, COPS Office: COPS History 1994-Present, COPS, http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=44 (last visited Nov. 11, 2011). 163. Id. 164. Id. 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 83 hundreds of millions of dollars per year.165 The FBI Academy provides an important example of what correctionalleadership training would look like if the federal government considered the nation’s correctional infrastructure a higher priority. Perhaps the legislators think apprehending criminals is much more important and complex than confining, protecting, and rehabilitating them. Just as the FBI Academy has established the United States as a world leader in democratic policing,166 the NCC’s aspiration would be to establish the United States as the world leader in democratic corrections. Success, or even substantial progress, in achieving this goal would have huge payoffs for domestic tranquility and for the United States’s international reputation for respecting human rights. V. A FRAMEWORK FOR A NATIONAL COLLEGE OF CORRECTIONS The proposed NCC would be similar to Chief Justice Burger’s vision of a highly prestigious institution dedicated to researching, teaching, and promoting competent, effective, and ethical correctional leadership.167 The NCC would stand at the apex of the nation’s correctional-training infrastructure by: providing leadership and management education; generating, evaluating, and certifying curricula; promoting and disseminating best training protocols, courses, and pedagogies; and serving as a forum for connecting federal, state, and local correctional leaders with one another, with foreign prison and jail officials, and with high caliber academics and corporate leaders.168 As the FBI Academy did for police in the 1970s,169 the NCC should produce major improvements in the quality of professional correctional leadership. That, in turn, should produce major improvements in, among many other things, prison and jail efficiency, prison and jail safety, prisoner productivity, ex-offender reentry, caring and mentoring staff, and reductions in recidivism. Rather than merely reacting to the public’s shifting complaints about the need for prisoner rehabilitation, toughness on crime, reentry or cost efficiency (as the American correctional-training providers have done for decades), the NCC should be the nation’s leader in creating correctional policy, shaping the 165. 166. Id. See, e.g., FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, Strengthening the Global Rule of Law, Part 1: A Remarkable Partnership Is Born In Budapest, FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/news/ stories/2004/february/ilea020204 (last visited Nov. 11, 2011). 167. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, An Agenda for Crime Prevention and Correctional Reform, 67 A.B.A. J. 988, 990 (1981). 168. Id. Chief Justice Burger suggested that a national academy of corrections “should also provide technical assistance to state and local institutions on a continuing basis.” Id. 169. See discussion supra Part III.B.1 and accompanying footnotes. 84 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 public’s perception of corrections, and keeping the quality of correctionaltraining high. A. Expansion of the NIC The NCC should be the next step in the maturation of the NIC. Indeed, Chief Justice Burger’s original vision for the NIC was a full-scale, wellfunded, year-round academy similar in size and prestige to the FBI Academy’s sprawling campus in Quantico, Virginia.170 The NIC describes itself as “a center of learning, innovation and leadership that shapes and advances effective correctional practice and public policy” and pursues the following goals: “effective management of prisons, jails and community corrections programs and facilities”; “enhanced organizational and professional performance in corrections”; “community, staff and offender safety”; “improved correctional practices through the exploration of trends and public policy issues”; and “enhanced services through improved organizational and staff effectiveness.”171 The NIC’s Academy Division has four decades of experience in correctional-leadership training at the national level, a corps of experienced correctional trainers, a Colorado facility devoted to correctional training, a sizeable e-library of correctional training materials, and extensive links with state departments of corrections, county jails, professional correctional associations, and some university-based academics.172 The NIC and its Academy have made significant investments in studying the competency requirements of correctional leaders. For example, in 2005 and 2006, the Academy Division published two thick reports that “provide a tool for refining [NIC’s] leadership training programs and for helping correctional agencies and organizations of all sizes identify the most appropriate candidates for leadership training.”173 The reports provide recommendations on recruitment, placement and retention of leaders, and on development of leadership skills.174 They identify the necessary leadership competencies of four levels of correctional leaders: executives, 170. 