Skip navigation
PYHS - Header

Multistate Criminal History Patterns of Prisoners Released in 30 States, DOH BJS, 2015

Download original document:
Brief thumbnail
This text is machine-read, and may contain errors. Check the original document to verify accuracy.
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

SEPTEMBER 2015	

Special Report

NCJ 248942

Multistate Criminal History Patterns of
Prisoners Released in 30 States
Matthew R. Durose, Howard N. Snyder, Ph.D., and Alexia D. Cooper, Ph.D., BJS Statisticians

D

uring their criminal careers prior to and for 5 years
following release, the 404,638 prisoners released
in 2005 in 30 states were arrested an estimated
5.5 million times. This total included arrests made by federal,
state, and local law enforcement agencies in all 50 states,
the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. An arrest can
involve more than one type of charge. For instance, one
arrest could include a charge for a violent crime and a charge
for a drug crime. In this report, arrest counts are based on
unique arrests, not individual charges. In-state refers to
arrests made by law enforcement agencies inside the state
that released the prisoner in 2005, and out-of-state refers to
arrests made in states other than the one where the prisoner
was released in 2005.
An estimated 25% of released prisoners had at least one
out-of-state arrest prior to their release in 2005. This rate
ranged from 17% to 57% across the study’s 30 states (map 1).
Out-of-state arrests accounted for 10% of the 4.3 million
arrests of prisoners prior to their release in 2005. This
percentage also varied by state, ranging from 6% to 40%
(appendix table 3).

Map 1
Percentage of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who
had a prior out-of-state arrest, by state of release

40% or more
30%–39%
20%–29%
Less than 20%
Not in study
Note: Out-of-state arrests include those that occurred before release in 2005 in a
state other than the state that released them. See appendix table 1 for estimates.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

HIGHLIGHTS
„„

A quarter (25%) of the released prisoners had at least one
prior out-of-state-arrest. For the majority of prisoners (75%),
pre-release criminal records did not include arrests outside
the state where they served time.

„„

Within 5 years of release, 6% of inmates with no prior out-ofstate arrests were arrested in a state other than the one that
released them, compared to 34% of those who had four or
more prior out-of-state arrests.

„„

The percentage of released prisoners who had prior arrests
in multiple states varied widely across each of the study’s
30 states.

„„

„„

The average age of multistate offenders prior to release was
39, while the average age of the pre-release single-state
offenders was 34.

After the 5-year follow-up period, the recidivism rate based
on in-state and out-of-state criminal history information
(77%) was higher than the recidivism rate based on in-state
criminal history information only (72%).

„„

During the 5-year follow-up period, prisoners released
on community supervision were arrested within the
state of release at higher rates (73%) than those granted
unconditional release (69%).

„„

Prisoners released conditionally (9%) were less likely than
those released unconditionally (15%) to be arrested in
another state at the end of the 5 years.

„„

Within 5 years of release, 1 in 9 (11%) prisoners were arrested
at least once outside of the state that released them.

„„

The likelihood of the prisoners being arrested out of state
following release increased with the volume of out-of-state
arrests in their prior criminal history.

Celebrating
35 years

During the 5-year period following release, 11% of released
prisoners had at least one out-of-state arrest, including 8%
with 1 to 2 out-of-state arrests, 2% with 3 to 4 out-of-state
arrests, and 1% with 5 or more out-of-state arrests (not
shown). The estimated rate of prisoners who were arrested
in another state within 1, 3, and 5 years of release varied
across each of the study’s 30 states. The state-specific out-ofstate arrest rate at the end of the 5-year follow-up period
ranged from a minimum of 6% to a maximum of 26%, with
a median of 14% (figure 1).
Nine percent of the 1.2 million arrests of prisoners in the
5 years following their release occurred outside the state of
release. This proportion varied by state, ranging from 3% to
27% (appendix table 7).
Data in this report came from the criminal history records
maintained by the FBI and state repositories on persons
released from state prisons in 30 states in 2005 to track
their arrest patterns across state boundaries both prior to
and for 5 years following release. A representative sample
of inmates released in 2005 was developed for each of
the 30 states using data reported by state departments of
corrections to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National
Corrections Reporting Program (NCRP), resulting in a total
sample of 68,597 inmates. This sample was used to produce
estimates on the 404,638 persons released in 2005 in the
30 states. In 2005, these 30 states were responsible for about
Figure 1
Distribution of the state-level percent of prisoners who were
arrested in another state following release, among prisoners
released in 30 states in 2005
Percent arrested
30
25

Maximum

20
3rd quartile
15
10
5
0

Median
1st quartile
Minimum

1 year
3 years
5 years
Time from release to first out-of-state arrest (in years)

Note: Prisoners were tracked for 5 years following release. See appendix table 5
for estimates and appendix table 12 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

three-quarters of all state prisoners released nationwide.
States were selected for the study based on their ability to
provide prisoner records and the FBI or state identification
numbers on persons released from correctional facilities
in 2005.
Older inmates were more likely than younger inmates
to have prior out-of-state arrests
In 2005 in 30 states, nearly 9 in 10 (89%) released prisoners
were male, and the mean age of the prisoners at the time
of release was age 35 (table 1). About 1 in 4 (26%) were in
prison for a violent crime. The proportions of non-Hispanic
black and non-Hispanic white prisoners were similar (about
40% each).
Table 1
Characteristics of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005,
by number of prior out-of-state arrests
Characteristic
All released prisoners
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
Whitea
Black/African Americana
Hispanic/Latino
Othera,b
Age at release
24 or younger
25–29
30–34
35–39
40 or older
Mean age
Most serious commitment offense
Violent
Property
Drug
Public orderc
Number of released prisoners

Number of prior
All released out-of-state arrests
prisoners
0*
1 or more
100%
100%
100%
89.3%
10.7

