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Public Information Handbook, Attorney General of Texas, 2016

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PUBLIC INFORMATION
HANDBOOK 2016

REV 10/15

Dear Fellow Texans:
The Texas Public Information Act sets requirements for the ability of citizens to access information
on action taken by governmental bodies. This transparency provides Texans with a more complete
understanding of how their government works, and, when necessary, provides them an opportunity
to hold their public officials accountable.
As Texas Attorney General, I am responsible for ensuring that Texas government is open and
accessible to all citizens. In order to help public officials successfully comply with the provisions
of the Texas Public Information Act, and help all Texans understand how the Act benefits them, my
office provides a number of resources, including this Public Information Handbook. This Handbook
is freely available on the Internet at https://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/files/og/publicinfo_hb.pdf.
Additionally, our Open Government Hotline is available for those with questions about open
government in Texas. The toll-free number is 877-OPEN TEX (877-673-6839).
Providing public access to the governmental decision-making process creates necessary trust and
understanding in officials and in the system. It is my hope that the Handbook will help promote an
open and inclusive system of government in Texas that benefits all of our citizens.
Best regards,

Ken Paxton
Attorney General of Texas

Post Office Box 12548, Austin, Texas 78711-2548 • (512) 463-2100 • www.texasattorneygeneral.gov

TABLE OF CONTENTS
A PREFACE TO THE PUBLIC INFORMATION HANDBOOK.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -iPART ONE: HOW THE PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT WORKS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
I.

OVERVIEW .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Historical Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Policy; Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Attorney General to Maintain Uniformity in Application, Operation and
Interpretation of the Act.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
D. Section 552.021. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
E. Open Records Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

II.

ENTITIES SUBJECT TO THE PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
A. State and Local Governmental Bodies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
B. Private Entities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1. Private Entities Supported by Public Funds.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. Private Entities Deemed Governmental Bodies by Statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
C. Certain Property Owners’ Associations Subject to Act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
D. A Governmental Body Holding Records for Another Governmental Body. . . . . . . . 10
E. Private Entities Holding Records for Governmental Bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
F. Judiciary Excluded from the Public Information Act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

III.

INFORMATION SUBJECT TO THE PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A. Public Information is Contained in Records of All Forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B. Exclusion of Tangible Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
C. Personal Notes and E-mail in Personal Accounts or Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
D. Commercially Available Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

IV.

PROCEDURES FOR ACCESS TO PUBLIC INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A. Informing the Public of Basic Rights and Responsibilities Under the Act. . . . . . . . . 17
B. The Request for Public Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
C. The Governmental Body’s Duty to Produce Public Information Promptly. . . . . . . . . 20
D. The Requestor’s Right of Access.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Right to Inspect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2. Right to Obtain Copies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
E. Computer and Electronic Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

V.

DISCLOSURE TO SELECTED PERSONS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A. General Rule: Under the Public Information Act, Public Information is
Available to All Members of the Public. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
B. Some Disclosures of Information to Selected Individuals or Entities Do Not
Constitute Disclosures to the Public Under Section 552.007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1. Special Rights of Access: Exceptions to Disclosure Expressly
Inapplicable to a Specific Class of Persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

a. Special Rights of Access Under the Public Information Act.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
i. Information for Legislative Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
ii. Information About the Person Who Is Requesting the Information. . . . . 31
iii. Information in a Student or Education Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
b. Special Rights of Access Created by Other Statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2. Intra- or Intergovernmental Transfers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3. Other Limited Disclosures that Do Not Implicate Section 552.007. . . . . . . . . . . 34
VI.

ATTORNEY GENERAL DETERMINES WHETHER INFORMATION IS
SUBJECT TO AN EXCEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
A. Duties of the Governmental Body and of the Attorney General Under
Subchapter G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
B. Items the Governmental Body Must Submit to the Attorney General. . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1. Written Communication from the Person Requesting the Information. . . . . . . . . 40
2. Information Requested from the Governmental Body.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3. Labeling Requested Information to Indicate Which Exceptions Apply to
Which Parts of the Requested Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4. Statement or Evidence as to Date Governmental Body Received
Written Request. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5. Letter from the Governmental Body Stating Which Exceptions
Apply and Why. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
C. Section 552.302: Information Presumed Public if Submissions and
Notification Required by Section 552.301 Are Not Timely. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
D. Section 552.303: Attorney General Determination that Information in Addition
to that Required by Section 552.301 Is Necessary to Render a Decision. . . . . . . . . . 46
E. Section 552.305: When the Requested Information Involves a Third Party’s
Privacy or Property Interests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
F. Section 552.3035: Attorney General Must Not Disclose Information at Issue.. . . . . 49
G. Section 552.304: Submission of Public Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
H. Rendition of Attorney General Decision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
I. Timeliness of Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

VII.

COST OF COPIES AND ACCESS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
A. Charges for Copies of Paper Records and Printouts of Electronic Records. . . . . . . . 50
B. Charges for Inspection of Paper Records and Electronic Records.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
C. Waivers or Reduction of Estimated Charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
D. Providing a Statement of Estimated Charges as Required by Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
E. Cost Provisions Regarding Requests that Require a Large Amount of
Personnel Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
F. Complaints Regarding Alleged Overcharges.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
G. Cost Provisions Outside the Public Information Act.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

VIII. PENALTIES AND REMEDIES.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
A. Informal Resolution of Complaints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
B. Criminal Penalties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C. Civil Remedies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
1. Writ of Mandamus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2. Violations of the Act: Declaratory Judgment or Injunctive Relief;
Formal Complaints.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
a. Venue and Proper Party to Bring Suit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
b. Suit Pursuant to Formal Complaint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
c. Procedures for Formal Complaint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
d. Governmental Body Must Be Given Opportunity to Cure Violation. . . . . . . 61
e. Cumulative Remedy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3. Suits over an Open Records Ruling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4. Discovery and Court’s In Camera Review of Information Under
Protective Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
D. Assessment of Costs of Litigation and Reasonable Attorney’s Fees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
IX.

PRESERVATION AND DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

X.

PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT DISTINGUISHED FROM CERTAIN OTHER STATUTES. . . . . 64
A. Authority of the Attorney General to Issue Attorney General Opinions. . . . . . . . . . . 64
B. Texas Open Meetings Act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
C. Discovery Proceedings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

PART TWO : EXCEPTIONS TO DISCLOSURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
I.

INFORMATION GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE PUBLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
A. Section 552.022 Categories of Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
1. Discovery Privileges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2. Court Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
B. Certain Investment Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
C. Other Kinds of Information that May Not Be Withheld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

II.

EXCEPTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
A. Section 552.101: Confidential Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
1. Information Confidential Under Specific Statutes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
a. State Statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
b. Federal Statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2. Information Confidential by Judicial Decision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
a. Information Confidential Under Common Law or
Constitutional Privacy Doctrine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
i. Common-Law Privacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
(a) Generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

B.

C.

D.
E.
F.
G.

H.

(b) Financial Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
ii. Constitutional Privacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
iii. Privacy Rights Lapse upon Death of the Subject.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
iv. False-Light Privacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
v. Special Circumstances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
vi. Dates of Birth of Members of the Public. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
b. Informer’s Privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Section 552.102: Confidentiality of Certain Personnel Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
1. Dates of Birth of Public Employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2. Transcripts of Professional Public School Employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Section 552.103: Litigation or Settlement Negotiations Involving the
State or a Political Subdivision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
1. Governmental Body’s Burden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2. Only Circumstances Existing at the Time of the Request. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3. Temporal Nature of Section 552.103.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4. Scope of Section 552.103. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5. Duration of Section 552.103 for Criminal Litigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Section 552.104: Information Relating to Competition or Bidding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Section 552.105: Information Related to Location or Price of Property. . . . . . . . . . 87
Section 552.106: Certain Legislative Documents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Section 552.107: Certain Legal Matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
1. Information Within the Attorney-Client Privilege.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
a. Attorney Fee Bills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
b. Information a Private Attorney Holds for the Governmental Body.. . . . . . . . 92
c. Waiver of the Attorney-Client Privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2. Information Protected by Court Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Section 552.108: Certain Law Enforcement, Corrections, and
Prosecutorial Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
1. The Meaning of “Law Enforcement Agency” and the Applicability of
Section 552.108 to Other Units of Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2. Application of Section 552.108. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
a. Interference with Detection, Investigation, or Prosecution of Crime. . . . . . . 97
i. Information Relating to the Detection, Investigation, or
Prosecution of Crime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
ii. Internal Records of a Law Enforcement Agency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
b. Concluded Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
c. Information Relating to a Threat Against a Peace Officer or
Detention Officer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
d. Prosecutor Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3. Limitations on Scope of Section 552.108. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4. Application of Section 552.108 to Information Relating to Police
Officers and Complaints Against Police Officers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
a. Personnel Files of Police Officers Serving in Civil Service Cities. . . . . . . . 102
5. Other Related Law Enforcement Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
a. Criminal History Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
b. Juvenile Law Enforcement Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

I.
J.
K.
L.

M.

N.
O.
P.

Q.
R.
S.

T.

U.
V.
W.
X.
Y.
Z.

c. Child Abuse and Neglect Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
d. Sex Offender Registration Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
e. Records of 9-1-1 Calls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
f. Certain Information Related to Terrorism and Homeland Security.. . . . . . . 109
g. Body Worn Camera Program.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
h. Video Recordings of Arrests for Intoxication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Section 552.1081: Confidentiality of Certain Information Regarding
Execution of Convict. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Section 552.1085: Confidentiality of Sensitive Crime Scene Image. . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Section 552.109: Confidentiality of Certain Private Communications of
an Elected Office Holder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Section 552.110: Confidentiality of Trade Secrets and Confidentiality of
Certain Commercial or Financial Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
1. Trade Secrets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2. Commercial or Financial Information Privileged or Confidential by Law. . . . . 117
Section 552.111: Agency Memoranda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
1. Deliberative Process Privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
2. Work Product Privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Section 552.112: Certain Information Relating to Regulation of Financial
Institutions or Securities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Section 552.113: Confidentiality of Geological or Geophysical Information. . . . . 122
Sections 552.026 and 552.114: Confidentiality of Student Records. . . . . . . . . . . . 126
1. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2. Section 552.114: Confidentiality of Student Records.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Section 552.115: Confidentiality of Birth and Death Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Section 552.116: Audit Working Papers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Section 552.117: Confidentiality of Certain Addresses, Telephone Numbers,
Social Security Numbers, and Personal Family Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
1. Subsection (a)(1): Public Officials and Employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
2. Subsections (a)(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), and (10): Other
Categories of Officers and Employees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
3. Subsection (a)(11): Members of the Texas Military Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Section 552.1175: Confidentiality of Certain Personal Information of Peace
Officers, County Jailers, Security Officers, Employees of Certain Criminal or
Juvenile Justice Agencies or Offices, and Federal and State Judges.. . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Section 552.1176: Confidentiality of Certain Information Maintained by
State Bar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Section 552.118: Confidentiality of Official Prescription Program Information. . . 145
Section 552.119: Confidentiality of Certain Photographs of Peace Officers. . . . . . 145
Section 552.120: Confidentiality of Certain Rare Books and Original
Manuscripts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Section 552.121: Confidentiality of Certain Documents Held for Historical
Research.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Section 552.122: Test Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

AA.

Section 552.123: Confidentiality of Name of Applicant for Chief
Executive Officer of Institution of Higher Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
BB. Section 552.1235: Confidentiality of Identity of Private Donor to
Institution of Higher Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
CC. Section 552.124: Confidentiality of Records of Library or Library System. . . . 149
DD. Section 552.125: Certain Audits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
EE.
Section 552.126: Confidentiality of Name of Applicant for Superintendent
of Public School District. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
FF.
Section 552.127: Confidentiality of Personal Information Relating to
Participants in Neighborhood Crime Watch Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
GG. Section 552.128: Confidentiality of Certain Information Submitted by
Potential Vendor or Contractor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
HH. Section 552.129: Confidentiality of Certain Motor Vehicle Inspection
Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
II.
Section 552.130: Confidentiality of Certain Motor Vehicle Records.. . . . . . . . 153
JJ.
Section 552.131: Confidentiality of Certain Economic Development
Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
KK. Section 552.132: Confidentiality of Crime Victim or Claimant
Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
LL.
Section 552.1325: Crime Victim Impact Statement: Certain Information
Confidential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
MM. Section 552.133: Confidentiality of Public Power Utility Competitive
Matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
NN. Section 552.134: Confidentiality of Certain Information Relating to
Inmate of Department of Criminal Justice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
OO. Section 552.135: Confidentiality of Certain Information Held by
School District. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
PP.
Section 552.136: Confidentiality of Credit Card, Debit Card,
Charge Card, and Access Device Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
QQ. Section 552.137: Confidentiality of Certain E-mail Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
RR. Section 552.138: Confidentiality of Family Violence Shelter Center,
Victims of Trafficking Shelter Center, and Sexual Assault Program
Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
SS.
Section 552.139: Confidentiality of Government Information Related to
Security or Infrastructure Issues for Computers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
TT.
Section 552.140: Confidentiality of Military Discharge Records.. . . . . . . . . . . 169
UU. Section 552.141: Confidentiality of Information in Application for
Marriage License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
VV. Section 552.142: Confidentiality of Records Subject to Order of
Nondisclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
WW. Section 552.1425: Civil Penalty: Dissemination of Certain
Criminal History Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
XX. Section 552.143: Confidentiality of Certain Investment Information.. . . . . . . . 172
YY. Section 552.144: Working Papers and Electronic Communications of
Administrative Law Judges at State Office of Administrative Hearings.. . . . . . 174

ZZ.
Section 552.145: Confidentiality of Texas No-Call List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
AAA. Section 552.146: Certain Communications with Assistant or
Employee of Legislative Budget Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
BBB. Section 552.147: Social Security Numbers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
CCC. Section 552.148: Confidentiality of Certain Personal Information
Maintained by Municipality Pertaining to a Minor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
DDD. Section 552.149: Confidentiality of Records of Comptroller or
Appraisal District Received from Private Entity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
EEE. Section 552.150: Confidentiality of Information That Could Compromise
Safety of Officer or Employee of Hospital District. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
FFF. Section 552.151: Confidentiality of Information Concerning Information
Regarding Select Agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
GGG. Section 552.152: Confidentiality of Information Concerning
Public Employee or Officer Personal Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
HHH. Section 552.153: Proprietary Records and Trade Secrets Involved in
Certain Partnerships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
III.
Section 552.154: Name of Applicant for Executive Director,
Chief Investment Officer, or Chief Audit Executive of Teacher
Retirement System of Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
JJJ.
Section 552.155: Confidentiality of Certain Property Tax Appraisal
Photographs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
KKK. Section 552.156: Confidentiality of Continuity of Operations Plan. . . . . . . . . . 182
PART THREE: TEXT OF THE TEXAS PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
PART FOUR : RULES PROMULGATED BY THE ATTORNEY GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
PART FIVE:

TABLE OF CASES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

PART SIX :

TABLE OF STATUTES, RULES, REGULATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

PART SEVEN : RULES OF JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
PART EIGHT: PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT DEADLINES FOR GOVERNMENTAL BODIES. . . . . 315
PART NINE:

NOTICE STATEMENT TO PERSONS WHOSE PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
IS REQUESTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

PART TEN :

TEXAS GOVERNMENT CODE SECTION 552.024 PUBLIC ACCESS OPTION
FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

A PREFACE TO THE PUBLIC INFORMATION HANDBOOK
The Act. The Texas Public Information Act (the “Public Information Act” or the “Act”) gives the
public the right to request access to government information. Below is a description of the basic
procedures, rights and responsibilities under the Act.
Making a Request. The Act is triggered when a person submits a written request to a governmental
body. The request must ask for records or information already in existence. The Act does not
require a governmental body to create new information, to do legal research, or to answer questions.
In preparing a request, a person may want to ask the governmental body what information is
available.
Charges to the Requestor. A person may ask to view the information, get copies of the
information, or both. If a request is for copies of information, the governmental body may charge
for the copies. If a request is only for an opportunity to inspect information, then usually the
governmental body may not impose a charge on the requestor. However, under certain limited
circumstances a governmental body may impose a charge for access to information. All charges
imposed by a governmental body for copies or for access to information must comply with the rules
prescribed by the Office of the Attorney General (“OAG”), unless another statute authorizes a
governmental body to set its own charges.
Exceptions to the Act. Although the Act makes most government information available to the
public, some exceptions exist. If an exception might apply and the governmental body wishes to
withhold the information, the governmental body generally must, within ten business days of
receiving the open records request, refer the matter to the OAG for a ruling on whether an exception
applies. If the OAG rules that an exception applies, the governmental body will not release the
information. If a governmental body improperly fails to release information, the Act authorizes the
requestor or the OAG to file a civil lawsuit to compel the governmental body to release the
information.
Questions or Complaints. To reach the OAG’s Open Government Hotline, call toll-free
(877) 673-6839 (877-OPEN TEX). Hotline staff can answer questions about the proper procedures
for using and complying with the Act and can assist both governmental bodies and people requesting
information from a governmental body. Hotline staff also review written complaints about alleged
violations of the Act. If a complaint relates to charges, contact the OAG’s Cost Hotline toll-free
at (888) 672-6787 (888-ORCOSTS) or forward a written complaint. Certain violations of the Act
may involve possible criminal penalties. Those violations must be reported to the county attorney
or criminal district attorney.
Federal Agencies. The Act does not apply to the federal government or to any of its departments
or agencies. If you are seeking information from the federal government, the appropriate law is the
federal Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”). FOIA’s rules and procedures are different from those
of the Public Information Act.

-i-

Rights of Requestors
All people who request public information have the right to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Receive treatment equal to all other requestors
Receive a statement of estimated charges in advance
Choose whether to inspect the requested information, receive a copy of the information, or
both
Be notified when the governmental body asks the OAG for a ruling on whether the
information may or must be withheld
Be copied on the governmental body’s written comments to the OAG stating the reason why
the stated exceptions apply
Lodge a complaint with the OAG regarding any improper charges for responding to a public
information request
Lodge a complaint with the OAG or the county attorney or criminal district attorney, as
appropriate, regarding any alleged violation of the Act

Responsibilities of Requestors
All people who request public information have the responsibility to:
•
•
•
•
•
•

Submit a written request according to a governmental body’s reasonable procedures
Include enough description and detail of the requested information so the governmental body
can accurately identify and locate the requested items
Cooperate with the governmental body’s reasonable requests to clarify the type or amount
of information requested
Respond promptly in writing to all written communications from the governmental body
(including any written estimate of charges)
Make a timely payment for all valid charges
Keep all appointments for inspection of records or for pick-up of copies

Rights of Governmental Bodies
All governmental bodies responding to information requests have the right to:
•
•
•
•
•
•

Establish reasonable procedures for inspecting or copying information
Request and receive clarification of vague or overly broad requests
Request an OAG ruling regarding whether any information may or must be withheld
Receive timely payment for all copy charges or other charges
Obtain payment of overdue balances exceeding $100 or obtain a security deposit before
processing additional requests from the same requestor
Request a bond, prepayment or deposit if estimated costs exceed $100 (or, if the
governmental body has fewer than 16 employees, $50)

-ii-

Responsibilities of Governmental Bodies
All governmental bodies responding to information requests have the responsibility to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Treat all requestors equally
Complete open records training as required by law
Be informed of open records laws and educate employees on the requirements of those laws
Inform the requestor of cost estimates and any changes in the estimates
Confirm the requestor agrees to pay the costs before incurring the costs
Provide requested information promptly
Inform the requestor if the information will not be provided within ten business days and
give an estimated date on which it will be provided
Cooperate with the requestor to schedule reasonable times for inspecting or copying
information
Follow attorney general rules on charges; do not overcharge on any items; do not bill for
items that must be provided without charge
Inform third parties if their proprietary information is being requested from the governmental
body
Inform the requestor when the OAG has been asked to rule on whether information may or
must be withheld
Copy the requestor on written comments submitted to the OAG stating the reasons why the
stated exceptions apply
Comply with any OAG ruling on whether an exception applies or file suit against the OAG
within 30 days
Respond in writing to all written communications from the OAG regarding complaints about
violations of the Act

This Handbook is available on the OAG’s website at http://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov. The
website also provides access to the following:
•
•
•

Attorney General Opinions dating from 1939 through the present;
all formal Open Records Decisions (ORDs); and
most informal Open Records letter rulings (ORLs) issued since January 1989.

Additional tools found on the site include the Open Meetings Handbook, the text of the Public
Information and Open Meetings Acts, and other valuable publications and resources for
governmental bodies and citizens.

-iii-

The following is a list of telephone numbers that may be helpful to those needing answers to open
government questions.
Open Government Hotline
for questions regarding the Act and
the Texas Open Meetings Act

TOLL-FREE
or

(877) OPEN TEX
(512) 478-6736

Cost Hotline
for questions regarding charges under the Act

TOLL-FREE
or

(888) ORCOSTS
(512) 475-2497

Freedom of Information Foundation
for questions regarding FOIA

(800) 580-6651

State Library and Archives Commission
Records Management Assistance
for records retention questions

(512) 421-7200

U.S. Department of Education
Family Policy Compliance Office
for questions regarding FERPA and education records

(202) 260-3887

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
(800) 368-1019
Office for Civil Rights
for questions regarding the Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and protected health information

-iv-

How the Public Information Act Works

Note on Terminology
In previous publications and rulings, the OAG has referred to chapter 552 of the Government Code
as the “Open Records Act.” The OAG, in conformity with the statute, has adopted the term “Public
Information Act” to refer to the provisions of chapter 552. However, the OAG will continue, in this
Handbook and elsewhere, to use the term “open records” in other contexts, such as “open records
request” and “open records decision.”
The
symbol is used throughout the Handbook to indicate sections that discuss significant
changes in the law that have occurred since publication of the 2014 Handbook.

PART ONE: HOW THE PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT WORKS
I.

OVERVIEW

A.

Historical Background

The Texas Public Information Act (the “Public Information Act” or the “Act”) was adopted in 1973
by the reform-minded Sixty-third Legislature.1 The Sharpstown scandal, which occurred in 1969
and came to light in 1971, provided the motivation for several enactments opening up government
to the people.2
The Act was initially codified as V.T.C.S. article 6252-17a, which was repealed in 19933 and
replaced by the Public Information Act now codified in the Texas Government Code at chapter 552.4
The codification of the Act was a nonsubstantive revision.5

B.

Policy; Construction

The preamble of the Public Information Act is codified at section 552.001 of the Government Code.
It declares the basis for the policy of open government expressed in the Public Information Act. It
finds that basis in “the American constitutional form of representative government” and “the
principle that government is the servant and not the master of the people.” It further explains this
principle in terms of the need for an informed citizenry:

1

Act of May 19, 1973, 63rd Leg., R.S., ch. 424, 1973 Tex. Gen. Laws 1112.

2

See generally Mutscher v. State, 514 S.W .2d 905 (Tex. Crim. App. 1974) (summarizing events of Sharpstown
scandal); see also “Sharpstown Stock-Fraud Scandal,” Handbook of Texas Online, published by the Texas State
Historical Association, at http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mqs01.

3

Act of May 4, 1993, 73rd Leg., R.S., ch. 268, § 46, 1993 Tex. Gen. Laws 583, 986.

4

Act of May 4, 1993, 73rd Leg., R.S., ch. 268, § 1, 1993 Tex. Gen. Laws 583, 594–607.

5

Act of May 4, 1993, 73rd Leg., R.S., ch. 268, § 47, 1993 Tex. Gen. Laws 583, 986.

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How the Public Information Act Works

The people, in delegating authority, do not give their public servants the right to decide
what is good for the people to know and what is not good for them to know. The people
insist on remaining informed so that they may retain control over the instruments they
have created.
The purpose of the Public Information Act is to maintain the people’s control “over the instruments
they have created.” The Act requires the attorney general to construe the Act liberally in favor of
open government.6

C.

Attorney General to Maintain Uniformity in Application, Operation and
Interpretation of the Act

Section 552.011 of the Government Code authorizes the attorney general to prepare, distribute and
publish materials, including detailed and comprehensive written decisions and opinions, in order to
maintain uniformity in the application, operation and interpretation of the Act.7

D.

Section 552.021

Section 552.021 of the Government Code is the starting point for understanding the operation of the
Public Information Act. It provides as follows:
Public information is available to the public at a minimum during the normal business
hours of the governmental body.
This provision tells us information in the possession of a governmental body is generally available
to the public. Section 552.002(a) of the Government Code defines “public information” as:
information that is written, produced, collected, assembled, or maintained under a law or
ordinance or in connection with the transaction of official business:
(1)

by a governmental body;

(2)

for a governmental body and the governmental body:
(A) owns the information;
(B) has a right of access to the information; or

6

Gov’t Code § 552.001(b); see A & T Consultants v. Sharp, 904 S.W .2d 668, 675 (Tex. 1995); Abbott v. City of
Corpus Christi, 109 S.W .3d 113, 118 (Tex. App.— Austin 2003, no pet.); Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W .3d 473, 480
(Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.).

7

Gov’t Code § 552.011.

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How the Public Information Act Works

(C) spends or contributes public money for the purpose of writing, producing,
collecting, assembling, or maintaining the information; or
(3)

by an individual officer or employee of a governmental body in the officer’s or
employee’s official capacity and the information pertains to official business of the
governmental body.

If the governmental body wishes to withhold information from a member of the public, it must show
that the requested information is within at least one of the exceptions to required public disclosure.8
Subchapter C of the Act, sections 552.101 through 552.156, lists the specific exceptions to required
public disclosure; these exceptions are discussed in Part Two of this Handbook.

E.

Open Records Training

The Act applies to every governmental body in Texas, yet prior to 2006 there was no uniform
requirement or mechanism for public officials to receive training in how to comply with the law.
The Seventy-ninth Legislature enacted section 552.012 of the Government Code, which requires
public officials to receive training in the requirements of the Open Meetings and Public Information
Acts. The training requirement of the Public Information Act, codified at section 552.012, provides:
(a) This section applies to an elected or appointed public official who is:
(1)

a member of a multimember governmental body;

(2)

the governing officer of a governmental body that is headed by a single officer
rather than by a multimember governing body; or

(3)

the officer for public information of a governmental body, without regard to
whether the officer is elected or appointed to a specific term.

(b) Each public official shall complete a course of training of not less than one and not
more than two hours regarding the responsibilities of the governmental body with
which the official serves and its officers and employees under this chapter not later
than the 90th day after the date the public official:

8

(1)

takes the oath of office, if the person is required to take an oath of office to
assume the person’s duties as a public official; or

(2)

otherwise assumes the person’s duties as a public official, if the person is not
required to take an oath of office to assume the person’s duties.

Open Records Decision No. 363 (1983) (information is public unless it falls within specific exception).

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How the Public Information Act Works

(c) A public official may designate a public information coordinator to satisfy the training
requirements of this section for the public official if the public information coordinator
is primarily responsible for administering the responsibilities of the public official or
governmental body under this chapter. Designation of a public information
coordinator under this subsection does not relieve a public official from the duty to
comply with any other requirement of this chapter that applies to the public official.
The designated public information coordinator shall complete the training course
regarding the responsibilities of the governmental body with which the coordinator
serves and of its officers and employees under this chapter not later than the 90th day
after the date the coordinator assumes the person’s duties as coordinator.
(d) The attorney general shall ensure that the training is made available. The office of the
attorney general may provide the training and may also approve any acceptable course
of training offered by a governmental body or other entity. The attorney general shall
ensure that at least one course of training approved or provided by the attorney general
is available on videotape or a functionally similar and widely available medium at no
cost. The training must include instruction in:
(1)

the general background of the legal requirements for open records and public
information;

(2)

the applicability of this chapter to governmental bodies;

(3)

procedures and requirements regarding complying with a request for information
under this chapter;

(4)

the role of the attorney general under this chapter; and

(5)

penalties and other consequences for failure to comply with this chapter.

(e) The office of the attorney general or other entity providing the training shall provide
a certificate of course completion to persons who complete the training required by this
section. A governmental body shall maintain and make available for public inspection
the record of its public officials’ or, if applicable, the public information coordinator’s
completion of the training.
(f) Completing the required training as a public official of the governmental body satisfies
the requirements of this section with regard to the public official’s service on a
committee or subcommittee of the governmental body and the public official’s ex officio
service on any other governmental body.

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How the Public Information Act Works

(g) The training required by this section may be used to satisfy any corresponding training
requirements concerning this chapter or open records required by law for a public
official or public information coordinator. The attorney general shall attempt to
coordinate the training required by this section with training required by other law to
the extent practicable.
(h) A certificate of course completion is admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution
under this chapter. However, evidence that a defendant completed a course of training
offered under this section is not prima facie evidence that the defendant knowingly
violated this chapter.
Minimum Training Requirement: The law requires elected and appointed officials to attend, at
a minimum, a one-hour educational course on the Public Information Act. This is a one-time-only
training requirement; no refresher courses are required.
Compliance Deadlines: The law took effect on January 1, 2006. Officials who were in office
before January 1, 2006 had one year—until January 1, 2007—to complete the required training.
Officials who were elected or appointed after January 1, 2006, have 90 days within which to
complete the required training.
Who Must Obtain the Training: The requirement applies to all governmental bodies subject to
the Act. It requires the top elected and appointed officials from governmental bodies subject to these
laws to complete a training course on the Act. Alternatively, public officials may designate a public
information coordinator to attend training in their place so long as the designee is the person
primarily responsible for the processing of open records requests for the governmental body. It is
presumed most governmental bodies already have a designated public information coordinator;
therefore, officials may choose to opt out of the training provided they designate their public
information coordinator to receive the training in their place. However, officials are encouraged to
complete the required training, and designation of a public information coordinator to complete
training on their behalf does not relieve public officials of the responsibility to comply with the law.
May Not Opt Out of Training if Required by Other Law: Open government training is already
required for the top officials of many state agencies under the Sunset Laws. The opt-out provisions
of the training requirement would not apply to officials who are already required by another law to
receive open government training.
Judicial Officials and Employees: Judicial officials and employees do not need to attend training
regarding the Act because public access to information maintained by the judiciary is governed by
Rule 12 of the Judicial Administration Rules of the Texas Supreme Court and by other applicable
laws and rules.9

9

Gov’t Code § 552.0035.

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How the Public Information Act Works

Training Curriculum: The basic topics to be covered by the training include:
1. the general background of the legal requirements for public information;
2. the applicability of the Act to governmental bodies;
3. procedures and requirements regarding complying with open records requests;
4. the role of the attorney general under the Act; and
5. penalties and other consequences for failure to comply with the Act.
Training Options: The law contains provisions to ensure that training is widely available and free
training courses are available so all officials in the state can have easy access to the training. The
OAG provides a training video and “live” training courses.
Governmental Entities May Provide Training: Governmental entities that already provide their
own internal training on the Act may continue to do so provided the curriculum meets the minimum
requirements set forth by section 552.012 and is reviewed and approved by the OAG.
Other Entities May Provide Training: Officials may obtain the required training from any entity
that offers a training course that has been reviewed and approved by the OAG. This encompasses
courses by various interest groups, professional organizations, and continuing education providers.
Evidence of Course Completion: The trainer is required to provide the participant with a certificate
of course completion. The official or public information coordinator’s governmental body is then
required to maintain the certificate and make it available for public inspection. The OAG does not
maintain certificates for governmental bodies.
No Penalty for Failure to Receive Training: The purpose of the law is to foster open government
by making open government education a recognized obligation of public service. The purpose is not
to create a new civil or criminal violation, so there are no specific penalties for failure to comply
with the mandatory training requirement. Despite the lack of a penalty provision, officials should
be cautioned that a deliberate failure to attend training may result in an increased risk of criminal
conviction should they be accused of violating the Act.
Training Requirements Will Be Harmonized: To avoid imposing duplicate training requirements
on public officials, the attorney general is required to harmonize the training required by section
552.012 with any other statutory training requirements that may be imposed on public officials.
Please visit the attorney general’s website at http://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov for more
information on section 552.012.

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II. ENTITIES SUBJECT TO THE PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT
The Public Information Act applies to information of every “governmental body.” “Governmental
body” is defined in section 552.003(1)(A) of the Government Code to mean:
(i)

a board, commission, department, committee, institution, agency, or office that is
within or is created by the executive or legislative branch of state government and
that is directed by one or more elected or appointed members;

(ii)

a county commissioners court in the state;

(iii) a municipal governing body in the state;
(iv) a deliberative body that has rulemaking or quasi-judicial power and that is classified
as a department, agency, or political subdivision of a county or municipality;
(v)

a school district board of trustees;

(vi) a county board of school trustees;
(vii) a county board of education;
(viii) the governing board of a special district;
(ix) the governing body of a nonprofit corporation organized under Chapter 67, Water
Code, that provides a water supply or wastewater service, or both, and is exempt
from ad valorem taxation under Section 11.30, Tax Code;
(x)

a local workforce development board created under Section 2308.253;

(xi) a nonprofit corporation that is eligible to receive funds under the federal community
services block grant program and that is authorized by this state to serve a
geographic area of the state; and
(xii) the part, section, or portion of an organization, corporation, commission, committee,
institution, or agency that spends or that is supported in whole or in part by public
funds[.]
The judiciary is expressly excluded from the definition of “governmental body.”10 The required
public release of records of the judiciary is governed by Rule 12 of the Texas Rules of Judicial
Administration.11

10

Gov’t Code § 552.003(1)(B).

11

Rule 12 of the Texas Rules of Judicial Administration is located in Part Seven of this Handbook.

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An entity that does not believe it is a “governmental body” within this definition may make a timely
request for a decision from the attorney general under subchapter G of the Act if there has been no
previous determination regarding this issue and it wishes to withhold the requested information.12

A. State and Local Governmental Bodies
The definition of the term “governmental body” encompasses all public entities in the executive and
legislative branches of government at the state and local levels. Although a sheriff’s office, for
example, is not within the scope of section 552.003(1)(A)(i)–(xi), it is supported by public funds and
is therefore a “governmental body” within section 552.003(1)(A)(xii).13

B. Private Entities
1. Private Entities Supported by Public Funds
An entity that is supported in whole or in part by public funds or that spends public funds is a
governmental body under section 552.003(1)(A)(xii) of the Government Code. Public funds are
“funds of the state or of a governmental subdivision of the state.”14 The Texas Supreme Court has
defined “‘supported in whole or part by public funds’ to include only those private entities or their
sub-parts sustained, at least in part, by public funds, meaning they could not perform the same or
similar services without the public funds.”15 Thus, section 552.003(1)(A)(xii) encompasses only
those private entities that are dependent on public funds to operate as a going concern,16 and only
those entities acting as the functional equivalent of the government.17 Prior to the supreme court’s
decision in Greater Houston Partnership, when determining whether a private entity’s receipt of
public funds brought the entity within the definition of “governmental body” in section
552.003(1)(A)(xii), the courts and this office applied three distinct patterns of analysis:
The opinions advise that an entity receiving public funds becomes a governmental body
under the Act, unless its relationship with the government imposes “a specific and definite
obligation . . . to provide a measurable amount of service in exchange for a certain amount of
money as would be expected in a typical arms-length contract for services between a vendor and
purchaser.” Tex. Att’y Gen. No. JM-821 (1987), quoting ORD-228 (1979). That same opinion
informs that “a contract or relationship that involves public funds and that indicates a common
purpose or objective or that creates an agency-type relationship between a private entity and a

12

See Blankenship v. Brazos Higher Educ. Auth., Inc., 975 S.W .2d 353, 362 (Tex. App.— W aco 1998, pet. denied)
(entity does not admit it is governmental body by virtue of request for opinion from attorney general).