171. See supra Part II.C.2. U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Mission & Goals, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/Mission (last visited Sept. 23, 2011). 172. See FED. BUREAU OF PRISONS, Central Office – National Institute of Corrections (NIC), BOP, http://www.bop.gov/about/co/nic.jsp (last visited Nov. 7, 2011); see also INST. OF CORR., Correctional Training Opportunities, NICIC, NAT’L http://nicic.gov/Training (last visited Nov. 11, 2011); Fran Zandi, New Jail Resources and Training from NIC, CORRECTIONS TODAY (June/July 2011), at 75-76. 173. Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, supra note 17, at iii; Manager and Supervisor Levels, supra note 18, at iv. 174. Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, supra note 17, at iv; see also Manager and Supervisor Levels, supra note 18, at iv. 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 85 senior-level leaders, managers, and supervisors.175 These impressive reports also introduce strategies, techniques, and frameworks for implementing each competency.176 An expanded NIC—with a much larger physical plant (e.g. lecture halls, seminar rooms, dormitories, research centers, conference rooms, a library, offices and an auditorium) and a larger corps of faculty and staff—could use these reports to generate, disseminate, and teach rich correctional-leadership curricula. B. The NCC’s Size, Organization, and Capabilities To establish its identity and bona fides, the NCC needs comfortable facilities. It must have a venue conducive to serious study and attractive to correctional managers and academics.177 There must be ample classrooms, dormitories, faculty and administrative offices, research centers, and conference rooms. There should be up-to-date technology for operation of the institution and for delivery of training. The NCC should have a large library that makes accessible, onsite and online, American and foreign correctional studies, reports, recommendations, articles and books. American prisons and jails are not well-regarded abroad or even at home;178 changing the reality and the perception should be a top national priority. The NCC therefore requires a distinguished dean who has a reputation as a correctional leader, innovator, and educator; this dean will be the face of the institution and of American corrections. There should be at least twenty-five full-time faculty members, including world-class corrections leaders and scholars who have made their marks in such areas as management, public administration, law, psychology, sociology, ethnic studies, organizational politics, and corrections and criminal justice. It is important that the NCC be able to accommodate a small number of American and foreign academics and distinguished correctional administrators for periods of several weeks to several months. The envisioned NCC will attract Americans and foreigners who relish the opportunity to interact with top-notch faculty and fellow correctional leaders in other states, regions, and countries. The NCC’s students should be executive-level prison, jail, and 175. See infra Table 1 (providing a list of the competencies for each level of correctional leadership). 176. See Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, supra note 17, at xviii, xix, xxv; see generally Manager and Supervisor Levels, supra note 18. 177. Burger Commencement Address, supra note 7, at 4–5 (suggesting that a national corrections academy could be grafted to the FBI Academy or that “the United States could acquire the facilities of a small, centrally located college which is closing its operations.”). 178. Adam Liptak, U.S. Prison Population Dwarfs That of Other Nations, N.Y. TIMES, Apr. 23, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/23/world/americas/23iht-23prison.122537. 38.html. 86 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 community-corrections administrators. The heads of state and county correctional agencies could nominate candidates for enrollment, but the NCC must have control over admissions. Having NCC, rather than state or local correctional directors, be primarily responsible for the admission of its students would help ensure that the selection process does not become politicized and that the quality of each incoming class is high. The NCC’s courses should not require students to be in-residence for more than three consecutive weeks; busy prison and jail personnel will not be able to leave their jobs for longer than that. Thus, the NCC should provide courses that combine residential, online and independent study. For example, students could take two weeks of intensive in-residence classes, followed by several months of studying and researching, followed, six months later, by another in-residence period in which papers and projects would be critiqued. The NIC’s Academy Division already has experience with courses like this; its Executive Excellence Program requires its students to take two consecutive weeks of in-residence classes at the National Corrections Academy followed by six online classes over a period of months and a subsequent four-day in-residence stint.179 Similarly, John Rakis, a former correctional manager and longtime NIC trainer,180 annually conducts two 180-hour Offender Workforce Development Specialist Partnership Training courses, which