88.9%
11.1

90.6% **
9.4 **

39.9%
40.1
17.7
2.4

36.5%
41.4
19.7
2.5

50.2% **
36.1 **
11.5 **
2.2

17.6%
19.3
15.9
15.7
31.5

21.1%
21.2
16.1
14.9
26.8

7.1% **
13.7 **
15.5
18.1 **
45.5 **

35

34

39 **

25.7%
29.8
31.8
12.7
405,000

26.3%
28.9
32.5
12.3
305,000

23.9% **
32.6 **
29.8 **
13.8 **
100,000**

Note: Prior out-of-state arrests include those that occurred before release in
2005 in another state. Data on the prisoner’s sex and age at release were known
for 100% of cases, and race and Hispanic origin for nearly 100%. Number of
prisoners was rounded to the nearest 1,000. Detail may not sum to total due to
rounding. See appendix table 13 for standard errors.
*Comparison group.
**Difference with comparison group is significant at the 95% confidence level.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin.
bIncludes American Indian or Alaska Natives; Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other
Pacific Islanders; and persons of two or more races.
cIncludes 0.8% of cases in which the prisoners most serious offense was
unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in
2005 data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

2

The composition of the group of released prisoners with at
least one prior out-of-state arrest differed from the group
that had no prior out-of-state arrests. A released prisoner is
defined as a pre-release multistate offender if he or she had
at least one prior out-of-state arrest. The composition of
the pre-release single-state and multistate offender groups
varied by race. Non-Hispanic whites made up half (50%) of
pre-release multistate offenders, compared to about a third
(36%) of pre-release single-state offenders.
On average, pre-release multistate offenders were older,
with a mean age of 39, while the mean age of pre-release
single-state offenders was age 34. An estimated 46%
of the pre-release multistate offenders were age 40
or older at release, compared to 27% of pre-release
single-state offenders.
Prior to their release in 2005, three-quarters (75%) of the
released prisoners had no arrests outside the state where
they had served time, while 1 in 4 (25%) had been arrested
at least once in another state (table 2). The percentage of
prisoners who had an out-of-state arrest prior to release
varied by personal characteristics. The prior criminal
histories of older inmates were more likely than those
of younger inmates to include an out-of-state arrest. For
example, 10% of released prisoners age 24 or younger were
multistate offenders prior to release, compared to 18% of
released prisoners ages 25 to 29, 24% of those ages 30 to 34,
29% of those ages 35 to 39, and 36% of released prisoners
age 40 or older at the time of release.
Male prisoners (25%) were more likely than female prisoners
(22%) to have a prior arrest in another state. White prisoners
(31%) were more likely than black (22%) and Hispanic
(16%) prisoners to have a prior out-of-state arrest.
Prior to being released from prison, an estimated 27% of
prisoners who had been in prison for a property offense had
been arrested in at least one other state. Prisoners released
for a violent or drug offense (23% each) were less likely than
those released for a property offense to have a prior out-ofstate arrest.

Table 2
Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who had
an out-of-state arrest prior to release, by demographic
characteristics and most serious commitment offense
Characteristic
All released prisoners
Sex
Male*
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
Whitea,*
Black/African Americana
Hispanic/Latino
Othera,b
Age at release
24 or younger*
25–29
30–34
35–39
40 or older
Most serious commitment offense
Violent*
Property
Drug
Public orderc

Total
100%

Number of prior
out-of-state arrests
0
1 or more
75.3%
24.7%

100%
100%

74.9%
78.3 **

25.1%
21.7 **

100%
100%
100%
100%

68.8%
77.7 **
83.8 **
76.9 **

31.2%
22.3 **
16.2 **
23.1 **

100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

90.0%
82.5 **
75.9 **
71.4 **
64.2 **

10.0%
17.5 **
24.1 **
28.6 **
35.8 **

100%
100%
100%
100%

77.0%
73.0 **
76.9
73.1**

23.0%
27.0 **
23.1
26.9 **

Note: Prior out-of-state arrests include those that occurred before release in 2005
in another state. Data on the prisoner’s sex and age at release were known for
100% of cases, and race and Hispanic origin for nearly 100%. See appendix table
14 for standard errors.
*Comparison group.
**Difference with comparison group is significant at the 95% confidence level.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin.
bIncludes American Indian or Alaska Natives; Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other
Pacific Islanders; and persons of two or more races.
cIncludes 0.8% of cases in which the prisoners most serious offense was
unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in
2005 data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

3

Prior to release, the majority of multistate offenders
had arrest records in two states
An estimated 25% of released prisoners had at least one
out-of-state arrest prior to their release, including 9% who
had four or more prior out-of-state arrests, 7% who had
two to three prior out-of-state arrests, and 9% who had one
out-of-state arrest (table 3). Among the released prisoners
who had prior arrests in more than one state, 72% had
arrests in two states, while 18% had arrests in three states,
and 9% had arrests in four or more states (not shown).
Among the estimated 100,000 prisoners released in 30 states
in 2005 with prior arrests in multiple states—
„„

39% had a prior arrest record that moved sequentially
from state to state without returning to a prior state.

„„

61% had a prior arrest record that moved back and forth
among states.

Inmates with prior out-of-state arrests were more
likely than other inmates to have an out-of-state arrest
following release
An estimated 11% of all released prisoners had at least one
out-of-state arrest in the 5 years following their release
from prison. The likelihood of the prisoners being arrested
out of state following release increased with the number of
out-of-state arrests in their prior criminal history. Within
5 years of release, 34% of those who had four or more prior
out-of-state arrests were arrested in a state other than the
one that released them, compared to 6% with no prior
out-of-state arrests.
For prisoners with prior out-of state arrests who were
arrested within 5 years of release, 79% of their first
post-release arrests were in the state that released them,
15% were in another state where they had been previously
arrested, and 6% were arrested in a new state that was not
in their prior criminal history (not shown). For prisoners
without prior out-of-state arrests who were arrested within
5 years of release, 96% of their first post-release arrests were
in the state that released them and 4% were in another state.
Recidivism patterns based on national criminal history
records differed from those limited to criminal history
records within the state of release
Within 1 year of release in 2005, an estimated 43% of
prisoners released in 2005 in 30 states were arrested for
a new crime either within or outside the state of release
(figure 2). When measuring recidivism only as an arrest
within the state of release, an estimated 41% of the inmates
were arrested within 1 year following release. At the end
of the 5-year period, the recidivism rate based on national
(i.e., in-state and out-of-state) criminal history information
was 77%, compared to 72% for the rate based solely on
in-state criminal history information. During the 5-year

follow-up period, 5% of the prisoners had only out-of-state
arrests following release and were not arrested within the
state that released them (appendix table 9). The difference
of in-state recidivism rates when out-of-state arrests
were included for the 30 states shows the limitations of
recidivism studies that have access only to in-state criminal
history information.
Table 3
Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who were
arrested in another state following release, by number of
prior out-of-state arrests
Number of prior
out-of-state arrests
All released prisoners
0*
1
2–3
4 or more

All
released
prisoners
100%
75.3
8.9 **
6.8 **
9.1 **

Following release, percent
arrested in another state within—
1 year
3 years
5 years
3.3%
7.7%
10.9%
1.5
4.0
6.3
4.7 **
11.6 **
16.1 **
8.0 **
18.0 **
24.1 **
13.6 **
26.9 **
34.2 **

Note: Prior out-of-state arrests include those that occurred before release in 2005
in another state. Prisoners were tracked for 5 years following release. Detail may
not sum to total due to rounding. See appendix table 15 for standard errors.
*Comparison group.
**Difference with comparison group is significant at the 95% confidence level.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in
2005 data collection.