13

Open Records Decision No. 78 (1975) (discussing statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.003(1)(A)(xii)); see
Permian Report v. Lacy, 817 S.W .2d 175 (Tex. App.— El Paso 1991, writ denied) (suggesting county clerk’s office
is subject to Act as agency supported by public funds).

14

Gov’t Code § 552.003(5).

15

Greater Houston P’ship v. Paxton, No. 13-0745, 2015 W L 3978138, at *9 (Tex. June 26, 2015).

16

Greater Houston P’ship v. Paxton, No. 13-0745, 2015 W L 3978138, at *7 (Tex. June 26, 2015).

17

Greater Houston P’ship v. Paxton, No. 13-0745, 2015 W L 3978138, at *8 (Tex. June 26, 2015).

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public entity will bring the private entity within the . . . definition of a ‘governmental body.’”
Finally, that opinion, citing others, advises that some entities, such as volunteer fire departments,
will be considered governmental bodies if they provide “services traditionally provided by
governmental bodies.”18
The standard announced by the supreme court in Greater Houston Partnership replaces these prior
patterns of analysis.
2. Private Entities Deemed Governmental Bodies by Statute
The Eighty-fourth Legislature amended section 51.212 of the Education Code to provide:
(f) A campus police department of a private institution of higher education is a law
enforcement agency and a governmental body for purposes of Chapter 552, Government
Code, only with respect to information relating solely to law enforcement activities.19
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this subsection of the Education Code.

C. Certain Property Owners’ Associations Subject to Act
Section 552.0036 provides:
A property owners’ association is subject to [the Act] in the same manner as a
governmental body
(1) if:
(A) membership in the property owners’ association is mandatory for owners or for
a defined class of owners of private real property in a defined geographic area
in a county with a population of 2.8 million or more or in a county adjacent to
a county with a population of 2.8 million or more;
(B) the property owners’ association has the power to make mandatory special
assessments for capital improvements or mandatory regular assessments; and
(C) the amount of the mandatory special or regular assessments is or has ever
been based in whole or in part on the value at which the state or a local
governmental body assesses the property for purposes of ad valorem taxation
under Section 20, Article VIII, Texas Constitution; or

18

Kneeland v. Nat’l Collegiate Athletic Ass’n, 850 F.2d 224, 228 (5th Cir. 1988) cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1042 (1989).

19

Act of May 21, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 308, § 1 (to be codified at Educ. Code § 51.212(f)).

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(2) if the property owners’ association:
(A) provides maintenance, preservation, and architectural control of residential and
commercial property within a defined geographic area in a county with a
population of 2.8 million or more or in a county adjacent to a county with a
population of 2.8 million or more; and
(B) is a corporation that:
(i)

is governed by a board of trustees who may employ a general manager
to execute the association’s bylaws and administer the business of the
corporation;

(ii)

does not require membership in the corporation by the owners of the
property within the defined area; and

(iii)

was incorporated before January 1, 2006.

The only county in Texas with a population of 2.8 million or more is Harris County. The counties
adjoining Harris County are Waller, Fort Bend, Brazoria, Galveston, Chambers, Liberty, and
Montgomery. Thus, property owners’ associations located in those counties and otherwise within
the parameters of section 552.0036 are considered to be governmental bodies for purposes of the
Act.

D. A Governmental Body Holding Records for Another Governmental Body
One governmental body may hold information on behalf of another governmental body. For
example, state agencies may transfer noncurrent records to the Records Management Division of the
Texas State Library and Archives Commission for storage.20 State agency records held by the state
library under the state records management program should be requested from the originating state
agency, not the state library. The governmental body by or for which information is collected,
assembled, or maintained pursuant to section 552.002(a) retains ultimate responsibility for disclosing
or withholding information in response to a request under the Public Information Act, even though
another governmental body has physical custody of it.21

E. Private Entities Holding Records for Governmental Bodies
On occasion, when a governmental body has contracted with a private consultant to prepare
information for the governmental body, the consultant keeps the report and data in the consultant’s
office, and the governmental body reviews it there. Although the information is not in the physical
custody of the governmental body, the information is in the constructive custody of the governmental

20

Open Records Decision No. 617 (1993); see Open Records Decision No. 674 (2001).

21

Open Records Decision No. 576 (1990).

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body and is therefore subject to the Act.22 The private consultant is acting as the governmental
body’s agent in holding the records. Section 552.002(a) of the Act was amended in 1989 to codify
this interpretation of the Act.23
The definition of “public information” in Government Code Section 552.002 read as follows:
(a)

information that is written, produced, collected, assembled, or maintained under a
law or ordinance or in connection with the transaction of official business:
(1)

by a governmental body;

(2)

for a governmental body and the governmental body:
(A) owns the information;
(B) has a right of access to the information; or
(C) spends or contributes public money for the purpose of writing, producing,
collecting, assembling, or maintaining the information; or

(3)

by an individual officer or employee of a governmental body in the officer’s or
employee’s official capacity and the information pertains to official business of
the governmental body

(a-1) Information is in connection with the transaction of official business if the
information is created by, transmitted to, received by, or maintained by an officer or
employee of the governmental body in the officer’s or employee’s official capacity, or
a person or entity performing official business or a governmental function on behalf
of a governmental body, and pertains to official business of the governmental body.
The following decisions recognize that various records held for governmental bodies by private
entities are subject to the Act:
Open Records Decision No. 585 (1991) — the city manager may not contract away the right to
inspect the list of applicants maintained by a private consultant for the city;
Open Records Decision No. 499 (1988) — the records held by a private attorney employed by
a municipality that relate to legal services performed at the request of the municipality;
Open Records Decision No. 462 (1987) — records regarding the investigation of a university
football program prepared by a law firm on behalf of the university and kept at the law firm’s
office; and
22

Open Records Decision No. 462 (1987).

23

Act of May 29, 1989, 71st Leg., R.S., ch. 1248, § 9, 1989 Tex. Gen. Laws 4996, 5023.

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Open Records Decision No. 437 (1986) — the records prepared by bond underwriters and
attorneys for a utility district and kept in an attorney’s office.24
Section 2252.907 of the Government Code contains specific requirements for a contract between a
state governmental entity and a nongovernmental vendor involving the exchange or creation of
public information.

F. Judiciary Excluded from the Public Information Act
Section 552.003(1)(B) of the Government Code excludes the judiciary from the Public Information
Act. Section 552.0035 of the Government Code specifically provides that access to judicial records
is governed by rules adopted by the Supreme Court of Texas or by other applicable laws and rules.25
(See Part Seven of this Handbook for Rule 12 of the Texas Rules of Judicial Administration.) This
provision, however, expressly provides that it does not address whether particular records are judicial
records.
The purposes and limits of section 552.003(1)(B) were discussed in Benavides v. Lee.26 At issue in
that case were applications for the position of chief juvenile probation officer submitted to the Webb
County Juvenile Board. The court determined that the board was not “an extension of the judiciary”
for purposes of the Public Information Act, even though the board consisted of members of the
judiciary and the county judge. The court stated as follows:
The Board is not a court. A separate entity, the juvenile court, not the Board, exists to adjudicate
matters concerning juveniles. Nor is the Board directly controlled or supervised by a court.
Moreover, simply because the Legislature chose judges as Board members, art. 5139JJJ, § 1,
does not in itself indicate they perform on the Board as members of the judiciary. . . .
[C]lassification of the Board as judicial or not depends on the functions of the Board, not on
members’ service elsewhere in government.27
The decisions made by the board were administrative, not judicial, and the selection of a probation
officer was part of the board’s administration of the juvenile probation system, not a judicial act by
a judicial body. The court continued:

24

See also Baytown Sun v. City of Mont Belvieu, 145 S.W .3d 268 (Tex. App.— Houston [14th Dist.] 2004, no pet.)
(municipality had right of access to employee salary information of company it contracted with to manage
recreational complex); Open Records Decision No. 585 (1991) (overruling Open Records Decision Nos. 499 (1988),
462 (1987), 437 (1986) to extent they suggest governmental body can waive its right of access to information
gathered on its behalf).

25

Gov’t Code § 552.0035; see R. Jud. Admin. 12; see also, e.g., Ashpole v. Millard, 778 S.W .2d 169, 170 (Tex.
App.— Houston [1st Dist.] 1989, no writ) (public has right to inspect and copy judicial records subject to court’s
inherent power to control public access to its records); Attorney General Opinion DM-166 (1992); Open Records
Decision No. 25 (1974).

26

Benavides v. Lee, 665 S.W.2d 151 (Tex. App.— San Antonio 1983, no writ).

27

Benavides v. Lee, 665 S.W.2d 151, 151–52 (Tex. App.—San Antonio 1983, no writ) (footnote omitted).

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The judiciary exception, § 2(1)(G) [now section 552.003(1)(B) of the Government Code], is
important to safeguard judicial proceedings and maintain the independence of the judicial branch
of government, preserving statutory and case law already governing access to judicial records.
But it must not be extended to every governmental entity having any connection with the
judiciary.28
The Texas Supreme Court also addressed the judiciary exception in Holmes v. Morales.29 In that
case, the court found that “judicial power” as provided for in article V, section 1, of the Texas
Constitution “embraces powers to hear facts, to decide issues of fact made by pleadings, to decide
questions of law involved, to render and enter judgment on facts in accordance with law as
determined by the court, and to execute judgment or sentence.”30 Because the court found the Harris
County District Attorney did not perform these functions, it held the district attorney is not a member
of the judiciary, but is a governmental body within the meaning of the Public Information Act.
In Open Records Decision No. 657 (1997), the attorney general concluded telephone billing records
of the Supreme Court did not relate to the exercise of judicial powers but rather to routine
administration and were not “records of the judiciary” for purposes of the Public Information Act.
The Texas Supreme Court subsequently overruled Open Records Decision No. 657 (1997), finding
the court was not a governmental body under the Act and its records were therefore not subject to
the Act.31
The State Bar of Texas is a “public corporation and an administrative agency of the judicial
department of government.”32 Section 81.033 of the Government Code provides that, with certain
exceptions, all records of the State Bar are subject to the Public Information Act.33
The following decisions address the judiciary exclusion:
Open Records Decision No. 671 (2001) — the information contained in the weekly index reports
produced by the Ellis County District Clerk’s office is derived from a case disposition database
that is “collected, assembled, or maintained . . . for the judiciary.” Gov’t Code § 552.0035(a).
Therefore, the information contained in weekly index reports is not public information under the
Act;

28

Benavides v. Lee, 665 S.W.2d 151, 152 (Tex. App.— San Antonio 1983, no writ).

29

Holmes v. Morales, 924 S.W.2d 920 (Tex. 1996).

30

Holmes v. Morales, 924 S.W.2d 920, 923 (Tex. 1996).

31

Order and Opinion Denying Request Under Open Records Act, No. 97-9141, 1997 W L 583726 (Tex. August 21,
1997) (not reported in S.W .2d).

32

Gov’t Code § 81.011(a); see Open Records Decision No. 47 (1974) (records of state bar grievance committee were
confidential pursuant to Texas Supreme Court rule; not deciding whether state bar was part of judiciary).

33

Compare Open Records Decision No. 604 (1992) (considering request for list of registrants for Professional
Development Programs) with In re Nolo Press/Folk Law, Inc., 991 S.W .2d 768 (Tex. 1999) (Unauthorized Practice
of Law Committee of state bar is judicial agency and therefore subject to Rule 12 of Texas Rules of Judicial
Administration).

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Open Records Decision No. 646 (1996) — a community supervision and corrections department
is a governmental body and is not part of the judiciary for purposes of the Public Information
Act. Administrative records such as personnel files and other records reflecting the day-to-day
management of a community supervision and corrections department are subject to the Public
Information Act.34 On the other hand, specific records regarding individuals on probation and
subject to the direct supervision of a court that are held by a community supervision and
corrections department are not subject to the Public Information Act because such records are
held on behalf of the judiciary;
Open Records Decision No. 610 (1992) — the books and records of an insurance company
placed in receivership pursuant to article 21.28 of the Insurance Code are excluded from the
Public Information Act as records of the judiciary;
Open Records Decision No. 572 (1990) — certain records of the Bexar County Personal Bond
Program are within the judiciary exclusion;
Open Records Decision No. 513 (1988) — records held by a district attorney on behalf of a grand
jury are in the grand jury’s constructive possession and are not subject to the Public Information
Act. However, records a district attorney collects, prepares, and submits to grand jury are not
in the constructive possession of the grand jury when that information is held by the district
attorney.
Open Records Decision No. 204 (1978) — information held by a county judge as a member of
the county commissioners court is subject to the Public Information Act; and
Open Records Decision No. 25 (1974) — the records of a justice of the peace are not subject to
the Public Information Act but may be inspected under statutory and common-law rights of
access.

III. INFORMATION SUBJECT TO THE PUBLIC INFORMATION
ACT
A. Public Information is Contained in Records of All Forms
Section 552.002(b) of the Government Code states the Public Information Act applies to recorded
information in practically any medium, including: paper; film; a magnetic, optical, solid state or
other device that can store an electronic signal; tape; Mylar; and any physical material on which
information may be recorded, including linen, silk, and vellum.35 Section 552.002(c) specifies that

34

But see Gov’t Code § 76.006(g) (document evaluating performance of officer of community supervision and
corrections department who supervises defendants placed on community supervision is confidential).

35

See also Open Records Decision Nos. 660 (1999) (Section 52(a) of article III of Texas Constitution does not
prohibit Port of Corpus Christi Authority from releasing computer generated digital map), 492 (1988) (raw data
collected by outside consultant, but accessed by comptroller through data link and stored on comptroller’s computer

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“[t]he general forms in which the media containing public information exist include a book, paper,
letter, document, e-mail, Internet posting, text message, instant message, other electronic
communication, printout, photograph, film, tape, microfiche, microfilm, photostat, sound recording,
map, and drawing and a voice, data, or video representation held in computer memory.”

B. Exclusion of Tangible Items
Despite the assumption in Open Records Decision No. 252 (1980) that the Public Information Act
applies to physical evidence, the prevailing view is that tangible items such as a tool or a key are not
“information” within the Act, even though they may be copied or analyzed to produce information.
In Open Records Decision No. 581 (1990), the attorney general dealt with a request for the source
code, documentation, and computer program documentation standards of computer programs used
by a state university. The requested codes, documentation, and documentation standards contained
security measures designed to prevent unauthorized access to student records. The attorney general
noted the sole significance of the computer source code, documentation, and documentation
standards was “as a tool for the storage, manipulation, and security of other information.”36 While
acknowledging the comprehensive scope of the term “information,” the attorney general nevertheless
determined the legislature could not have intended that the Public Information Act compromise the
physical security of information management systems or other government property.37 The attorney
general concluded that information used solely as a tool to maintain, manipulate, or protect public
property was not the kind of information made public by the statutory predecessor to section 552.021
of the Public Information Act.38

C. Personal Notes and E-mail in Personal Accounts or Devices
A few early decisions of the attorney general found certain personal notes of public employees were
not “information collected, assembled, or maintained by governmental bodies pursuant to law or
ordinance or in connection with the transaction of official business.”39 Thus, such personal notes
were not considered subject to the Public Information Act.40 Governmental bodies are advised to
use caution in relying on early open records decisions that address “personal notes.”

system), 432 (1985) (photographic negatives), 413 (1984) (sketches), 364 (1983) (videotapes), 352 (1982)
(computer tapes), 32 (1974) (tape recordings).
36

Open Records Decision No. 581 at 6 (1990).

37

Open Records Decision No. 581 at 5–6 (1990) (drawing comparison to door key, whose sole significance as
“information” is its utility as tool in matching internal mechanism of lock).

38

Open Records Decision No. 581 at 6 (1990) (overruling in part Open Records Decision No. 401 (1983), which had
suggested implied exception to required public disclosure applied to requested computer programs); see also
Attorney General Opinion DM-41 (1991) (formatting codes are not “information” subject to Act).

39

Open Records Decision No. 77 (1975) (quoting statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.021).

40

See Open Records Decision No. 116 (1975) (portions of desk calendar kept by governor’s aide comprising notes
of private activities and aide’s notes made solely for his own informational purposes are not public information);
see also Open Records Decision No. 145 (1976) (handwritten notes on university president’s calendar are not public
information).

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More recent decisions have concluded personal notes are not necessarily excluded from the
definition of “public information” and may be subject to the Act.41 The characterization of
information as “public information” under the Act is not dependent on whether the requested records
are in the possession of an individual, rather than a governmental body, or whether a governmental
body has a particular policy or procedure that establishes a governmental body’s access to the
information.42 If information was made, transmitted, maintained, or received in connection with a
governmental body’s official business, the mere fact that the governmental body does not possess
the information does not take the information outside the scope of the Act.43 In Adkisson v. Paxton,
the court of appeals considered a request for correspondence related to a county commissioner’s
official capacity from his personal and county e-mail accounts. The court concluded the information
in the commissioner’s official-capacity e-mails is necessarily connected with the transaction of the
county’s official business, and the county owns the information regardless of whether the
information is created or received in a personal e-mail account or an official county e-mail account.
Thus, the court held the requested information is “public information” subject to the Act. This case
construes a prior version section 552.002 of the Act, which the Eighty-third Legislature amended,
along with section 552.003, in 2013.44
The amended definition of “public information” in section 552.002(a-2) now specifically includes:
any electronic communication created, transmitted, received, or maintained on any device
if the communication is in connection with the transaction of official business.
Section 552.002(a-1) further defines “information . . . in connection with the transaction of official
business” as:
information . . . created by, transmitted to, received by, or maintained by an officer or
employee of the governmental body in the officer’s or employee’s official capacity, or a
person or entity performing official business or a governmental function on behalf of a
governmental body, and pertains to official business of the governmental body.
Adopting the attorney general’s long-standing interpretation, the definition of “public information”
now takes into account the use of electronic devices and cellular phones by public employees and

41

See, e.g., Open Records Decision Nos. 635 (1995) (public official’s or employee’s appointment calendar, including
personal entries, may be subject to Act), 626 (1994) (handwritten notes taken during oral interview by Texas
Department of Public Safety promotion board members are subject to Act), 450 (1986) (handwritten notes taken
by appraiser while observing teacher’s classroom performance are subject to Act), 120 (1976) (faculty members’
written evaluations of doctoral student’s qualifying exam are subject to Act).

42

See Open Records D ecision No. 635 at 3-4 (1995) (information does not fall outside definition of “public
information” in Act merely because individual member of governmental body possesses information rather than
governmental body as whole); see also Open Records Decision No. 425 (1985) (information sent to individual
school trustees’ homes was public information because it related to official business of governmental body)
(overruled on other grounds by Open Records Decision No. 439 (1986)).

43

See Open Records Decision No. 635 at 6-8 (1995) (information maintained on privately-owned medium and actually
used in connection with transaction of official business would be subject to Act).

44

Adkisson v. Paxton, 459 S.W.3d 761 (Tex. App.— Austin 2015, no pet.).

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officials in the transaction of official business. The Act does not distinguish between personal or
employer-issued devices, but rather focuses on the nature of the communication or document. If the
information was created, transmitted, received, or maintained in connection with the transaction of
“official business,” meaning, “any matter over which a governmental body has any authority,
administrative duties, or advisory duties,” the information constitutes public information subject to
disclosure under the Act.45
There are no cases or formal decisions applying these amendments to section 552.002 or 552.003.

D. Commercially Available Information
Section 552.027 provides:
(a)

A governmental body is not required under this chapter to allow the inspection of or
to provide a copy of information in a commercial book or publication purchased or
acquired by the governmental body for research purposes if the book or publication
is commercially available to the public.

(b)

Although information in a book or publication may be made available to the public
as a resource material, such as a library book, a governmental body is not required
to make a copy of the information in response to a request for public information.

(c)

A governmental body shall allow the inspection of information in a book or
publication that is made part of, incorporated into, or referred to in a rule or policy
of a governmental body.

This section is designed to alleviate the burden of providing copies of commercially available books,
publications, and resource materials maintained by governmental bodies, such as telephone
directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, statutes, and periodicals. Therefore, section 552.027
provides exemptions from the definition of “public information” under section 552.002 for
commercially available research material. However, pursuant to subsection (c) of section 552.027,
a governmental body must allow inspection of a publication that is made a part of, or referred to in,
a rule or policy of the governmental body.

IV. PROCEDURES FOR ACCESS TO PUBLIC INFORMATION
A. Informing the Public of Basic Rights and Responsibilities Under the Act
Section 552.205 of the Government Code requires the officer for public information of a
governmental body to display a sign, in the form required by the attorney general, that contains basic
information about the rights of a requestor, the responsibilities of a governmental body, and the
procedures for inspecting or obtaining a copy of public information under the Public Information
45

Gov’t Code § 552.003(2-a).

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Act. The sign is to be displayed at one or more places in the administrative offices of the
governmental body where it is plainly visible to members of the public requesting information and
employees of the governmental body whose duties involve receiving or responding to requests under
the Act. The sign’s format as prescribed by the attorney general is available on the attorney general’s
website. In addition, a chart outlining various deadlines to which governmental bodies are subject
can be found in Part Eight of this Handbook.

B. The Request for Public Information
A governmental body that receives a verbal request for information may require the requestor to
submit that request in writing because the governmental body’s duty under section 552.301(a) to
request a ruling from the attorney general arises only after it receives a written request.46 Open
Records Decision No. 654 (1997) held the Public Information Act did not require a governmental
body to respond to a request for information sent by electronic mail. However, the Seventy-fifth
Legislature amended section 552.301 by defining a written request for information to include “a
request made in writing that is sent to the officer for public information, or the person designated by
that officer, by electronic mail or facsimile transmission.”47 Therefore, Open Records Decision
No. 654 (1997) is superseded by the 1997 amendment of section 552.301.
Generally, a request for information need not name the Act or be addressed to the officer for public
information.48 An overly technical reading of the Act does not effectuate the purpose of the Act; a
written communication that reasonably can be judged to be a request for public information is a
request for information under the Public Information Act.49 However, a request made by electronic
mail or facsimile transmission must be sent to the officer for public information or the officer’s
designee.50 Requests for a state agency’s records that are stored in the Texas State Library and
Archives Commission’s State and Local Records Management Division should be directed to the
originating agency, rather than to the state library.51
A governmental body must make a good faith effort to relate a request to information that it holds.52
A governmental body may ask a requestor to clarify a request for information if the request is
unclear.53 Section 552.222(b) provides that if a large amount of information has been requested, the
governmental body may discuss with the requestor how the scope of the request might be narrowed,
but the governmental body may not inquire into the purpose for which information will be used.54
Section 552.222 also provides that a request for information is considered withdrawn if the requestor

46

Open Records Decision No. 304 at 2 (1982).

47

Gov’t Code § 552.301(c).

48

See Open Records Decision Nos. 497 at 3 (1988), 44 at 2 (1974).

49

Open Records Decision No. 44 at 2 (1974).

50

Gov’t Code § 552.301(c).

51

Open Records Decision No. 617 (1993).

52

Open Records Decision No. 561 at 8 (1990).

53

Gov’t Code § 552.222(b).

54

Gov’t Code § 552.222(b).

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does not respond in writing to a governmental body’s written request for clarification or additional
information within 61 days.55 The governmental body’s written request for clarification or additional
information must include a statement as to the consequences of the failure by the requestor to timely
respond.56 If the requestor’s original request for information was sent by electronic mail, a
governmental body may consider the request for information withdrawn if the governmental body
sends its request for clarification to the electronic mail address from which the original request was
sent or another electronic mail address, and the governmental body does not receive a timely written
response or response by electronic mail from the requestor.57 If the requestor’s original request for
information was not sent by electronic mail, a governmental body may consider the request for
information withdrawn if the governmental body sent its request for clarification by certified mail
to the requestor’s physical or mailing address, and the governmental body does not receive a timely
written response from the requestor.58 When a governmental body, acting in good faith, requests
clarification or narrowing of an unclear or overbroad request, the ten business day period to request
an attorney general ruling is measured from the date the requestor responds to the request for
clarification or narrowing.59 A governmental body may, however, make certain inquiries of a
requestor who seeks information relating to motor vehicle records to determine if the requestor is
authorized to receive the information under the governing statute.60 Similarly, a governmental body
may require a requestor seeking an interior photograph taken by an appraisal district for property tax
appraisal purposes to provide additional information sufficient to determine whether the requestor
is eligible to receive the photograph.61 In addition, a governmental body may make inquiries of a
requestor in order to establish proper identification.62
It is implicit in several provisions of the Act that it applies only to information already in existence.63
Thus, the Act does not require a governmental body to prepare new information in response to a
request.64 Furthermore, the Act does not require a governmental body to inform a requestor if the
requested information comes into existence after the request has been made.65 Consequently, a
governmental body is not required to comply with a continuing request to supply information on a
periodic basis as such information is prepared in the future.66 Moreover, the Act does not require

55

Gov’t Code § 552.222(d).

56

Gov’t Code § 552.222(e).

57

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2134, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.222(g)).

58

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2134, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.222(f)).

59

City of Dallas v. Abbott, 304 S.W.3d 380, 387 (Tex. 2010).

60

Gov’t Code § 552.222(c) (referencing Transp. Code ch. 730).

61

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 46, § 2 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.222(c-1)).

62

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 46, § 2 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.222(a)).

63

See Gov’t Code §§ 552.002, .021, .227, .351.

64

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W .2d 668, 676 (Tex. 1995); Fish v. Dallas Indep. Sch. Dist., 31 S.W .3d
678, 681 (Tex. App.— Eastland 2000, pet. denied); Attorney General Opinion H-90 (1973); Open Records Decision
Nos. 452 at 2–3 (1986), 342 at 3 (1982), 87 (1975).

65

Open Records Decision No. 452 at 3 (1986).

66

Attorney General Opinion JM-48 at 2 (1983); Open Records Decision Nos. 476 at 1 (1987), 465 at 1 (1987).

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a governmental body to prepare answers to questions or to do legal research.67 Section 552.227
states that “[a]n officer for public information or the officer’s agent is not required to perform
general research within the reference and research archives and holdings of state libraries.”
Section 552.232 provides for the handling of repetitious or redundant requests.68 Under this section,
a governmental body that receives a request for information for which it determines it has already
furnished or made copies available to the requestor upon payment of applicable charges under
Subchapter F may respond to the request by certifying to the requestor that it has already made the
information available to the person. The certification must include a description of the information
already made available; the date of the governmental body’s receipt of the original request for the
information; the date it furnished or made the information available; a certification that no changes
have been made to the information; and the name, title, and signature of the officer for public
information, or his agent, who makes the certification.
Section 552.0055 provides that a subpoena duces tecum or request for discovery issued in
compliance with a statute or rule of civil or criminal procedure is not considered to be a request for
information under the Public Information Act.

C. The Governmental Body’s Duty to Produce Public Information Promptly
The Act designates the chief administrative officer and each elected county officer as the officer for
public information for a governmental body.69 In general, the officer for public information must
protect public information and promptly make it available to the public for copying or inspecting.70
Section 552.221 specifies the duties of the officer for public information upon receiving a request
for public information. Section 552.221 reads in part:
(a)

An officer for public information of a governmental body shall promptly produce
public information for inspection, duplication, or both on application by any person
to the officer. In this subsection, “promptly” means as soon as possible under the
circumstances, that is, within a reasonable time, without delay.

(b)

An officer for public information complies with Subsection (a) by:
(1) providing the public information for inspection or duplication in the offices of the
governmental body; or

67

See Open Records Decision Nos. 563 at 8 (1990) (considering request for federal and state laws and regulations),
555 at 1–2 (1990) (considering request for answers to fact questions).

68

Gov’t Code § 552.232.

69

See Gov’t Code §§ 552.201, .202 (designating officer for public information and identifying department heads as
agents for that officer); see also Keever v. Finlan, 988 S.W .2d 300, 301 (Tex. App.— Dallas 1999, pet. dism’d)
(school district superintendent, rather than school board member, is chief administrative officer and custodian of
public records).

70

See Gov’t Code § 552.203 (listing general duties of officer for public information).

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(2) sending copies of the public information by first class United States mail if the
person requesting the information requests that copies be provided and pays the
postage and any other applicable charges that the requestor has accrued under
Subchapter F.
(b-1) In addition to the methods of production described by Subsection (b), an officer for
public information for a political subdivision of this state complies with Subsection
(a) by referring a requestor to an exact Internet location or uniform resource locator
(URL) address on a website maintained by the political subdivision and accessible to
the public if the requested information is identifiable and readily available on that
website. If the person requesting the information prefers a manner other than access
through the URL, the political subdivision must supply the information in the
manner required by Subsection (b).
(b-2) If an officer for public information for a political subdivision provides by e-mail an
Internet location or uniform resource locator (URL) address as permitted by
Subsection (b-1), the e-mail must contain a statement in a conspicuous font clearly
indicating that the requestor may nonetheless access the requested information by
inspection or duplication or by receipt through United States mail, as provided by
Subsection (b).71
Thus, in order to comply with section 552.221, generally a governmental body must either provide
the information for inspection or duplication in its offices or send copies of the information by first
class United States mail. The Eighty-fourth Legislature amended section 552.221 to provide an
additional option for a “political subdivision.”72 Note the term “political subdivision” is not defined
in the Public Information Act and is distinct from “governmental body,” which is defined in section
552.003(1) of the Act. A political subdivision may comply with section 552.221 by referring the
requestor to an exact Internet location or URL address maintained by the political subdivision and
accessible to the public, if the requested information is identifiable and readily accessible on the
website.73 If the political subdivision uses e-mail to refer the requestor to an Internet location or
URL address, the e-mail must contain a statement in a conspicuous font indicating the requestor may
still choose to inspect the information or receive copies of the information.74 If the requestor prefers
to inspect the information or receive copies instead of accessing the information on the political
subdivision’s website, the political subdivision must either provide the information for inspection
or duplication in its offices or send copies of the information by first class mail.75 The attorney
general has determined in a formal decision that a public information officer does not fulfill his or
her duty under section 552.221 by simply referring a requestor to a governmental body’s website.76

71

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 685, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.221(b-1), (b-2)).

72

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 685, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.221(b-1), (b-2)).

73

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 685, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.221(b-1)).

74

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 685, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.221(b-2)).

75

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 685, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.221(b-1)).

76

Open Records Decision No. 682 (2005).

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Although this decision is superseded by the amendment to section 552.221 for political subdivisions,
the decision continues to apply to governmental bodies that are not political subdivisions. This
attorney general decision further states a requestor may agree to accept information on a
governmental body’s website in fulfillment of the request and, in that situation, the governmental
body must inform the requestor of the Internet address of the requested information.77
An officer for public information is not responsible for how a requestor uses public information or
for the release of information after it is removed from a record as a result of an update, a correction,
or a change of status of the person to whom the information pertains.78
The officer for public information must “promptly” produce public information in response to an
open records request.79 “Promptly” means that a governmental body may take a reasonable amount
of time to produce the information, but may not delay.80 It is a common misconception that a
governmental body may wait ten business days before releasing the information. In fact, as
discussed above, the requirement is to produce information “promptly.” What constitutes a
reasonable amount of time depends on the facts in each case. The volume of information requested
is highly relevant to what constitutes a reasonable period of time.81
If the request is to inspect the information, the Public Information Act requires only that the officer
in charge of public information make it available for review within the “offices of the governmental
body.”82 Temporarily transporting records outside the office for official use does not trigger a duty
to make the records available to the public wherever they may be.83
Subsection 552.221(c) states:
If the requested information is unavailable at the time of the request to examine because
it is in active use or in storage, the officer for public information shall certify this fact in
writing to the requestor and set a date and hour within a reasonable time when the
information will be available for inspection or duplication.
The following decisions discuss when requested information is in “active use”:
Open Records Decision No. 225 (1979) — a secretary’s handwritten notes are in active use while
the secretary is typing minutes of a meeting from them;

77

Open Records Decision No. 682 (2005).

78

Gov’t Code § 552.204; Open Records Decision No. 660 at 4 (1999).

79

Gov’t Code § 552.221(a); see Dominguez v. Gilbert, 48 S.W .3d 789, 792 (Tex. App.— Austin 2001, no pet.); Open
Records Decision No. 665 (2000).

80

Gov’t Code § 552.221(a); see Open Records Decision No. 467 at 6 (1987).

81

Open Records Decision No. 467 at 6 (1987).

82

Gov’t Code § 552.221(b).

83

Conely v. Peck, 929 S.W.2d 630, 632 (Tex. App.— Austin 1996, no writ).

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Open Records Decision No. 148 (1976) — a faculty member’s file is not in active use the entire
time the member’s promotion is under consideration;
Open Records Decision No. 96 (1975) — directory information about students is in active use
while the notice required by the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 is
being given; and
Open Records Decision No. 57 (1974) — a file containing student names, addresses, and
telephone numbers is in active use during registration.
If an officer for public information cannot produce public information for inspection or duplication
within ten business days after the date the information is requested, section 552.221(d) requires the
officer to “certify that fact in writing to the requestor and set a date and hour within a reasonable time
when the information will be available for inspection or duplication.”

D. The Requestor’s Right of Access
The Public Information Act prohibits a governmental body from inquiring into a requestor’s reasons
or motives for requesting information. In addition, a governmental body must treat all requests for
information uniformly. Sections 552.222 and 552.223 provide as follows:
§ 552.222. Permissible Inquiry by Governmental Body to Requestor

84

(a)

The officer for public information and the officer’s agent may not make an inquiry
of a requestor except to establish proper identification or except as provided by
Subsection (b), (c), or (c-1).84

(b)

If what information is requested is unclear to the governmental body, the
governmental body may ask the requestor to clarify the request. If a large amount
of information has been requested, the governmental body may discuss with the
requestor how the scope of a request might be narrowed, but the governmental body
may not inquire into the purpose for which information will be used.