train jail, probation and parole officers to prepare prisoners for reentry.181 The first week of the program is in-residence, followed by several months of self-study, completion of a practicum and online assignments, followed by a concluding in-residence week.182 Approximately twelve instructors (three at a time), all nationally recognized reentry practitioners and academics, teach each course to thirtysix students.183 The NCC should aim to develop courses that make correctional executives more effective leaders. We envision a core curriculum that draws on business school and public administration curricula adapted for corrections. These core courses should include management, leadership, 179. See NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Executive Excellence Program, NICIC, http://nicic.gov/Training/11E1501 (last visited Sept. 23, 2011) (“The Executive Excellence Program is conducted in two phases, six blended activities planned between the two.”). 180. About, JOHN RAKIS & ASSOCIATES, http://users.rcn.com/jrakis/About.html (last visited Sep. 25, 2011). Rakis was the deputy executive director of the New York City Board of Corrections from 1984-1988. Id. 181. See generally, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., ADMIN GUIDE: OFFENDER WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP TRAINING PROGRAM (Aug. 2007), http://nicic.gov/Library/ 022173. 182. Telephone Interview with John Rakis, former Deputy Executive Director of the New York City Board of Correction (Dec. 2, 2010). 183. Id. 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 87 law, human relations, budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, and organization theory. The NCC should offer specialized short courses on topical issues such as dealing with stakeholders, integrating social networking into corrections, controlling gangs, setting goals, measuring progress, and preparing inmates for reentry. The architects of NCC’s curricula should also obtain information, from correctional educators and practitioners, about students’ learning styles in order to determine the proper combination of lecture, group work, brainstorming, and interactive computer instruction.184 Bringing each state’s top correctional trainers, leaders and future leaders together to get to know each other, share ideas, and form coalitions would facilitate this process. All of NCC’s courses should aim not only to develop students’ leadership skills, but also to produce educational materials, curricula, and policy ideas for future NCC use. The courses would give faculty an opportunity to interact with correctional leaders from all over the country. The faculty would then be well-positioned to provide recommendations to agencies conducting searches to fill leadership positions. Time spent at the NCC should not be a boondoggle. NCC’s courses must be rigorous, require background reading, homework, and out-of-class projects, quizzes, and exams. Perhaps a graduation requirement should be a management-improvement project in which students, after completing the coursework, prepare and implement a management innovation at their home correctional agency. Students who successfully complete an NCC course of study should receive a certificate. Outstanding performance at the NCC, like outstanding performance in the FBI’s National Academy,185 should come to be seen as a significant career enhancer. Finally, the NCC should be a base for career correctional leaders. Leadership competencies become more numerous and complex as a correctional official progresses from manager to senior leader to executive. The competencies build upon one another. Top correctional officials should not begin training in these competencies the day they are chosen to lead a department. Instead, corrections supervisors, managers, and executives must receive substantial training periodically throughout their career. The NCC should provide “career learning,” by inviting corrections managers, senior leaders, and executives to return to the college at key career stages to prepare for upcoming promotions. Accordingly, the NCC curricula should 184. John Rakis observes that the best pedagogical approach to teaching experienced correctional officers is mixing short lectures with discussions and group exercises. Id. 185. See FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, FBI National Academy: Where Lasting Friendships Are Forged, FBI (May 3, 2006), http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2006/may/nat _aca050306 (“Police departments nominate their top candidates for admission. Less than one percent of police officers in the country are accepted.”). 