Figure 2
Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who
were arrested following release within or outside the
state of release
Percent
80

National*

70

Arrested for any type of crime

60

In-state

50
40
30
Arrested for a violent crime

20

National*
In-state

10
0

0

6

12
18
24
30
36
42
48
Time from release to first arrest (in months)

54

60

Note: Prisoners were tracked for 5 years following release. See appendix table 16
for estimates and standard errors.
*Includes in-state and out-of-state criminal history records.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

4

Among all released inmates, 5% were arrested for a property
crime in a state other than the one that released them.
During the 5-year follow-up period, 4% of the released
prisoners were arrested for a drug crime in another state.
An estimated 7% of the released prisoners were arrested
for a public order offense outside of the state that released
them, such as a probation violation, weapons offense, or
disorderly conduct.

Within 5 years of release, 29% of prisoners released in
2005 in 30 states were arrested for a violent offense within
or outside the state of release (appendix table 16). When
limiting criminal histories to arrests only for violent crimes
within the state of release, 26% of the inmates were arrested
within 5 years following release for a violent crime.
Among state prisoners released in 30 states in 2005, 3% of
the inmates were arrested at least once outside the state
that released them within a year. After 3 years following
release, the percentage of inmates with an out-of-state arrest
increased to 8%. An estimated 11% of inmates were arrested
outside of the state that released them at least once within
5 years of their release.
Within 5 years of release from prison, 3% of inmates were
arrested for a violent offense in another state (not shown).
Less than 1% of prisoners were arrested for a violent crime
both within and outside the state of release during the 5-year
follow-up period.

Of the prisoners released in 2005 in the study’s 30 states, the
majority (74%) were granted conditional release and placed
on parole, probation, or some other form of community
supervision (not shown). About 1 in 4 (26%) were granted
an unconditional release. Overall, those prisoners granted
conditional release (77%) were arrested at similar rates to
those granted an unconditional release (77%) during the
following 5 years (table 4). During this period, the prisoners
who were released on community supervision were arrested
within that state at higher rates (73%) than those granted an
unconditional release (69%). In contrast, prisoners released
conditionally (9%) were less likely than those released
unconditionally (15%) to be arrested in another state at the
end of the 5-year follow-up period.

Table 4
Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who were arrested following release within or outside the state of release, by
characteristics
Characteristic
All released prisoners
Sex
Male*
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
Whitea,*
Black/African Americana
Hispanic/Latino
Othera,b
Age at release
24 or younger*
25–29
30–34
35–39
40 or older
Type of prison release
Conditional*
Unconditional
Prior out-of-state arrests
0*
1 or more

Within or outside the state of release
1 year
3 years
5 years
43.4%
67.8%
76.6%

Following release, percent of prisoners arrested—
Within the state of release
1 year
3 years
5 years
41.0%
63.8%
71.9%

Outside the state of release
1 year
3 years
5 years
3.3%
7.7%
10.9%

44.5%
34.4 **

69.0%
58.5 **

77.6%
68.1 **

42.0%
32.6 **

64.8%
55.4 **

72.8%
64.3 **

3.4%
2.3 **

7.9%
6.0 **

11.2%
8.6 **

39.7%
45.8 **
46.3 **
42.7

63.9%
71.7 **
68.1 **
67.3

73.1%
80.8 **
75.3 **
75.0

36.7%
43.7 **
44.4 **
40.7 **

58.8%
68.1 **
64.9 **
63.8 **

67.2%
76.6 **
71.6 **
71.3 **

4.1%
2.9 **
2.5 **
2.7 **

9.5%
6.8 **
6.0 **
6.7 **

13.3%
9.8 **
8.3 **
9.1 **

51.3%
45.4 **
43.4 **
44.4 **
37.3 **

75.9%
71.1 **
68.1 **
69.8 **
60.3 **

84.1%
80.3 **
77.0 **
78.1 **
69.2 **

48.8%
42.5 **
40.5 **
42.1 **
35.3 **

71.9%
66.4 **
63.2 **
65.9 **
56.7 **

80.0%
75.0 **
71.2 **
73.4 **
64.9 **

3.7%
3.9
3.5
3.2
2.6 **

8.3%
8.8
8.6
7.9
6.2 **

11.7%
12.3
12.5
11.5
8.5 **

44.0%
41.8 **

67.8%
67.9

76.5%
76.8

42.2%
37.7 **

64.7%
61.3 **

72.8%
69.4 **

2.5%
5.3 **

6.3%
11.3 **

9.3%
15.1 **

43.0%
44.6 **

67.3%
69.4 **

76.0%
78.4 **

42.0%
37.7 **

65.5%
58.5 **

73.8%
66.1 **

1.5%
8.9 **

4.0%
18.9 **

6.3%
24.9 **

Note: Data on the prisoner’s sex and age at release were known for 100% of cases, race and Hispanic origin for nearly 100%, and type of prison release for 98.2%.
Prisoners were tracked for 5 years following release. Prior out-of-state arrests include those that occurred before release in 2005 in another state. See appendix table 17
for standard errors.
*Comparison group.
**Difference with comparison group is significant at the 95% confidence level.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin.
bIncludes American Indian or Alaska Natives; Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islanders; and persons of two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005 data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