(c)

If the information requested relates to a motor vehicle record, the officer for public
information or the officer’s agent may require the requestor to provide additional
identifying information sufficient for the officer or the officer’s agent to determine
whether the requestor is eligible to receive the information under Chapter 730,
Transportation Code. In this subsection, “motor vehicle record” has the meaning
assigned that term by Section 730.003, Transportation Code.

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 46, § 2 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.222(a)).

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(c-1) If the information requested includes a photograph described by Section 552.155(a),
the officer for public information or the officer’s agent may require the requestor to
provide additional information sufficient for the officer or the officer’s agent to
determine whether the requestor is eligible to receive the information under
Section 552.155(b).85
§ 552.223. Uniform Treatment of Requests for Information
The officer for public information or the officer’s agent shall treat all requests for
information uniformly without regard to the position or occupation of the requestor, the
person on whose behalf the request is made, or the status of the individual as a member of
the media.
Although section 552.223 requires an officer for public information to treat all requests for
information uniformly, section 552.028 provides as follows:
(a)

A governmental body is not required to accept or comply with a request for
information from:
(1) an individual who is imprisoned or confined in a correctional facility; or
(2) an agent of that individual, other than that individual’s attorney when the
attorney is requesting information that is subject to disclosure under this chapter.

(b)

This section does not prohibit a governmental body from disclosing to an individual
described by Subsection (a)(1), or that individual’s agent, information held by the
governmental body pertaining to that individual.

(c)

In this section, “correctional facility” means:
(1) a secure correctional facility, as defined by Section 1.07, Penal Code;
(2) a secure correctional facility and a secure detention facility, as defined by
Section 51.02, Family Code; and
(3) a place designated by the law of this state, another state, or the federal
government for the confinement of a person arrested for, charged with, or
convicted of a criminal offense.

Under section 552.028, a governmental body is not required to comply with a request for information
from an inmate or his agent, other than the inmate’s attorney, even if the requested information

85

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 46, § 2 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.222(c-1)).

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pertains to the inmate.86 While subsection (b) does not prohibit a governmental body from
complying with an inmate’s request, it does not mandate compliance.87
Generally, a requestor may choose to inspect or copy public information, or to both inspect and copy
public information.88 In certain circumstances, a governmental body may charge the requestor for
access to or copies of the requested information.
1. Right to Inspect
Generally, if a requestor chooses to inspect public information, the requestor must complete the
inspection within ten business days after the date the governmental body makes the information
available or the request will be withdrawn by operation of law.89 However, a governmental body is
required to extend the inspection period upon receiving a written request for additional time.90 If the
information is needed by the governmental body, the officer for public information may interrupt a
requestor’s inspection of public information.91 When a governmental body interrupts a requestor’s
inspection of public information, the period of interruption is not part of the ten business day
inspection period.92 A governmental body may promulgate policies that are consistent with the
Public Information Act for efficient, safe, and speedy inspection and copying of public information.93
2. Right to Obtain Copies
If a copy of public information is requested, a governmental body must provide “a suitable copy . . .
within a reasonable time after the date on which the copy is requested.”94 However, the Act does not
authorize the removal of an original copy of a public record from the office of a governmental

86

See Harrison v. Vance, 34 S.W .3d 660, 662–63 (Tex. App.— Dallas 2000, no pet.); Hickman v. Moya, 976 S.W .2d
360, 361 (Tex. App.— W aco 1998, pet. denied); M oore v. Henry, 960 S.W.2d 82, 84 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st
Dist.] 1996, no writ).

87

Moore v. Henry, 960 S.W .2d 82, 84 (Tex. App.— Houston [1st Dist.] 1996, no writ); Open Records Decision
No. 656 at 3 (1997) (statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.028 applies to request for voter registration
information under Elec. Code § 18.008 when request is from incarcerated individual).

88

Gov’t Code §§ 552.221, .225, .228, .230.

89

Gov’t Code § 552.225(a); see also Open Records Decision No. 512 (1988) (statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code
§ 552.225 did not apply to requests for copies of public information or authorize governmental body to deny
repeated requests for copies of public records).

90

Gov’t Code § 552.225(b).

91

Gov’t Code § 552.225(c).

92

Gov’t Code § 552.225(c).

93

Gov’t Code § 552.230; see Attorney General Opinion JM-757 (1987) (governmental bodies may deny requests for
information when requests raise questions of safety or unreasonable disruption of business).

94

Gov’t Code § 552.228(a).

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body.95 If the requested records are copyrighted, the governmental body must comply with federal
copyright law.96
A governmental body may receive a request for a public record that contains both publicly available
and excepted information. In a decision that involved a document that contained both publicly
available information and information that was excepted from disclosure by the statutory predecessor
to section 552.111, the attorney general determined the Act did not permit the governmental body
to provide the requestor with a new document created in response to the request on which the
publicly available information had been consolidated and retyped, unless the requestor agreed to
receive a retyped document.97 Rather, the attorney general concluded that the statutory predecessor
to section 552.228 required the governmental body to make available to the public copies of the
actual public records the governmental body had collected, assembled, or maintained, with the
excepted information excised.98
The public’s right to suitable copies of public information has been considered in the following
decisions:
Attorney General Opinion JM-757 (1987) — a governmental body may refuse to allow members
of the public to duplicate public records by means of portable copying equipment when it is
unreasonably disruptive of working conditions, when the records contain confidential
information, when it would cause safety hazards, or when it would interfere with other persons’
rights to inspect and copy records;
Open Records Decision No. 660 (1999) — section 52(a) of article III of the Texas Constitution
does not prohibit the Port of Corpus Christi Authority from releasing a computer generated
digital map, created by the Port with public funds, in response to a request made under
chapter 552 of the Government Code;
Open Records Decision No. 633 (1995) — a governmental body does not comply with the Public
Information Act by releasing to the requestor another record as a substitute for any specifically
requested portions of an offense report that are not excepted from required public disclosure,
unless the requestor agrees to the substitution;
Open Records Decision No. 571 (1990) — the Public Information Act does not give a member
of the public a right to use a computer terminal to search for public records; and

95

Gov’t Code § 552.226.

96

See Open Records Decision No. 660 at 5 (1999) (Federal Copyright Act “may not be used to deny access to or
copies of the information sought by the requestor under the Public Information Act,” but a governmental body may
place reasonable restrictions on use of copyrighted information consistent with rights of copyright owner).

97

Open Records Decision No. 606 at 2–3 (1992).

98

Open Records Decision No. 606 at 2–3 (1992).

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Open Records Decision No. 243 (1980) — a governmental body is not required to compile or
extract information if the information can be made available by giving the requestor access to
the records themselves.99

E. Computer and Electronic Information
Section 552.228(b) provides:
If public information exists in an electronic or magnetic medium, the requestor may
request a copy in an electronic medium, such as on diskette or on magnetic tape. A
governmental body shall provide a copy in the requested medium if:
(1) the governmental body has the technological ability to produce a copy of the
requested information in the requested medium;
(2) the governmental body is not required to purchase any software or hardware to
accommodate the request; and
(3) provision of a copy of the information in the requested medium will not violate the
terms of any copyright agreement between the governmental body and a third
party.100
If a governmental body is unable to provide the information in the requested medium for any of the
reasons described by section 552.228(b), the governmental body shall provide the information in
another medium that is acceptable to the requestor.101 A governmental body is not required to use
material provided by a requestor, such as a diskette, but rather may use its own supplies to comply
with a request.102
A request for public information that requires a governmental body to program or manipulate
existing data is not considered a request for the creation of new information.103 If a request for public
information requires “programming or manipulation of data,”104 and “compliance with the request
is not feasible or will result in substantial interference with its ongoing operations,”105 or “the
information could be made available in the requested form only at a cost that covers the
programming and manipulation of data,”106 a governmental body is required to provide the requestor

99

See also Open Records Decision Nos. 512 (1988), 465 (1987), 144 (1976).

100

Gov’t Code § 552.228(b).

101

Gov’t Code § 552.228(b).

102

Gov’t Code § 552.228(c).

103

Fish v. Dallas Indep. Sch. Dist., 31 S.W .3d 678, 681–82 (Tex. App.— Eastland 2000, pet. denied); see Gov’t Code
§ 552.231; Attorney General Opinion H-90 (1973); Open Records Decision Nos. 452 at 2–3 (1986), 87 (1975).

104

Gov’t Code § 552.231(a)(1); see Gov’t Code § 552.003(2), (4) (defining “manipulation” and “programming”).

105

Gov’t Code § 552.231(a)(2)(A).

106

Gov’t Code § 552.231(a)(2)(B).

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with a written statement describing the form in which the information is available, a description of
what would be required to provide the information in the requested form, and a statement of the
estimated cost and time to provide the information in the requested form.107 The governmental body
shall provide the statement to the requestor within twenty days after the date the governmental body
received the request.108 If, however, the governmental body gives written notice within the twenty
days that additional time is needed, the governmental body has an additional ten days to provide the
statement.109 Once the governmental body provides the statement to the requestor, the governmental
body has no obligation to provide the requested information in the requested form unless within
thirty days the requestor responds to the governmental body in writing.110 If the requestor does not
respond within thirty days, the request is considered withdrawn.111

V.

DISCLOSURE TO SELECTED PERSONS

A. General Rule: Under the Public Information Act, Public Information is
Available to All Members of the Public
The Public Information Act states in several provisions that public information is available to “the
people,” “the public,” and “any person.”112 Thus, the Public Information Act deals primarily with
the general public’s access to information; it does not, as a general matter, give an individual a
“special right of access” to information concerning that individual that is not otherwise public
information.113 Information that a governmental body collects, assembles or maintains is, in general,
either open to all members of the public or closed to all members of the public.
Additionally, section 552.007 prohibits a governmental body from selectively disclosing information
that is not confidential by law but that a governmental body may withhold under an exception to
disclosure. Section 552.007 provides as follows:
(a)

This chapter does not prohibit a governmental body or its officer for public
information from voluntarily making part or all of its information available to the

107

Gov’t Code § 552.231(a), (b); see Fish v. Dallas Indep. Sch. Dist., 31 S.W .3d 678, 682 (Tex. App.— Eastland 2000,
pet. denied); Open Records Decision No. 661 at 6–8 (1999).

108

Gov’t Code § 552.231(c).

109

Gov’t Code § 552.231(c).

110

Gov’t Code § 552.231(d). See also Fish v. Dallas Indep. Sch. Dist., 31 S.W .3d 678, 682 (Tex. App.— Eastland
2000, pet. denied); Open Records Decision No. 661 (1999) (Gov’t Code § 552.231 enables governmental body and
requestor to reach agreement as to cost, time and other terms of responding to request requiring programming or
manipulation of data).

111

Gov’t Code § 552.231(d-1).

112

See, e.g., Gov’t Code §§ 552.001, .021, .221(a). The Act does not require a requestor be a Texas resident or an
American citizen.

113

Open Records Decision No. 507 at 3 (1988); see also Attorney General Opinion JM-590 at 4 (1986); Open Records
Decision No. 330 at 2 (1982).

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public, unless the disclosure is expressly prohibited by law or the information is
confidential under law.
(b)

Public information made available under Subsection (a) must be made available to
any person.114

If, therefore, a governmental body releases to a member of the public nonconfidential information,
then the governmental body must release the information to all members of the public who request
it. For example, in rendering an open records decision under section 552.306, the attorney general
would not consider a governmental body’s claim that section 552.111 authorized the governmental
body to withhold a report from a requestor when the governmental body had already disclosed the
report to another member of the public.115

B. Some Disclosures of Information to Selected Individuals or Entities Do
Not Constitute Disclosures to the Public Under Section 552.007
As noted, the Public Information Act prohibits the selective disclosure of information to members
of the public. A governmental body may, however, have authority to disclose records to certain
persons or entities without those disclosures being voluntary disclosures to “the public” within the
meaning of section 552.007 of the Government Code. In these cases, the governmental body
normally does not waive applicable exceptions to disclosure by transferring or disclosing the records
to these specific persons or entities.
1. Special Rights of Access: Exceptions to Disclosure Expressly Inapplicable to a Specific
Class of Persons
a. Special Rights of Access Under the Public Information Act
The following provisions in the Public Information Act provide an individual with special rights of
access to certain information even though the information is unavailable to members of the general
public: sections 552.008, 552.023, 552.026, and 552.114.
i. Information for Legislative Use
Section 552.008 of the Government Code states in pertinent part:
(a)

This chapter does not grant authority to withhold information from individual
members, agencies, or committees of the legislature to use for legislative purposes.

114

See also Open Records Decision No. 463 at 1–2 (1987).

115

See Open Records Decision No. 400 at 2 (1983) (construing statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.111); see
also Cornyn v. City of Garland, 994 S.W .2d 258, 265 (Tex. App.— Austin 1999, no pet.) (information released
pursuant to discovery in litigation was not voluntarily released and thus was excepted from disclosure under Public
Information Act).

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(b)

A governmental body on request by an individual member, agency, or committee of
the legislature shall provide public information, including confidential information,
to the requesting member, agency, or committee for inspection or duplication in
accordance with this chapter if the requesting member, agency, or committee states
that the public information is requested under this chapter for legislative purposes.

Section 552.008 provides that a governmental body shall provide copies of information, including
confidential information, to an individual member, agency, or committee of the legislature if
requested for legislative purposes.116 The section provides that disclosure of excepted or confidential
information to a legislator does not waive or affect the confidentiality of the information or the right
to assert exceptions in the future regarding that information, and provides specific procedures
relating to the confidential treatment of the information.117 An individual who obtains confidential
information under section 552.008 commits an offense if that person misuses the information or
discloses it to an unauthorized person.118
Subsections (b-1) and (b-2) of section 552.008 provide:
(b-1)

A member, committee, or agency of the legislature required by a governmental
body to sign a confidentiality agreement under Subsection (b) may seek a decision
as provided by Subsection (b-2) about whether the information covered by the
confidentiality agreement is confidential under law. A confidentiality agreement
signed under Subsection (b) is void to the extent that the agreement covers
information that is finally determined under Subsection (b-2) to not be
confidential under law.

(b-2)

The member, committee, or agency of the legislature may seek a decision from the
attorney general about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall establish
procedures and deadlines for receiving information necessary to decide the matter
and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body, and any other interested
person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested under
this subsection, determining whether the information covered by the
confidentiality agreement is confidential under law, not later than the 45th
business day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision
under this subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the
matter and provide a copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental
body, and any interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief
to the attorney general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental
body may appeal a decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a
Travis County district court. A person may appeal a decision of the attorney

116

See Tex. Comm’n on Envtl. Quality v. Abbott, 311 S.W .3d 663 (Tex. App.— Austin 2010, pet. denied) (Gov’t
Code § 552.008 required commission to release to legislator for legislative purposes attorney-client privileged
documents subject to confidentiality agreement).

117

Gov’t Code § 552.008(b).

118

Gov’t Code § 552.352(a-1).

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general under this subsection to a Travis County district court if the person
claims a proprietary interest in the information affected by the decision or a
privacy interest in the information that a confidentiality law or judicial decision
is designed to protect.119
If a member of the legislature signs a confidentiality agreement but subsequently believes the
information the governmental body has released pursuant to section 552.008 is not confidential, the
member may request an attorney general decision regarding the confidentiality of the information.120
If the attorney general determines the information is not confidential, any confidentiality agreement
the member signed is void. The attorney general promulgated rules relating to its decisions under
section 552.008(b-2).121 These rules are available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four
of this Handbook.
ii. Information About the Person Who Is Requesting the Information
Section 552.023 of the Government Code provides an individual with a limited special right of
access to information about that individual. It states in pertinent part:
(a)

A person or a person’s authorized representative has a special right of access, beyond
the right of the general public, to information held by a governmental body that
relates to the person and that is protected from public disclosure by laws intended to
protect that person’s privacy interests.

(b)

A governmental body may not deny access to information to the person, or the
person’s representative, to whom the information relates on the grounds that the
information is considered confidential by privacy principles under this chapter but
may assert as grounds for denial of access other provisions of this chapter or other
law that are not intended to protect the person’s privacy interests.

Subsections (a) and (b) of section 552.023 prevent a governmental body from asserting an
individual’s own privacy as a reason for withholding records from that individual. However, the
individual’s right of access to private information about that individual under section 552.023 does
not override exceptions to disclosure in the Public Information Act or confidentiality laws protecting

119

Gov’t Code § 552.008(b-1), (b-2).

120

See, e.g., Open Records Letter No. 2013-08637 (2013).

121

See 1 T.A.C. §§ 63.1–.6.

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some interest other than that individual’s privacy.122 The following decisions consider the statutory
predecessor to section 552.023:
Open Records Decision No. 684 (2009) — when requestor is a person whose privacy interests
are protected under section 552.130, concerning certain motor vehicle information, or section
552.136, concerning access device information, requestor has a right of access to the information
under section 552.023;
Open Records Decision No. 587 (1991) — because former Family Code section 34.08, which
made confidential reports, records, and working papers used or developed in an investigation of
alleged child abuse, protected law enforcement interests as well as privacy interests, the statutory
predecessor to section 552.023 did not provide the subject of the information a special right of
access to the child abuse investigation file;
Open Records Decision No. 577 (1990) — under the Communicable Disease Prevention and
Control Act, information in the possession of a local health authority relating to disease or health
conditions is confidential but may be released with the consent of the person identified in the
information; because this confidentiality provision is designed to protect the privacy of the
subject of the information, the statutory predecessor to section 552.023 authorized a local health
authority to release to the subject medical or epidemiological information relating to the person
who signed the consent.
iii. Information in a Student or Education Record
Section 552.114 of the Government Code, which defines “student record” and deems such records
confidential, states a governmental body must make such information available if the information
is requested by: 1) educational institution personnel; 2) the student involved or the student’s parent,
legal guardian, or spouse; or 3) a person conducting a child abuse investigation pursuant to
subchapter D of chapter 261 of the Family Code.123 Section 552.026 of the Government Code, which
conforms the Act to the requirements of the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of
1974124 (“FERPA”), also incorporates the rights of access established by that federal law.125 To the
extent FERPA conflicts with state law, the federal statute prevails.126
122

See Open Records Decision No. 556 (1990) (predecessor statute to section 552.111 applied to requestor’s claim
information); see also Abbott v. Tex. State Bd. of Pharmacy, 391 S.W .3d 253, 260 (Tex. App.— Austin 2012,
no pet.) (because Pharmacy Act confidentiality provision protected integrity of board’s regulatory process, board’s
withholding of requestor’s records was based on law not intended solely to protect requestor’s privacy interest); Tex.
State Bd. of Chiropractic Exam’rs v. Abbott, 391 S.W.3d 343, 351 (Tex. App.—Austin 2013, no pet.) (because
provision making board’s investigation records confidential protected integrity of board’s regulatory process rather
than requestor’s privacy interest, section 552.023 did not prevent board from denying access to requested
information).

123

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified as amendments to Gov’t Code § 552.114(a),
(b), (c)).

124

20 U.S.C. § 1232g.

125

Open Records Decision No. 431 at 2–3 (1985).

126

Open Records Decision No. 431 at 3 (1985).

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b. Special Rights of Access Created by Other Statutes
Statutes other than the Act grant specific entities or individuals a special right of access to specific
information. For example, section 901.160 of the Occupations Code makes information about a
licensee held by the Texas State Board of Public Accountancy available for inspection by the
licensee. Exceptions in the Act cannot authorize the board to withhold this information from the
licensee because the licensee has a statutory right to the specific information requested.127 As is true
for the right of access provided under section 552.023 of the Act, a statutory right of access does not
affect the governmental body’s authority to rely on applicable exceptions to disclosure when the
information is requested by someone other than an individual with a special right of access.
2. Intra- or Intergovernmental Transfers
The transfer of information within a governmental body or between governmental bodies is not
necessarily a release to the public for purposes of the Act. For example, a member of a
governmental body, acting in his or her official capacity, is not a member of the public for purposes
of access to information in the governmental body’s possession. Thus, an authorized official may
review records of the governmental body without implicating the Act’s prohibition against selective
disclosure.128 Additionally, a state agency may ordinarily transfer information to another state agency
or to another governmental body subject to the Public Information Act without violating the
confidentiality of the information or waiving exceptions to disclosure.129
On the other hand, a federal agency is subject to an open records law that differs from the Texas
Public Information Act. A state governmental body, therefore, should not transfer non-disclosable
information to a federal agency unless some law requires or authorizes the state governmental body

127

Open Records Decision No. 451 at 4 (1986); see also Open Records Decision Nos. 500 at 4–5 (1988) (considering
property owner’s right of access to appraisal records under Tax Code), 478 at 3 (1987) (considering intoxilyzer test
subject’s right of access to test results under statutory predecessor to Transp. Code § 724.018).

128

See Attorney General Opinions JC-0283 at 3–4 (2000), JM-119 at 2 (1983); see also Open Records Decision
Nos. 678 at 4 (2003) (transfer of county registrar’s list of registered voters to secretary of state and election officials
is not release to public prohibited by Gov’t Code § 552.1175), 674 at 4 (2001) (information in archival state records
that was confidential in custody of originating governmental body remains confidential upon transfer to
commission), 666 at 4 (2000) (municipality’s disclosure to municipally appointed citizen advisory board of
information pertaining to municipally owned power utility does not constitute release to public as contemplated
under Gov’t Code § 552.007), 464 at 5 (1987) (distribution of evaluations by university faculty members among
faculty members does not waive exceptions to disclosure with respect to general public) (overruled on other grounds
by Open Records Decision No. 615 (1993)).

129

See Attorney General Opinions H-917 at 1 (1976), H-242 at 4 (1974); Open Records Decision Nos. 667 at 3–4
(2000), 661 at 3 (1999). But see Attorney General Opinion JM-590 at 4–5 (1986) (comptroller’s release to city
prohibited where Tax Code made information confidential, enumerated entities to which information may be
disclosed, and did not include city among enumerated entities).

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to do so.130 A federal agency may not maintain the state records with the “same eye towards
confidentiality that state agencies would be bound to do under the laws of Texas.”131
Where information is confidential by statute, the statute specifically enumerates the entities to which
the information may be released, and the governmental body is not among those entities, the
information may not be transferred to the governmental body.132
3. Other Limited Disclosures that Do Not Implicate Section 552.007
The attorney general has recognized other specific contexts in which a governmental body’s limited
release of information to certain persons does not constitute a release to “the public” under
section 552.007:
Open Records Decision No. 579 at 7 (1990) — exchanging information among litigants in
informal discovery was not a voluntary release under the statutory predecessor to section
552.007;
Open Records Decision No. 501 (1988) — while former article 9.39 of the Insurance Code
prohibited the State Board of Insurance from releasing escrow reports to the public, the Board
could release the report to the title company to which the report related; and
Open Records Decision No. 400 (1983) — the prohibition against selective disclosure does not
apply when a governmental body releases confidential information to the public.

130

Open Records Decision No. 650 at 4 (1996); See, e.g., Open Records Letter No. 2013-07491 (2013) (United States
Army provided right of access under federal law to criminal history record information in certain city police
records).

131

Attorney General Opinion H-242 at 4 (1974); accord Attorney General Opinion MW -565 at 4 (1982); Open Records
Decision No. 561 at 6 (1990) (quoting with approval Attorney General Opinion H-242 (1974)).

132

See generally Attorney General Opinion JM-590 at 5 (1986); Open Records Decision Nos. 661 at 3 (1999), 655 at 8
(1997), 650 at 3 (1996).

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VI. ATTORNEY GENERAL DETERMINES WHETHER
INFORMATION IS SUBJECT TO AN EXCEPTION
A. Duties of the Governmental Body and of the Attorney General Under
Subchapter G
Sections 552.301, 552.302, and 552.303 set out the duty of a governmental body to seek the attorney
general’s decision on whether information is excepted from disclosure to the public.
Section 552.301, subsections (a), (b), and (c), provide that when a governmental body receives a
written request for information the governmental body wishes to withhold, it must seek an attorney
general decision within ten business days of its receipt of the request and state the exceptions to
disclosure that it believes are applicable. Subsections (a), (b), and (c) read:
(a)

A governmental body that receives a written request for information that it wishes
to withhold from public disclosure and that it considers to be within one of the
exceptions under Subchapter C must ask for a decision from the attorney general
about whether the information is within that exception if there has not been a
previous determination about whether the information falls within one of the
exceptions.

...
(b)

The governmental body must ask for the attorney general’s decision and state the
exceptions that apply within a reasonable time but not later than the 10th business
day after the date of receiving the written request.

(c)

For purposes of this subchapter, a written request includes a request made in writing
that is sent to the officer for public information, or the person designated by that
officer, by electronic mail or facsimile transmission.

Thus, a governmental body that wishes to withhold information from the public on the ground of an
exception generally must seek the decision of the attorney general as to the applicability of that
exception.133 In addition, an entity contending that it is not subject to the Act may timely request a
decision from the attorney general to avoid the consequences of noncompliance if the entity is

133

Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W .3d 473, 480 (Tex. App.—Austin 2002, no pet.); Dominguez v. Gilbert, 48 S.W .3d 789,
792 (Tex. App.— Austin 2001, no pet.); Open Records Decision N os. 452 at 4 (1986), 435 (1986) (referring
specifically to statutory predecessors to Gov’t Code §§ 552.103 and 552.111, respectively); see Conely v. Peck, 929
S.W .2d 630, 632 (Tex. App.— Austin 1996, no writ) (requirement to request open records decision within ten days
comes into play when governmental body denies access to requested information or asserts exception to public
disclosure of information).

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determined to be subject to the Act.134 Therefore, when requesting such a decision, the entity should
not only present its arguments as to why it is not subject to the Act, but should also raise any
exceptions to required disclosure it believes apply to the requested information.
A governmental body need not request an attorney general decision if there has been a previous
determination that the requested material falls within one of the exceptions to disclosure.135 What
constitutes a “previous determination” is narrow in scope, and governmental bodies are cautioned
against treating most published attorney general decisions as “previous determinations” to avoid the
requirements of section 552.301(a). The attorney general has determined that there are two types
of previous determinations.136 The first and by far the most common instance of a previous
determination pertains to specific information that is again requested from a governmental body
when the attorney general has previously issued a decision that evaluates the public availability of
the precise information or records at issue. This first instance of a previous determination does not
apply to records that are substantially similar to records previously submitted to the attorney general
for review, nor does it apply to information that may fall within the same category as any given
records on which the attorney general has previously ruled. The first type of previous determination
requires that all of the following criteria be met:
1.

the information at issue is precisely the same information that was previously submitted
to the attorney general pursuant to section 552.301(e)(1)(D) of the Government Code;

2.

the governmental body that received the request for the information is the same
governmental body that previously requested and received a ruling from the attorney
general;

3.

the attorney general’s prior ruling concluded the precise information is or is not excepted
from disclosure under the Act; and

4.

the law, facts, and circumstances on which the prior attorney general ruling was based have
not changed since the issuance of the ruling.137

Absent all four of the above criteria, and unless the second type of previous determination applies,
a governmental body must ask for a decision from the attorney general if it wishes to withhold from
the public information that is requested under the Act.

134

See Blankenship v. Brazos Higher Educ. Auth., Inc., 975 S.W .2d 353, 362 (Tex. App.— W aco 1998, pet. denied)
(entity does not admit it is governmental body by virtue of request for opinion from attorney general).

135

Gov’t Code § 552.301(a); Dominguez v. Gilbert, 48 S.W.3d 789, 792–93 (Tex. App.— Austin 2001, no pet.).

136

Open Records Decision No. 673 (2001).

137

A governmental body should request a decision from the attorney general if it is unclear to the governmental body
whether there has been a change in the law, facts or circumstances on which the prior decision was based.

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The second type of previous determination requires that all of the following criteria be met:
1.

the information at issue falls within a specific, clearly delineated category of information
about which the attorney general has previously rendered a decision;

2.

the previous decision is applicable to the particular governmental body or type of
governmental body from which the information is requested;138

3.

the previous decision concludes the specific, clearly delineated category of information is
or is not excepted from disclosure under the Act;

4.

the elements of law, fact, and circumstances are met to support the previous decision’s
conclusion that the requested records or information at issue is or is not excepted from
required disclosure; and139

5.

the previous decision explicitly provides that the governmental body or bodies to which
the decision applies may withhold the information without the necessity of again seeking
a decision from the attorney general.

Absent all five of the above criteria, and unless the first type of previous determination applies, a
governmental body must ask for a decision from the attorney general if it wishes to withhold
requested information from the public under the Act.
An example of this second type of previous determination is found in Open Records Decision
No. 670. In that decision, the attorney general determined that pursuant to the statutory predecessor
of section 552.117(a)(2) of the Government Code, a governmental body may withhold the home
address, home telephone number, personal cellular telephone number, personal pager number, social
security number, and information that reveals whether the individual has family members, of any
individual who meets the definition of “peace officer” without requesting a decision from the
attorney general.

138

Previous determinations of the second type can apply to all governmental bodies if the decision so provides. See,
e.g., Open Records Decision No. 670 (2001) (all governmental bodies may withhold information subject to
predecessor of Gov’t Code § 552.117(a)(2) without necessity of seeking attorney general decision). On the other
hand, if the decision is addressed to a particular governmental body and does not explicitly provide that it also
applies to other governmental bodies or to all governmental bodies of a certain type, then only the particular
governmental body to which the decision is addressed may rely on the decision as a previous determination. See,
e.g., Open Records Decision No. 662 (1999) (constituting second type of previous determination but only with
respect to information held by Texas Department of Health).

139

Thus, in addition to the law remaining unchanged, the facts and circumstances must also have remained unchanged
to the extent necessary for all of the requisite elements to be met. W ith respect to previous determinations of the
second type, a governmental body should request a decision from the attorney general if it is unclear to the
governmental body whether all of the elements on which the previous decision’s conclusion was based have been
met with respect to the requested records or information.

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The governmental body may not unilaterally decide to withhold information on the basis of a prior
open records decision merely because it believes the legal standard for an exception, as established
in the prior decision, applies to the recently requested information.140
When in doubt, a governmental body should consult with the Open Records Division of the Office
of the Attorney General prior to the ten business day deadline to determine whether requested
information is subject to a previous determination.141
A request for an open records decision pursuant to section 552.301 must come from the
governmental body that has received a written request for information.142 Otherwise, the attorney
general does not have jurisdiction under the Act to determine whether the information is excepted
from disclosure to the public.
Section 552.301(f) expressly prohibits a governmental body from seeking an attorney general
decision where the attorney general or a court has already determined that the same information must
be released. Among other things, this provision precludes a governmental body from asking for
reconsideration of an attorney general decision that concluded the governmental body must release
information. Subsection (f) provides:
(f)

A governmental body must release the requested information and is prohibited from
asking for a decision from the attorney general about whether information requested
under this chapter is within an exception under Subchapter C if:
(1) the governmental body has previously requested and received a determination
from the attorney general concerning the precise information at issue in a pending
request; and
(2) the attorney general or a court determined that the information is public
information under this chapter that is not excepted by Subchapter C.

Section 552.301(g) authorizes a governmental body to ask for another attorney general decision if:
(1) a suit challenging the prior decision was timely filed against the attorney general; (2) the attorney
general determines that the requestor has voluntarily withdrawn the request for the information in
writing or has abandoned the request; and (3) the parties agree to dismiss the lawsuit.143
Section 552.301(d) provides that if the governmental body seeks an attorney general decision as to
whether it may withhold requested information, it must notify the requestor not later than the tenth

140

Open Records Decision No. 511 (1988) (no unilateral withholding of information under litigation exception).

141

See Open Records Decision N o. 435 at 2–3 (1986) (attorney general has broad discretion to determine whether
information is subject to previous determination).

142

Open Records Decision Nos. 542 at 3 (1990), 449 (1986).

143

Gov’t Code § 552.301(g).

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business day after its receipt of the written request that it is seeking an attorney general decision.
Section 552.301(d) reads:
(d)

A governmental body that requests an attorney general decision under Subsection (a)
must provide to the requestor within a reasonable time but not later than the 10th
business day after the date of receiving the requestor’s written request:
(1) a written statement that the governmental body wishes to withhold the requested
information and has asked for a decision from the attorney general about whether
the information is within an exception to public disclosure; and
(2) a copy of the governmental body’s written communication to the attorney general
asking for a decision or, if the governmental body’s written communication to the
attorney general discloses the requested information, a redacted copy of that
written communication.

The attorney general interprets section 552.301(d)(1) to mean that a governmental body substantially
complies with subsection (d)(1) by sending the requestor a copy of the governmental body’s written
communication to the attorney general requesting a decision. Because governmental bodies may be
required to submit evidence of their compliance with subsection (d), governmental bodies are
encouraged to submit evidence of their compliance when seeking an attorney general decision. If
a governmental body fails to comply with subsection (d), the requested information is presumed
public pursuant to section 552.302.

B. Items the Governmental Body Must Submit to the Attorney General
Sections 552.301(e) and (e-1) read:
(e)

A governmental body that requests an attorney general decision under Subsection (a)
must within a reasonable time but not later than the 15th business day after the date
of receiving the written request:
(1) submit to the attorney general:
(A) written comments stating the reasons why the stated exceptions apply that
would allow the information to be withheld;
(B) a copy of the written request for information;
(C) a signed statement as to the date on which the written request for
information was received by the governmental body or evidence sufficient
to establish that date; and

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(D) a copy of the specific information requested, or submit representative
samples of the information if a voluminous amount of information was
requested; and
(2) label that copy of the specific information, or of the representative samples, to
indicate which exceptions apply to which parts of the copy.
(e-1) A governmental body that submits written comments to the attorney general under
Subsection (e)(1)(A) shall send a copy of those comments to the person who requested
the information from the governmental body not later than the 15th business day
after the date of receiving the written request. If the written comments disclose or
contain the substance of the information requested, the copy of the comments
provided to the person must be a redacted copy.
Thus, subsection (e) of section 552.301 requires a governmental body seeking an attorney general
decision as to whether it may withhold requested information to submit to the attorney general, no
later than the fifteenth business day after receiving the written request, written comments stating why
the claimed exceptions apply, a copy of the written request, a signed statement as to the date of its
receipt of the request or sufficient evidence of that date, and a copy of the specific information it
seeks to withhold, or representative samples thereof, labeled to indicate which exceptions are
claimed to apply to which parts of the information. Within fifteen business days, a governmental
body must also copy the requestor on those comments, redacting any portion of the comments that
contains the substance of the requested information. Governmental bodies are cautioned against
redacting more than that which would reveal the substance of the information requested from the
comments sent to the requestor. A failure to comply with the requirements of section 552.301 can
result in the waiver of certain exceptions.144
1. Written Communication from the Person Requesting the Information
A written request includes a request sent by electronic mail or facsimile transmission to the public
information officer or the officer’s designee.145 A copy of the written request from the member of
the public seeking access to the records lets the attorney general know what information was
requested, permits the attorney general to determine whether the governmental body met its statutory
deadlines in requesting a decision, and enables the attorney general to inform the requestor of the
ruling.146 These written communications are generally public information.147

144

See Gov’t Code § 552.302.