88 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 track career progression.186 C. NCC’s Relationship with Other Correctional-Training Providers A NCC would not and could not monopolize all corrections training. Even in its most robust form, it could not train all, or even a substantial number, of the nation’s correctional executives in all required knowledge, skills, and competencies. However, a well-staffed and well-supported NCC could begin the hard work of transforming the disparate mélange of training programs into a more coordinated network that generates, identifies, and advances good ideas, curricula, courses, teachers, and pedagogical methodologies; links correctional training to private-sector and public-sector developments in management, public administration, highereducation research, law, social science, criminal justice generally, and corrections specifically; and certifies or rates courses offered by other providers. The NCC would provide state correctional agencies with curriculardevelopment support, training resources, pedagogical ideas, recommendations, and perhaps accreditation. States could also send their top correctional trainers, top correctional leaders, and most promising correctional leaders-to-be to study at NCC and to bring back to their home institutions skills, ideas, and strategies. A NCC could collaborate with state correctional departments to jointly run training programs customized to the needs of particular correctional departments, units, or facilities. The NCC could also advance the objectives of the professional correctional associations. For example, a NCC could help improve ACA’s, APPA’s, and AJA’s training initiatives by sharing and critiquing (and perhaps certifying) courses and training materials. An NCC could also serve as a forum in which the associations’ leaders could meet, with one another and with academics, researchers, and other experts, to amend old and create new curricula, policy, and lobbying and fundraising strategies. A NCC could provide college and university criminal justice departments with research opportunities. For example, academics from the United States and foreign college and university criminal justice departments could come to the NCC for a year or two as fellows to teach, conduct research, and participate in conferences. 186. See, e.g., CORR. MGMT. INST. OF TEX., About CMIT, http://www.cmitonline.org/about/html (last visited Nov. 1, 2011) (offering training for both County Corrections and mid-management officials); ARIZ. DEP’T OF CORR., About COTA, http://www.azcorrections.gov/adc/employment/Jeff_Employment_COTA.aspx (last visited Nov. 8, 2011). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 89 VI. CONCLUSION In 2011, it should strike legislators, regulators, and the public as bewildering that the country with the world’s largest penal infrastructure has no full-fledged national-level training and research institution devoted to making American corrections as humane and effective as possible.187 In the twenty-first century, a country that spends nearly $70 billion per year on corrections188 should have at least a modestly-funded national corrections college.189 Efficient, safe, and well-run prisons, jails, and community-corrections systems do not come cheaply. Obtaining political and financial support for American corrections’ human infrastructure has been and will continue to be a Herculean challenge. In his May 1981 commencement address at George Washington University, Chief Justice Warren E. Burger observed that “1981 is hardly the year in which to propose large public expenditures for new programs to change . . . penal institutions.”190 Today, with federal, state, and local governments facing their worst budget crises since the Great Depression, it is an even worse time to be advocating a new (even very modest) federal expenditure.191 However, there will probably never be a propitious time for advocating that federal legislators spend taxpayer money to improve prisons, jails, and community-corrections. Investing in corrections has and may always have less political payoff than funding the military, police, and courts.192 187. See Richard Wagner, Touring the Naval War College, BEYONDSHIPS 2 (2006), http://www.beyondships.com/files/NWC.pdf. 188. OFFICE OF MGMT. AND BUDGET, FEDERAL BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2011, WHITEHOUSE (2011), available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/ budget/fy2011/assets/budget.pdf. 189. See U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, Expenditure Trends by Function Chart, available at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/tables/exptyptab.cfm. This is a 660% increase since 1982. Id. Corrections has been the second-fastest growing category for state budgets for the last twenty years. PEW CTR., Public Safety Performance, PEW CENTER ON THE STATES, http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/initiatives_detail.aspx?initiativeID=31336. 190. Burger Commencement Address, supra note 7. 191. See, e.g., STATE OF N.J., OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GEN., SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF STATE AUTHORITIES’ EMPLOYEE BENEFITS 15 (Oct. 23, 2006), available at http://www.state.nj.us/oig/pdf/rpt_october_23_06.pdf (demonstrating difficulty in advocating for $.06 increase in state employee travel reimbursement); Clifton Adcock, City Council Retains Moratorium on Out-of-State Travel, OKLAHOMA GAZETTE, Nov. 3, 2010, http://www.okgazette.com/article/11-03-2010/City_council_retains_moratorium_on_out-ofstate_travel.html. 192. Indeed, in 2010, the Senate Appropriations Committee recommended the appropriation of nearly $74 million to renovate the FBI Academy’s physical plant. MIKULSKI, DEPARTMENTS OF COMMERCE AND JUSTICE AND SCIENCE, AND RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS BILL, S. REP. NO. 111-29, at 64 (2011), available at 90 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 However, the shortsightedness of this political judgment should be obvious. As Chief Justice Burger admonished in a speech to the American Bar Association in 1969, three weeks after the Apollo 11 astronauts landed on the moon: A society which can spend billions to place three men into a flawless moon landing operation—and bring them back with new knowledge of the universe—ought to be able to . . . deal with its delinquents both before and after conviction . . . I challenge the social utility of any system of criminal justice which allocates, as we now do, a disproportionate amount of our resources to the techniques of trials, appeals and post conviction remedies while it gravely neglects the correctional processes which follow a verdict of guilt.193 Chief Justice Burger urged the United States to undertake this challenge “[e]ven in this day of necessary budget austerity.”194 Ironically, in the last two decades, the United States has undertaken a massive expansion of its carceral infrastructure. Given national corrections expenditures of close to $70 billion annually,195 the United States ought to be able to afford say $50 million per year (still amounting to 20% of the FBI Academy’s budget) for leadership training.196 Thirty years ago, Chief Justice Burger argued that “[i]mprovements [in our prison systems] . . . will cost less in the long run than the failure to make them.”197 This is still true today. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-111srpt229/pdf/CRPT-111srpt229.pdf. 193. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, A Proposal: A National Conference on Correctional Problems, American Bar Association, Dall., Tex. (Aug. 11, 1969) in 33 FED. PROBATION 3, 3-4 (1989). 194. Burger Commencement Address, supra note 7. 195. Key Facts at a Glance, BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS (2011), http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/tables/exptyptab.cfm. 196. See generally Facts and Figures International Offices/FBI Budget, FED. BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (2010), http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/facts-and-figures2010-2011/international-offices-fbi-budget. If the NCC were to subsume the NIC’s Academy Division, the $50 million would really amount to an additional $28 million expenditure. See generally Bureau of Prisons 2009 Budget Request, DEP’T OF JUSTICE, FED. PRISON SYSTEM (2008), http://www.justice.gov/jmd/2009summary/pdf/bop-bud-summary. pdf. Tuition paid by state and local departments of corrections and jails could cover part of the cost. Foundations might provide additional funds. Overall, correctional dollars would likely be saved by smarter and more efficient penal management. Reductions in recidivism would also translate into substantial societal savings. See Jacobs & Olitsky, supra note 32. 197. Chief Justice Warren Burger, More Warehouses, or Factories with Fences?, 8 NEW ENG. J. PRISON L. 111, 115 (1982). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 91 APPENDIX: TABLES Table 1: The National Institute of Corrections’ Managerial Profiles198 Leadership Level Positions within Each Necessary Leadership Leadership Level Competencies Ethics and Values Supervisor Classification Supervisor Interpersonal Adult or Juvenile Correctional Relationships Housing Unit Supervisor Oral and Written Juvenile Treatment Coordinator Communication Correctional Industries Motivating Others Supervisor Developing Direct Reports Probation, Parole, Community Managing Conflict Corrections/Sentencing Team Building Supervisor Collaboration Interstate Compact Problem Solving and Administrator Decision Making Accounting, Budget, Legal, Criminal Justice System Purchasing, and/or Contracts Supervisor HR Supervisor Public Information, or Training Supervisor Information/Technology Services Supervisor Capital Programs or Correctional Industries Administrator Health Services or Substance Abuse Program Supervisor Victim/Witness Program Supervisor Food Service or Facilities Supervisor Manager Corrections Unit or Program Ethics and Values Manager Interpersonal Institution/Prison Department Relationships Head Motivating Others 198. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. CORR., Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Executive and Senior-Level Leaders, NIC Accession Number 020474 (July 2005), available at http://nicic.gov/Library/020474; DEP’T OF JUSTICE, NAT’L INST. OF CORR., Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Manager and Supervisor Levels, NIC Accession Number 020475 (Dec. 2006), available at http://nicic.gov/Library/020474. 