5

One year after release from prison, males (44%) were
more likely than females (34%) to have been arrested at
least once either in the state where they were released or
in another state. At the end of the 5-year follow-up period,
more than three-quarters (78%) of males and two-thirds
(68%) of females had either an in-state or an out-of-state
arrest. Males also had higher recidivism rates than females
when measured as being arrested in a state other than the
one that released them. Within 1 year of release, 3% of males
and 2% of females had an out-of-state arrest. During the
5 years following release, 11% of males compared to 9% of
females had an out-of-state arrest.
At the end of the 5-year follow-up period, the recidivism
rate based on arrests within and outside the state of release
was higher among blacks (81%) than whites (73%) and
Hispanics (75%). In comparison, the recidivism rate based
only on arrests outside the state of release was higher among
whites (13%) than blacks (10%) and Hispanics (8%).
Although older inmates were more likely than younger
inmates to have a prior out-of-state arrest in their criminal
history, this pattern was not observed in the out-of-state

recidivism rates. Younger inmates were more likely than
older inmates to have an out-of-state arrest following
release. An estimated 12% of inmates under age 40 had an
out-of-state arrest following release, compared to 8% of
those age 40 or older.
For most states, their released prisoners had arrest
histories in about 50 states
Among the prisoners released in 2005 in 30 states who
were sampled for this study, the number of states and U.S.
territories that each state’s sample had arrests in ranged
from 42 to 52 (appendix table 11). Out-of-state arrests of
former prisoners were most frequently, but not always, in
bordering states or ones close in proximity. For instance, the
persons released from New Jersey state prisons in 2005 were
arrested in New Jersey and 46 other states either prior to
being released or during the 5 years following their release.
While the majority of the arrests of the prisoners released in
New Jersey were within that state, the most common states
outside of New Jersey where its prisoners were arrested
included New York, Pennsylvania, and Florida.

Direct comparisons of recidivism rates in this report to prior BJS studies are limited
due to improvements in records
Direct comparisons of the out-of-state recidivism rates of the
15 states in the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) 1994 study
to the rates of the 30 states in this study are not appropriate
due to differences in the two samples of prisoners. In addition
to the expanded geographic coverage of states contributing
information about released prisoners to the new study,
other differences involved changes in prisoner demographic
characteristics and criminal histories of those released, which
are attributes known to be related to recidivism. For instance,
the proportion of inmates who were age 40 or older at release
increased from 17% in the 1994 study to 32% in the 2005
study. The proportion who were in prison for a violent offense
increased from 22% to 27%.
Comparisons between recidivism rates in the 1994 and 2005
studies are also difficult because the 2005 study used new data
collection capabilities to directly access the criminal history
record systems of all 50 states and obtain more comprehensive
out-of-state information than was available for the 1994 study.

Due to efforts funded by individual states and the BJS’s
National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP)
to help states improve their criminal history recordkeeping,
state criminal history repositories may now capture more
information on offenders’ criminal activities than in the past.
However, the potential effects of these improvements to
the nation’s criminal history recordkeeping on the observed
out-of-state recidivism rates are difficult to quantify, and
statistical adjustments for their effects cannot be made.
With these limitations in mind, and for general discussion
purposes only, BJS conducted analyses of the out-of-state
recidivism rates of the inmates released in the 11 states that
had out-of-state criminal history records available for both
the 1994 and 2005 studies. For these 11 states, an estimated
7% of the inmates released in 1994 were arrested within
3 years outside the state that released them, compared to an
estimated 9% of the inmates released in 2005.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

6

Methodology
This report estimates the multistate criminal history patterns
of 404,638 persons released in 2005 from state prisons in
30 states. A representative sample of inmates released in
2005 was developed for each of the 30 states using data
reported by state departments of corrections to the Bureau
of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National Corrections Reporting
Program (NCRP), yielding a total sample of 70,878 persons
(table 5). This sample excluded transfers to the custody of
another authority, releases due to death, releases on bond,
releases to seek or participate in an appeal of a case, and
prisoners who escaped or were absent without leave. Inmates
whose sentence was less than a year were also excluded. For
persons released multiple times during 2005, the first release
was selected.
The 30 state departments of corrections that supplied
BJS with the required data included Alaska, Arkansas,
California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa,

Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina,
North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia,
Washington, and West Virginia.
The International Justice and Public Safety Network (Nlets)
developed an automated system for BJS to collect multistate
(i.e., national) criminal history records. Nlets also produced
software to extract key data elements from individual
state and federal criminal history records into a uniform
file layout that supported statistical analysis. NORC at the
University of Chicago converted the state-specific fields
extracted from the criminal history records (e.g., offense
statutes and disposition descriptions) into a common
national coding structure.
In 2011, on behalf of BJS, Nlets sent the state and FBI
identification numbers, which were supplied by the
departments of corrections, to the FBI’s Interstate

Table 5
Number of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005
State of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

Number of
released prisonersa
412,731
1,827
10,844
107,633
8,277
31,537
12,321
1,041
4,607
12,876
10,200
12,177
4,619
15,997
1,386
5,022
13,097
23,963
11,743
884
15,832
7,768
4,731
12,452
10,046
2,159
43,532
3,000
12,776
8,439
1,945

Released prisoners included in the studyb
Number of
sample cases
Weighted total
Sample size
70,878
404,638
69,279
1,158
1,764
1,118
2,785
10,513
2,697
4,604
106,116
4,542
2,351
8,042
2,281
3,350
30,975
3,285
2,763
12,054
2,697
793
1,022
779
1,897
4,465
1,839
2,806
12,552
2,737
2,597
9,859
2,513
2,603
11,775
2,519
1,897
4,581
1,882
2,919
15,513
2,828
966
1,366
952
1,973
4,965
1,949
2,697
12,992
2,674
3,532
23,448
3,459
2,748
11,335
2,653
686
868
674
3,070
15,688
3,038
2,345
7,459
2,250
1,955
4,625
1,912
2,840
12,020
2,741
2,537
9,982
2,519
1,285
2,151
1,280
3,779
43,118
3,742
1,569
2,974
1,556
2,719
12,319
2,619
2,443
8,234
2,382
1,211
1,864
1,162