145

Gov’t Code § 552.301(c).

146

See Gov’t Code § 552.306(b); Open Records Decision No. 150 (1977).

147

Cf. Gov’t Code § 552.301(d)(2), (e-1) (requiring governmental body to provide requestor copies of its written
communications to attorney general); Open Records Decision No. 459 (1987) (considering public availability of
governmental body’s letter to attorney general).

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2. Information Requested from the Governmental Body
Section 552.303(a) provides:
A governmental body that requests an attorney general decision under this subchapter
shall supply to the attorney general, in accordance with Section 552.301, the specific
information requested. Unless the information requested is confidential by law, the
governmental body may disclose the requested information to the public or to the
requestor before the attorney general makes a final determination that the requested
information is public or, if suit is filed under this chapter, before a final determination that
the requested information is public has been made by the court with jurisdiction over the
suit, except as otherwise provided by Section 552.322.
Governmental bodies should submit a clean, legible copy of the information at issue. Original
records should not be submitted. If the requested records are voluminous and repetitive, a
governmental body may submit representative samples.148 If, however, each document contains
substantially different information, a copy of each and every requested document or all information
must be submitted to the attorney general.149 For example, it is not appropriate to submit a
representative sample of information when the proprietary information of third parties is at issue.
In that circumstance, it is necessary to submit the information of each third party with a potential
proprietary interest rather than submitting the information of one third party as a representative
sample. The attorney general must not disclose the submitted information to the requestor or the
public.150
3. Labeling Requested Information to Indicate Which Exceptions Apply to Which Parts of
the Requested Information
When a governmental body raises an exception applicable to only part of the information, it must
mark the records to identify the information it believes is subject to that exception. A general claim
that an exception applies to an entire report or document, when the exception clearly does not apply
to all information in that report or document, does not conform to the Act.151 When labeling
requested information, a governmental body should mark the records in such a way that all of the
requested information remains visible for the attorney general’s review. For obvious reasons, the
attorney general cannot make a determination on information it cannot read.
4. Statement or Evidence as to Date Governmental Body Received Written Request
The governmental body, in its submission to the attorney general, must certify or provide sufficient
evidence of the date it received the written request.152 This will enable the attorney general to

148

Gov’t Code § 552.301(e)(1)(d).

149

Open Records Decision Nos. 499 at 6 (1988), 497 at 4 (1988).

150

Gov’t Code § 552.3035.

151

Gov’t Code § 552.301(e)(2); Open Records Decision Nos. 419 at 3 (1984), 252 at 3 (1980), 150 at 2 (1977).

152

Gov’t Code § 552.301(e)(1)(c).

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determine whether the governmental body has timely requested the attorney general’s decision
within ten business days of receiving the written request, as required by section 552.301(b), and
timely submitted the other materials that are required by section 552.301(e) to be submitted by the
fifteenth business day after receipt of the request. Section 552.301 provides that if a governmental
body receives a written request by United States mail and cannot adequately establish the actual date
on which the governmental body received the request, the written request is considered to have been
received by the governmental body on the third business day after the date of the postmark on a
properly addressed request.153
The attorney general does not count skeleton crew days observed by a governmental body as
business days for the purpose of calculating that governmental body’s deadlines under the Public
Information Act. A governmental body briefing the attorney general under section 552.301 must
inform the attorney general in the briefing of any holiday, including skeleton crew days, observed
by the governmental body. If the briefing does not notify the attorney general of holidays the
governmental body observes, the deadlines will be calculated to include those days.
5. Letter from the Governmental Body Stating Which Exceptions Apply and Why
The letter from the governmental body stating which exceptions apply to the information and why
they apply is necessary because the Public Information Act presumes that governmental records are
open to the public unless the records are within one of the exceptions set out in subchapter C.154 This
presumption is based on the language of section 552.021, which makes virtually all information in
the custody of a governmental body available to the public. This language places on the
governmental body the burden of proving that an exception applies to the records requested from
it.155 Thus, if the governmental body wishes to withhold particular information, it must establish that
a particular exception applies to the information and must mark the records to identify the portion
the governmental body believes is excepted from disclosure. Conclusory assertions that a particular
exception applies to requested information will not suffice. The burden for establishing the
applicability of each exception in the Public Information Act is discussed in detail in Part Two of
this Handbook. If a governmental body does not establish how and why an exception applies to the
requested information, the attorney general has no basis on which to pronounce it protected.156
The exceptions to disclosure, listed in subchapter C can generally be considered to fall within two
categories: “mandatory exceptions,” which protect information deemed confidential by law and
which a governmental body is prohibited from releasing subject to criminal penalties;157 and
“permissive exceptions,” which grant to the governmental body the discretion to either release or
withhold information. The Eighty-second Legislature amended the titles of the exceptions to codify

153

Gov’t Code § 552.301(a-1).

154

See Attorney General Opinion H-436 (1974); Open Records Decision Nos. 363 (1983), 150 (1977), 91 (1975).

155

See Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W.3d 473, 480–81 (Tex. App.—Austin 2002, no pet.); Open Records Decision Nos.
542 at 2–3 (1990) (burden is placed on governmental body when it requests ruling pursuant to statutory predecessor
to Gov’t Code § 552.301), 532 at 1 (1989), 363 (1983), 197 at 1 (1978).

156

Open Records Decision No. 363 (1983).

157

See Gov’t Code § 552.352.

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the attorney general’s determination as to which exceptions are mandatory or permissive.158 Because
the permissive exceptions to disclosure do not make information “confidential,” the governmental
body may choose not to raise a permissive exception and may release to the public this
nonconfidential information.159 Furthermore, a waiver of an otherwise applicable permissive
exception may result from the governmental body’s failure to comply with the requirements of
section 552.301.160 However, mandatory exceptions, which protect from public disclosure
information that a governmental body is prohibited from releasing, are not waivable. For example,
section 552.101, which applies to “information considered to be confidential by law, either
constitutional, statutory, or by judicial decision,” is generally not waivable; it refers to statutes,
constitutional provisions, and judicial decisions that are not waived by a governmental body’s failure
to comply with the procedures set out in subchapter G of the Act. The following decisions address
the waiver of exceptions:
Open Records Decision No. 677 (2002) — a governmental body may waive the work product
privilege as incorporated into the Act by section 552.111 if it fails to meet its deadlines under
section 552.301;
Open Records Decision No. 676 (2002) — a governmental body may waive section 552.107 if
it fails to meet its deadlines under section 552.301;
Open Records Decision No. 663 (1999) — a governmental body may waive section 552.103 if
it fails to timely request an open records decision;
Open Records Decision No. 470 (1987) — a school district may waive the protection of
section 552.111 as to the audit of high school funds but may not release information that is
protected by sections 552.101 and 552.114;
Open Records Decision No. 400 (1983) — a city department that showed a report on employee
misconduct to members of the public waived the statutory predecessor to section 552.111, but
not section 552.101 or section 552.102;
Open Records Decision No. 363 (1983) — if a governmental body fails to show how and why
a particular exception applies to requested information, the attorney general has no basis on
which to conclude that the information is excepted from disclosure;
Open Records Decision No. 325 (1982) — when a governmental body has raised no exceptions
to disclosure, the attorney general may raise only section 552.101; and

158

Act of May 30, 2011, 82nd Leg., R.S., ch. 1229, §§ 3-21, 23-26, 28-37 (amending Gov’t Code §§ 552.102,
.109-.110, .113-.115, .117, .118-.121, .123-.124, .126, .131, .133-.136, .138-.140, .142, .145, .148, .151 to indicate
exceptions are mandatory and protect confidential information).

159

See Open Records Decision No. 522 at 4 (1989).

160

See Gov’t Code § 552.302; Hancock v. State Bd. of Ins., 797 S.W .2d 379 (Tex. App.— Austin 1990, no writ).

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Open Records Decision No. 321 (1982) — records were public where a governmental body
raised the statutory predecessor to section 552.022(a)(1) with respect to records of an incomplete
audit but raised no other exceptions to disclosure.
The governmental body must send to the requestor a copy of its letter to the attorney general stating
why information is excepted from public disclosure.161 In order to explain how a particular
exception applies to the information in dispute, the governmental body may find it necessary to
reveal the content of the requested information in its letter to the attorney general. In such cases, the
governmental body must redact comments containing the substance of the requested information in
the copy it sends to the requestor.162

C. Section 552.302: Information Presumed Public if Submissions and
Notification Required by Section 552.301 Are Not Timely
Section 552.302 provides:
If a governmental body does not request an attorney general decision as provided by
Section 552.301 and provide the requestor with the information required by Sections
552.301(d) and (e-1), the information requested in writing is presumed to be subject to
required public disclosure and must be released unless there is a compelling reason to
withhold the information.
Section 552.301(b) establishes a deadline of ten business days for the governmental body to request
a decision from the attorney general and state the exceptions that apply.163 Subsection (d) of
section 552.301 requires that the governmental body notify the requestor within ten business days
if it is seeking an attorney general decision as to whether the information may be withheld.
Section 552.301(e) establishes a deadline of fifteen business days for the governmental body to
provide the other materials required under that subsection to the attorney general. Subsection (e-1)
of section 552.301 requires that the governmental body copy the requestor on its written comments,
within fifteen business days, redacting any portion of the comments that contains the substance of
the information requested.
Section 552.302 provides that if the governmental body does not make a timely request for a
decision, notify and copy the requestor, and make the requisite submissions to the attorney general
as required by section 552.301, the requested information will be presumed to be open to the public,
and only the demonstration of a “compelling reason” for withholding the information can overcome
that presumption.164 In the great majority of cases, the governmental body will not be able to
161

Gov’t Code § 552.301(e-1).

162

Gov’t Code § 552.301(e-1).

163

See also Gov’t Code §§ 552.308 (timeliness of action by United States mail, interagency mail, or common or
contract carrier), .309 (timeliness of action by electronic submission).

164

Gov’t Code § 552.302; see Hancock v. State Bd. of Ins., 797 S.W .2d 379 (Tex. App.— Austin 1990, no writ); Open
Records Decision Nos. 515 at 6 (1988), 452 (1986), 319 (1982); see also Simmons v. Kuzmich, 166 S.W .3d 342,
348-49 (Tex. App.— Fort W orth 2005, no pet.) (party seeking to withhold information has burden in trial court of

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overcome that presumption and must promptly release the requested information. Whether failure
to meet the respective ten and fifteen business day deadlines, and submit the requisite information
within those deadlines, has the effect of requiring disclosure depends on whether the governmental
body asserts a “mandatory” or “permissive” exception. The following decisions deal with whether
there is a compelling reason that would overcome the presumption of openness arising from the
governmental body’s failure to meet the deadlines for submissions:
Open Records Decision No. 663 (1999) — concerning the effect of clarification of a request for
information on the deadline; this decision was overruled by the Texas Supreme Court in City of
Dallas v. Abbott, 304 S.W.3d 380 (Tex. 2010);
Open Records Decision No. 617 (1993) — if a request for information is made to the Records
Management Division of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission for records it holds
for a state agency, the ten day deadline begins to run when the agency receives the request for
information, not when the Records Management Division receives the request for information;
Open Records Decision No. 586 (1991) — when a governmental body has missed the ten day
deadline, the need of another governmental body to withhold the requested information may
provide a compelling reason for nondisclosure;
Open Records Decision No. 552 (1990) — the presumption of openness may be overcome by
a claim under section 552.110, because section 552.110 is designed to protect the interests of a
third party;
Open Records Decision No. 473 (1987) — a city’s failure to meet the ten day deadline waived
the protection of sections 552.103 and 552.111 but not the protection of sections 552.101,
552.102, and 552.109, which protect the privacy rights of third parties;
Open Records Decision No. 150 (1977) — the presumption of openness can be overcome only
by a compelling demonstration that the information should not be released to the public, i.e., that
the information is deemed confidential by some other source of law or that third-party interests
are at stake;
Open Records Decision No. 71 (1975) — the protection of the privacy interests of a third party
is a compelling reason that overcomes the presumption of openness; and

proving exception from disclosure and presumably must comply with steps mandated by statute to seek and preserve
such exception from disclosure); Abbott v. City of Corpus Christi, 109 S.W .3d 113, 122 n.6 (Tex. App.— Austin
2003, no pet.) (court need not decide whether law enforcement exception applies because city never submitted any
reasons or comments as to how exception applied, and issue was not before it because city failed to meet Act’s
procedural requirements).

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Open Records Decision No. 26 (1974) — the presumption of openness based on the failure to
meet the ten day deadline will not be overcome except by a “compelling demonstration” that the
information should not be released to the public, such as that it is made confidential by another
source of law.
The section 552.302 presumption of openness is automatically triggered as soon as the governmental
body fails to meet any of the requisite deadlines for submissions or notification set out in section
552.301.

D. Section 552.303: Attorney General Determination that Information in
Addition to that Required by Section 552.301 Is Necessary to Render a
Decision
Section 552.303 provides for instances when the attorney general determines information other than
that required to be submitted by section 552.301 is necessary to render a decision.165 If the attorney
general determines more information is necessary to render a decision, it must so notify the
governmental body and the requestor.166 If the additional material is not provided by the
governmental body within seven calendar days of its receipt of the attorney general’s notice, the
information sought to be withheld is presumed public and must be disclosed unless a compelling
reason for withholding the information is demonstrated.167

E.

Section 552.305: When the Requested Information Involves a Third
Party’s Privacy or Property Interests

Section 552.305 reads as follows:
(a)

In a case in which information is requested under this chapter and a person’s privacy
or property interests may be involved, including a case under Section 552.101,
552.104, 552.110, or 552.114, a governmental body may decline to release the
information for the purpose of requesting an attorney general decision.

(b)

A person whose interests may be involved under Subsection (a), or any other person,
may submit in writing to the attorney general the person’s reasons why the
information should be withheld or released.

(c)

The governmental body may, but is not required to, submit its reasons why the
information should be withheld or released.

(d)

If release of a person’s proprietary information may be subject to exception under
Section 552.101, 552.110, 552.113, or 552.131, the governmental body that requests

165

Gov’t Code § 552.303(b)–(e).

166

Gov’t Code § 552.303(c).

167

Gov’t Code § 552.303(d)–(e).

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an attorney general decision under Section 552.301 shall make a good faith attempt
to notify that person of the request for the attorney general decision. Notice under
this subsection must:
(1) be in writing and sent within a reasonable time not later than the 10th business
day after the date the governmental body receives the request for the information;
and
(2) include:
(A) a copy of the written request for the information, if any, received by the
governmental body; and
(B) a statement, in the form prescribed by the attorney general, that the person
is entitled to submit in writing to the attorney general within a reasonable
time not later than the 10th business day after the date the person receives
the notice:

(e)

(i)

each reason the person has as to why the information should be
withheld; and

(ii)

a letter, memorandum, or brief in support of that reason.

A person who submits a letter, memorandum, or brief to the attorney general under
Subsection (d) shall send a copy of that letter, memorandum, or brief to the person
who requested the information from the governmental body. If the letter,
memorandum, or brief submitted to the attorney general contains the substance of
the information requested, the copy of the letter, memorandum, or brief may be a
redacted copy.

Section 552.305 relieves the governmental body of its duty under section 552.301(b) to state which
exceptions apply to the information and why they apply when (1) a third party’s privacy or property
interests may be implicated, (2) the governmental body has requested a ruling from the attorney
general, and (3) the third party or any other party has submitted reasons for withholding or releasing
the information.168 However, section 552.305 does not relieve a governmental body of its duty to
request a ruling within ten business days of receiving a request for information, notify the requestor
in accordance with section 552.301(d), or provide the attorney general’s office with the information
required in section 552.301(e).169 The language of section 552.305(b) is permissive and does not
require a third party with a property or privacy interest to seek relief from the attorney general before
filing suit against the attorney general under section 552.325. The opportunity to submit comments
during the ruling process does not automatically provide access to the courts. A third party must still

168

Open Records Decision No. 542 at 3 (1990).

169

See Gov’t Code §§ 552.301(a)–(b), (e), .305.

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meet jurisdictional requirements for standing before it may file suit over a ruling that orders
information to be disclosed.
Section 552.305(d) requires the governmental body to make a good faith effort to notify a person
whose proprietary interests may be implicated by a request for information where the information
may be excepted from disclosure under section 552.101, 552.110, 552.113, or 552.131. The
governmental body is generally not required to notify a party whose privacy, as opposed to
proprietary, interest is implicated by a release of information. The governmental body may itself
argue that the privacy interests of a third party except the information from disclosure.
The required notice must be in writing and sent within ten business days of the governmental body’s
receipt of the request. It must include a copy of the written request for information and a statement
that the person may, within ten business days of receiving the notice, submit to the attorney general
reasons why the information in question should be withheld and explanations in support thereof.
The form of the statement required by section 552.305(d)(2)(B), as prescribed by the attorney
general, can be found in Part Nine of this Handbook. Subsection (e) of section 552.305 requires a
person who submits reasons under subsection (d) for withholding information to send a copy of such
communication to the requestor of the information, unless the communication reveals the substance
of the information at issue, in which case the copy sent to the requestor may be redacted.
The following open records decisions have interpreted the statutory predecessor to section 552.305:
Open Records Decision No. 652 (1997) — if a governmental body takes no position pursuant
to section 552.305 of the Government Code or has determined that requested information is not
protected under a specific confidentiality provision, the attorney general will issue a decision
based on a review of the information at issue and on any other information provided to the
attorney general by the governmental body or third parties;
Open Records Decision No. 609 (1992) — the attorney general is unable to resolve a factual
dispute when a governmental body and a third party disagree on whether information is excepted
from disclosure based on the third party’s property interests;
Open Records Decision No. 575 (1990) — the Public Information Act does not require a third
party to substantiate its claims of confidentiality at the time it submits material to a governmental
body;
Open Records Decision No. 552 (1990) — explanation of how the attorney general deals with
a request when, pursuant to the statutory predecessor to section 552.305 of the Public
Information Act, a governmental body takes no position on a third party’s claim that information
is excepted from public disclosure by the third party’s property interests and when relevant facts
are in dispute; and
Open Records Decision No. 542 (1990) — the statutory predecessor to section 552.305 did not
permit a third party to request a ruling from the attorney general.

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F.

Section 552.3035: Attorney General Must Not Disclose Information at
Issue

Section 552.3035 expressly prohibits the attorney general from disclosing information that is the
subject of a request for an attorney general decision.

G. Section 552.304: Submission of Public Comments
Section 552.304 of the Act permits any person to submit written comments as to why information
at issue in a request for an attorney general decision should or should not be released. In order to be
considered, such comments must be received before the attorney general renders a decision under
section 552.306, and must be submitted pursuant to sections 552.308 and 552.309, as discussed
below.

H. Rendition of Attorney General Decision
Pursuant to section 552.306 of the Act, the attorney general must render an open records decision
“not later than the 45th business day after the date the attorney general received the request for a
decision.”170 If the attorney general cannot render a decision by the 45 day deadline, the attorney
general may extend the deadline by ten business days by informing the governmental body and the
requestor of the reason for the delay.171 The attorney general must provide a copy of the decision to
the requestor.172 The attorney general addressed this section in Open Records Decision No. 687
(2011), concluding section 552.306 imposes a duty on the attorney general to rule on a claimed
exception to disclosure when, prior to the issuance of the decision, a party has brought an action
before a Texas court posing the same open records question.

I. Timeliness of Action
Pursuant to section 552.308, when the Act requires a request, notice or other document to be
submitted or otherwise given to a person within a specified period, the requirement is met in a timely
fashion if the document is sent by first class United States mail or common or contract carrier
properly addressed with postage or handling charges prepaid and: (1) bears a post office cancellation
mark or a receipt mark of the carrier indicating a time within that period; or (2) the submitting person
furnishes satisfactory proof the document was deposited in the mail or with the carrier within that
period.173 If a state agency is required to submit information to the attorney general, the timeliness
requirement is met if the information is sent by interagency mail and the state agency provides
sufficient evidence to establish the information was deposited within the proper period.174

170

Gov’t Code § 552.306(a).

171

Gov’t Code § 552.306(a).

172

Gov’t Code § 552.306(b).

173

Gov’t Code § 552.308(a).

174

Gov’t Code § 552.308(b).

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The attorney general has established an electronic filing system that allows governmental bodies and
interested third parties to submit information electronically for a fee.175 Information submitted
through this designated system will be considered timely if it is electronically submitted within the
proper time period.176 The attorney general has promulgated rules to administer the designated
system.177 These rules are available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four of this
Handbook. The creation of the electronic filing system does not affect the right of a person or
governmental body to submit information to the attorney general under section 552.308.178

VII. COST OF COPIES AND ACCESS
Subchapter F of the Public Information Act, sections 552.261 through 552.275, generally provides
for allowable charges for copies of and access to public information. All charges must be calculated
in accordance with the rules promulgated by the attorney general under section 552.262.179 The rules
establish the charges, as well as methods of calculation for those charges. The rules also provide that
a local governmental body may exceed the costs established by the rules of the attorney general by
up to 25 percent.180 The cost rules are available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four
of this Handbook. Also available on the website is the Public Information Cost Estimate Model,
a tool designed to assist the public and governmental bodies in estimating costs associated with
public information requests.181

A. Charges for Copies of Paper Records and Printouts of Electronic Records
Section 552.261(a) allows a governmental body to recover costs related to reproducing public
information. A request for copies that results in more than fifty pages may be assessed charges for
labor, overhead (which is calculated as a percentage of the total labor), and materials.182
Requests that require programming and/or manipulation of data may be assessed charges for those
tasks also, as well as computer time to process the request.183 The law defines “programming” as
“the process of producing a sequence of coded instructions that can be executed by a computer.”184
“Manipulation” of data is defined as “the process of modifying, reordering, or decoding of
information with human intervention.”185 Finally, “processing” means “the execution of a sequence

175

See Gov’t Code § 402.006(d).

176

Gov’t Code § 552.309(a).

177

1 T.A.C. §§ 63.21–.24. These rules are available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four of this Handbook.

178

Gov’t Code § 552.309(c).

179

See 1 T.A.C. §§ 70.1–.12.

180

Gov’t Code § 552.262(a), (b).

181

http://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/open/cost_page.shtml.

182

1 T.A.C. § 70.3(d), (e), (i).

183

1 T.A.C. § 70.3(c), (d), (h).

184

Gov’t Code § 552.003(4).

185

Gov’t Code § 552.003(2).

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of coded instructions by a computer producing a result.”186 The amount allowed for computer
processing depends on the type of computer used and the time needed for the computer to process
the request. The time is calculated in CPU minutes for mainframe and mid-range computers, and
in clock hours for client servers and PCs.
Examples:
1.

A governmental body receives a request for copies of the last 12 months’ worth of travel
expenditures for employees, including reimbursements and backup documentation. The
records are maintained in the governmental body’s main office. The governmental body
determines there are about 120 pages, and it will take one and a half hours to put the
information together, redact drivers’ license numbers pursuant to section 552.130 and
credit card numbers pursuant to section 552.136, and make copies. The total allowable
charges for this request would be:
Copies, 120 pages @ $.10/page
Labor, 1.5 hours @ $15.00/hour
Overhead, $22.50 x .20
Total for copies & labor (paper records)

2.

$12.00
$22.50
$4.50
$39.00

In addition to the above request, the requestor sends a separate request for copies of all
e-mails between two named individuals and members of the public for the same 12 month
period. Pursuant to section 552.137, the governmental body will redact any e-mail
addresses of members of the public. The governmental body’s e-mail system allows
electronic redaction of e-mail addresses by writing a program. The requestor wants the
e-mails on a CD. The total charges for this request would be:
Labor, .50 hours to locate/compile responsive e-mails,
@ $15.00/hour
Labor, .50 hours to write program to redact, @ $28.50/hour
Labor, .50 hours to prepare for and download to CD,
@ $15.00/hour
Overhead, $29.25 x .20
Client Server, .50 hours to process program and make copy,
@ $2.20/hour
Materials, 1 CD @ $1.00/each
Total for materials & labor (electronic redaction/electronic
records)

$7.50
$14.25
$7.50
$5.85
$1.10
$1.00
$37.20

Postage charges may be added if the requestor wants the CD sent by mail.

186

Gov’t Code § 552.003(3).

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3.

The governmental body’s system does not allow electronic redaction of e-mail addresses.
To provide the requestor the records in electronic medium, the governmental body must
print the e-mails, manually redact the e-mail addresses, and scan the redacted e-mails into
a file. The governmental body may charge to print out and redact the e-mails that will be
scanned. The requestor wants the e-mails on a CD. The total charges for this request
would be:
Printouts to be scanned, 80 pages, @ $.10/page
Labor, .50 hours to locate/compile/print responsive e-mails,
@ $15.00/hour
Labor, .50 hours to redact, @ $15.00/hour
Labor, .25 hours to scan redacted copies, @ $15.00/hour
Overhead, $18.75 x .20
Client Server, .05 hours to copy to CD, @ $2.20/hour
Materials, 1 CD @ $1.00/each
Total for materials and labor (manual redaction/electronic
records

$8.00
$7.50
$7.50
$3.75
$3.75
$0.18
$1.00
$31.68

Postage charges may be added if the requestor wants the CD sent by mail.

B. Charges for Inspection of Paper Records and Electronic Records
Charges for inspection of paper records are regulated by section 552.271, and charges for inspection
of electronic records are discussed in section 552.272. Section 552.271 allows charges for copies
for any page that must be copied so that confidential information may be redacted to enable the
requestor to inspect the information subject to release.187 No other charges are allowed unless188 (a)
the records to be inspected are older than five years, or (b) the records completely fill, or when
assembled will completely fill, six or more archival boxes, and (c) the governmental body estimates
it will require more than five hours to prepare the records for inspection.189 If a governmental body
has fewer than 16 full-time employees, the criteria are reduced to: (a) the records are older than three
years, or (b) the records fill, or when assembled will completely fill, three or more archival boxes,
and (c) the governmental body estimates it will require more than two hours to prepare the records
for inspection.190 An “archival box” is a box that measures approximately 12.5" W x 15.5" L x
10" H.191 On average, such a box would contain 4,000 pages. Only records responsive to the request
may be counted towards the number of boxes. Preparing records that fall under subsections
552.271(c) or (d) for inspection includes the time needed to locate and compile the records, redact

187

Gov’t Code § 552.271(b).

188

Gov’t Code § 552.271(b).

189

Gov’t Code § 552.271(c).

190

Gov’t Code § 552.271(d).

191

1 T.A.C. § 70.2(10).

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the confidential information, and make copies of pages that require redaction. Overhead charges are
not allowed on requests for inspection of paper records.192
Section 552.272 allows charges for labor when providing access to electronic information requires
programming and/or manipulation of data, regardless of whether or not the information is available
directly on-line to the requestor.193 Searching and/or printing electronic records is neither
programming nor manipulation of data. Overhead is not allowed on requests for inspection of
electronic records.194
Example:
The requestor states she wants to inspect travel expenditure records for the past year, and then
decide whether or not she wants copies. Of the 120 pages that are responsive, 112 pages have
information that must be redacted, as required by sections 552.130 and 552.136, before the
requestor may inspect the records. The total allowable charges for this request would be:
Redacted copies, 112 @ $.10/page
Labor & Overhead
Total for inspection (redacted copies)

$11.20
$0.00
$11.20

C. Waivers or Reduction of Estimated Charges
If a governmental body determines that producing the information requested is in the “public
interest” because it will primarily benefit the general public, the governmental body shall waive or
reduce the charges.195 The determination of whether providing information is in the “public interest”
rests solely with the governmental body whose records are requested.196 Additionally, the law allows
a governmental body to waive charges if the cost of collecting the amount owed exceeds the actual
amount charged.197

D. Providing a Statement of Estimated Charges as Required by Law
If a governmental body estimates that charges will exceed $40.00, the governmental body is required
to provide the requestor with a written itemized statement of estimated charges before any work is
undertaken.198 Additionally, the statement must advise the requestor if there is a less costly method

192

Gov’t Code § 552.271(c), (d).

193

Gov’t Code § 552.271(a), (b).

194

Gov’t Code § 552.271(a), (b).

195

Gov’t Code § 552.267(a).

196

Gov’t Code § 552.267(a).

197

Gov’t Code § 552.267(b).

198

Gov’t Code § 552.2615(a).

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of viewing the records.199 The statement must also contain a notice that the request will be
considered automatically withdrawn if the requestor does not respond in writing within ten business
days of the date of the statement that the requestor: (a) accepts the charges, (b) modifies the request
in response to the estimate, or (c) has sent, or is sending, a complaint regarding the charges to the
attorney general.200 If the governmental body has the ability to communicate with the general public
by electronic mail and/or facsimile, the statement must also advise the requestor that a response may
be sent by either of those methods, as well as by regular mail or in person.201
Governmental bodies are cautioned that an itemized statement lacking any of the required elements
is considered to be “deficient” because it does not comply with the law. The consequences of
providing a deficient statement may result in (a) limiting the amount the governmental body may
recover through charges,202 and/or (b) preventing the governmental body from considering the
request withdrawn by operation of law.203
If after receiving agreement from the requestor for the charges, but before completing the request,
the governmental body determines the actual charges will exceed the agreed-upon charges by more
than 20 percent, the governmental body must provide the requestor an updated statement of
estimated charges.204 This updated statement has the same requirements as the initial statement. If
the governmental body fails to provide the updated statement of estimated charges, charges for the
entire request are limited to the initial agreed-upon estimate plus 20 percent.205 If the requestor does
not respond to the updated statement, the request is considered withdrawn.
If a request is estimated to exceed $100.00 ($50.00 if a governmental body has fewer than 16 fulltime employees), a governmental body that provides the statement of estimated charges with all its
required elements may also require that the requestor prepay, deposit a percentage of the total
amount, or provide a bond for the total amount.206 Decisions about method of payment rest with the
governmental body. A governmental body that requires a deposit or bond may consider the request
withdrawn if payment is not received within ten business days of the date the governmental body
requested the deposit or bond.207 If the requestor makes payment within the required time, the
request is considered received on the date the payment is made.208 Additionally, a governmental
body is not required to comply with a new request if a requestor owes more than $100.00 on unpaid
charges for previous requests for which the requestor was provided, and accepted, an appropriate

199

Gov’t Code § 552.2615(a).

200

Gov’t Code § 552.2615(b).

201

Gov’t Code § 552.2615(a)(3).

202

1 T.A.C. § 70.7(a).

203

Gov’t Code § 552.2615.

204

Gov’t Code § 552.2615(c).

205

Gov’t Code § 552.2615(c).

206

Gov’t Code § 552.263(c); 1 T.A.C. § 70.7(d), (e).

207

Gov’t Code § 552.263(f).

208

Gov’t Code § 552.263(e).

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statement of estimated charges.209 In such cases, the governmental body may require the requestor
to pay the unpaid amounts before complying with that request. All unpaid charges must be duly
documented.210
In addition to the statement of estimated charges required when a request will exceed $40.00, a
governmental body is also required to provide a statement when it determines that a request will
require programming and/or manipulation of data and (1) complying with the request is not feasible
or will substantially interfere with the governmental body’s ongoing operation, or (2) the request can
only be fulfilled at a cost that covers the programming and/or manipulation of data.211 Governmental
bodies are cautioned that a statement under section 552.231, unlike section 552.2615, is not
contingent on the charges being over a certain amount. Rather, the statement is mandated if the
requisite conditions are present. The statement must include that the information is not available in
the form requested, in which form it is available, any contracts or services needed to put the
information in the form requested, the estimated charges calculated in accordance with the rules
promulgated by the attorney general, and the estimated time of completion to provide the information
in the form requested.212 On provision of the statement, the governmental body is not required to
provide the information in the form requested unless the requestor states, in writing, that the
requestor agrees with the estimated charges and time parameters, or that the requestor will accept
the information in the form that is currently available.213 If the requestor fails to respond to the
statement in writing within 30 days, the request is considered withdrawn.214

E. Cost Provisions Regarding Requests that Require a Large Amount of
Personnel Time
Section 552.275 authorizes a governmental body to establish a reasonable limit, not less than 36
hours in a 12 month period, on the amount of time that personnel are required to spend producing
public information for inspection or copies to a requestor, without recovering the costs attributable
to the personnel time related to that requestor.215 If a governmental body chooses to establish a time
limit under this section, a requestor will be required to compensate the governmental body for the
costs incurred in satisfying subsequent requests once the time limit has been reached. A limit under
this section does not apply if the requestor is an elected official of the United States, the State of
Texas, or a political subdivision of the State of Texas; or a representative of (a) a radio or television
station that holds a license issued by the Federal Communications Commission; (b) a newspaper that
is qualified under section 2051.044 of the Government Code to publish legal notices or is a free
newspaper of general circulation that is published at least once a week and available and of interest
to the general public in connection with the dissemination of news; (c) a newspaper of general

209

Gov’t Code § 552.263(c); 1 T.A.C. § 70.7(f).

210

Gov’t Code § 552.263(c); 1 T.A.C. § 70.7(f).

211

Gov’t Code § 552.231(a).

212

Gov’t Code § 552.231(b).

213

Gov’t Code § 552.231(d).

214

Gov’t Code § 552.231(d-1).

215

Gov’t Code § 552.275(a), (b).

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circulation that is published on the Internet by a news medium engaged in the business of
disseminating news or information to the general public; (d) a magazine that is published at least
once a week or on the Internet by a news medium engaged in the business of disseminating news or
information to the general public; or (e) a publicly funded legal services organization that is exempt
from federal income taxation by being listed as a “501(c)(3) entity” under section 501(a) of the
Internal Revenue Code of 1986.216 Section 552.275 does not replace or supercede other sections, and
it does not preclude a governmental body from charging labor for a request for inspection or copies
for inspection for which a charge is authorized under other sections of this law.
On establishing the time limit, a governmental body must make it clear to all requestors that the limit
applies to all requestors equally, except as provided by the exemptions of subsections (j), (k), and
(l). A governmental body that avails itself of section 552.275 must provide a requestor with a
statement detailing the time spent in complying with the instant request and the cumulative amount
of time the requestor has accrued towards the established limit.217 A governmental body may not
charge for the time spent preparing the statement.218 If a requestor meets or exceeds the established
limit, the governmental body may assess charges for labor, overhead, and material for all subsequent
requests. The governmental body is required to provide a written estimate within ten business days
of receipt of the request, even if the estimated total will not exceed $40.00. All charges assessed
under section 552.275 must be in compliance with the rules promulgated by the attorney general.219

F.