92 Senior-Level CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT Deputy Superintendent of Institution/Prison Department Institution/Prison Major or Captain Boot Camp Director Probation, Parole, Community Corrections, or Community Sentencing Department Head or Regional/District Manager Interstate Compact Administrator Deputy Jail Administrator Jail Department Head Juvenile Facility Department Head Accounting, Budget, Legal, Purchasing, and/or Contracts Manager HR Managers Information/Technology Services Manager Capital Programs or Correctional Industries Administrator Health Services or Substance Abuse Program Manager Victim/Witness Program Manager Food Service or Facilities Manager Director of Probation, Parole, or Community Corrections Deputy Director of Probation, Parole, or Community Corrections Director of the Division of Institutions/Prisons Deputy Director of the Division of Institutions/Prisons Regional or District Director of Field Services Warden/Superintendent [Vol. 38:57 Developing Direct Reports Managing Conflict Team Building Collaboration Problem Solving and Decision Making Strategic Thinking Managing Change Program Planning and Performance Assessment Criminal Justice System Self Awareness Ethics and Values Vision and Mission Strategic Thinking Managing the External Environment Power and Influence Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement Collaboration Team Building 2012] Executive PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE Juvenile Facility Administrator/ Director/Superintendent Juvenile Probation Director Jail Administrators/Deputy Jail Administrator in Large Systems Correctional Industries Director/ Deputy Administrator Medical and Program Services Director/Deputy Director Capital Program Director/ Deputy Director Director of Human Resources, Budget, or Information Services Deputy Director of Human Resources, Budget, or Information Services Director of a State Department of Corrections Director of a City or County Department of Corrections Federal Bureau of Prisons Regional Director Sheriff Director of a State Juvenile Department of Corrections Director of a Local Juvenile Department of Corrections Director of a State or Local Probation System Director of the Paroling Authority Where it is Separate from the Department of Corrections Deputy Directors of large systems Self Awareness Ethics and Values Vision and Mission Strategic Thinking Managing the External Environment Power and Influence Collaboration Team Building 93 94 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 Table 2: Large State Correctional Leadership Training Programs (Circa 2011) Program Duration Brief Description Texas Department of 16 – 87 Supervisory Level (Tier 1): courses Criminal Justice, include Principles of Supervision (20 hours Correctional hours), Training for Staff Trainers (40 Institutions Division, hours) and Sergeants, Food Service (87 Leadership hours) Development Mid-Level Management (Tier 2): courses Program199 include Leadership Forum (16 hours), Success Through Active Responsible Supervision (36 hours) and Lieutenant Command School (16 hours) Senior-Level Management (Tier 3): Correctional Administrator Preparedness Training (16 hours) Arizona Department of Corrections, Staff Development and Training Bureau200 several days – several weeks Correctional Officers Training Academy: provides Tactical Services Unit training, Professional Development Program, Caseworker Academy, Sergeant’s Leadership Academy, K-9 Academy and other special programs Correctional Managers Academy: devoted to enhancing the leadership skills of new administrators Correctional Administrators Academy: developed to enhance the skills of newly promoted wardens Correctional Leadership Academy: course for security supervisors, focusing on communication, team building, employee discipline Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute201 several days – several Chief Executive Seminar: available to the heads of state and local correctional facilities and to the chief executives in 199. Leadership Development Program, Correctional Institutions Division, TX. DEP’T http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/cotrain_ctsd_leadership.html (last visited Nov. 28, 2011). 200. The Staff Development & Training Bureau, ARIZ. DEP’T OF CORR., http://www.azcorrections.gov/adc/divisions/newsuppdiv/Zoya_training.aspx (last visited Nov. 28, 2011). 201. Florida Crim. Justice Exec. Inst., FL. DEP’T OF LAW ENFORCEMENT, OF CRIM. JUSTICE, 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE weeks 95 county, municipal and state criminal justice agencies; the class meets for three sessions on three topics (Defining the Future, Organizational Realities, and The Leadership Challenge) Executive Leadership Seminar: available to the upper management leadership of Florida Criminal Justice organizations; meets for three sessions; topics include environmental scanning, the influences of culture on policy, presentation skills, ethics, values of organizations, the vision of leaders, and the leadership of change Senior Leadership Program: a continuing education forum for Florida’s criminal justice professionals; nine weeklong sessions, spaced six weeks apart; participants study leadership skills, teambuilding, strategic thinking, strategic planning and innovative problem solving Executive Future Studies Program: program for criminal justice middlemanagers (supervisors of supervisors); participants study futures forecasting, managing generations, organizational culture, ethics, and leadership of change; class meets for four weeklong sessions over six months Continued Executive Development: program for criminal justice executives and managers; offers workshops and seminars on contemporary issues in leadership; classes range in length from one to five days http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/content/getdoc/508f8695-2877-4b83-bf11-01222c0248ee/FCJEIHome.aspx (last visited Nov. 28, 2011). 