Criminal history record collected
Number
Percent
68,597
99.0%
1,099
98.3%
2,640
97.9
4,541
100
2,275
99.7
3,272
99.6
2,602
96.5
772
99.1
1,836
99.8
2,723
99.5
2,494
99.2
2,504
99.4
1,879
99.8
2,823
99.8
952
100
1,808
92.8
2,630
98.4
3,459
100
2,643
99.6
666
98.8
2,966
97.6
2,184
97.1
1,910
99.9
2,714
99.0
2,512
99.7
1,275
99.6
3,742
100
1,548
99.5
2,609
99.6
2,380
99.9
1,139
98.0

aExcludes releases of prisoners whose sentence was less than a year; releases to custody, detainer, or warrant; releases due to death; escapes or being absent without
leave; transfers; administrative releases; and releases on appeal. For persons released multiple times during 2005, the first release was selected.
bExcludes 1,595 sampled prisoners who died during the 5-year follow-up period and 4 cases determined to be invalid release records.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005 data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

7

Identification Index (III) to collect the criminal history
records on 70,878 former prisoners. These records contained
arrests from state and federal criminal justice agencies
across the 50 states and the District of Columbia prior to
and following the prison releases in 2005. Traffic violations
(with the exception of vehicular manslaughter, driving while
intoxicated, and hit-and-run) were excluded from the study
because the coverage of these events in the criminal history
records varied widely by state.
This study used the death information from the FBI’s III and
the Social Security Administration’s public Death Master File
to identify individuals who died during the 5-year follow-up
period. The 1,595 prisoners who died according to either
source of information were excluded from the study, along
with 4 additional cases that were later determined to be
invalid release records.
Among the 69,279 eligible prisoners sampled from
30 states, BJS did not obtain criminal history records on
406 subjects because the departments of corrections were
unable to provide their FBI or state identification number.
An additional 276 prisoners had an identification number,
but no criminal history record linked to this number was
found in the FBI or state record repositories. To account
for the missing data, the sample weights for the 682 cases
without a criminal history record were equally distributed
among the weights of the other 68,597 cases with the same
commitment offense, demographic characteristics, and
state of release. The adjusted weights for the final sample of
68,597 persons were used to produce recidivism estimates
on the 404,638 persons released from prison in the 30 states
in 2005.
Conducting tests of statistical significance
Because this study was based on a sample and not a
complete enumeration, the estimates in this report are
subject to sampling error (i.e., a discrepancy between an
estimate and a population parameter based on chance). One

measure of the sampling error associated with an estimate
is the standard error. The standard error can vary from
one estimate to the next. In general, for a given metric, an
estimate with a smaller standard error provides a more
reliable approximation of the true value than an estimate
with a larger standard error. Estimates with relatively
large standard errors are associated with less precision
and reliability and should be interpreted with caution.
BJS conducted tests to determine whether differences
in estimated numbers and percentages were statistically
significant once sampling error was taken into account.
All differences discussed in this report are statistically
significant at or above the 95% confidence level. Standard
errors were generated using SPSS Complex Samples and
SUDAAN, both statistical software packages that estimate
sampling error from complex sample surveys. Standard
errors for each table are available at the end of the report.
Offense definitions
Violent offenses—include homicide, rape or sexual assault,
robbery, assault, and other miscellaneous or unspecified
violent offenses.
Property offenses—include burglary, fraud or forgery,
larceny, motor vehicle theft, and other miscellaneous or
unspecified property offenses.
Drug offenses—include possession, trafficking, and other
miscellaneous or unspecified drug offenses.
Public order offenses—include those that violate the peace
or order of the community or threaten the public health
or safety through unacceptable conduct, interference with
governmental authority, or the violation of civil rights or
liberties. This category includes weapons offenses, driving
under the influence, probation and parole violation,
obstruction of justice, commercialized vice, disorderly
conduct, and other miscellaneous or unspecified offenses.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

8

Appendix table 1
Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who had
an out-of-state arrest prior to release, by state of release
State of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

Number of
prisoners released
404,638
1,764
10,513
106,116
8,042
30,975
12,054
1,022
4,465
12,552
9,859
11,775
4,581
15,513
1,366
4,965
12,992
23,448
11,335
868
15,688
7,459
4,625
12,020
9,982
2,151
43,118
2,974
12,319
8,234
1,864

Percent with at least one
prior out-of-state arrest
24.7%
28.9
33.5
18.8
40.7
27.5
24.4
18.6
35.8
19.8
24.0
22.0
39.1
29.3
40.6
57.3
30.5
21.6
27.2
45.2
22.8
31.4
38.1
27.6
24.9
43.1
16.6
36.9
30.4
34.9
34.5

Note: See appendix table 2 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in
2005 data collection.

Appendix table 2
Standard errors for appendix table 1: Percent of prisoners
released in 30 states in 2005 who had an out-of-state arrest
prior to release, by state of release
State of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

Percent with at least one prior out-of-state arrest
0.24%
0.87
0.87
0.73
0.92
0.84
0.82
0.71
0.89
0.74
0.81
0.81
0.91
0.84
0.89
0.97
0.88
0.78
0.84
0.94
0.79
0.87
0.89
0.86
0.80
0.90
0.68
0.87
0.86
0.87
0.90

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

9

Appendix table 3
Number and proportion of all arrests prior to release that
were within or outside the state of release, among prisoners
released in 30 states in 2005
Number of arrests
State of release
prior to release
All released prisoners
4,304,000
Alaska
14,000
Arkansas
78,000
California
1,508,000
Colorado
102,000
Florida
439,000
Georgia
132,000
Hawaii
16,000
Iowa
32,000
Louisiana
112,000
Maryland
126,000
Michigan
68,000
Minnesota
43,000
Missouri
124,000
Nebraska
10,000
Nevada
48,000
New Jersey
126,000
New York
199,000
North Carolina
74,000
North Dakota
6,000
Ohio
110,000
Oklahoma
47,000
Oregon
59,000
Pennsylvania
103,000
South Carolina
93,000
South Dakota
20,000
Texas
328,000
Utah
31,000
Virginia
127,000
Washington
116,000
West Virginia
13,000