Complaints Regarding Alleged Overcharges

Estimates are, by their very nature, imperfect. Therefore, governmental bodies are encouraged to
run tests on sample data and to rely on the results of those tests in calculating future charges.
However, even when a governmental body has taken steps to ensure that a charge is appropriate, a
requestor may still believe that the charges are too high. Section 552.269 states that a requestor who
believes he or she has been overcharged may lodge a complaint with the attorney general.220 The
attorney general reviews, investigates, and makes determinations on complaints of overcharges.
Complaints must be received within ten business days after the requestor knows of the alleged
overcharge, and must include a copy of the original request, and any amendments thereto, as well
as a copy of any correspondence from the governmental body stating the charges. If a complainant
does not provide the required information within the established time frame, the complaint is
dismissed.221
When a complaint is lodged against a governmental body, the attorney general will contact the
governmental body, generally by mail, to obtain information on how the charges were calculated,
and the physical location and state of the records. The governmental body may also be asked to

216

Gov’t Code § 552.275(j).

217

Gov’t Code § 552.275(d).

218

Gov’t Code § 552.275(d).

219

Gov’t Code § 552.275(e).

220

Gov’t Code § 552.269(a).

221

1 T.A.C. § 70.8(b).

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provide copies of invoices, contracts, and any other relevant documents.222 The attorney general may
uphold the charges as presented to the requestor, require the issuance of an amended statement of
estimated charges, or, if the requestor has already paid the charges, require the issuance of a refund
for the difference between what was paid and the charges that are determined to be appropriate.223
A governmental body may be required to pay three times the difference if it is determined that a
requestor overpaid because the governmental body refused or failed to follow the attorney general
rules and the charges were not calculated in good faith.224

G. Cost Provisions Outside the Public Information Act
The provisions of section 552.262 do not apply if charges for copies are established by another
statute.225 For example, section 550.065 of the Transportation Code establishes a charge of $6.00
for an accident report maintained by a governmental entity.226 Section 118.011 of the Local
Government Code establishes the charge for a non-certified copy of information obtained from the
county clerk.227 Section 118.144 of the Local Government Code also establishes a charge for copies
obtained from the county treasurer.228 Additionally, the attorney general has determined that
section 191.008 of the Local Government Code prevails over section 552.272, by giving a county
commissioners court the right to set charges regarding access to certain information held by the
county.229

VIII.

PENALTIES AND REMEDIES

A. Informal Resolution of Complaints
The Office of the Attorney General maintains an Open Government Hotline staffed by personnel
trained to answer questions about the Public Information Act. In addition to answering substantive
and procedural questions posed by governmental bodies and requestors, the Hotline staff handles
written, informal complaints concerning requests for information. While not meant as a substitute
for the remedies provided in sections 552.321 and 552.3215, the Hotline provides an informal
alternative for complaint resolution. In most cases, Hotline staff are able to resolve complaints and
misunderstandings informally. The Hotline can be reached toll-free at (877) 673-6839 (877-OPEN
TEX) or in the Austin area at (512) 478-6736 (478-OPEN). Questions concerning charges for
providing public information should be directed to the attorney general’s toll-free Cost Hotline
at (888) 672-6787 (888-ORCOSTS) or in the Austin area at (512) 475-2497.

222

1 T.A.C. § 70.8(c), (d), (e).

223

1 T.A.C. § 70.8(f).

224

Gov’t Code § 552.269(b); 1 T.A.C. § 70.8(h).

225

Gov’t Code § 552.262(a).

226

Transp. Code § 550.065(d).

227

Local Gov’t Code § 118.011(a)(4).

228

Local Gov’t Code § 118.144.

229

Local Gov’t Code § 191.008; Open Records Decision No. 668 at 9 (2000).

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B.

Criminal Penalties

The Public Information Act establishes criminal penalties for both the release of information that
must not be disclosed and the withholding of information that must be released. Section 552.352(a)
of the Act provides: “A person commits an offense if the person distributes information considered
confidential under the terms of this chapter.” This section applies to information made confidential
by law.230
Section 552.353(a) provides:
An officer for public information, or the officer’s agent, commits an offense if, with
criminal negligence, the officer or the officer’s agent fails or refuses to give access to, or to
permit or provide copying of, public information to a requestor as provided by this
chapter.
Subsections (b) through (d) of section 552.353 set out various affirmative defenses to prosecution
under subsection (a), including, for example, that a timely request for a decision from the attorney
general is pending or that the officer for public information is pursuing judicial relief from
compliance with a decision of the attorney general pursuant to section 552.324.231 A violation of
section 552.352 or section 552.353 constitutes official misconduct232 and is a misdemeanor
punishable by confinement in a county jail for not more than six months, a fine not to exceed $1,000,
or both confinement and the fine.233
The Act also criminalizes the destruction, alteration or concealment of public records. Section
552.351 provides that the willful destruction, mutilation, removal without permission, or alteration
of public records is a misdemeanor punishable by confinement in a county jail for a minimum of
three days and a maximum of three months, a fine of a minimum of $25.00 and a maximum of
$4,000, or both confinement and the fine.234

C. Civil Remedies
1. Writ of Mandamus
Section 552.321 of the Act provides for a suit for a writ of mandamus to compel a governmental
body to release requested information. A requestor or the attorney general may seek a writ of
mandamus to compel a governmental body to release requested information if the governmental
body refuses to seek an attorney general decision, refuses to release public information or if the

230

See Open Records Decision No. 490 (1988).

231

Gov’t Code § 552.353(b)(2-3). See generally Hubert v. Harte-Hanks Tex. Newspapers, Inc., 652 S.W .2d 546,
548–49 (Tex. App.— Austin 1983, writ ref’d n.r.e.).

232

Gov’t Code §§ 552.352(c), .353(f).

233

Gov’t Code §§ 552.352(b), .353(e).

234

Gov’t Code §552.351(a); see also Penal Code § 37.10 (tampering with governmental record).

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governmental body refuses to release information in accordance with an attorney general decision.235
Section 552.321(b) provides that a mandamus action filed by a requestor under section 552.321 must
be filed in a district court of the county in which the main offices of the governmental body are
located. A mandamus suit filed by the attorney general under section 552.321 must be filed in a
district court in Travis County, except if the suit is against a municipality with a population of
100,000 or less, in which case the suit must be filed in a district court of the county where the main
offices of the municipality are located.236
Section 552.321 authorizes a mandamus suit to compel the release of information even if the
attorney general has ruled such information is not subject to required public disclosure.237 The courts
have held a requestor may bring a mandamus action regardless of whether an attorney general
decision has been requested.238 Further, the Texas Supreme Court considered a requestor’s
mandamus action filed after the governmental body requested an attorney general decision, but prior
to the attorney general’s issuance of a decision.239 The supreme court held a requestor is not required
to defer a suit for mandamus until the attorney general issues a decision.240 A requestor may
counterclaim for mandamus as part of his or her intervention in a suit by a governmental body or
third party over a ruling that orders information to be disclosed.241
2. Violations of the Act: Declaratory Judgment or Injunctive Relief; Formal Complaints
Section 552.3215 provides for a suit for declaratory judgment or injunctive relief brought by a local
prosecutor or the attorney general against a governmental body that violates the Public Information
Act.
a. Venue and Proper Party to Bring Suit
An action against a governmental body located in only one county may be brought only in a district
court in that county. The action may be brought either by the district or county attorney on behalf
of that county, or by the attorney general on behalf of the state. If the governmental body is located
in more than one county, such a suit must be brought in the county where the governmental body’s
administrative offices are located.242 If the governmental body is a state agency, the Travis County

235

Gov’t Code § 552.321(a); see Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W .3d 473, 482 (Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.).

236

Gov’t Code § 552.321(b).

237

Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W .3d 473, 483 (Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.); Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Gilbreath,
842 S.W .2d 408, 411 (Tex. App.— Austin 1992, no writ).

238

Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W .3d 473, 483 (Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.); Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Gilbreath,
842 S.W .2d 408, 411 (Tex. App.— Austin 1992, no writ); see O pen Records Decision No. 687 (2011)(attorney
general will rule on claimed exceptions to disclosure when, prior to issuance of open records decision, party brings
action before Texas court posing same open records question).

239

Kallinen v. City of Houston, No. 14-0015, 2015 W L 1275385, at *1 (Tex. March 20, 2015).

240

Kallinen v. City of Houston, No. 14-0015, 2015 W L 1275385, at *3 (Tex. March 20, 2015).

241

Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W.3d 473, 482 (Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.).

242

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(c).

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district attorney or the attorney general may bring such suit only in a district court of Travis
County.243
b. Suit Pursuant to Formal Complaint
Before suit may be filed under section 552.3215, a person must first file a complaint alleging a
violation of the Act. The complaint must be filed with the district or county attorney of the county
where the governmental body is located. If the governmental body is located in more than one
county, the complaint must be filed with the district or county attorney of the county where the
governmental body’s administrative offices are located. If the governmental body is a state agency,
the complaint may be filed with the Travis County district attorney. If the governmental body is the
district or county attorney, the complaint must be filed with the attorney general.244
c. Procedures for Formal Complaint
A complaint must be in writing and signed by the complainant and include the name of the
governmental body complained of, the time and place of the alleged violation, and a general
description of the violation.245 The district or county attorney receiving a complaint must note on
its face the date it was filed and must, before the 31st day after the complaint was filed, determine
whether the alleged violation was committed, determine whether an action will be brought under the
section, and notify the complainant in writing of those determinations.246 If the district or county
attorney determines not to bring suit under the section, or determines that a conflict of interest exists
that precludes his bringing suit, then he or she must include a statement giving the basis for such
determination and return the complaint to the complainant by the 31st day after receipt of the
complaint.247
If the county or district attorney decides not to bring an action in response to a complaint filed with
that office, the complainant may, before the 31st day after the complaint is returned, file the
complaint with the attorney general. On receipt of the complaint, the attorney general within the
same time frame must make the determinations and notification required of a district or county
attorney. If the attorney general decides to bring an action in response to a complaint against a
governmental body located in only one county, the attorney general must file such action in a district
court of that county.248

243

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(d).

244

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(e).

245

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(e).

246

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(f)–(g).

247

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(h).

248

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(i).

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d. Governmental Body Must Be Given Opportunity to Cure Violation
Actions for declaratory judgment or injunctive relief under section 552.3215 may be brought only
if the official proposing to bring the action notifies the governmental body in writing of the
determination that the alleged violation was committed and the governmental body does not cure the
violation before the fourth day after the date it receives the notice.249
e. Cumulative Remedy
Actions for declaratory judgment or injunctive relief authorized under section 552.3215 are in
addition to any other civil, administrative, or criminal actions authorized by law.250
3. Suits over an Open Records Ruling
The Act provides judicial remedies for a governmental body seeking to withhold requested
information or a third party asserting a privacy or proprietary interest in requested information when
the attorney general orders such information to be disclosed.251 The venue for these suits against the
attorney general is Travis County. The issue of whether the information is subject to disclosure is
decided by the court anew. The court is not bound by the ruling of the attorney general. However,
the only exceptions to disclosure a governmental body may raise before the court are exceptions that
it properly raised in a request for an attorney general decision under section 552.301, unless the
exception is one based on a requirement of federal law or one involving the property or privacy
interests of another person.252
The court of appeals in Morales v. Ellen affirmed that the district court had jurisdiction to decide a
declaratory judgment action brought against a governmental body by a third party which asserted
privacy interests in documents the attorney general had ruled should be released.253 The court held
the statutory predecessor to section 552.305(b)—which permitted a third party whose privacy or
property interests would be implicated by the disclosure of the requested information to “submit in
writing to the attorney general the party’s reasons why the information should be withheld or
released”—is permissive and does not require a third party with a property or privacy interest to
exhaust this remedy before seeking relief in the courts.254 The legislature then enacted
section 552.325 which recognizes the legal interests of third parties and their right to sue the attorney
general to challenge a ruling that information must be released.

249

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(j).

250

Gov’t Code § 552.3215(k).

251

Gov’t Code §§ 552.324, .325.

252

Gov’t Code § 552.326; City of Dallas v. Abbott, 304 S.W .3d 380, 392 (Tex. 2010); Tex. Comptroller of Pub.
Accounts v. Attorney Gen. of Tex., 354 S.W .3d 336, 340 (Tex. 2010).

253

Morales v. Ellen, 840 S.W.2d 519, 523 (Tex. App.—El Paso 1992, writ denied).

254

Morales v. Ellen, 840 S.W.2d 519, 523 (Tex. App.—El Paso 1992, writ denied).

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Sections 552.324 and 552.325 prohibit a governmental body, officer for public information, or other
person or entity that wishes to withhold information from filing a lawsuit against a requestor. The
only suit a governmental body or officer for public information may bring is one against the attorney
general.255 Section 552.324(b) requires that a suit by a governmental body be brought no later than
the 30th calendar day after the governmental body receives the decision it seeks to challenge. If suit
is not timely filed under the section, the governmental body must comply with the attorney general’s
decision. The deadline for filing suit under section 552.324 does not affect the earlier ten day
deadline required of a governmental body to file suit in order to establish an affirmative defense to
prosecution of a public information officer under section 552.353(b)(3).256
Section 552.325 provides that a requestor may intervene in a suit filed by a governmental body or
another entity to prevent disclosure. The section includes procedures for notice to the requestor of
the right to intervene and of any proposed settlement between the attorney general and a plaintiff by
which the parties agree that the information should be withheld.
Sometimes during the pendency of a suit challenging a ruling, the requestor will voluntarily
withdraw his or her request, or the requestor may no longer be found. Section 552.327 authorizes
a court to dismiss a suit challenging an attorney general ruling if all parties to the suit agree to the
dismissal and the attorney general determines and represents to the court that the requestor has
voluntarily withdrawn the request for information in writing, or has abandoned the request.257 In
such cases, a governmental body will not be precluded from asking for another ruling on the same
information at issue after the suit is dismissed by the court.258
4. Discovery and Court’s In Camera Review of Information Under Protective Order
Section 552.322 authorizes a court to order that information at issue in a suit under the Act may be
discovered only under a protective order until a final determination is made. When suit is filed
challenging a ruling, the attorney general will seek access to the information at issue either
informally or by way of this section, because the attorney general returns the information to the
governmental body upon issuance of a ruling.
Section 552.3221 permits a party to file the information at issue with the court for in camera
inspection as necessary for the adjudication of cases.259 When the court receives the information for
review, the court must enter an order that prevents access to the information by any person other than
the court, a reviewing court of appeals or parties permitted to inspect the information pursuant to a
protective order.260 Information filed with the court under section 552.3221 does not constitute court

255

Gov’t Code § 552.324(a).

256

Gov’t Code § 552.324(b).

257

Gov’t Code § 552.327.

258

Gov’t Code § 552.327.

259

Gov’t Code § 552.3221(a).

260

Gov’t Code § 552.3221(b).

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records under Rule 76a of the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure and shall not be available by the clerk
or any custodian of record for public disclosure.261

D. Assessment of Costs of Litigation and Reasonable Attorney’s Fees
Section 552.323 of the Act provides that in a suit for mandamus under section 552.321 or for
declaratory judgment or injunctive relief under section 552.3215, the court shall assess costs of
litigation and reasonable attorney’s fees incurred by a plaintiff who substantially prevails.262
However, a court may not assess such costs and attorney’s fees against the governmental body if the
court finds that it acted in reasonable reliance on a judgment or order of a court applicable to that
governmental body, the published opinion of an appellate court, or a written decision of the attorney
general.263 In addition, a requestor who is an attorney representing himself in a suit to require a
governmental body to disclose requested information under the Act is not entitled to attorney’s fees
because the requestor did not incur attorney’s fees.264
The court may assess attorney’s fees and costs in a suit brought under section 552.324 by a
governmental body against the attorney general challenging a ruling that ordered information to be
disclosed.265 The trial court has discretion to award attorney’s fees and costs incurred by a plaintiff
or defendant who substantially prevails in a suit brought under section 552.324.266 In exercising its
discretion as to the assessment of such costs and attorney’s fees, a court must consider whether the
conduct of the officer for public information of the governmental body had a reasonable basis in law
and whether the suit was brought in good faith.267

IX. PRESERVATION AND DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS
Subject to state laws governing the destruction of state and local government records, section
552.004 of the Act addresses the preservation period of noncurrent records. Sections 441.180
through 441.205 of the Government Code provide for the management, preservation, and destruction
of state records under the guidance of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission.268

261

Gov’t Code § 552.3221(c).

262

Gov’t Code § 552.323(a).

263

Gov’t Code § 552.323(a).

264

Jackson v. State Office of Admin. Hearings, 351 S.W .3d 290, 300 (Tex. 2011).

265

Gov’t Code § 552.323(b).

266

Gov’t Code § 552.323(b); Hudson v. Paxton, No. 03-13-00368-CV, 2015 W L 739605 (Tex. App.— Austin Feb. 20,
2015, pet. denied) (mem. op.) (when requestor intervened in suit filed by governmental body under section 552.324
and governmental body voluntarily released documents rendering controversy moot, requestor did not “substantially
prevail” so as to be eligible for attorney’s fees under section 552.323(b)); Dallas Morning News v. City of Arlington,
No. 03-10-00192-CV, 2011 W L 182886, at *4 (Tex. App.— Austin, Jan. 21, 2011, no pet.) (mem. op., not
designated for publication) (city’s voluntary release of requested public information does not make requestor
prevailing party).

267

Gov’t Code § 552.323(b); see City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 351, 367 (Tex. 2000).

268

See, e.g., Attorney General Opinions DM-181 at 3 (1992), JM-1013 at 2, 5–6 (1989), JM-229 at 5 (1984).

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Provisions for the preservation, retention, and destruction of local government records under the
oversight of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission are set out in chapters 201 through
205 of the Local Government Code.
Section 552.0215 of the Act provides that with the exception of information subject to section
552.147 or a confidentiality provision, information that is not confidential but merely excepted from
required disclosure under the Act is public information and is available to the public on or after
the 75th anniversary of the date the information was originally created or received by the
governmental body.269 This section does not, however, limit the authority of a governmental body
to establish retention periods for records under applicable law.270
Section 552.203 provides that the officer for public information, “subject to penalties provided in
this chapter,” has the duty to see that public records are protected from deterioration, alteration,
mutilation, loss, or unlawful removal and that they are repaired as necessary.271 Public records may
be destroyed only as provided by statute.272 A governmental body may not destroy records even
pursuant to statutory authority while they are subject to an open records request.273

X.

PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT DISTINGUISHED FROM
CERTAIN OTHER STATUTES

A. Authority of the Attorney General to Issue Attorney General Opinions
The attorney general has authority pursuant to article IV, section 22, of the Texas Constitution and
sections 402.041 through 402.045 of the Government Code to issue legal opinions to certain public
officers. These officers are identified in sections 402.042 and 402.043 of the Government Code.
The attorney general may not give legal advice or a written opinion to any other person.274
On the other hand, the Public Information Act requires a governmental body to request a ruling from
the attorney general if it receives a written request for records that it believes to be within an
exception set out in subchapter C of the Act, sections 552.101 through 552.156, and there has not
been a previous determination about whether the information falls within the exception.275 Thus, all
governmental bodies have a duty to request a ruling from the attorney general under the
circumstances set out in section 552.301. A much smaller group of public officers has discretionary

269

Gov’t Code § 552.0215(a).

270

Gov’t Code § 552.0215(b).

271

See also Gov’t Code § 552.351 (penalty for willful destruction, mutilation, removal without permission or alteration
of public records).

272

See generally Attorney General Opinions DM-40 (1991) (deleting records), JM-830 (1987) (sealing records),
MW -327 (1981) (expunging or altering public records).

273

Local Gov’t Code § 202.002(b); Open Records Decision No. 505 at 4 (1988).

274

Gov’t Code § 402.045.

275

Gov’t Code § 552.301(a); see Open Records Decision No. 673 (2001) (defining previous determination).

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authority to request attorney general opinions pursuant to chapter 402 of the Government Code. A
school district, for example, is a governmental body that must request open records rulings as
required by section 552.301 of the Public Information Act, but has no authority to seek legal advice
on other matters from the attorney general.276
Additionally, the Public Information Act gives the attorney general the authority to issue written
decisions and opinions in order to maintain uniformity in the application, operation, and
interpretation of the Act.277

B.

Texas Open Meetings Act

The Public Information Act, Government Code chapter 552, and the Open Meetings Act,
Government Code chapter 551, both serve the purpose of opening government to the people.
However, they operate differently, and each has a different set of exceptions. The exceptions in the
Public Information Act do not furnish a basis for holding executive session meetings to discuss
confidential records.278 Furthermore, the mere fact that a document was discussed in an executive
session does not make it confidential under the Public Information Act.279 Since the Open Meetings
Act has no provision comparable to section 552.301 of the Public Information Act, the attorney
general may address questions about the Open Meetings Act only when such questions are submitted
by a public officer with authority to request attorney general opinions pursuant to chapter 402 of the
Government Code. (A companion volume to this Handbook, the Open Meetings Act Handbook, is
also available from the Office of the Attorney General.) In Open Records Decision No. 684 (2009),
the attorney general issued a previous determination to all governmental bodies authorizing them to
withhold certified agendas and tapes of closed meetings under section 552.101 in conjunction with
section 551.104 of the Government Code, without the necessity of requesting an attorney general
decision.280

C. Discovery Proceedings
The Public Information Act differs in purpose from statutes and procedural rules providing for
discovery of documents in administrative and judicial proceedings.281 The Act’s exceptions to
required public disclosure do not create privileges from discovery of documents in administrative

276

See generally Attorney General Opinion DM-20 at 3–6 (1991).

277

Gov’t Code § 552.011.

278

See Attorney General Opinion JM-595 at 4 (1986).

279

City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 351, 367 (Tex. 2000); Open Records Decision No. 485 at 9–10
(1987); see also Open Records Decision No. 605 at 2–3 (1992).

280

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 5 (2009).

281

Attorney General Opinion JM-1048 at 2 (1989); Open Records Decision Nos. 551 at 4 (1990), 108 (1975).

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or judicial proceedings.282 Furthermore, information that might be privileged from discovery is not
necessarily protected from required public disclosure under the Act.283

282

Gov’t Code § 552.005.

283

See Open Records Decision No. 575 at 2 (1990) (discovery privileges in Texas Rules of Evidence not confidentiality
provisions for purpose of Gov’t Code § 552.101). But see Open Records Decision Nos. 677 (2002) (analyzing work
product privilege in context of Act), 676 (2002) (analyzing attorney-client privilege in context of Act).

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PART TWO: EXCEPTIONS TO DISCLOSURE
I.

INFORMATION GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE PUBLIC

A. Section 552.022 Categories of Information
Section 552.022 of the Public Information Act provides that “[w]ithout limiting the amount or kind
of information that is public information under this chapter, the following categories of information
are public information and not excepted from required disclosure unless made confidential under this
chapter or other law . . . .”284 Section 552.022(a) then lists eighteen categories of information.
Section 552.022(a) is not an exhaustive list of the types of information subject to the Public
Information Act.285 Rather, it is a list of information that generally may be withheld only if it is
expressly confidential by law.286 Thus, the Act’s permissive exceptions to disclosure generally do
not apply to the categories of information contained in section 552.022.287
1. Discovery Privileges
The laws under which information may be considered confidential for the purpose of section 552.022
are not limited simply to statutes and judicial decisions that expressly make information
confidential.288 The Texas Supreme Court has held that discovery privileges included in the Texas
Rules of Civil Procedure and the Texas Rules of Evidence are also “other law” that may make
information confidential for the purpose of section 552.022.289 Therefore, even if information is
included in one of the eighteen categories of information listed in section 552.022(a), and as a result
the information cannot be withheld under an exception listed in the Act, the information is still
protected from disclosure if a governmental body can demonstrate that the information is privileged
under the Texas Rules of Evidence or the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure.290
For example, sections 552.107 and 552.111 of the Government Code encompass the attorney-client
privilege and the work product privilege respectively. Because both sections 552.107 and 552.111
are permissive exceptions found in the Public Information Act, they do not make information
confidential nor are they considered “other law” for the purpose of section 552.022 of the
Government Code. Therefore, neither section 552.107 nor section 552.111 may be used to withhold
284

Gov’t Code § 552.022.

285

See City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 351, 359 (Tex. 2000).

286

Gov’t Code § 552.022(a); Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W .3d 473, 480 (Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.).

287

See In re City of Georgetown, 53 S.W .3d 328, 331 (Tex. 2001). But see Gov’t Code §§ 552.022(a)(1) (completed
report, audit or evaluation may be withheld under Gov’t Code § 552.108), .104(b) (information subject to
Gov’t Code § 552.022 may be withheld under Gov’t Code § 552.104(a)), .133(c) (information subject to Gov’t
Code § 552.022 may be withheld under Gov’t Code § 552.133).

288

See Gov’t Code § 552.022(a); In re City of Georgetown, 53 S.W .3d 328, 332–37 (Tex. 2001).

289

In re City of Georgetown, 53 S.W .3d 328, 337 (Tex. 2001); see Open Records Decision Nos. 677 at 9 (2002), 676
at 2 (2002); see generally T EX . R. E VID . 501–513; T EX . R. C IV . P. 192.5.

290

In re City of Georgetown, 53 S.W.3d 328, 333–34, 337 (Tex. 2001).

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information subject to section 552.022.291 Nevertheless, the attorney-client privilege and the work
product privilege are also found in the Texas Rules of Evidence and the Texas Rules of Civil
Procedure respectively.292 A governmental body claiming the attorney-client privilege for a
document that is subject to section 552.022 of the Government Code should raise Texas Rule of
Evidence 503, not section 552.107 of the Government Code, in order to withhold the information.293
If the governmental body demonstrates that rule 503 applies to part of a communication, generally
the entire communication will be protected.294 However, a fee bill is not excepted in its entirety if
a governmental body demonstrates that a portion of the fee bill contains or consists of an attorneyclient communication.295 Rather, information in an attorney fee bill may only be withheld to the
extent the particular information in the fee bill is demonstrated to be subject to the attorney-client
privilege.296
Similarly, a governmental body claiming the work product privilege for a document that is subject
to section 552.022 of the Government Code should raise Rule 192.5 of the Texas Rules of Civil
Procedure, not section 552.111 of the Government Code, in order to withhold the information.297
Moreover, information is confidential for the purpose of section 552.022 under rule 192.5 only to
the extent the information implicates the core work product aspect of the privilege.298 Other work
product is discoverable under some circumstances and therefore is not considered to be confidential
for the purpose of section 552.022.299
2. Court Order
Section 552.022(b) prohibits a court in this state from ordering a governmental body to withhold
from public disclosure information in the section 552.022 categories unless the information is
confidential under the Act or other law.300 Thus, although section 552.107(2) of the Act excepts
from disclosure information that a court has ordered to be kept confidential, section 552.022
effectively limits the applicability of that subsection and the authority of a court to order
confidentiality.301

291

Open Records Decision Nos. 677 at 8 (2002), 676 at 5 (2002); see In re City of Georgetown, 53 S.W .3d 328, 331
(Tex. 2001).

292

See T EX . R. E VID . 503; T EX . R. C IV . P. 192.5.

293

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 6 (2002).

294

See Huie v. DeShazo, 922 S.W .2d 920, 923 (Tex. 1996) (privilege extends to entire communication, including facts
contained therein); In re Valero Energy Corp., 973 S.W .2d 453, 457 (Tex. App.— Houston [14th Dist.] 1998, orig.
proceeding) (privilege attaches to complete communication, including factual information).

295

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 5 (2002).

296

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 5–6 (2002).

297

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 9 (2002).

298

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 10 (2002).

299

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 9–10 (2002).

300

Gov’t Code § 552.022.

301

See Ford v. City of Huntsville, 242 F.3d 235, 241 (5th Cir. 2001).

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B. Certain Investment Information
Section 552.0225 provides that certain investment information is public and not excepted from
disclosure under the Act. The section provides:
(a)

Under the fundamental philosophy of American government described by Section
552.001, it is the policy of this state that investments of government are investments
of and for the people and the people are entitled to information regarding those
investments. The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed to implement
this policy.

(b)

The following categories of information held by a governmental body relating to its
investments are public information and not excepted from disclosure under this
chapter:
(1) the name of any fund or investment entity the governmental body is or has
invested in;
(2) the date that a fund or investment entity described by Subdivision (1) was
established;
(3) each date the governmental body invested in a fund or investment entity
described by Subdivision (1);
(4) the amount of money, expressed in dollars, the governmental body has committed
to a fund or investment entity;
(5) the amount of money, expressed in dollars, the governmental body is investing or
has invested in any fund or investment entity;
(6) the total amount of money, expressed in dollars, the governmental body received
from any fund or investment entity in connection with an investment;
(7) the internal rate of return or other standard used by a governmental body in
connection with each fund or investment entity it is or has invested in and the date
on which the return or other standard was calculated;
(8) the remaining value of any fund or investment entity the governmental body is or
has invested in;
(9) the total amount of fees, including expenses, charges, and other compensation,
assessed against the governmental body by, or paid by the governmental body to,
any fund or investment entity or principal of any fund or investment entity in
which the governmental body is or has invested;

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(10) the names of the principals responsible for managing any fund or investment
entity in which the governmental body is or has invested;
(11) each recusal filed by a member of the governing board in connection with a
deliberation or action of the governmental body relating to an investment;
(12) a description of all of the types of businesses a governmental body is or has
invested in through a fund or investment entity;
(13) the minutes and audio or video recordings of each open portion of a meeting of
the governmental body at which an item described by this subsection was
discussed;
(14) the governmental body’s percentage ownership interest in a fund or investment
entity the governmental body is or has invested in;
(15) any annual ethics disclosure report submitted to the governmental body by a
fund or investment entity the governmental body is or has invested in; and
(16) the cash-on-cash return realized by the governmental body for a fund or
investment entity the governmental body is or has invested in.
(c)

This section does not apply to the Texas Mutual Insurance Company or a successor
to the company.

(d)

This section does not apply to a private investment fund’s investment in restricted
securities, as defined in Section 552.143.302

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this section. Section 552.143 excepts certain
investment information from disclosure that is not made public under section 552.0225.303 The
attorney general has determined in an informal letter ruling that section 552.143 is subject to the
public disclosure requirements of section 552.0225.304

302

Gov’t Code § 552.0225.

303

Gov’t Code § 552.143.

304

Open Records Letter No. 2005-6095 (2005).

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C. Other Kinds of Information that May Not Be Withheld
As a general rule, a governmental body may not use one of the exceptions in the Act to withhold
information that a statute other than the Act expressly makes public.305 For example, a governmental
body may not withhold the minutes of an open meeting under the Act’s exceptions since such
minutes are made public by statute.306

II. EXCEPTIONS
A. Section 552.101: Confidential Information
Section 552.101 of the Government Code provides as follows:
Information is excepted from [required public disclosure] if it is information considered
to be confidential by law, either constitutional, statutory, or by judicial decision.
This section makes clear that the Public Information Act does not mandate the disclosure of
information that other law requires be kept confidential. Section 552.352(a) states: “A person
commits an offense if the person distributes information considered confidential under the terms of
this chapter.”307 A violation under section 552.352 is a misdemeanor constituting official
misconduct.308 In its discretion, a governmental body may release to the public information protected
under the Act’s exceptions to disclosure but not deemed confidential by law.309 On the other hand,
a governmental body has no discretion to release information deemed confidential by law.310
Because the Act prohibits the release of confidential information and because its improper release
constitutes a misdemeanor, the attorney general may raise section 552.101 on behalf of a
governmental body, although the attorney general ordinarily will not raise other exceptions that a
governmental body has failed to claim.311
By providing that all information a governmental body collects, assembles, or maintains is public
unless expressly excepted from disclosure, the Act prevents a governmental body from making an

305

Open Records Decision No. 623 (1994); see also Open Records Decision Nos. 675 (2001) (federal statute requiring
release of cost reports of nursing facilities prevails over claim that information is excepted from disclosure under
Gov’t Code § 552.110), 451 (1986) (specific statute that affirmatively requires release of information at issue
prevails over litigation exception of Public Information Act); cf. Houston Chronicle Publ’g Co. v. Woods, 949
S.W .2d 492 (Tex. App.— Beaumont 1997, orig. proceeding) (concerning public disclosure of affidavits in support
of executed search warrants).

306

Gov’t Code § 551.022; see Open Records Decision No. 225 (1979).

307

Gov’t Code § 552.352(a).

308

Gov’t Code § 552.352(b), (c).

309

Gov’t Code § 552.007; see Dominguez v. Gilbert, 48 S.W .3d 789, 793 (Tex. App.— Austin 2001, no pet.).

310

See Gov’t Code § 552.007; Dominguez v. Gilbert, 48 S.W .3d 789, 793 (Tex. App.— Austin 2001, no pet.). But see
discussion of informer’s privilege in Part Two, Section II, Subsection A.2.b of this Handbook.

311

See Open Records Decision Nos. 455 at 3 (1987), 325 at 1 (1982).

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enforceable promise to keep information confidential unless the governmental body is authorized
by law to do so.312 Thus, a governmental body may rely on its promise of confidentiality to withhold
information from disclosure only if the governmental body has specific statutory authority to make
such a promise. Unless a governmental body is explicitly authorized to make an enforceable promise
to keep information confidential, it may not make such a promise in a confidentiality agreement such
as a contract313 or a settlement agreement.314 In addition, a governmental body may not pass an
ordinance or rule purporting to make certain information confidential unless the governmental body
is statutorily authorized to do so.315
1. Information Confidential Under Specific Statutes
Section 552.101 incorporates specific statutes that protect information from public disclosure. The
following points are important for the proper application of this aspect of section 552.101:
1)

The language of the relevant confidentiality statute controls the scope of the protection.316

2)

To fall within section 552.101, a statute must explicitly require confidentiality; a
confidentiality requirement will not be inferred from the statutory structure.317

a. State Statutes
The attorney general must interpret numerous confidentiality statutes. Examples of information
made confidential by statute include the following noteworthy examples:
• medical records that a physician creates or maintains regarding the identity, diagnosis,
evaluation, or treatment of a patient;318
• reports, records, and working papers used or developed in an investigation of alleged child
abuse or neglect under Family Code chapter 261;319

312

Attorney General Opinion H -258 at 3 (1974); see Attorney General Opinions JM-672 at 1–2 (1987), JM-37 at 2
(1983); Open Records Decision Nos. 585 at 2 (1991), 514 at 1 (1988), 55A at 2 (1975).