96 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 Table 3: The NIC Academy Division’s Flagship Leadership Courses202 Course Duration/ Number of Brief Description Location Students Executive Two weeks in 30–36 per Course for upper-level Excellence residence, six cycle (two corrections executives. Based Program203 follow-up online cycles per on four leadership theories: sessions and four year) (1) the development model days of (i.e. executives should understand the corrections concluding infield and be physically fit, residence sessions ethically grounded, and intellectually challenged); (2) the assessment and feedback model (i.e. executives should understand themselves via systematic feedback from bosses, peers, colleagues, faculty, and direct reports); (3) the correctional CEO model (i.e. leaders must have a clear vision, think strategically, be actionoriented, and be ethical); and (4) the executive leadership development model (i.e. leaders must create an actionoriented plan to help ensure future success) Correctional Leadership Development Program204 Nine and a half days in residence, with follow-up online classes and independent study 25–32 per cycle (two cycles per year) Course for senior correctional leaders, such as wardens, superintendents, jail administrators, and senior probation and parole supervisors. It addresses leadership practices such as 202. E-mail from Robert Brown to author (Nov. 28 2011) (on file with author) (confirming the information in this chart). 203. Executive Excellence Program, NIC, www.nicic.gov/Training/11E1501 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 204. Correctional Leadership Development, NIC, http://www.nicic.gov/Training/ 11M101 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE 97 challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision and enabling others to act Management Development for the Future205 Seventy-two hours conducted in sixteen segments over approximately one year in participants’ host facilities, with follow-up online classes 72 hours (over six months) Course for mid-level correctional managers. Students “prepare a dynamic individual leadership plan and undertake action-based learning projects focused on relevant issues in their agencies with the intention of applying the skills and strategies learned in the program to build organizational capacity and manage organizational change.” The courses combine three 24-hour classroom sessions (held at participants’ host sites), elearning courses, online virtual instructor-led sessions, participation in online community forums and discussions, and independent work 205. Management Development for the Future, NIC, http://www.nicic.gov/Training/ MDFFY12 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 98 Association CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONFINEMENT [Vol. 38:57 Table 4: Professional Associations for Corrections Main Training Services American Correctional Association (ACA)206 Leadership Development Program Professional Certification Program Training Workshops Corrections Online Training Collaborative American Probation and Parole Association (APPA)207 Training Institutes Leadership Institute Specialized Training Workshops Online Training American Jail Association (AJA)208 Professional Development Seminars Online Training Institute Online Distance Education (in partnership with Fort Hays State University) National Jail Leadership Command Academy (in partnership with the Correctional Management Institute of Texas, the National Association of Counties, and Sam Houston State University) Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA)209 International Association of Correctional Training Personnel (IACTP)210 All Directors Training Program New Directors Training Program Correctional Trainer Certification Commission (in partnership with AJA) Correctional Trainer E-Journal 206. Training, AM. CORR. ASS’N, http://www.aca.org/development/ (last visited Nov. 25, 2011); Online Training, AM. CORR. ASS’N, http://www.aca.org/onlinecorrections/ (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 207. Training, AM. PROBATION AND PAROLE ASS’N, http://www.appa-net.org/eweb/ (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 208. Training and Education, AM. JAIL ASS’N, http://www.aja.org/training/default.aspx (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 209. New Directors Training Program, ASS’N STATE CORR. ADMIN, http://www.asca.net/articles/913 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011); All Directors Training Program, ASS’N STATE CORR. ADMIN, http://www.asca.net/articles/349 (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 210. Certification and Training, INT’L ASS’N OF CORR. TRAINING PERS., http://www.iactp.org/#certification (last visited Nov. 25, 2011). 2012] PROPOSED NATIONAL CORRECTIONS COLLEGE International Corrections and Prisons Association (ICPA)211 99 Annual Conferences Training Manuals 211. About ICPA, INT’L CORR. & PRISONS ASS’N, http://www.icpa.ca/pages/about-icpa (last visited Nov. 25, 2011).