Arrests prior to release
Within state Outside state
Total of release of release
100%
89.8%
10.2%
100%
79.0
21.0
100%
82.3
17.7
100%
94.5
5.5
100%
83.2
16.8
100%
90.5
9.5
100%
89.3
10.7
100%
92.5
7.5
100%
78.3
21.7
100%
92.1
7.9
100%
92.2
7.8
100%
86.1
13.9
100%
79.0
21.0
100%
86.3
13.7
100%
73.0
27.0
100%
59.8
40.2
100%
88.4
11.6
100%
91.1
8.9
100%
81.8
18.2
100%
69.8
30.2
100%
87.5
12.5
100%
78.3
21.7
100%
83.1
16.9
100%
87.0
13.0
100%
88.3
11.7
100%
75.1
24.9
100%
90.8
9.2
100%
82.9
17.1
100%
85.3
14.7
100%
86.2
13.8
100%
82.1
17.9

Note: Number of arrests was rounded to the nearest 1,000. See appendix table 4
for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

Appendix table 4
Standard errors for appendix table 3: Number and
proportion of all arrests prior to release that were within or
outside the state of release, among prisoners released in 30
states in 2005
State of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

Arrests prior to release
Number of arrests Within state Outside state
prior to release
of release
of release
23,080
0.16%
0.16%
260
0.90
0.90
1,140
0.73
0.73
20,610
0.36
0.36
1,360
0.61
0.61
6,020
0.47
0.47
1,840
0.58
0.58
210
0.42
0.42
500
0.85
0.85
1,710
0.50
0.50
1,800
0.47
0.47
1,030
0.73
0.73
680
0.75
0.75
1,900
0.64
0.64
160
0.95
0.95
740
0.93
0.93
1,930
0.59
0.59
3,660
0.56
0.56
1,210
0.84
0.84
80
0.90
0.90
2,010
0.66
0.66
740
0.86
0.86
950
0.64
0.64
1,580
0.62
0.62
1,560
0.63
0.63
320
0.82
0.82
4,260
0.62
0.62
420
0.64
0.64
1,750
0.68
0.68
1,600
0.54
0.54
230
0.74
0.74

Note: Number of arrests was rounded to the nearest 10.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

10

Appendix table 5
Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who were
arrested in another state following release, by state of
release
Following release, percent
arrested in another state within—
Number of
State of release
prisoners released 1 year
3 years
5 years
All released prisoners
404,638
3.3%
7.7%
10.9%
Alaska
1,764
2.2
5.5
10.0
Arkansas
10,513
5.8
12.7
17.4
California
106,116
1.7
4.0
5.9
Colorado
8,042
4.7
10.4
14.9
Florida
30,975
4.3
8.9
12.7
Georgia
12,054
3.5
8.1
11.2
Hawaii
1,022
1.7
5.1
6.7
Iowa
4,465
5.6
13.3
18.3
Louisiana
12,552
4.2
9.5
13.3
Maryland
9,859
4.9
9.6
13.0
Michigan
11,775
2.8
6.7
10.6
Minnesota
4,581
6.1
13.3
17.3
Missouri
15,513
4.3
9.4
13.2
Nebraska
1,366
9.0
21.2
26.2
Nevada
4,965
9.9
18.8
24.4
New Jersey
12,992
3.7
10.8
16.5
New York
23,448
2.5
7.4
11.0
North Carolina
11,335
4.4
11.4
14.9
North Dakota
868
6.5
15.3
21.8
Ohio
15,688
2.9
8.5
11.4
Oklahoma
7,459
4.8
11.4
14.3
Oregon
4,625
5.4
12.9
17.0
Pennsylvania
12,020
3.3
7.1
9.7
South Carolina
9,982
4.0
10.0
14.5
South Dakota
2,151
5.6
11.2
16.2
Texas
43,118
1.8
5.0
7.5
Utah
2,974
3.4
8.8
13.0
Virginia
12,319
4.7
9.0
12.4
Washington
8,234
5.3
10.8
14.1
West Virginia
1,864
6.8
14.6
20.3
Note: Prisoners were tracked for 5 years following release. See appendix table 6
for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

Appendix table 6
Standard errors for appendix table 5: Percent of prisoners
released in 30 states in 2005 who were arrested in another
state following release, by state of release
State of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

Following release, percent
arrested in another state within—
1 year
3 years
5 years
0.09%
0.13%
0.16%
0.28
0.44
0.59
0.44
0.62
0.70
0.24
0.37
0.44
0.40
0.58
0.67
0.39
0.54
0.63
0.35
0.52
0.60
0.25
0.40
0.46
0.43
0.63
0.72
0.38
0.55
0.64
0.42
0.56
0.64
0.32
0.49
0.60
0.45
0.64
0.71
0.38
0.54
0.63
0.53
0.75
0.80
0.61
0.78
0.86
0.36
0.60
0.71
0.30
0.50
0.60
0.39
0.61
0.68
0.49
0.69
0.79
0.32
0.53
0.60
0.41
0.60
0.66
0.42
0.62
0.70
0.35
0.50
0.57
0.36
0.56
0.66
0.42
0.58
0.67
0.25
0.40
0.49
0.34
0.52
0.62
0.40
0.54
0.62
0.41
0.57
0.64
0.48
0.67
0.77

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

11

Appendix table 7
Number and proportion of all arrests following release that
were within or outside the state of release, among prisoners
released in 30 states in 2005
Number of arrests
State of release
following release
All released prisoners
1,173,000
Alaska
4,000
Arkansas
25,000
California
403,000
Colorado
26,000
Florida
110,000
Georgia
38,000
Hawaii
3,000
Iowa
9,000
Louisiana
33,000
Maryland
34,000
Michigan
23,000
Minnesota
15,000
Missouri
36,000
Nebraska
4,000
Nevada
15,000
New Jersey
33,000
New York
49,000
North Carolina
24,000
North Dakota
2,000
Ohio
41,000
Oklahoma
15,000
Oregon
17,000
Pennsylvania
21,000
South Carolina
31,000
South Dakota
4,000
Texas
80,000
Utah
9,000
Virginia
33,000
Washington
33,000
West Virginia
4,000

Arrests following release
Within state Outside state
Total of release of release
100%
91.0%
9.0%
100%
84.6
15.4
100%
80.9
19.1
100%
96.8
3.2
100%
89.2
10.8
100%
89.8
10.2
100%
91.2
8.8
100%
91.2
8.8
100%
78.3
21.7
100%
88.5
11.5
100%
90.6
9.4
100%
88.6
11.4
100%
86.6
13.4
100%
87.5
12.5
100%
73.0
27.0
100%
74.5
25.5
100%
83.3
16.7
100%
89.8
10.2
100%
81.5
18.5
100%
76.7
23.3
100%
89.6
10.4
100%
81.9
18.1
100%
87.2
12.8
100%
88.0
12.0
100%
88.4
11.6
100%
80.2
19.8
100%
91.0
9.0
100%
89.4
10.6
100%
87.6
12.4
100%
91.7
8.3
100%
77.2
22.8