313

See Attorney General Opinion JM-672 at 2 (1987); Open Records Decision No. 514 at 1 (1988).

314

See Open Records Decision No. 114 at 1 (1975).

315

See Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W .2d 668, 677 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977);
Envoy Med. Sys. v. State, 108 S.W .3d 333, 337 (Tex. App.— Austin 2003, no pet.); Open Records Decision No. 594
at 3 (1991).

316

See Open Records Decision No. 478 at 2 (1987).

317

See, e.g., Open Records Decision No. 465 at 4–5 (1987).

318

Occ. Code § 159.002(b); see Abbott v. Tex. State Bd. of Pharmacy, 391 S.W .3d 253, 258 (Tex. App.— Austin 2012,
no pet.) (Medical Practice Act does not provide patient general right of access to medical records from governmental
body responding to request for information under Public Information Act); Open Records Decision No. 681
at 16–17 (2004).

319

Fam. Code § 261.201(a).

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• certain information relating to the provision of emergency medical services;320
• communications between a patient and a mental health professional and records of the identity,
diagnosis, or treatment of a mental health patient created or maintained by a mental health
professional;321
• certain personal information in a government-operated utility customer’s account records if the
customer has requested that the utility keep the information confidential.322
In the following examples, the attorney general has interpreted the scope of confidentiality provided
by Texas statutes under section 552.101:
Open Records Decision No. 658 (1998) — section 154.073 of the Civil Practice and Remedies
Code does not make confidential a governmental body’s mediated final settlement agreement;323
Open Records Decision No. 655 (1997) — concerning confidentiality of criminal history record
information and permissible interagency transfer of such information;
Open Records Decision No. 649 (1996) — originating telephone numbers and addresses
furnished on a call-by-call basis by a service supplier to a 9-1-1 emergency communication
district established under subchapter D of chapter 772 of the Health and Safety Code are
confidential under section 772.318 of the Health and Safety Code. Section 772.318 does not
except from disclosure any other information contained on a computer-aided dispatch report that
was obtained during a 9-1-1 call;
Open Records Decision No. 643 (1996) — section 21.355 of the Education Code makes
confidential any document that evaluates, as that term is commonly understood, the performance
of a teacher or administrator. The term “teacher,” as used in section 21.355, means an individual
who is required to hold and does hold a teaching certificate or school district teaching permit
under subchapter B of chapter 21, and who is engaged in teaching at the time of the evaluation;
an “administrator” is a person who is required to hold and does hold an administrator’s certificate
under subchapter B of chapter 21 and is performing the functions of an administrator at the time
of the evaluation;

320

Health & Safety Code § 773.091; see Open Records Decision No. 681 at 17–18 (2004).

321

Health & Safety Code § 611.002.

322

Util. Code § 182.052(a).

323

The Seventy-sixth Legislature amended section 154.073 of the Civil Practice and Remedies Code by adding
subsection (d), which provides that a final written agreement to which a governmental body subject to the Act is a
signatory and that was reached as a result of a dispute resolution procedure conducted under chapter 154 of that code
is subject to or excepted from required disclosure in accordance with the Act. Act of May 30, 1999, 76th Leg., R.S.,
ch. 1352, § 6, 1999 Tex. Gen. Laws 4578, 4582; see Gov’t Code § 552.022(a)(18) (settlement agreement to which
governmental body is party may not be withheld unless it is confidential under the Act or other law).

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Open Records Decision No. 642 (1996) — section 143.1214(b) of the Local Government Code
requires the City of Houston Police Department to withhold documents relating to an
investigation of a City of Houston fire fighter conducted by the City of Houston Police
Department’s Public Integrity Review Group when the Public Integrity Review Group has
concluded that the allegations were unfounded;
Open Records Decision No. 640 (1996) (replacing Open Records Decision No. 637 (1996)) —
the Texas Department of Insurance must withhold any information obtained from audit “work
papers” that are “pertinent to the accountant’s examination of the financial statements of an
insurer” under former section 8 of article 1.15 of the Insurance Code; former section 9 of
article 1.15 makes confidential the examination reports and related work papers obtained during
the course of an examination of a carrier; section 9 of article 1.15 did not apply to examination
reports and work papers of carriers under liquidation or receivership.
b. Federal Statute
Section 552.101 also incorporates the confidentiality provisions of federal statutes and regulations.
In Open Records Decision No. 641 (1996), the attorney general ruled that information collected
under the Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101 et seq., from an applicant or
employee concerning that individual’s medical condition and medical history is confidential under
section 552.101 of the Government Code, in conjunction with provisions of the Americans with
Disabilities Act. This type of information must be collected and maintained separately from other
information and may be released only as provided by the Americans with Disabilities Act.
In Open Records Decision No. 681 (2004), the attorney general addressed whether the Health
Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) and the related Privacy Rule324
adopted by the United States Department of Health and Human Services make information
confidential for the purpose of section 552.101. The attorney general determined that when a
governmental body that is a “covered entity”325 subject to the Privacy Rule, receives a request for
“protected health information”326 from a member of the public, it must evaluate the disclosure under
the Act rather than the Privacy Rule. The decision also determined that the Privacy Rule does not
make information confidential for purposes of section 552.101 of the Government Code. In Abbott
v. Tex. Dep’t of Mental Health & Mental Retardation, the Third Court of Appeals agreed with the
attorney general’s analysis of the interplay of the Act and the Privacy Rule.327
324

The United States Department of Health and Human Services promulgated the Privacy Rule under HIPAA to
implement HIPAA’s privacy requirements for setting national privacy standards for health information. See 42
U.S.C. § 1320d-2; 45 C.F.R. pts. 160, 164.

325

The Privacy Rule only applies to a covered entity, that is, one of the following three entities defined in the Privacy
Rule: (1) a health plan; (2) a health care clearinghouse; and (3) a health care provider who transmits any health
information in electronic form in connection with certain transactions covered by subchapter C, subtitle A of title
45 of the Code of Federal Regulations. See 42 U.S.C. § 1320d-1(a); 45 C.F.R. § 160.103.

326

See 45 C.F.R. § 160.103 (defining “protected health information”); Open Records Decision No. 681 at 5–7 (2004)
(determination of whether requested information is protected health information subject to Privacy Rule requires
consideration of definitions of three terms in rule).

327

Abbott v. Tex. Dep’t of Mental Health & Mental Retardation, 212 S.W .3d 648 (Tex. App.— Austin 2006, no pet.).

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As a general rule, the mere fact that a governmental body in Texas holds certain information that is
confidential under the federal Freedom of Information Act or the federal Privacy Act will not bring
the information within the section 552.101 exception, as those acts govern disclosure only of
information that federal agencies hold.328 However, if an agency of the federal government shares
its information with a Texas governmental entity, the Texas entity must withhold the information
that the federal agency determined to be confidential under federal law.329
2. Information Confidential by Judicial Decision
a. Information Confidential Under Common Law or Constitutional Privacy Doctrine
i. Common-Law Privacy
(a) Generally
Section 552.101 also excepts from required public disclosure information held confidential under
case law. Pursuant to the Texas Supreme Court decision in Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident
Bd.,330 section 552.101 applies to information when its disclosure would constitute the common-law
tort of invasion of privacy through the disclosure of private facts. To be within this common-law
tort, the information must (1) contain highly intimate or embarrassing facts about a person’s private
affairs such that its release would be highly objectionable to a reasonable person and (2) be of no
legitimate concern to the public.331 Because much of the information that a governmental body holds
is of legitimate concern to the public, the doctrine of common-law privacy frequently will not
exempt information that might be considered “private.” For example, information about public
employees’ conduct on the job is generally not protected from disclosure.332 The attorney general
has found that the doctrine of common-law privacy does not protect the specific information at issue
in the following decisions:
Open Records Decision No. 625 (1994) — a company’s address and telephone number;
Open Records Decision No. 620 (1993) — a corporation’s financial information;
Open Records Decision No. 616 (1993) — a “mug shot,” unrelated to any active criminal
investigation, taken in connection with an arrest for which an arrestee subsequently was
convicted and is serving time;

328

Attorney General Opinion MW -95 at 2 (1979); Open Records Decision No. 124 at 1 (1976).

329

See Open Records Decision No. 561 at 6–7 (1990); accord United States v. Napper, 887 F.2d 1528, 1530 (11th Cir.
1989) (documents that Federal Bureau of Investigation lent to city police department remained property of Bureau
and were subject to any restrictions on dissemination of Bureau-placed documents).

330

Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W .2d 668 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977).

331

Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W .2d 668, 685 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977);
see Open Records Decision No. 659 (1999).

332

See Open Records Decision No. 455 (1987).

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Open Records Decision No. 611 (1992) — records held by law enforcement agencies regarding
violence between family members unless the information is highly intimate and embarrassing
and of no legitimate public interest;
Open Records Decision No. 594 (1991) — certain information regarding a city’s drug testing
program for employees; and
Open Records Decision No. 441 (1986) — job-related examination scores of public employees
or applicants for public employment.
The attorney general has concluded that, with the exception of victims of sexual assault,333
section 552.101 does not categorically except from required public disclosure, on common-law
privacy grounds, the names of crime victims.334
In addition to the seminal Public Information Act privacy case of Industrial Foundation, courts in
other cases have considered the common-law right to privacy in the context of section 552.101 of
the Act. In two cases involving the Fort Worth Star-Telegram newspaper, the Texas Supreme Court
weighed an individual’s right to privacy against the right of the press to publish certain embarrassing
information concerning an individual. In Star-Telegram, Inc. v. Doe,335 a rape victim sued the
newspaper, which had published articles disclosing the age of the victim, the relative location of her
residence, the fact that she owned a home security system, that she took medication, that she owned
a 1984 black Jaguar automobile, and that she owned a travel agency. The newspaper did not reveal
her actual identity. The court held that the newspaper in this case could not be held liable for
invasion of privacy for public disclosure of embarrassing private facts because, although the
information disclosed by the articles made the victim identifiable by her acquaintances, it could not
be said that the articles disclosed facts which were not of legitimate public concern.
In Star-Telegram, Inc. v. Walker,336 the court addressed another case involving the identity of a rape
victim. In this case, the victim’s true identity could be gleaned from the criminal court records and
testimony. The court found that because trial proceedings are public information, the order entered
by the criminal court closing the files and expunging the victim’s true identity from the criminal
records (more than three months following the criminal trial) could not retroactively abrogate the
press’s right to publish public information properly obtained from open records. Once information
is in the public domain, the court stated, the law cannot recall the information. Therefore, the court

333

See Open Records Decision No. 339 at 2 (1982).

334

Open Records Decision No. 409 at 2 (1984); see also Open Records Decision Nos. 628 (1994) (identities of juvenile
victims of crime are not per se protected from disclosure by common-law privacy), 611 (1992) (determining whether
records held by law-enforcement agency regarding violence between family members are confidential under doctrine
of common-law privacy must be done on case-by-case basis). But see Gov’t Code §§ 552.132 (excepting
information about certain crime victims), .1325 (excepting information held by governmental body or files with
court contained in victim impact statement or submitted for purpose of preparing such statement).

335

Star-Telegram, Inc. v. Doe, 915 S.W.2d 471 (Tex. 1995).

336

Star-Telegram, Inc. v. Walker, 834 S.W.2d 54 (Tex. 1992).

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found that the newspaper could not be held liable for invasion of privacy for publication of
information appearing in public court documents.
In Morales v. Ellen,337 the court of appeals considered whether the statements and names of
witnesses to and victims of sexual harassment in an employment context were public information
under the Act. In Open Records Decision No. 579 (1990), the attorney general had concluded that
an investigative file concerning a sexual harassment complaint was not protected by common-law
privacy. The decision in Ellen modified that interpretation. The Ellen court found that the names
of witnesses and their detailed affidavits were “highly intimate or embarrassing.” Furthermore, the
court found that, because information pertinent to the sexual harassment charges and investigation
already had been released to the public in summary form, the legitimate public interest in the matter
had been satisfied. Therefore, the court determined that, in this instance, the public did not possess
a legitimate interest in the names of witnesses to or victims of the sexual harassment, in their
statements, or in any other information that would tend to identify them. The Ellen court did not
protect from public disclosure the identity of the alleged perpetrator of the sexual harassment.
In Abbott v. Dallas Area Rapid Transit,338 the court of appeals considered a request for the
investigation report pertaining to a claim of racial discrimination. The court concluded this
information is in no way intimate or embarrassing and is not comparable to the information at issue
in Morales v. Ellen. The court of appeals determined the report was not protected by common-law
privacy and must be released without redaction.
(b) Financial Information
Governmental bodies frequently claim that financial information pertaining to an individual is
protected under the doctrine of common-law privacy as incorporated into section 552.101.
Resolution of these claims hinges upon the role the information plays in the relationship between
the individual and the governmental body.
Information regarding a financial transaction between an individual and a governmental body is a
matter of legitimate public interest; thus, the doctrine of common-law privacy does not generally
protect from required public disclosure information regarding such a transaction.339 An example of
a financial transaction between a person and a governmental body is a public employee’s
participation in an insurance program funded wholly or partially by his or her employer.340 In
contrast, a public employee’s participation in a voluntary investment program or deferred
compensation plan that the employer offers but does not fund is not considered a financial
transaction between the individual and the governmental body; information regarding such
participation is considered intimate and of no legitimate public interest.341 Consequently, the

337

Morales v. Ellen, 840 S.W.2d 519, 524–25 (Tex. App.— El Paso 1992, writ denied).

338

Abbott v. Dallas Area Rapid Transit, 410 S.W .3d 876 (Tex. App.— Austin 2013, no pet.).

339

See Open Records Decision Nos. 590 at 3 (1991), 523 at 3–4 (1989).

340

See Open Records Decision No. 600 at 9 (1992).

341

See Open Records Decision No. 545 at 3–5 (1990).

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doctrine of common-law privacy generally excepts such financial information from required public
disclosure.
The doctrine of common-law privacy does not except from disclosure the basic facts concerning a
financial transaction between an individual and a governmental body.342 On the other hand,
common-law privacy generally protects the “background” financial information of the individual,
that is, information about the individual’s overall financial status and past financial history.343
However, certain circumstances may justify the public disclosure of background financial
information; therefore, a determination of the availability of background financial information under
the Act must be made on a case-by-case basis.344
ii. Constitutional Privacy
Section 552.101 also incorporates constitutional privacy.345 The United States Constitution protects
two kinds of individual privacy interests: (1) an individual’s interest in independently making
certain important personal decisions about matters that the United States Supreme Court has stated
are within the “zones of privacy,” as described in Roe v. Wade346 and Paul v. Davis347 and (2) an
individual’s interest in avoiding the disclosure of personal matters to the public or to the
government.348 The “zones of privacy” implicated in the individual’s interest in independently
making certain kinds of decisions include matters related to marriage, procreation, contraception,
family relationships, and child rearing and education.349
The second individual privacy interest that implicates constitutional privacy involves matters outside
the “zones of privacy.” To determine whether the constitutional right of privacy protects particular
information, the release of which implicates a person’s interest in avoiding the disclosure of personal
matters, the attorney general applies a balancing test that weighs the individual’s interest in privacy
against the public’s right to know the information. Although such a test might appear more
protective of privacy interests than the common-law test, the scope of information considered private

342

See, e.g., Open Records Decision Nos. 523 at 3–4 (1989), 385 at 2 (1983) (hospital’s accounts receivable showing
patients’ names and amounts they owed were subject to public disclosure).

343

See Open Records Decision Nos. 523 at 3–4 (1989) (credit reports and financial statements of individual veterans
participating in Veterans Land Program are protected from disclosure as “background” financial information), 373
at 3 (1983) (sources of income, salary, mortgage payments, assets, and credit history of applicant for housing
rehabilitation grant are protected by common-law privacy). But see Open Records Decision No. 620 at 4 (1993)
(background financial information regarding corporation is not protected by privacy).

344

Open Records Decision No. 373 at 4 (1983).

345

Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W .2d 668, 678 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977).

346

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, 152 (1973).

347

Paul v. Davis, 424 U.S. 693, 712–13 (1976).

348

Open Records Decision No. 600 at 4–5 (1992); see also Whalen v. Roe, 429 U.S. 589, 599–600 (1977).

349

Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W .2d 668, 678, 679 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931
(1977).

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under the constitutional doctrine is far narrower than that under the common law; the material must
concern the “most intimate aspects of human affairs.”350
iii. Privacy Rights Lapse upon Death of the Subject
Common-law and constitutional privacy rights lapse upon the death of the subject.351 Consequently,
common-law and constitutional privacy can be asserted on behalf of family members of a deceased
individual only on the basis of their own privacy interests, not on the basis of the deceased
individual’s privacy.352 If a governmental body believes that the release of information will implicate
the privacy interests of the family members of a deceased individual, the governmental body should
notify the deceased’s family of their right to submit comments to the attorney general explaining how
release will affect their privacy interests.353 In this regard, governmental bodies should also be aware
of section 552.1085 of the Government Code, which pertains to the confidentiality and release of
sensitive crime scene images from closed criminal cases, as discussed more fully in Part Two,
Section II, Subsection I of this Handbook.
iv. False-Light Privacy
The Texas Supreme Court has held false-light privacy is not an actionable tort in Texas.354 In
addition, in Open Records Decision No. 579 (1990), the attorney general determined the statutory
predecessor to section 552.101 did not incorporate the common-law tort of false-light privacy,
overruling prior decisions to the contrary.355 Thus, the truth or falsity of information is not relevant
under the Public Information Act.
v. Special Circumstances
Through formal decisions, the attorney general developed the “special circumstances” test under
common-law privacy to withhold certain information from disclosure.356 “Special circumstances”

350

See Open Records Decision No. 455 at 5 (1987) (citing Ramie v. City of Hedwig Village, 765 F.2d 490, 492 (5th
Cir. 1985)).

351

Moore v. Charles B. Pierce Film Enters., Inc., 589 S.W.2d 489, 491 (Tex. Civ. App.— Texarkana 1979, writ ref’d
n.r.e.); Justice v. Belo Broadcasting Corp., 472 F. Supp. 145, 146–47 (N.D. Tex. 1979) (“action for invasion of
privacy can be maintained only by a living individual whose privacy is invaded”) (quoting Restatement of Torts 2d);
Attorney General Opinion H-917 at 3–4 (1976); Open Records Decision No. 272 at 1 (1981); see United States v.
Amalgamated Life Ins. Co., 534 F. Supp. 676, 679 (S.D.N.Y. 1982) (constitutional right to privacy terminates upon
death and does not descend to heirs of deceased).

352

Moore v. Charles B. Pierce Film Enters., Inc., 589 S.W .2d 489, 491 (Tex. Civ. App.— Texarkana 1979, writ ref’d
n.r.e.); see also Nat’l Archives & Records Admin. v. Favish, 541 U.S. 157 (2004); Justice v. Belo Broadcasting
Corp., 472 F. Supp. 145, 146–47 (N.D. Tex. 1979); United States v. Amalgamated Life Ins. Co., 534 F. Supp. 676,
679 (S.D.N.Y. 1982).

353

See Gov’t Code § 552.304 (any interested person may submit comments explaining why records should or should
not be released).

354

Cain v. Hearst Corp., 878 S.W.2d 577, 579 (Tex. 1994).

355

Open Records Decision No. 579 at 3–8 (1990).

356

Open Records Decision Nos. 169 (1977), 123 (1976).

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refers to a very narrow set of situations in which the release of information would likely cause
someone to face “an imminent threat of physical danger.”357 Such “special circumstances” do not
include “a generalized and speculative fear of harassment or retribution.”358 In Tex. Dep’t of Pub.
Safety v. Cox Tex. Newspapers, L.P. & Hearst Newspapers, L.P., the Third Court of Appeals
concluded it could not adopt the special circumstances analysis because it directly conflicts with the
two-part test articulated in Industrial Foundation, which is the sole criteria for determining whether
information is private under the common law.359 The Texas Supreme Court, however, reversed the
court of appeals’ opinion.360 The supreme court concluded freedom from physical harm is an
independent interest protected under law, untethered to the right of privacy. Thus, the supreme court
for the first time announced a common-law right of physical safety exception under the Act. The
supreme court adopted the standard enunciated in section 552.152 requiring the withholding of
information if disclosure would create a “substantial threat of physical harm.”361 As articulated by
the court, the new common-law exception requires more than vague assertions of potential harm.
vi. Dates of Birth of Members of the Public
Dates of birth of members of the public are contained in a wide variety of public records. The
attorney general has historically concluded that dates of birth of members of the public are not
protected under common-law privacy.362 However, in Paxton v. City of Dallas,363 the Third Court
of Appeals concluded public citizens’ dates of birth are protected by common-law privacy pursuant
to section 552.101 of the Government Code. In its opinion, the court of appeals looked to the
supreme court’s rationale in Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts v. Attorney General of Texas,364
where the supreme court concluded public employees’ dates of birth are private under section
552.102 of the Government Code because the employees’ privacy interest substantially outweighed
the negligible public interest in disclosure.365 Based on Texas Comptroller, the court of appeals
concluded the privacy rights of public employees apply equally to public citizens, and thus, public
citizens’ dates of birth are also protected by common-law privacy. Consequently, dates of birth of
members of the public are generally protected under common-law privacy.

357

Open Records Decision No. 169 at 6 (1977).

358

Open Records Decision No. 169 at 6 (1997).

359

Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Cox Tex. Newspapers, L.P. & Hearst Newspapers, L.P., 287 S.W .3d 390, 394-95
(Tex. App.— Austin 2009), rev’d, 343 S.W .3d 112 (Tex. 2011).

360

Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Cox Tex. Newspapers, L.P. & Hearst Newspapers, L.P., 343 S.W .3d 112 (Tex. 2011).

361

See Gov’t Code § 552.152 (information in custody of governmental body that relates to employee or officer of
governmental body is excepted from disclosure if, under circumstances pertaining to employee or officer, disclosure
would subject employee or officer to substantial threat of physical harm).

362

See Open Records Decision No. 455 at 7 (1987).

363

Paxton v. City of Dallas, No. 03-13-00546-CV, 2015 W L 3394061, at *3 (Tex. App.— Austin May 22, 2015,
pet. denied) (mem. op.).

364

Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts v. Attorney General of Texas, 354 S.W .3d 336 (Tex. 2010).

365

Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts v. Attorney General of Texas, 354 S.W .3d 336, 347-348 (Tex. 2010).

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b. Informer’s Privilege
As interpreted by the attorney general, section 552.101 of the Government Code incorporates the
“informer’s privilege.” In Roviaro v. United States,366 the United States Supreme Court explained
the rationale underlying the informer’s privilege:
What is usually referred to as the informer’s privilege is in reality the Government’s privilege
to withhold from disclosure the identity of persons who furnish information of violations of
law to officers charged with enforcement of that law. The purpose of the privilege is the
furtherance and protection of the public interest in effective law enforcement. The privilege
recognizes the obligation of citizens to communicate their knowledge of the commission of
crimes to law-enforcement officials and, by preserving their anonymity, encourages them to
perform that obligation.367
In accordance with this policy, the attorney general has construed the informer’s privilege aspect of
section 552.101 as protecting the identity only of a person who (1) reports a violation or possible
violation of the law (2) to officials charged with the duty of enforcing the particular law. The
informer’s privilege facet of section 552.101 does not protect information about lawful conduct.368
The privilege protects information reported to administrative agency officials having a duty to
enforce statutes with civil or criminal penalties, as well as to law enforcement officers.369
The informer’s privilege protects not only the informer’s identity, but also any portion of the
informer’s statement that might tend to reveal the informer’s identity.370 Of course, protecting an
informer’s identity and any identifying information under the informer’s privilege serves no purpose
if the accused already knows the informer’s identity. The attorney general has held that the
informer’s privilege does not apply in such a situation.371
The informer’s privilege facet of section 552.101 of the Government Code serves to protect the flow
of information to a governmental body; it does not serve to protect a third person.372 Thus, because
it exists to protect the governmental body’s interest, this privilege, unlike other section 552.101
claims, may be waived by the governmental body.373

366

Roviaro v. United States, 353 U.S. 53 (1957).

367

Roviaro v. United States, 353 U.S. 53, 59 (1957) (emphasis added) (citations omitted).

368

See Open Records Decision Nos. 515 at 4–5 (1988), 191 at 1 (1978).

369

See Open Records Decision No. 515 at 2 (1988).

370

Open Records Decision No. 515 at 2 (1988).

371

Open Records Decision No. 208 at 1–2 (1978).

372

Open Records Decision No. 549 at 5 (1990).

373

Open Records Decision No. 549 at 6 (1990).

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B. Section 552.102: Confidentiality of Certain Personnel Information
Section 552.102 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from [required public disclosure] if it is information in a
personnel file, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted
invasion of personal privacy, except that all information in the personnel file of an
employee of a governmental body is to be made available to that employee or the
employee’s designated representative as public information is made available under
this chapter. The exception to public disclosure created by this subsection is in
addition to any exception created by Section 552.024. Public access to personnel
information covered by Section 552.024 is denied to the extent provided by that
section.

(b)

Information is excepted from [required public disclosure] if it is a transcript from an
institution of higher education maintained in the personnel file of a professional
public school employee, except that this section does not exempt from disclosure the
degree obtained or the curriculum on a transcript in the personnel file of the
employee.

1. Dates of Birth of Public Employees
In 1983, the Third Court of Appeals in Hubert v. Harte-Hanks Tex. Newspapers, Inc.374 ruled the test
to be applied under section 552.102 is the same as the test formulated by the Texas Supreme Court
in Industrial Foundation for applying the doctrine of common-law privacy as incorporated by
section 552.101. However, the Texas Supreme Court recently held section 552.102(a) excepts from
disclosure only the dates of birth of state employees in the payroll database of the Texas Comptroller
of Public Accounts.375 In light of the court’s determination, a governmental body should not raise
section 552.102(a) if it seeks to withhold its employees’ personnel information under common-law
privacy. The appropriate exception a governmental body should raise to protect its employees’
personnel information under common-law privacy is section 552.101. Section 552.102(a) only
excepts from disclosure a public employee’s birth date that is contained in records maintained by the
governmental body in a personnel context.
Section 552.102 applies to former as well as current public employees.376 However, section 552.102
does not apply to applicants for employment.377 In addition, section 552.102 applies only to the
personnel records of public employees, not the records of private employees.

374

Hubert v. Harte-Hanks Tex. Newspapers, Inc., 652 S.W .2d 546, 550 (Tex. App.— Austin 1983, writ ref’d n.r.e.).

375

Tex. Comptroller of Pub. Accounts v. Attorney Gen. of Tex., 354 S.W . 3d 336 (Tex. 2010).

376

Attorney General Opinion JM-229 at 2 (1984).

377

Open Records Decision No. 455 at 8 (1987).

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2. Transcripts of Professional Public School Employees
Section 552.102 also protects from required public disclosure most information on a transcript from
an institution of higher education maintained in the personnel files of professional public school
employees. Section 552.102(b) does not except from disclosure information on a transcript detailing
the degree obtained and the curriculum pursued.378 Moreover, the attorney general has interpreted
section 552.102(b) to apply only to the transcripts of employees of public schools providing public
education under title 2 of the Education Code, not to employees of colleges and universities
providing higher education under title 3 of the Education Code.379

C. Section 552.103: Litigation or Settlement Negotiations Involving the State
or a Political Subdivision
Section 552.103(a) of the Act, commonly referred to as the “litigation exception,” excepts from
required public disclosure:
[I]nformation relating to litigation of a civil or criminal nature to which the state or a
political subdivision is or may be a party or to which an officer or employee of the state or
a political subdivision, as a consequence of the person’s office or employment, is or may
be a party.
Section 552.103(a) was intended to prevent the use of the Public Information Act as a method of
avoiding the rules of discovery used in litigation.380 This exception enables a governmental body to
protect its position in litigation “by forcing parties seeking information relating to that litigation to
obtain it through discovery” procedures.381 Section 552.103 is a discretionary exception to disclosure
and does not make information confidential under the Act.382 As such, section 552.103 does not
make information confidential for the purposes of section 552.022. Further, a governmental body
waives section 552.103 by failing to comply with the procedural requirements of section 552.301.383
1. Governmental Body’s Burden
For information to be excepted from public disclosure by section 552.103(a), (1) litigation involving
the governmental body must be pending or reasonably anticipated and (2) the information must relate

378

See Open Records Decision No. 526 (1989).

379

See, e.g., Open Records Letter Nos. 2013-11312 (2013), 2009-18243 (2009), 2008-10363 (2008), 2008-08137
(2008).

380

Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W .3d 473, 487 (Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.); Attorney General Opinion JM-1048
at 4 (1989).

381

Open Records Decision No. 551 at 3 (1990).

382

Dallas Area Rapid Transit v. Dallas Morning News, 4 S.W .3d 469, 475–76 (Tex. App.— Dallas 1999, no pet.);
Open Records Decision No. 665 at 2 n.5 (2000).

383

Open Records Decision Nos. 663 at 5 (1999), 542 at 4 (1990).

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to that litigation.384 Therefore, a governmental body that seeks an attorney general decision has the
burden of clearly establishing both prongs of this test.
For purposes of section 552.103(a), a contested case under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA),
Government Code chapter 2001, constitutes “litigation.”385 Questions remain regarding whether
administrative proceedings not subject to the APA may be considered litigation within the meaning
of section 552.103(a).386 In determining whether an administrative proceeding should be considered
litigation for the purpose of section 552.103, the attorney general will consider the following factors:
(1) whether the dispute is, for all practical purposes, litigated in an administrative proceeding where
(a) discovery takes place, (b) evidence is heard, (c) factual questions are resolved, and (d) a record
is made; and (2) whether the proceeding is an adjudicative forum of first jurisdiction.387
Whether litigation is reasonably anticipated must be determined on a case-by-case basis.388 Section
552.103(a) requires concrete evidence that litigation is realistically contemplated; it must be more
than conjecture.389 The mere chance of litigation is not sufficient to trigger section 552.103(a).390
The fact that a governmental body received a claim letter that it represents to the attorney general
to be in compliance with the notice requirements of the Texas Tort Claims Act, Civil Practice and
Remedies Code chapter 101, or applicable municipal ordinance, shows that litigation is reasonably
anticipated.391 If a governmental body does not make this representation, the claim letter is a factor
the attorney general will consider in determining from the totality of the circumstances presented
whether the governmental body has established that litigation is reasonably anticipated.
In previous open records decisions, the attorney general had concluded that a governmental body
could claim the litigation exception only if it established that withholding the information was
necessary to protect the governmental body’s strategy or position in litigation.392 However, Open
Records Decision No. 551 (1990) significantly revised this test and concluded that the governmental
body need only establish the relatedness of the information to the subject matter of the pending or
anticipated litigation.393 Therefore, to meet its burden under section 552.103(a) in requesting an
attorney general decision under the Act, the governmental body must identify the issues in the
litigation and explain how the information relates to those issues.394 When the litigation is actually

384

Univ. of Tex. Law Sch. v. Tex. Legal Found., 958 S.W .2d 479, 481 (Tex. App.— Austin 1997, orig. proceeding);
Heard v. Houston Post Co., 684 S.W.2d 210, 212 (Tex. App.— Houston [1st Dist.] 1984, writ ref’d n.r.e.).

385

Open Records Decision No. 588 at 7 (1991) (construing statutory predecessor to APA).

386

Open Records Decision No. 588 at 6–7 (1991).

387

See Open Records Decision No. 588 (1991).

388

Open Records Decision No. 452 at 4 (1986).

389

Attorney General Opinion JM-266 at 4 (1984); Open Records Decision Nos. 677 at 3 (2002), 518 at 5 (1989), 328
at 2 (1982).

390

Open Records Decision Nos. 677 at 3 (2002), 518 at 5 (1989), 397 at 2 (1983), 361 at 2 (1983), 359 at 2 (1983).

391

Open Records Decision No. 638 at 4 (1996).

392

See Open Records Decision Nos. 518 at 5 (1989), 474 at 5 (1987).

393

Open Records Decision No. 551 at 5 (1990).

394

Open Records Decision No. 551 at 5 (1990).

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pending, the governmental body should also provide the attorney general a copy of the relevant
pleadings.
2. Only Circumstances Existing at the Time of the Request
Subsection (c) of section 552.103 provides as follows:
Information relating to litigation involving a governmental body or an officer or employee
of a governmental body is excepted from disclosure under Subsection (a) only if the
litigation is pending or reasonably anticipated on the date that the requestor applies to the
officer for public information for access to or duplication of the information.
Consequently, in determining whether a governmental body has met its burden under section
552.103, the attorney general or a court can only consider the circumstances that existed on the date
the governmental body received the request for information, not information about occurrences after
the date of the request for information.395
3. Temporal Nature of Section 552.103
Generally, when parties to litigation have inspected the records pursuant to court order, discovery,
or through any other means, section 552.103(a) may no longer be invoked.396 In addition, once
litigation is neither reasonably anticipated nor pending, section 552.103(a) is no longer applicable.397
Once a governmental body has disclosed information relating to litigation, the governmental body
is ordinarily precluded from invoking section 552.103(a) to withhold the same information. This
is not the case, however, when a governmental body has disclosed information to a co-defendant in
litigation, where the governmental body believes in good faith that it has a constitutional obligation
to disclose it.398
4. Scope of Section 552.103
Section 552.103 applies to information that relates to pending or reasonably anticipated litigation,
which is a very broad category of information.399 The protection of section 552.103 may overlap
with that of other exceptions that encompass discovery privileges. However, the standard for
proving that section 552.103 applies to information is the same regardless of whether the information
is also subject to a discovery privilege.
395

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 2–3 (2002).

396

Open Records Decision No. 597 (1991) (statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.103 did not except basic
information in offense report that was previously disclosed to defendant in criminal litigation); see Open Records
Decision Nos. 551 at 4 (1990), 511 at 5 (1988), 493 at 2 (1988), 349 (1982), 320 (1982).

397

Open Records Decision Nos. 551 at 4 (1990), 350 (1982); see Thomas v. El Paso County Cmty. Coll. Dist.,
68 S.W.3d 722, 726 (Tex. App.— El Paso 2001, no pet.).

398

Open Records Decision No. 454 at 3 (1986); see Cornyn v. City of Garland, 994 S.W .2d 258 (Tex. App.— Austin
1999, no pet.); Open Records Decision No. 579 at 9 (1990) (exchange of information in informal discovery is not
voluntary release of information under statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.021).

399

Univ. of Tex. Law Sch. v. Tex. Legal Found., 958 S.W .2d 479, 483 (Tex. App.— Austin 1997, orig. proceeding).

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For example, information excepted from disclosure under the litigation exception may also be
subject to the work product privilege.400 However, the standard for proving that the litigation
exception applies is wholly distinct from the standard for proving that the work product privilege
applies.401 The work product privilege is incorporated into the Act by section 552.111 of the
Government Code, not section 552.103.402 If both section 552.103 and the work product privilege
could apply to requested information, the governmental body has the discretion to choose to assert
either or both of the exceptions.403 However, the governmental body must meet distinct burdens
depending on the exception it is asserting.404 Under section 552.103, the governmental body must
demonstrate that the requested information relates to pending or reasonably anticipated litigation.405
Under the work product privilege, the governmental body must demonstrate that the requested
information was created for trial or in anticipation of civil litigation by or for a party or a party’s
representative.406
5. Duration of Section 552.103 for Criminal Litigation
Subsection (b) of section 552.103 provides as follows:
For purposes of this section, the state or a political subdivision is considered to be a party
to litigation of a criminal nature until the applicable statute of limitations has expired or
until the defendant has exhausted all appellate and postconviction remedies in state and
federal court.
The attorney general has determined that section 552.103(b) is not a separate exception to disclosure;
it merely provides a time frame within which the litigation exception excepts information from
disclosure.407

D. Section 552.104: Information Relating to Competition or Bidding
Section 552.104 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information
that, if released, would give advantage to a competitor or bidder.

400

See Open Records Decision No. 677 at 2 (2002).

401

See Open Records Decision No. 677 at 2 (2002).

402

See Open Records Decision No. 677 at 4 (2002).

403

See Open Records Decision No. 677 at 2 (2002); Open Records Decision No. 647 at 3 (1996).

404

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 2 (2002).

405

See Open Records Decision No. 677 at 2 (2002); Gov’t Code § 552.103; Univ. of Tex. Law Sch. v. Tex. Legal
Found., 958 S.W .2d 479, 481 (Tex. App.— Austin 1997, no pet.); Heard v. Houston Post Co., 684 S.W .2d 210, 212
(Tex. App.— Houston [1st Dist.] 1984, writ ref’d n.r.e.).

406

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 5–8 (2002).

407

Open Records Decision No. 518 at 5 (1989).

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(b)

The requirement of Section 552.022 that a category of information listed under
Section 552.022(a) is public information and not excepted from required disclosure
under this chapter unless expressly confidential under law does not apply to
information that is excepted from required disclosure under this section.

Section 552.104(a) of the Government Code excepts from disclosure information that, if released,
would give advantage to a competitor or bidder. The Texas Supreme Court recently considered
section 552.104 and held the “test under section 552.104 is whether knowing another bidder’s [or
competitor’s information] would be an advantage, not whether it would be a decisive advantage.”408
The supreme court further held section 552.104 protection is not limited to governmental bodies, and
therefore a private third party may also invoke this exception.409 The supreme court’s decision
overrules a long line of attorney general decisions limiting the application of section 552.104 to
governmental bodies and discussing the burden a governmental body must meet in order to withhold
information under section 552.104. Both governmental bodies and third parties should therefore
exercise caution in relying on prior attorney general decisions regarding the applicability of
section 552.104. Section 552.104(b) provides that information excepted from disclosure under this
section may be withheld even if it falls within one of the categories of information listed in
section 552.022(a).

E.

Section 552.105: Information Related to Location or Price of Property

Section 552.105 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure information
relating to:
(1)

the location of real or personal property for a public purpose prior to public
announcement of the project; or

(2)

appraisals or purchase price of real or personal property for a public purpose prior
to the formal award of contracts for the property.

This exception protects a governmental body’s planning and negotiating position with respect to
particular real or personal property transactions,410 and its protection is therefore limited in duration.
The protection of section 552.105(1) expires upon the public announcement of the project for which
the property is being acquired, while the protection of section 552.105(2) expires upon the
governmental body’s acquisition of the property in question.411 Because section 552.105(2) extends
to “information relating to” the appraisals and purchase price of property, it may protect more than
just the purchase price or appraisal of a specific piece of property.412 For example, the attorney

408

Boeing Co. v. Paxton, No. 12-1007, 2015 W L 3854264, at *9 (Tex. June 19, 2015).

409

Boeing Co. v. Paxton, No. 12-1007, 2015 W L 3854264, at *7 (Tex. June 19, 2015).

410

Open Records Decision No. 357 at 3 (1982).

411

Gov’t Code § 552.105; see Open Records Decision No. 222 at 1–2 (1979).

412

See Heidenheimer v. Tex. Dep’t of Transp., No. 03-02-00187-CV, 2003 W L 124248, at *2 (Tex. App.— Austin
Jan. 16, 2003, pet. denied) (mem. op., not designated for publication); Open Records Decision No. 564 (1990)
(construing statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.105).

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general has held that appraisal information about parcels of land acquired in advance of others to be
acquired for the same project could be withheld where this information would harm the
governmental body’s negotiating position with respect to the remaining parcels.413 Similarly, the
location of property to be purchased may be withheld under section 552.105(2) if releasing the
location could affect the purchase price of the property. The exception for information pertaining
to “purchase price” in section 552.105(2) also applies to information pertaining to a lease price.414
When a governmental body has made a good faith determination that the release of information
would damage its negotiating position with respect to the acquisition of property, the attorney
general in issuing a ruling under the Act will accept that determination, unless the records or other
information show the contrary as a matter of law.415

F. Section 552.106: Certain Legislative Documents
Section 552.106 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

A draft or working paper involved in the preparation of proposed legislation is
excepted from [required public disclosure].

(b)

An internal bill analysis or working paper prepared by the governor’s office for the
purpose of evaluating proposed legislation is excepted from [required public
disclosure].

Section 552.106(a) protects documents concerning the deliberative processes of a governmental body
relevant to the enactment of legislation.416 The purpose of this exception is to encourage frank
discussion on policy matters between the subordinates or advisors of a legislative body and the
legislative body.417 However, section 552.106(a) does not protect purely factual material.418 If a
draft or working paper contains purely factual material that can be disclosed without revealing
protected judgments or recommendations, such factual material must be disclosed unless another
exception to disclosure applies.419 Section 552.106(a) protects drafts of legislation that reflect policy
judgments, recommendations, and proposals prepared by persons with some official responsibility
to prepare them for the legislative body.420 In addition to documents actually created by the
legislature, the attorney general has construed the term “legislation” to include certain documents
created by a city or a state agency.421

413

Open Records Decision No. 564 (1990).

414

Open Records Decision No. 348 (1982).

415

Open Records Decision No. 564 at 2 (1990).

416

See Open Records Decision No. 429 at 5 (1985).

417

Open Records Decision No. 460 at 2 (1987).

418

Open Records Decision Nos. 460 at 2 (1987), 344 at 3–4 (1982), 197 at 3 (1978), 140 at 4 (1976).

419

Open Records Decision No. 460 at 2 (1987).

420

Open Records Decision No. 429 at 5 (1985).

421

See Open Records Decision Nos. 460 at 2–3 (1987), 367 (1983), 248 (1980).

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Exceptions to Disclosure

The following open records decisions have held certain information to be excepted from required
public disclosure under the statutory predecessor to section 552.106(a):
Open Records Decision No. 460 (1987) — a city manager’s proposed budget prior to its
presentation to the city council, where the city charter directed the city manager to prepare such
a proposal and the proposal was comprised of recommendations rather than facts;
Open Records Decision No. 367 (1983) — recommendations of the executive committee of the
Texas State Board of Public Accountancy for amendments to the Public Accountancy Act; and
Open Records Decision No. 248 (1980) — drafts of a municipal ordinance and resolution that
were prepared by a city staff study group for discussion purposes and that reflected policy
judgments, recommendations, and proposals.
The following open records decisions have held information not to be excepted from required public
disclosure under the statutory predecessor to section 552.106(a):
Open Records Decision No. 482 (1987) — drafts and working papers incorporated into materials
that are disclosed to the public;
Open Records Decision No. 429 (1985) — documents relating to the Texas Turnpike Authority’s
efforts to persuade various cities to enact ordinances, as the agency had no official authority to
do so and acted merely as an interested third party to the legislative process; and
Open Records Decision No. 344 (1982) — certain information relating to the State Property Tax
Board’s biennial study of taxable property in each school district, for the reason that the nature
of the requested information compiled by the board was factual.
Section 552.106(b) excepts from disclosure “[a]n internal bill analysis or working paper prepared
by the governor’s office for the purpose of evaluating proposed legislation[.]”422 The purpose of
section 552.106(b) is also to encourage frank discussion on policy matters; however, this section
applies to information created or used by employees of the governor’s office for the purpose of
evaluating proposed legislation. Furthermore, like section 552.106(a), section 552.106(b) only
protects policy judgments, advice, opinions, and recommendations involved in the preparation or
evaluation of proposed legislation; it does not except purely factual information from public
disclosure.423
Sections 552.106 and 552.111 were designed to achieve the same goals in different contexts.424 The
purpose of section 552.111 is “to protect from public disclosure advice and opinions on policy

422

Gov’t Code § 552.106(b).

423

See House Comm. on State Affairs, Public Hearing, M ay 6, 1997, H.B. 3157, 75 th Leg. (1997) (protection given to
legislative documents under Gov’t Code § 552.106(a) is comparable with protection given to governor’s legislative
documents under Gov’t Code § 552.106(b)).

424

Open Records Decision No. 482 at 9 (1987).

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matters and to encourage frank and open discussion within the agency in connection with its
decision-making processes.”425 Because the policies and objectives of each exception are the same,
some decisions applying section 552.111 may be helpful in determining how section 552.106 should
be construed.426 Although the provisions protect the same type of information, section 552.106 is
narrower in scope because it applies specifically to the legislative process.427

G. Section 552.107: Certain Legal Matters
Section 552.107 of the Government Code states that information is excepted from required public
disclosure if:
(1)

it is information that the attorney general or an attorney of a political subdivision is
prohibited from disclosing because of a duty to the client under the Texas Rules of
Evidence or the Texas Disciplinary Rules of Professional Conduct; or

(2)

a court by order has prohibited disclosure of the information.

This section has two distinct aspects: subsection (1) protects information within the attorney-client
privilege, and subsection (2) protects information a court has ordered to be kept confidential.
1. Information Within the Attorney-Client Privilege
When seeking to withhold information not subject to section 552.022 of the Government Code based
on the attorney-client privilege, a governmental body should assert section 552.107(1).428 Discovery
privileges under the Texas Rules of Evidence and Texas Rules of Civil Procedure, such as the
attorney-client and attorney work product privileges, do not make information confidential for the
purpose of section 552.101 of the Government Code, and therefore should not be asserted under
section 552.101.429
In Open Records Decision No. 676 (2002), the attorney general interpreted section 552.107 to protect
the same information as protected under Texas Rule of Evidence 503.430 Thus, the standard for
demonstrating the attorney-client privilege under the Act is the same as the standard used in
discovery under rule 503. In meeting this standard, a governmental body bears the burden of
providing the necessary facts to demonstrate the elements of the attorney-client privilege.431

425

Austin v. City of San Antonio, 630 S.W .2d 391, 394 (Tex. App.— San Antonio 1982, writ ref’d n.r.e.); Open Records
Decision No. 222 (1979).

426

Open Records Decision No. 482 at 9 (1987). But see Open Records Decision No. 615 at 5 (1993) (agency’s
policymaking functions protected by statutory predecessor to section 552.111 do not encompass routine internal
administrative and personnel matters).

427

See Open Records Decision Nos. 460 at 3 (1987), 429 at 5 (1985).

428

Open Records Decision Nos. 676 at 1–3 (2002), 574 at 2 (1990).

429

Open Records Decision Nos. 676 at 1–3 (2002), 575 at 2 (1990).

430

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 4 (2002).

431

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 6 (2002).

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First, the governmental body must demonstrate that the information constitutes or documents a
communication.432 Second, the communication must have been made “to facilitate the rendition of
professional legal services” to the client governmental body.433 Third, the governmental body must
demonstrate that the communication was between or among clients, client representatives, lawyers,
and lawyer representatives.434 Fourth, the governmental body must show that the communication
was confidential; that is, the communication was “not intended to be disclosed to third persons other
than those: to (A) whom disclosure is made to furtherance the rendition of professional legal
services to the clients; or (B) reasonably necessary to transmit the communication.”435 Finally,
because the client can waive the attorney-client privilege at any time, the governmental body must
demonstrate that the communication has remained confidential.436
The privilege will not apply if the attorney or the attorney’s representative was acting in a capacity
“other than that of providing or facilitating professional legal services to the client.”437 In
Harlandale Indep. Sch. District v. Cornyn,438 the Third Court of Appeals addressed whether an
attorney was working in her capacity as an attorney when she conducted a factual investigation, thus
rendering factual information from the attorney’s report excepted from public disclosure under
section 552.107(1) of the Government Code. There, the Harlandale Independent School District
hired an attorney to conduct an investigation into an alleged assault and render a legal analysis of the
situation upon completion of the investigation.439 The attorney produced a report that included a
summary of the factual investigation as well as legal opinions.440 While the court of appeals held
the attorney-client privilege does not apply to communications between an attorney and a client
“when the attorney is employed in a non-legal capacity, for instance as an accountant, escrow
agency, negotiator, or notary public,” the court also held the attorney in that case was acting in a
legal capacity in gathering the facts because the ultimate purpose of her investigation was the
rendition of legal advice.441 Thus, when an attorney is hired to conduct an investigation in his or her
capacity as an attorney, a report produced by an attorney containing both factual information and
legal advice is excepted from disclosure in its entirety under section 552.107(1).
If a governmental body demonstrates that any portion of a communication is protected under the
attorney-client privilege, then the entire communication will be generally excepted from disclosure

432

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 7 (2002).

433

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 7 (2002); T EX . R. E VID . 503(b)(1).

434

T EX . R. E VID . 503(b)(1)(A)–(E); Open Records Decision No. 676 at 8–10 (2002).

435

T EX . R. E VID . 503(a)(5); Open Records Decision No. 676 at 10 (2002); see Osborne v. Johnson, 954 S.W .2d 180,
184 (Tex. App.— W aco 1997, orig. proceeding) (whether communication was confidential depends on intent of
parties involved at time information was communicated).

436

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 10–11 (2002).

437

Open Records Decision No. 676 at 7 (2002); see also In re Tex. Farmers Ins. Exch., 990 S.W .2d 337, 340 (Tex.
App.— Texarkana 1999, orig. proceeding) (attorney-client privilege does not apply if attorney acting in capacity
other than that of attorney).

438

Harlandale Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Cornyn, 25 S.W .3d 328 (Tex. App.— Austin 2000, pet. denied).

439

Harlandale Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Cornyn, 25 S.W .3d 328, 330 (Tex. App.— Austin 2000, pet. denied).

440

Harlandale Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Cornyn, 25 S.W .3d 328, 330–331 (Tex. App.— Austin 2000, pet. denied).

441

Harlandale Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Cornyn, 25 S.W .3d 328, 332–335 (Tex. App.— Austin 2000, pet. denied).

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under section 552.107.442 However, section 552.107 does not apply to a non-privileged
communication within a privileged communication, if the non-privileged communication is
maintained by the governmental body separate and apart from the otherwise privileged
communication. For example, if an e-mail string includes an e-mail or attachment that was received
from or sent to a non-privileged party, and the e-mail or attachment that was received from or sent
to the non-privileged party is separately responsive to the request for information when it is removed
from the e-mail string and stands alone, the governmental body may not withhold the non-privileged
e-mail or attachment under section 552.107.443
The scope of the attorney-client privilege and the work product privilege, which is encompassed by
section 552.111 of the Government Code, are often confused. The attorney-client privilege covers
certain communications made in furtherance of the rendition of professional legal services, while
the work product privilege covers work prepared for the client’s lawsuit.444 For materials to be
covered by the attorney-client privilege, they need not be prepared for litigation.
a. Attorney Fee Bills
Attorney fee bills are subject to section 552.022(a)(16) and thus may not be withheld under
section 552.107. Nonetheless, information contained in attorney fee bills may be withheld if it is
protected under the attorney-client privilege as defined in rule 503 of the Texas Rules of Evidence,
or is made confidential under the Act or other law for the purpose of section 552.022.445 Because
the express language of section 552.022(a)(16) provides “information that is in a bill for attorney’s
fees” is not excepted from disclosure unless it is confidential under the Act or other law, the entirety
of an attorney fee bill cannot be withheld on the basis that it contains or is an attorney-client
communication.446
b. Information a Private Attorney Holds for the Governmental Body
If a governmental body engages a private attorney to perform legal services, information in the
attorney’s possession relating to the legal services is subject to the Public Information Act.447

442

See Huie v. DeShazo, 922 S.W .2d 920, 923 (Tex. 1996) (privilege extends to entire communication, including facts
contained therein); In re Valero Energy Corp., 973 S.W.2d 453, 457 (Tex. App.— Houston [14th Dist.] 1998, orig.
proceeding) (privilege attaches to complete communication, including factual information).

443

See, e.g., Open Records Letter Nos. 2013-12509 (2013), 2013-12111 (2013).

444

See Nat’l Tank Co. v. Brotherton, 851 S.W .2d 193, 200 (Tex. 1993); Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. v. Caldwell,
818 S.W .2d 749, 750 (Tex. 1991).

445

See In re City of Georgetown, 53 S.W.3d 328, 337 (Tex. 2001); Open Records Decision No. 676 at 5–6 (2002).

446

Gov’t Code §552.022(a)(16) (emphasis added); see also Open Records Decision Nos. 676 at 5 (2002) (attorney fee
bill cannot be withheld in entirety on basis it contains or is attorney-client communication pursuant to language in
section 552.022(a)(16)), 589 (1991) (information in attorney fee bill excepted only to extent information reveals
client confidences or attorney’s legal advice).

447

Gov’t Code § 552.002(a)(2), (a-1) (definition of public information includes information pertaining to official
business of governmental body that was created by, transmitted to, received by, or is maintained by person or entity
performing official business on behalf of governmental body); Open Records Decision Nos. 663 at 7–8 (1999), 499
at 5 (1988), 462 at 7 (1987).

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c. Waiver of the Attorney-Client Privilege
Texas Rule of Evidence 511 provides that, except where a disclosure is itself privileged, the
attorney-client privilege is waived if a holder of the privilege voluntarily discloses or consents to
disclosure of any significant part of the matter.448
2. Information Protected by Court Order
Section 552.107(2) excepts from disclosure information a court has ordered a governmental body
to keep confidential. Prior to the amendment of section 552.022 in 1999, governmental bodies often
relied on section 552.107(2) to withhold from disclosure the terms of a settlement agreement if a
court had issued an order expressly prohibiting the parties to the settlement agreement or their
attorneys from disclosing the terms of the agreement.449 Under the current version of section
552.022, however, a state court may not order a governmental body or an officer for public
information to withhold from public disclosure any category of information listed in section 552.022
unless the information is confidential under this chapter or other law.450 A settlement agreement to
which a governmental body is a party is one category of information listed in section 552.022.451
With the exception of information subject to section 552.022, section 552.107(2) excepts from
disclosure information that is subject to a protective order during the pendency of the litigation.452
As with any other exception to disclosure, a governmental body must request a ruling from the
attorney general if it wishes to withhold information under section 552.107(2) and should submit a
copy of the protective order for the attorney general’s review. A governmental body may not use a
protective order as grounds for the exception once the court has dismissed the suit from which it
arose.453

H. Section 552.108:
Certain Law Enforcement, Corrections, and
Prosecutorial Information
Section 552.108 of the Government Code, sometimes referred to as the “law enforcement”
exception, provides as follows:
(a)

Information held by a law enforcement agency or prosecutor that deals with the
detection, investigation, or prosecution of crime is excepted from the requirements
of Section 552.021 if:

448

T EX . R. E VID . 511(a)(1); see also Jordan v. Court of Appeals for Fourth Supreme Judicial Dist., 701 S.W .2d 644,
649 (Tex. 1985) (if matter for which privilege is sought has been disclosed to third party, thus raising question of
waiver of privilege, party asserting privilege has burden of proving no waiver has occurred).

449

See Open Records Decision No. 415 at 2 (1984).

450

Gov’t Code § 552.022(b).

451

Gov’t Code § 552.022(a)(18).

452

Open Records Decision No. 143 at 1 (1976).

453

Open Records Decision No. 309 at 5 (1982).

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Exceptions to Disclosure

(1) release of the information would interfere with the detection, investigation, or
prosecution of crime;
(2) it is information that deals with the detection, investigation, or prosecution of
crime only in relation to an investigation that did not result in conviction or
deferred adjudication;
(3) it is information relating to a threat against a peace officer or detention officer
collected or disseminated under Section 411.048; or
(4) it is information that:
(A) is prepared by an attorney representing the state in anticipation of or in the
course of preparing for criminal litigation; or
(B) reflects the mental impressions or legal reasoning of an attorney
representing the state.
(b)

An internal record or notation of a law enforcement agency or prosecutor that is
maintained for internal use in matters relating to law enforcement or prosecution is
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if:
(1) release of the internal record or notation would interfere with law enforcement
or prosecution;
(2) the internal record or notation relates to law enforcement only in relation to an
investigation that did not result in conviction or deferred adjudication; or
(3) the internal record or notation:
(A) is prepared by an attorney representing the state in anticipation of or in the
course of preparing for criminal litigation; or
(B) reflects the mental impressions or legal reasoning of an attorney
representing the state.

(c)

This section does not except from the requirements of Section 552.021 information
that is basic information about an arrested person, an arrest, or a crime.

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1. The Meaning of “Law Enforcement Agency” and the Applicability of Section 552.108 to
Other Units of Government
Section 552.108 generally applies to the records created by an agency, or a portion of an agency,
whose primary function is to investigate crimes and enforce the criminal laws.454 It generally does
not apply to the records created by an agency whose chief function is essentially regulatory in
nature.455 For example, an agency that employs peace officers to investigate crime and enforce
criminal laws may claim that section 552.108 excepts portions of its records from required public
disclosure. On the other hand, an agency involved primarily in licensing certain professionals or
regulating a particular industry generally may not use section 552.108 to except its records from
disclosure.456 An agency that investigates both civil and criminal violations of law but lacks criminal
enforcement authority is not a law enforcement agency for purposes of section 552.108.457
Entities that have been found to be law enforcement agencies for purposes of section 552.108
include: the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (formerly the Texas Department of
Corrections);458 the Texas National Guard;459 the Attorney General’s Organized Crime Task Force;460
a fire department’s arson investigation division;461 the El Paso Special Commission on Crime;462 the
Texas Lottery Commission;463 the Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission’s Enforcement
Division;464 and the Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts for purposes of enforcing the Tax
Code.465

454

See Open Records Decision Nos. 493 at 2 (1988), 287 at 2 (1981).

455

Open Records Decision No. 199 (1978).

456

See Open Records Decision No. 199 (1978). But see Attorney General Opinion MW -575 at 1–2 (1982) (former
Gov’t Code § 552.108 may apply to information gathered by administrative agency when its release would unduly
interfere with law enforcement); Open Records Decision No. 493 at 2 (1988).

457

Open Records Letter No. 99-1907 (1999) (Medicaid Program Integrity Division of Health and Human Services
Commission investigates both civil and criminal violations of Medicaid fraud laws and refers criminal violations
to attorney general for criminal enforcement).

458

Attorney General Opinion MW -381 at 3 (1981); Open Records Decision No. 413 at 1 (1984).

459

Open Records Decision No. 320 at 1 (1982).

460

Open Records Decision Nos. 211 at 3 (1978), 126 at 5 (1976).

461

Open Records Decision No. 127 at 8 (1976).

462

See Open Records Decision No. 129 (1976).

463

See Gov’t Code §§ 466.019(b) (Lottery Commission is authorized to enforce violations of lottery laws and rules),
.020(a)-(b) (Lottery Commission is authorized to maintain department of security staffed by commissioned peace
officers or investigators).

464

See Alco. Bev. Code §§ 5.14 (Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission may commission inspectors with police
powers to enforce Alcoholic Beverage Code), .31 (powers and duties of commission), .36 (commission shall
investigate violations of Alcoholic Beverage Code and other laws relating to alcoholic beverages), .361 (commission
shall develop risk-based approach to enforcement).

465

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W .2d 668, 679 (Tex. 1995) (section 552.108 excepts records generated by
comptroller in process of enforcing tax laws).

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The following entities are not law enforcement agencies for purposes of section 552.108: the Texas
Department of Agriculture;466 the Texas Board of Private Investigators and Private Security
Agencies;467 the Texas Board of Pharmacy;468 and the Texas Real Estate Commission.469
An agency that does not qualify as a law enforcement agency may, under limited circumstances,
claim that section 552.108 excepts records in its possession from required public disclosure. For
example, records that otherwise qualify for the section 552.108 exception, such as documentary
evidence in a police file on a pending case, do not necessarily lose that status while in the custody
of an agency not directly involved with law enforcement.470 Where a non-law enforcement agency
has in its custody information that would otherwise qualify for exception under section 552.108 as
information relating to the pending case of a law enforcement agency, the custodian of the records
may withhold the information if it provides the attorney general with a demonstration that the
information relates to the pending case and a representation from the law enforcement entity that it
wishes to withhold the information.471
Similarly, in construing the statutory predecessor to section 552.108, the attorney general concluded
that if an investigation by an administrative agency reveals possible criminal conduct the agency
intends to report to the appropriate law enforcement agency, then section 552.108 will apply to the
information gathered by the administrative agency if the information relates to an open investigation
or if the release would interfere with law enforcement.472
2. Application of Section 552.108
Section 552.108 excepts from required public disclosure four categories of information:
1)

information the release of which would interfere with law enforcement or prosecution;

2)

information relating to an investigation that did not result in a conviction or deferred
adjudication;

3)

information relating to a threat against a peace officer or detention officer collected or
disseminated under section 411.048; and

4)

information that is prepared by a prosecutor or that reflects the prosecutor’s mental
impressions or legal reasoning.

466

Attorney General Opinion MW -575 at 1 (1982).

467

Open Records Decision No. 199 (1978).

468

Open Records Decision No. 493 (1988).

469

Open Records Decision No. 80 (1975).

470

Open Records Decision No. 272 at 1–2 (1981).

471

Open Records Decision No. 474 at 4–5 (1987); see, e.g., Open Records Letter No. 2004-1811 (2004).

472

See Attorney General Opinion MW -575 at 1–2 (1982) (construing statutory predecessor); Open Records Decision
No. 493 at 2 (1988) (same).

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a. Interference with Detection, Investigation, or Prosecution of Crime
In order to establish the applicability of section 552.108(a)(1) and 552.108(b)(1) to a requested
criminal file, a law enforcement agency should inform the attorney general how and why release of
the information would interfere with law enforcement.473 The law enforcement agency must inform
the attorney general of the status of the case the information concerns. Information relating to a
pending criminal investigation or prosecution is one example of information that is excepted under
sections 552.108(a)(1) and 552.108(b)(1) because release of such information would presumptively
interfere with the detection, investigation, or prosecution of crime.474
All of the formal open records decisions interpreting the law enforcement exception considered the
predecessor statute rather than 552.108 as it now reads. In these decisions, the attorney general
permitted law enforcement agencies to withhold information in a closed criminal case only if its
release would “unduly interfere” with law enforcement or crime prevention.475 The following is a
discussion of the “undue interference” standard under the predecessor statute. The reader may find
this information useful in determining the types of information to provide to the attorney general
when seeking to withhold information under the current provision’s “interference” standard.
i. Information Relating to the Detection, Investigation, or Prosecution of Crime
To withhold information under former section 552.108, a governmental body had to demonstrate
how release of the information would “unduly interfere” with law enforcement or prosecution.476
For example, the names and statements of witnesses could be withheld if the law enforcement
agency demonstrated that disclosure might either (1) subject the witnesses to possible intimidation
or harassment or (2) harm the prospects of future cooperation by the witnesses.477 However, to
prevail on its claim that section 552.108 excepted the information from disclosure, a law
enforcement agency had to do more than merely make a conclusory assertion that releasing the
information would unduly interfere with law enforcement. Whether the release of particular records
would unduly interfere with law enforcement was determined on a case-by-case basis.478
ii. Internal Records of a Law Enforcement Agency
To withhold internal records and notations of law enforcement agencies and prosecutors under
former section 552.108, a governmental body had to demonstrate how release of the information

473

See Ex parte Pruitt, 551 S.W.2d 706, 710 (Tex. 1977).

474

See Houston Chronicle Publ’g Co. v. City of Houston, 531 S.W .2d 177, 184–85 (Tex. Civ. App.— Houston [14th
Dist.] 1975) (court delineates law enforcement interests that are present in active cases), writ ref’d n.r.e. per curiam,
536 S.W .2d 559 (Tex. 1976).

475

See Open Records Decision Nos. 628 at 2 (1994), 313 at 2 (1982), 297 at 2 (1981).

476

Open Records Decision Nos. 616 at 1 (1993), 434 at 2–3 (1986); see Ex parte Pruitt, 551 S.W .2d 706, 710
(Tex. 1977).

477

See Open Records Decision No. 297 at 2 (1981).

478

Open Records Decision No. 409 at 2 (1984).

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would unduly interfere with law enforcement and crime prevention.479 For example, the Department
of Public Safety was permitted to withhold a list of stations that issue drivers’ licenses and the
corresponding code that designates each station on the drivers’ licenses issued by that station.480
Although the information did not on its face suggest that its release would unduly interfere with law
enforcement, the Department of Public Safety explained that the codes are used by officers to
determine whether a license is forged and argued that releasing the list of stations and codes would
reduce the value of the codes for detecting forged drivers’ licenses.481 The attorney general
previously held that release of routine investigative procedures, techniques that are commonly
known, and routine personnel information would not unduly interfere with law enforcement and
crime prevention.482
The Texas Supreme Court has addressed the applicability of former section 552.108 to the internal
records and notations of the comptroller’s office. In A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp,483 the supreme
court stated that former section 552.108 has the same scope as section 552(b)(7) of the federal
Freedom of Information Act,484 which prevents the disclosure of investigatory records that would
reveal law enforcement methods, techniques, and strategies, including those the Internal Revenue
Service uses to collect federal taxes.485 Some information, such as the date a taxpayer’s name
appeared on a generation list and the assignment date and codes in audits, is excepted from
disclosure by former section 552.108 because it reflects the internal deliberations within the
comptroller’s office and would interfere with the comptroller’s law enforcement efforts.486 For
audits that have been concluded, there is little harm in releasing some of this information.487 The
audit method and audit group remain excepted from disclosure before, during, and after the
comptroller undertakes a taxpayer audit under former section 552.108.488
The attorney general also addressed whether internal records and notations could be withheld under
the statutory predecessor to section 552.108 in the following decisions:
Open Records Decision No. 531 (1989) — detailed guidelines regarding a police department’s
use of force policy may be withheld, but not those portions of the procedures that restate
generally known common-law rules, constitutional limitations, or Penal Code provisions; the
release of the detailed guidelines would impair an officer’s ability to arrest a suspect and would
place individuals at an advantage in confrontations with police;

479

See Open Records Decision No. 508 at 2–4 (1988).

480

Open Records Decision No. 341 at 2 (1982).

481

Open Records Decision No. 341 at 1–2(1982).

482

See Open Records Decision Nos. 216 at 4 (1978), 133 at 3 (1976).

483

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W.2d 668 (Tex. 1995).

484

5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(7).

485

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W.2d 668, 678 (Tex. 1995).

486

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W.2d 668, 679–681 (Tex. 1995).

487

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W .2d 668, 678 (Tex. 1995) (pre-audit generation and assignment dates not
excepted under Gov’t Code § 552.108 once audit completed).

488

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W.2d 668, 679 (Tex. 1995).

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Open Records Decision No. 508 (1988) — the dates on which specific prisoners are to be
transferred from a county jail to the Texas Department of Corrections may be withheld prior to
the transfer because release of this information could impair security, but these dates may not be
withheld after the prisoner is transferred because the public has a legitimate interest in the
information;
Open Records Decision No. 506 (1988) — the cellular telephone numbers assigned to county
officials and employees with specific law enforcement duties may be withheld;
Open Records Decision No. 413 (1984) — a sketch showing the security measures that the Texas
Department of Corrections plans to use for its next scheduled execution may be withheld because
its release may make crowd control unreasonably difficult;
Open Records Decision No. 394 (1983) — except for information regarding juveniles, a jail
roster may not be withheld; a jail roster is an internal record that reveals information specifically
made public in other forms, such as the names of persons arrested;
Open Records Decision No. 369 (1983) — notes recording a prosecutor’s subjective comments
about former jurors may be withheld; releasing these comments would tend to reveal future
prosecutorial strategy;
Open Records Decision Nos. 211 (1978), 143 (1976) — information that would reveal the
identities of undercover agents or where employees travel on sensitive assignments may be
withheld.
b. Concluded Cases
With regard to the second category of information, information relating to a criminal investigation
or prosecution that ended in a result other than a conviction or deferred adjudication may be withheld
under sections 552.108(a)(2) and 552.108(b)(2). Sections 552.108(a)(2) and 552.108(b)(2) cannot
apply to an open criminal file because the investigation or prosecution for such a file has not
concluded. If a case is still open and pending, either at the investigative or prosecution level, the
subsections that can apply are sections 552.108(a)(1) and 552.108(b)(1), not 552.108(a)(2) and
552.108(b)(2).
To establish the applicability of sections 552.108(a)(2) and 552.108(b)(2), a governmental body must
demonstrate that the requested information relates to a criminal investigation that concluded in a
final result other than a conviction or deferred adjudication.
c. Information Relating to a Threat Against a Peace Officer or Detention Officer
The third category of information protected under section 552.108(a)(3) consists of information
relating to a threat against a peace officer or detention officer that is collected or disseminated under
section 411.048 of the Government Code. Under section 411.048, the Department of Public Safety’s
Bureau of Identification and Records is required to create and maintain an index for the purpose of

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collecting and disseminating information regarding threats of serious bodily injury or death made
against a peace officer.489 The attorney general determined in an informal letter ruling that
information provided to the Bureau of Identification and Records for potential inclusion in its
database regarding threats made against a peace officer was excepted from disclosure under
section 552.108(a)(3).490
d. Prosecutor Information
Under the fourth category of information, sections 552.108(a)(4) and 552.108(b)(3) protect
information, including an internal record or notation, prepared by a prosecutor in anticipation of or
in the course of preparing for criminal litigation or information that reflects the prosecutor’s mental
impressions or legal reasoning. When a governmental body asserts that the information reflects the
prosecutor’s mental impressions or legal reasoning, the governmental body should, in its request for
a ruling, explain how the information does so.
3. Limitations on Scope of Section 552.108
Section 552.108(c) provides that basic information about an arrested person, an arrest, or a crime
may not be withheld under section 552.108. The kinds of basic information not excepted from
disclosure by section 552.108 are those that were deemed public in Houston Chronicle Publ’g Co.
v. City of Houston and catalogued in Open Records Decision No. 127 (1976).491 Basic information
is information that ordinarily appears on the first page of an offense report, such as:
(a)

the name, age, address, race, sex, occupation, alias, social security number, police
department identification number, and physical condition of the arrested person;

(b)

the date and time of the arrest;

(c)

the place of the arrest;

(d)

the offense charged and the court in which it is filed;

(e)

the details of the arrest;

(f)

booking information;

(g)

the notation of any release or transfer;

(h)

bonding information;

489

Gov’t Code § 411.048(b).