Note: Prisoners were tracked for 5 years following release. Number of arrests was
rounded to the nearest 1,000. See appendix table 8 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

Appendix table 8
Standard errors for appendix table 7: Number and
proportion of all arrests following release that were within
or outside the state of release, among prisoners released in
30 states in 2005
State of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

Number of arrests
following release
8,330
100
580
7,280
490
2,310
700
60
180
670
650
480
310
730
70
390
690
1,310
570
40
890
310
410
470
670
100
1,700
220
670
670
90

Arrests following release
Within state Outside state
of release
of release
0.18%
0.18%
1.28
1.28
1.09
1.09
0.33
0.33
0.66
0.66
0.85
0.85
0.65
0.65
0.99
0.99
1.08
1.08
0.81
0.81
0.63
0.63
0.83
0.83
0.84
0.84
0.78
0.78
1.09
1.09
1.27
1.27
1.02
1.02
0.73
0.73
1.15
1.15
1.00
1.00
0.73
0.73
1.06
1.06
0.74
0.74
0.88
0.88
0.75
0.75
1.05
1.05
0.86
0.86
0.73
0.73
0.90
0.90
0.53
0.53
1.04
1.04

Note: Number of arrests was rounded to nearest 10.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

12

Appendix table 9
Percent increase in the in-state recidivism rate when
out-of-state arrests were included, among prisoners released
in 30 states in 2005, by state of release
State of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

1 year
2.4%
2.2
4.1
1.1
3.0
3.3
2.5
1.4
4.4
3.3
3.1
2.4
3.4
3.3
7.1
8.0
2.7
2.0
3.7
5.2
1.9
3.7
3.3
2.8
3.2
4.8
1.5
2.5
3.5
3.4
4.9

3 years
4.1%
4.4
6.6
1.8
4.9
5.1
3.8
3.0
7.5
5.3
4.5
3.8
5.1
4.8
12.5
12.0
6.1
4.1
7.5
7.7
3.4
6.8
4.9
4.0
6.0
7.8
3.1
3.9
5.1
4.4
8.7

5 years
4.7%
6.5
7.4
2.1
5.7
5.4
4.2
3.2
8.2
5.8
4.5
4.5
5.6
5.5
13.8
13.4
7.9
5.4
7.8
8.7
3.9
7.3
5.3
4.9
7.0
9.0
4.2
4.3
5.9
4.5
9.8

Note: Prisoners were tracked for 5 years following release. In this table, recidivism
is measured as a new arrest. See appendix table 10 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

Appendix table 10
Standard errors for appendix table 9: Percent increase in
the in-state recidivism rate when out-of-state arrests were
included, among prisoners released in 30 states in 2005, by
state of release
All released prisoners
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

1 year
0.07%
0.28
0.37
0.19
0.32
0.34
0.29
0.22
0.38
0.34
0.33
0.30
0.34
0.33
0.47
0.55
0.31
0.27
0.37
0.44
0.26
0.36
0.33
0.32
0.32
0.39
0.22
0.29
0.35
0.34
0.41

3 years
0.10%
0.39
0.46
0.25
0.41
0.41
0.37
0.32
0.49
0.42
0.40
0.37
0.41
0.40
0.61
0.65
0.45
0.38
0.51
0.51
0.34
0.48
0.40
0.37
0.44
0.48
0.32
0.36
0.42
0.38
0.53

5 years
0.10%
0.47
0.48
0.27
0.43
0.42
0.38
0.32
0.51
0.44
0.39
0.40
0.42
0.42
0.64
0.68
0.51
0.43
0.51
0.52
0.36
0.49
0.41
0.41
0.48
0.52
0.37
0.37
0.45
0.38
0.56

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

13

Appendix table 11
States where prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 were arrested prior to and within 5 years following
release
State of release
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

Total number of states where
released prisoners were arrested*
47
50
48
50
52
52
44
48
48
46
47
47
47
44
49
47
47
49
42
48
47
50
49
50
49
50
46
49
50
42

Most common states where prisoners were
arrested outside the state of release
Washington
California
Oregon
Texas
Missouri
California
Nevada
Arizona
Texas
California
Texas
Arizona
Georgia
New York
Texas
Florida
South Carolina
Alabama
California
Nevada
Washington
Illinois
Nebraska
Missouri
Texas
California
Florida
District of Columbia Virginia
Pennsylvania
Florida
Illinois
Ohio
Wisconsin
Illinois
North Dakota
Kansas
Illinois
California
Iowa
California
Texas
California
Arizona
Utah
New York
Pennsylvania
Florida
New Jersey
Florida
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Florida
Virginia
Minnesota
South Dakota
California
Florida
Kentucky
California
Texas
California
Kansas
Washington
California
Idaho
New Jersey
New York
Florida
Georgia
North Carolina
Florida
Minnesota
Iowa
Nebraska
California
Louisiana
Florida
California
Nevada
Colorado
Maryland
District of Columbia North Carolina
Oregon
California
Idaho
Ohio
Virginia
North Carolina

*Includes the state where released as well as the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005 data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

14

Appendix table 12
Estimates for figure 1: Distribution of the state-level percent
of prisoners who were arrested in another state following
release, among prisoners released in 30 states in 2005
1 year
1.7%
3.4
4.3
5.5
9.9

Minimum
1st quartile
Median
3rd quartile
Maximum

3 years
4.0%
8.2
9.8
12.4
21.2

5 years
5.9%
11.2
13.7
16.8
26.2

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

Appendix table 13
Standard errors for table 1: Characteristics of prisoners
released in 30 states in 2005, by number of prior
out-of-state arrests
Characteristic
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
White
Black/African
American
Hispanic/Latino
Other
Age at release
24 or younger
25–29
30–34
35–39
40 or older
Mean age
Most serious
commitment offense
Violent
Property
Drug
Public order
Number of released
prisoners

All released
prisoners

Number of prior out-of-state arrrests
0
1 or more

---

0.06%
0.06

0.18%
0.18

0.28%

0.32%

0.55%

0.27
0.26
0.09

0.32
0.33
0.11

0.52
0.42
0.16

0.22%
0.24
0.22
0.22
0.28

0.28%
0.29
0.26
0.26
0.32

0.27%
0.36
0.39
0.41
0.55

0.06

0.07

0.11

0.26%
0.28
0.28
0.18

0.31%
0.33
0.33
0.22

0.49%
0.51
0.51
0.33

970

970

Note: Number of released prisoners was rounded to the nearest 10.
--Less than 0.005%.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

Appendix table 14
Standard errors for table 2: Percent of prisoners released
in 30 states in 2005 who had an out-of-state arrest prior to
release, by demographic characteristics and most serious
commitment offense
Characteristic
All released prisoners
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latino
Other
Age at release
24 or younger
25–29
30–34
35–39
40 or older
Most serious commitment offense
Violent
Property
Drug
Public order

Number of prior out-of-state arrests
0
1 or more
0.24%
0.24%
0.26%
0.38

0.26%
0.38

0.39%
0.35
0.60
1.50

0.39%
0.35
0.60
1.50

0.38%
0.46
0.59
0.64
0.50

0.38%
0.46
0.59
0.64
0.50

0.49%
0.45
0.43
0.61

0.49%
0.45
0.43
0.61

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in
2005 data collection.

Appendix table 15
Standard errors for table 3: Percent of prisoners released
in 30 states in 2005 who were arrested in another state
following release, by number of prior out-of-state arrests
Number of prior
out-of-state arrests
All released prisoners
0
1
2 to 3
4 or more

All released
prisoners
0.24%
0.16
0.14
0.15

Following release, percent
arrested in another state within—
1 year
3 years
5 years
0.09%
0.13%
0.16%
0.07
0.12
0.15
0.41
0.56
0.63
0.55
0.78
0.88
0.51
0.70
0.76

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005
data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

15

Appendix table 16
Estimates and standard errors for figure 2: Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who were arrested following
release within or outside the state of release
Months
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

Percent
Arrested for any type of crime
Arrested for a violent crime
National
In-state
National
In-state
28.2%
26.7%
4.6%
4.3%
43.4
41.0
8.7
8.1
53.0
49.9
12.2
11.2
59.5
56.0
15.2
14.0
64.3
60.5
17.9
16.5
67.8
63.8
20.3
18.6
70.6
66.3
22.6
20.6
73.0
68.5
24.8
22.6
75.0
70.4
26.7
24.2
76.6
71.9
28.6
25.9

Standard error
Arrested for any type of crime
Arrested for a violent crime
National
In-state
National
In-state
0.28%
0.28%
0.13%
0.13%
0.29
0.29
0.17
0.17
0.28
0.28
0.20
0.19
0.27
0.27
0.21
0.21
0.26
0.27
0.23
0.22
0.25
0.26
0.24
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.25
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.26
0.23
0.24
0.27
0.27

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005 data collection.

Appendix table 17
Standard errors for table 4: Percent of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 who were arrested following release within or
outside the state of release, by characteristics
Characteristic
All released prisoners
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origin
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latino
Other
Age at release
24 or younger
25–29
30–34
35–39
40 or older
Type of prison release
Conditional
Unconditional
Prior out-of-state arrests
0
1 or more

Within or outside the state of release
1 year
3 years
5 years
0.29%
0.25%
0.23%

Following release, percent of prisoners arrested—
Within the state of release
1 year
3 years
5 years
0.29%
0.26%
0.24%

Outside the state of release
1 year
3 years
5 years
0.09%
0.13%
0.16%

0.32%
0.49

0.28%
0.48

0.25%
0.44

0.32%
0.49

0.29%
0.48

0.26%
0.45

0.10%
0.12

0.15%
0.21

0.17%
0.25

0.44%
0.42
0.93
1.97

0.39%
0.35
0.81
1.71

0.35%
0.30
0.75
1.57

0.44%
0.42
0.93
1.98

0.41%
0.37
0.84
1.76

0.38%
0.32
0.78
1.63

0.15%
0.12
0.24
0.32

0.23%
0.18
0.38
0.73

0.27%
0.22
0.44
0.79

0.68%
0.68
0.76
0.77
0.54

0.54%
0.55
0.66
0.65
0.50

0.45%
0.48
0.60
0.57
0.46

0.69%
0.69
0.76
0.77
0.54

0.57%
0.59
0.69
0.67
0.51

0.49%
0.53
0.64
0.61
0.48

0.23%
0.23
0.21
0.21
0.14

0.33%
0.33
0.36
0.34
0.21

0.40%
0.39
0.44
0.42
0.24

0.37%
0.42

0.32%
0.39

0.29%
0.35

0.37%
0.42

0.33%
0.41

0.30%
0.38

0.10%
0.18

0.16%
0.26

0.19%
0.29

0.34%
0.55

0.30%
0.47

0.27%
0.42

0.34%
0.55

0.31%
0.52

0.28%
0.49

0.07%
0.28

0.12%
0.39

0.15%
0.43

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Recidivism of State Prisoners Released in 2005 data collection.

MULTISTATE CRIMINAL HISTORY PATTERNS OF PRISONERS RELEASED IN 30 STATES | SEPTEMBER 2015

16

The Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice is the principal
federal agency responsible for measuring crime, criminal victimization, criminal
offenders, victims of crime, correlates of crime, and the operation of criminal
and civil justice systems at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels. BJS collects,
analyzes, and disseminates reliable and valid statistics on crime and justice
systems in the United States, supports improvements to state and local criminal
justice information systems, and participates with national and international
organizations to develop and recommend national standards for justice statistics.
William J. Sabol is director.
This report was written by Matthew R. Durose, Howard N. Snyder, Ph.D., and
Alexia D. Cooper, Ph.D. Joshua Markman and Marshay Lentini verified the report.
Lynne McConnell and Jill Thomas edited the report. Tina Dorsey and Barbara
Quinn produced the report.
September 2015, NCJ 248942

Celebrating
35 years

NCJ248942

Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
www.ojp.usdoj.gov

 

 

PLN Subscribe Now Ad
Advertise here
Prison Phone Justice Campaign