490

Open Records Letter No. 2003-3988 (2003).

491

Houston Chronicle Publ’g Co. v. City of Houston, 531 S.W .2d 177 (Tex. Civ. App.— Houston [14th Dist.] 1975),
writ ref’d n.r.e. per curiam, 536 S.W.2d 559 (Tex. 1976).

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Exceptions to Disclosure

(i)

the location of the crime;

(j)

the identification and description of the complainant;

(k)

the premises involved;

(l)

the time of occurrence of the crime;

(m) the property involved, if any;
(n)

the vehicles involved, if any;

(o)

a description of the weather;

(p)

a detailed description of the offense; and

(q)

the names of the arresting and investigating officers.492

Generally, the identity of the complainant may not be withheld from disclosure under section
552.108. However, the identity of the complainant may be withheld in certain instances under other
provisions of the law. For example, where the complainant is also the victim of a serious sexual
offense, the identity of the complainant must be withheld from public disclosure pursuant to section
552.101 because such information is protected by common-law privacy.493 The attorney general has
also determined that, where the complainant is also an informer for purposes of the informer’s
privilege, the complainant’s identity may be withheld under the common-law informer’s privilege.494
Although basic information not excepted from disclosure by section 552.108 often is described by
its location (“first-page offense report information”), the location of the information or the label
placed on it is not determinative of its status under section 552.108. For example, radio dispatch
logs or radio cards maintained by a police department that contain the type of information deemed
public generally may not be withheld.495 Likewise, basic information appearing in other records of
law enforcement agencies, such as blotters, arrest sheets, and “show-up sheets,” is not excepted from
disclosure by section 552.108.496 Conversely, a video of a booking that conveys information
excepted from disclosure is not subject to disclosure when editing the tape is practically impossible
and the public information on the tape is available in written form.497

492

Open Records Decision No. 127 at 3–5 (1976).

493

See Open Records Decision Nos. 440 (1986), 393 (1983), 339 (1982).

494

See Open Records Letter No. 2004-8297 (2004).

495

Open Records Decision No. 394 at 3–4 (1983); see City of Lubbock v. Cornyn, 993 S.W .2d 461 (Tex. App.— Austin
1999, no pet.).

496

See Open Records Decision No. 127 at 3–4 (1976).

497

Open Records Decision No. 364 (1983).

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Section 552.108 generally does not apply to information made public by statute or to information
to which a statute grants certain individuals a right of access.498 For example, even if an accident
report completed pursuant to Chapter 550 of the Transportation Code relates to a pending criminal
investigation, a law enforcement entity must release the accident report to a requestor given a
statutory right of access to the report under section 550.065(c) of the Transportation Code.499
Information contained in a public court record and subject to section 552.022(a)(17) also is not
excepted from disclosure under section 552.108.500
4. Application of Section 552.108 to Information Relating to Police Officers and Complaints
Against Police Officers
Because of their role in protecting the safety of the general public, law enforcement officers generally
can expect a lesser degree of personal privacy than other public employees.501 General information
about a police officer usually is not excepted from required public disclosure by section 552.108.
For example, a police officer’s age, law enforcement background, and previous experience and
employment usually are not excepted from disclosure by section 552.108.502
Similarly, information about complaints against police officers generally may not be withheld under
section 552.108. For example, the names of complainants, the names of the officers who are the
subjects of complaints, an officer’s written response to a complaint, and the final disposition of a
complaint generally are not excepted from disclosure by section 552.108.503 Information about
complaints against public officers may be withheld under section 552.108 if the police department
can demonstrate how release of the information will interfere with the detection, investigation, or
prosecution of crime. However, section 552.108 is inapplicable where a complaint against a law
enforcement officer does not result in a criminal investigation or prosecution.504
a. Personnel Files of Police Officers Serving in Civil Service Cities
The disclosure of information from the personnel files of police officers serving in cities that have
adopted chapter 143 of the Local Government Code (the fire fighters’ and police officers’ civil
service law) is governed by section 143.089 of the Local Government Code.505 Section 143.089

498

Open Records Decision Nos. 161 (1977), 146 at 2 (1976); see also Open Records Decision Nos. 613 at 4 (1993),
451 at 4 (1986).

499

Act of June 1, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2633, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Transp. Code § 550.065(c)).

500

See Gov’t Code § 552.022(a)(17).

501

See Tex. State Em ployees U nion v. Tex. Dep’t of Mental Health & Mental Retardation, 746 S.W .2d 203, 206
(Tex. 1987); Open Records Decision No. 562 at 9 n.2 (1990).

502

City of Fort Worth v. Cornyn, 86 S.W .3d 320, 326–28 (Tex. App.— Austin 2002, no pet.); Open Records Decision
Nos. 562 at 10 (1990), 329 at 1 (1982).

503

Open Records Decision Nos. 350 at 3 (1982), 342 at 2 (1982), 329 at 2 (1982).

504

Morales v. Ellen, 840 S.W.2d 519, 525–26 (Tex. App.— El Paso 1992, writ denied) (construing statutory
predecessor).

505

See City of San Antonio v. San Antonio Express-News, 47 S.W .3d 556 (Tex. App.— San Antonio 2000, pet. denied);
City of San Antonio v. Tex. Attorney Gen., 851 S.W .2d 946 (Tex. App.— Austin 1993, writ denied).

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contemplates two different types of personnel files: (1) a police officer’s civil service file that the
civil service director is required to maintain pursuant to section 143.089(a) and (2) an internal file
that the police department may maintain for its own use pursuant to section 143.089(g).506 A police
officer’s civil service file must contain specified items, including commendations, documents
relating to misconduct that resulted in disciplinary action and periodic evaluations by the officer’s
supervisor.507 In cases in which a police department investigates a police officer’s misconduct and
takes disciplinary action508 against a police officer, it is required by section 143.089(a)(2) to place
all investigatory records relating to the investigation and disciplinary action, including background
documents such as complaints, witness statements, and documents of like nature from individuals
who were not in a supervisory capacity, in the police officer’s civil service file maintained under
section 143.089(a).509 Records maintained in the police officer’s civil service file are subject to
release under chapter 552 of the Government Code.510 Furthermore, pursuant to section 143.089(e),
the police officer has a right of access to the records maintained in his civil service file.511 However,
information maintained in a police department’s internal file pursuant to section 143.089(g) is
confidential and must not be released.512
Absent federal authority, a police department must not release to a federal law enforcement agency
information made confidential under section 143.089(g).513 A city police department should refer
a request for information in a police officer’s personnel file to the civil service director or the
director’s designee.514
5. Other Related Law Enforcement Records
a. Criminal History Information
Where an individual’s criminal history information has been compiled or summarized by a
governmental entity, the information takes on a character that implicates the individual’s right of
privacy in a manner that the same individual’s records in an uncompiled state do not.515 Thus, when

506

Local Gov’t Code § 143.089(a), (g).

507

Local Gov’t Code § 143.089(a).

508

For the purpose of section 143.089 of the Local Government Code, the term “disciplinary action” includes removal,
suspension, demotion, and uncompensated duty. Local Gov’t Code §§ 143.051–.055. “Disciplinary action” does
not include a written reprimand. See Attorney General Opinion JC-0257 at 5 (2000).

509

Abbott v. City of Corpus Christi, 109 S.W.3d 113, 122 (Tex. App.— Austin 2003, no pet.).

510

See Local Gov’t Code § 143.089(f); Open Records Decision No. 562 at 6 (1990).

511

Local Gov’t Code § 143.089(e).

512

See Local Gov’t Code § 143.089(g); City of San Antonio v. Tex. Attorney Gen., 851 S.W .2d 946, 949 (Tex.
App.— Austin 1993, writ denied).

513

Open Records Decision No. 650 (1996).

514

Local Gov’t Code § 143.089(g).

515

Cf. United States Dep’t of Justice v. Reporters Comm. for Freedom of the Press, 489 U.S. 749, 764 (1989) (when
considering prong regarding individual’s privacy interest, court recognized distinction between public records found
in courthouse files and local police stations and compiled summary of information and noted individual has
significant privacy interest in compilation of one’s criminal history).

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a requestor asks for all information concerning a certain named individual and that individual is a
suspect, arrestee, or criminal defendant in the information at issue, a law enforcement agency must
withhold this information under section 552.101 of the Government Code as that individual’s
privacy right has been implicated.516
Federal law also imposes limitations on the dissemination of criminal history information obtained
from the federal National Crime Information Center (NCIC) and its Texas counterpart, the Texas
Crime Information Center (TCIC).517 In essence, federal law requires each state to observe its own
laws regarding dissemination of criminal history information it generates, but requires a state to
maintain as confidential any information from other states or the federal government that the state
obtains by access to the Interstate Identification Index, a component of the NCIC.518
Chapter 411, subchapter F, of the Government Code contains the Texas statutes that govern the
confidentiality and release of TCIC information obtained from the Texas Department of Public
Safety. However, subchapter F “does not prohibit a criminal justice agency from disclosing to the
public criminal history record information that is related to the offense for which a person is involved
in the criminal justice system.”519 Moreover, the protection in subchapter F does not extend to
driving record information maintained by the Department of Public Safety pursuant to subchapter
C of chapter 521 of the Transportation Code.520 Any person is entitled to obtain from the
Department of Public Safety information regarding convictions and deferred adjudications and the
person’s own criminal history information.521
b. Juvenile Law Enforcement Records
Prior to its repeal by the Seventy-fourth Legislature, section 51.14(d) of the Family Code provided
for the confidentiality of juvenile law enforcement records. Juvenile law enforcement records
pertaining to conduct occurring before January 1, 1996, are governed by the former section 51.14(d),
which was continued in effect for that purpose.522
The Seventy-fourth Legislature replaced section 51.14 with section 58.007 of the Family Code,
tracking the language of section 51.14 but omitting the portion of the statute that made juvenile law
enforcement records confidential in the possession of a law enforcement agency.523 The Seventyfifth Legislature, however, amended section 58.007 to again make juvenile law enforcement records
confidential effective September 1, 1997.524 However, it chose not to make this most recent
516

See United States Dep’t of Justice v. Reporters Comm. for Freedom of the Press, 489 U.S. 749, 764 (1989);
cf. Gov’t Code § 411.083.

517

See Open Records Decision No. 655 (1997).

518

See 28 C.F.R. pt. 20; Open Records Decision No. 565 at 10–12 (1990).

519

Gov’t Code § 411.081(b).

520

Gov’t Code § 411.082(2).

521

Gov’t Code §§ 411.083(b)(3), .135(a)(2).

522

Act of May 27, 1995, 74th Leg., R.S., ch. 262, § 100, 1995 Tex. Gen. Laws 2517, 2591.

523

See Open Records Decision No. 644 at 4 (1996).

524

Act of June 2, 1997, 75th Leg., R.S., ch. 1086, § 20, 1997 Tex. Gen. Laws 4179, 4187.

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amendment retroactive in application. Consequently, law enforcement records pertaining to juvenile
conduct that occurred between January 1, 1996, and September 1, 1997, are not subject to the
confidentiality provisions of either the former section 51.14(d) or the current section 58.007 of the
Family Code.
The relevant language of Family Code section 58.007(c) provides as follows:
(c)

Except as provided by Subsection (d), law enforcement records and files concerning
a child and information stored, by electronic means or otherwise, concerning the
child from which a record or file could be generated may not be disclosed to the
public and shall be:
(1) if maintained on paper or microfilm, kept separate from adult files and records;
(2) if maintained electronically in the same computer system as records or files
relating to adults, be accessible under controls that are separate and distinct from
controls to access electronic data concerning adults; and
(3) maintained on a local basis only and not sent to a central state or federal
depository, except as provided by Subchapters B, D, and E.

Former section 51.14(d) and section 58.007(c) apply only to the records of a child525 who is alleged
to have engaged in delinquent conduct or conduct indicating a need for supervision.526 Section
58.007(c) does not apply where the information in question involves a juvenile as only a
complainant, witness, or individual party and not a juvenile as a suspect or offender. Furthermore,
while former section 51.14 specifically excluded from protection records of a child certified for
prosecution as an adult, section 58.007 contains no similar provision;527 thus, under section
58.007(c), records of a child are protected regardless of whether the child is certified as an adult.
Section 58.007(c) applies to entire law enforcement records and files; therefore, a law enforcement
entity is generally prohibited from releasing even basic information from an investigation file when
section 58.007(c) applies.

525

Section 51.02 of the Family Code defines “child” as “a person who is: (A) ten years of age or older and under 17
years of age; or (B) seventeen years of age or older and under 18 years of age who is alleged or found to have
engaged in delinquent conduct or conduct indicating a need for supervision as a result of acts committed before
becoming 17 years of age.” Fam. Code § 51.02(2).

526

Act of May 31, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 206, § 4 (to be codified as an amendment to Fam. Code § 51.03(b)), Act
of June 1, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 825, § 3 (to be codified as an amendment to Fam. Code § 51.03(b)), Act of
June 1, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2398, § 18 (to be codified as amendments to Fam. Code § 51.03); see Open
Records Decision No. 680 at 4 (2003).

527

Compare Act of May 22, 1993, 73rd Leg., R.S., ch. 461, § 3, 1993 Tex. Gen. Laws 1850, 1852, repealed by Act
of May 27, 1995, 74th Leg., R.S., ch. 262, § 100, 1995 Tex. Gen. Laws 2517, 2591, with Fam. Code § 58.007.

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However, section 58.007(e) provides:
(e)

Law enforcement records and files concerning a child may be inspected or copied by
a juvenile justice agency as that term is defined by Section 58.101, a criminal justice
agency as that term is defined by Section 411.082, Government Code, the child, and
the child’s parent or guardian.

....
(j)

Before a child or a child’s parent or guardian may inspect or copy a record or file
concerning the child under Subsection (e), the custodian of the record or file shall
redact:
(1) any personally identifiable information about a juvenile suspect, offender, victim,
or witness who is not the child; and
(2) any information that is excepted from required disclosure under Chapter 552,
Government Code, or other law.

Pursuant to section 58.007(e), a governmental body may not withhold a child’s law enforcement
records from the child’s parent, guardian, or the child under section 58.007(c). However, pursuant
to section 58.007(j)(2), a governmental body may raise other exceptions to disclosure. Also pursuant
to section 58.007(j)(1), personally identifiable information of a juvenile suspect, offender, witness,
or victim who is not the child must be withheld. For purposes of section 58.007(j)(1), a juvenile
victim or witness is a person under eighteen years of age.
c. Child Abuse and Neglect Records
The relevant language of Family Code section 261.201(a) provides:
(a)

Except as provided by Section 261.203, the following information is confidential, is
not subject to public release under Chapter 552, Government Code, and may be
disclosed only for purposes consistent with this code and applicable federal or state
law or under rules adopted by an investigating agency:
(1) a report of alleged or suspected abuse or neglect made under this chapter and the
identity of the person making the report; and
(2) except as otherwise provided in this section, the files, reports, records,
communications, audiotapes, videotapes, and working papers used or developed
in an investigation under this chapter or in providing services as a result of an
investigation.

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Section 261.201(a) applies to a report of and information used or developed in an investigation of
suspected abuse or neglect528 of a child529 and the identity of the individual who made the report of
abuse or neglect.530 Section 261.201(h), however, states section 261.201 does not apply to
investigations of abuse or neglect in a home or facility regulated under chapter 42 of the Human
Resources Code, such as a childcare facility.
Moreover, section 261.201(k) and 261.201(l) provide:
(k)

Notwithstanding Subsection (a), an investigating agency, other than the department
or the Texas Juvenile Justice Department, on request, shall provide to the parent,
managing conservator, or other legal representative of a child who is the subject of
reported abuse or neglect, or to the child if the child is at least 18 years of age,
information concerning the reported abuse or neglect that would otherwise be
confidential under this section. The investigating agency shall withhold information
under this subsection if the parent, managing conservator, or other legal
representative of the child requesting the information is alleged to have committed
the abuse or neglect.531

(l)

Before a child or a parent, managing conservator, or other legal representative of a
child may inspect or copy a record or file concerning the child under Subsection (k),
the custodian of the record or file must redact:
(1) any personally identifiable information about a victim or witness under 18 years
of age unless that victim or witness is:
(A) the child who is the subject of the report; or
(B) another child of the parent, managing conservator, or other legal
representative requesting the information;
(2) any information that is excepted from required disclosure under Chapter 552,
Government Code, or other law; and
(3) the identity of the person who made the report.

Pursuant to section 261.201(k), a governmental body may not withhold child abuse or neglect
records from the parent, managing conservator, or other legal representative of the child, if the
parent, managing conservator, or other legal representative is not accused of committing the abuse
or neglect, or from the child if the child is at least eighteen years of age. Pursuant to section
261.201(l)(2), a governmental body may raise other exceptions to disclosure for the child abuse or

528

Act of June 1, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 825, § 4 (to be codified as an amendment to Fam. Code § 261.001(1)),
Act of May 21, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1889, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Fam. Code § 261.001(4)).

529

See Fam. Code § 101.003(a) (defining “child” for section 261.201 purposes).

530

Open Records Decision No. 440 (1986) (construing statutory predecessors).

531

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 1549, § 82 (to be codified as an amendment to Fam. Code § 261.201(k)).

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neglect records. Further, pursuant to sections 261.201(l)(1) and 261.201(l)(3), personally identifiable
information of a victim or witness under eighteen years of age who is not the child or another child
of the parent, managing conservator, or other legal representative and the identity of the reporting
party must be withheld.
d. Sex Offender Registration Information
Under article 62.005 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, all information contained in either an adult
or juvenile sex offender registration form and subsequently entered into the Department of Public
Safety database is public information and must be released upon written request, except for the
registrant’s social security number, driver’s license number, home, work, or cellular telephone
number, information described by article 62.051(c)(7) or required by the Department of Public Safety
under article 62.051(c)(8), and any information that would reveal the victim’s identity.532
Local law enforcement authorities are required under article 62.053 of the Code of Criminal
Procedure to provide school officials with “any information the authority determines is necessary
to protect the public” regarding sex offenders except the person’s social security number, driver’s
license number, home, work, or cellular telephone number, and any information that would identify
the victim of the offense.533
Neither a school district official nor the general public is authorized to receive from local law
enforcement authorities sex offender registration information pertaining to individuals whose
reportable convictions or adjudication occurred prior to September 1, 1970.534
e. Records of 9-1-1 Calls
Originating telephone numbers and addresses of 9-1-1 callers furnished on a call-by-call basis by a
telephone service supplier to a 9-1-1 emergency communication district established under
subchapter B, C, or D of chapter 772 of the Health and Safety Code are confidential under
sections 772.118, 772.218, and 772.318 of the Health and Safety Code, respectively.535 Chapter 772
does not except from disclosure any other information contained on a computer aided dispatch report
that was obtained during a 9-1-1 call.536 Subchapter E, which applies to counties with populations
over 1.5 million, does not contain a similar confidentiality provision. Other exceptions to disclosure
in the Public Information Act may apply to information not otherwise confidential under
section 772.118, section 772.218, or section 772.318 of the Health and Safety Code.537

532

Crim. Proc. Code art. 62.005(b); Open Records Decision No. 645 at 3 (1996) (construing statutory predecessor).

533

Crim. Proc. Code art. 62.053(e), (f) (information must be released if restrictions under Crim. Proc. Code art. 62.054
are met).

534

See Crim. Proc. Code art. 62.002(a).

535

Open Records Decision No. 649 at 2–3 (1996).

536

Open Records Decision No. 649 at 3 (1996).

537

Open Records Decision No. 649 at 4 (1996).

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f. Certain Information Related to Terrorism and Homeland Security
Sections 418.176 through 418.182 of the Government Code, part of the Texas Homeland Security
Act, make confidential certain information related to terrorism or related criminal activity. The fact
that information may relate to a governmental body’s security concerns does not make the
information per se confidential under the Texas Homeland Security Act. As with any exception to
disclosure, a governmental body asserting one of the confidentiality provisions of the Texas
Homeland Security Act must explain how the responsive records fall within the scope of the claimed
provision.538
In Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Abbott, the Texas Department of Public Safety challenged the
conclusion of the attorney general and the trial court that videos recorded by security cameras in a
Texas Capitol hallway were not confidential under section 418.182 of the Government Code.539 In
reversing this conclusion, the Third Court of Appeals found the Texas Department of Public Safety
demonstrated the videos relate to the specifications of the capitol security system used to protect
public property from an act of terrorism or related criminal activity because the legislature’s use of
“relates to” is a plain legislative choice to broadly protect information regarding security systems
designed to protect public property. Thus, the court concluded the recorded images necessarily relate
to the specifications of the security system that recorded them.
Release of certain information about aviation and maritime security is governed by federal law.540
The attorney general has determined in several informal letter rulings that the decision to withhold
or release such information rests with the head of the federal Transportation Security Administration
(the “TSA”) or the Coast Guard and that requests for such information should be referred to the TSA
or Coast Guard for their decision concerning disclosure of the information.541
Section 660.2035 of the Government Code provides a voucher or other expense reimbursement form,
and any receipt or other document supporting that voucher or other expense reimbursement form,
that is submitted under section 660.027 is confidential for 18 months following the date of travel if
the voucher or other expense reimbursement form is submitted for payment or reimbursement of a
travel expense incurred by a peace officer while assigned to provide protection for an elected official
or a member of the elected official’s family.542 At the expiration of the 18 months, the voucher or
other expense reimbursement form and any supporting documents become subject to disclosure
under the Public Information Act and are not excepted from public disclosure or confidential under
the Act or other law.543 However, subsection 660.2035(b) specifically lists seven exceptions in the
Act that can apply to withhold information within a voucher, expense reimbursement form, and any
supporting document.544 In an informal letter ruling, the attorney general considered the Texas
Department of Public Safety’s claims that, after the expiration of the 18-month confidentiality
538

See Gov’t Code § 552.301(e)(1)(A) (governmental body must explain how claimed exception to disclosure applies).

539

Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Abbott, 310 S.W .3d 670 (Tex. App.— Austin 2010, no pet.)

540

49 U.S.C. § 114(r); 49 C.F.R. pt. 1520.

541

Open Records Letter Nos. 2013-09028 (2013), 2009-11201 (2009), 2005-07525 (2005).

542

Gov’t Code § 660.2035(a).

543

Gov’t Code § 660.2035(b).

544

Gov’t Code § 660.2035(b).

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period, sections 552.101 and 552.152 of the Government Code protected travel vouchers and
supporting documentation submitted by agents of the Executive Protection Bureau for
reimbursement of travel expenses.545 Because section 552.101 is not one of the enumerated
exceptions in subsection 660.2035(b), the attorney general determined section 552.101 did not apply
to travel vouchers and supporting documentation.546 However, as section 552.152 is an exception
listed in subsection 660.2035(b), the attorney general considered the claim to withhold the
information under section 552.152, and finding the claim had merit, concluded the travel vouchers
and supporting documentation were excepted from disclosure under section 552.152.547
g. Body Worn Camera Program
The Eighty-fourth Legislature passed Senate Bill 158, which became effective on September 1, 2015,
and adds subchapter N to the Occupations Code, related to police officers’ body-worn cameras.548
These provisions make confidential any recording from a body-worn camera that documents the use
of deadly force or that is related to an administrative or criminal investigation of an officer until all
criminal matters are finally adjudicated and all administrative investigations completed.549 However,
a law enforcement agency may choose to release such information if doing so furthers a law
enforcement interest.550 Before a law enforcement agency releases a body-worn camera recording
that was made in a private place or in connection with a fine-only misdemeanor, the agency must
receive authorization from the person who is the subject of the recording, or if that person is
deceased, from the person’s authorized representative.551 A governmental body may continue to
raise section 552.108 or any other applicable exception to disclosure for a body-worn camera
recording.552
Senate Bill 158 also revises the procedures associated with public information requests for bodyworn camera recordings. Generally, a requestor does not need to use “magic words” when making
a request, but when a requestor seeks access to body-worn camera recordings, the requestor must
provide the date and approximate time of the incident, the specific location where the recording
occurred, and the name of one or more persons known to be a subject of the recording.553 Failure
to provide this information does not preclude a requestor from requesting the same information
again.554 Senate Bill 158 also extends the ten and fifteen business day deadlines associated with
requesting a ruling from the attorney general to twenty and twenty-five business days, respectively.555
Additionally, a governmental body that receives a “voluminous request” for body-worn camera

545

Open Records Letter No. 2014-02048 (2014).

546

Open Records Letter No. 2014-02048 at 3 (2014).

547

Open Records Letter No. 2014-02048 at 3-4 (2014).

548

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code §§ 1701.651 – .663).

549

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.660(a)).

550

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.660(b)).

551

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.661(f)).

552

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.661(e)).

553

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.661(a)).

554

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.661(b)).

555

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.662).

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footage is considered to have complied with the request if it provides the information no later than
twenty-one business days after it receives the request.556
h. Video Recordings of Arrests for Intoxication
The Eighty-fourth Legislature passed House Bill 3791, which became effective on September 1,
2015, amends Article 2.139 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and provides as follows:
A person stopped or arrested on suspicion of an offense under Section 49.04, 49.045, 49.07,
or 49.08, Penal Code, is entitled to receive from a law enforcement agency employing the
peace officer who made the stop or arrest a copy of any video made by or at the direction
of the officer that contains footage of:
(1) the stop;
(2) the arrest;
(3) the conduct of the person stopped during any interaction with the officer, including
during the administration of a field sobriety test; or
(4) a procedure in which a specimen of the person’s breath or blood is taken.557
The amendment to Article 2.139 applies only to a recording of conduct that occurs on or after the
effective date of House Bill 3791.558 There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this statute.

I.

Section 552.1081: Confidentiality of Certain Information Regarding
Execution of Convict

Section 552.1081 of the Government Code was added by the Eighty-fourth Legislature and provides
as follows:
Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it contains identifying
information under Article 43.14, Code of Criminal Procedure, including that of:
(1) any person who participates in an execution procedure, including a person who uses,
supplies, or administers a substance during the execution; and
(2) any person or entity that manufactures, transports, tests, procures, compounds,
prescribes, dispenses, or provides a substance or supplies used in an execution.559
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this section.
556

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 158, § 1 (to be codified at Occ. Code § 1701.663).

557

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 3791, § 1 (to be codified at Crim. Proc. Code art. 2.139).

558

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 3791, § 1 (to be codified at Crim. Proc. Code art. 2.139).

559

Act of May 20, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1697, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.1081).

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J.

Section 552.1085: Confidentiality of Sensitive Crime Scene Image
(a)

In this section:
(1) “Deceased person’s next of kin” means:
(A) the surviving spouse of the deceased person;
(B) if there is no surviving spouse of the deceased, an adult child of the deceased
person; or
(C) if there is no surviving spouse or adult child of the deceased, a parent of the
deceased person.
(2) “Defendant” means a person being prosecuted for the death of the deceased
person or a person convicted of an offense in relation to that death and appealing
that conviction.
(3) “Expressive work” means:
(A) a fictional or nonfictional entertainment, dramatic, literary, or musical work
that is a play, book, article, musical composition, audiovisual work, radio or
television program, work of art, or work of political, educational, or
newsworthy value;
(B) a work the primary function of which is the delivery of news, information,
current events, or other matters of public interest or concern; or
(C) an advertisement or commercial announcement of a work described by
Paragraph (A) or (B).
(4) “Local governmental entity” means a county, municipality, school district, charter
school, junior college district, or other political subdivision of this state.
(5) “Public or private institution of higher education” means:
(A) an institution of higher education, as defined by Section 61.003, Education
Code; or
(B) a private or independent institution of higher education, as defined by Section
61.003, Education Code.
(6) “Sensitive crime scene image” means a photograph or video recording taken at
a crime scene, contained in or part of a closed criminal case, that depicts a
deceased person in a state of dismemberment, decapitation, or similar mutilation
or that depicts the deceased person’s genitalia.
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(7) “State agency” means a department, commission, board, office, or other agency
that is a part of state government and that is created by the constitution or a
statute of this state. The term includes an institution of higher education as
defined by Section 61.003, Education Code.
(b)

For purposes of this section, an Internet website, the primary function of which is not
the delivery of news, information, current events, or other matters of public interest
or concern, is not an expressive work.

(c)

A sensitive crime scene image in the custody of a governmental body is confidential
and excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 and a governmental body may
not permit a person to view or copy the image except as provided by this section.
This section applies to any sensitive crime scene image regardless of the date that the
image was taken or recorded.

(d)

Notwithstanding Subsection (c) and subject to Subsection (e), the following persons
may view or copy information that constitutes a sensitive crime scene image from a
governmental body:
(1) the deceased person’s next of kin;
(2) a person authorized in writing by the deceased person’s next of kin;
(3) a defendant or the defendant’s attorney;
(4) a person who establishes to the governmental body an interest in a sensitive crime
scene image that is based on, connected with, or in support of the creation, in any
medium, of an expressive work;
(5) a person performing bona fide research sponsored by a public or private
institution of higher education with approval of a supervisor of the research or
a supervising faculty member;
(6) a state agency;
(7) an agency of the federal government; or
(8) a local governmental entity.

(e)

This section does not prohibit a governmental body from asserting an exception to
disclosure of a sensitive crime scene image to a person identified in Subsection (d) on
the grounds that the image is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021
under another provision of this chapter or another law.

(f)

Not later than the 10th business day after the date a governmental body receives a
request for a sensitive crime scene image from a person described by Subsection
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(d)(4) or (5), the governmental body shall notify the deceased person’s next of kin of
the request in writing. The notice must be sent to the next of kin’s last known
address.
(g)

A governmental body that receives a request for information that constitutes a
sensitive crime scene image shall allow a person described in Subsection (d) to view
or copy the image not later than the 10th business day after the date the
governmental body receives the request unless the governmental body files a request
for an attorney general decision under Subchapter G regarding whether an exception
to public disclosure applies to the information.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting section 552.1085. However, in an informal letter
ruling, the attorney general determined a governmental body failed to establish the applicability of
section 552.1085 to the information at issue because the governmental body stated the information
pertained to unresolved criminal cases that were ongoing.560 In a separate letter ruling, the attorney
general concluded the next of kin of the deceased person depicted in the photographs at issue would
have a right to view or copy the photographs pursuant to section 552.1085(d)(1), because the
governmental body may not use section 552.1085(c)(1) to withhold the photographs from the next
of kin and raised no other exceptions to withhold the photographs.561

K. Section 552.109: Confidentiality of Certain Private Communications of
an Elected Office Holder
Section 552.109 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure:
Private correspondence or communications of an elected office holder relating to matters
the disclosure of which would constitute an invasion of privacy . . . .
The test to be applied to information under section 552.109 is the same as the common-law privacy
standard under section 552.101 and decisions under section 552.109 and its statutory predecessor
rely on the same tests applicable under section 552.101.562 The common-law privacy standard is laid
out in Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., and protects information if it (1) contains highly
intimate or embarrassing facts, the publication of which would be highly objectionably to a
reasonable person, and (2) is not of legitimate concern to the public.563 Both prongs of this test must
be established.564 Section 552.109 only protects the privacy interests of elected office holders.565
It does not protect the privacy interests of their correspondents.566 Certain records of

560

Open Records Letter No. 2014-04454 at 13 (2014).

561

Open Records Letter No. 2013-21155 at 4 (2013).

562

Open Records Decision Nos. 506 at 3 (1988), 241 (1980), 212 (1978).

563

Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W .2d 668, 685 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977).

564

Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W .2d 668, 681–685 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931
(1977).

565

Open Records Decision No. 473 at 3 (1987).

566

See Open Records Decision No. 332 at 2 (1982).

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communications between citizens and members of the legislature or the lieutenant governor may not
be subject to the Act.567
In the following open records decisions, the attorney general determined that certain information was
not excepted from required public disclosure under the statutory predecessor to section 552.109:
Open Records Decision No. 506 (1988) — cellular telephone numbers of county officials where
county paid for installation of service and for telephone bills, and which service was intended
to be used by officials in conducting official public business, because public has a legitimate
interest in the performance of official public duties;
Open Records Decision No. 473 (1987) — performance evaluations of city council appointees,
because this section was intended to protect the privacy only of elected office holders; although
city council members prepared the evaluations, the evaluations did not implicate their privacy
interests;
Open Records Decision No. 332 (1982) — letters concerning a teacher’s performance written
by parents to school trustees, because nothing in the letters constituted an invasion of privacy of
the trustees;
Open Records Decision No. 241 (1980) — correspondence of the governor regarding potential
nominees for public office, because the material was not protected by a constitutional right of
privacy; furthermore, the material was not protected by common-law right of privacy because
it did not contain any highly embarrassing or intimate facts and there was a legitimate public
interest in the appointment process;568 and
Open Records Decision No. 40 (1974) — itemized list of long distance calls made by legislators
and charged to their contingent expense accounts, because such a list is not a “communication.”

L. Section 552.110: Confidentiality of Trade Secrets and Confidentiality of
Certain Commercial or Financial Information
Section 552.110 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

A trade secret obtained from a person and privileged or confidential by statute or
judicial decision is excepted from [required public disclosure].

(b)

Commercial or financial information for which it is demonstrated based on specific
factual evidence that disclosure would cause substantial competitive harm to the
person from whom the information was obtained is excepted from [required public
disclosure].

567

See Gov’t Code §§ 306.003, .004; Open Records Decision No. 648 (1996); Open Records Letter Nos. 2012-14193
(2012), 2012-06238 (2012).

568

See Open Records Decision No. 212 at 4 (1978).

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Section 552.110 refers to two types of information: (1) trade secrets and (2) confidential commercial
or financial information obtained from a person. The Act requires a governmental body to make a
good faith attempt to notify in writing a person whose proprietary information may be subject to
section 552.110 within ten business days after receiving the request for the information.569 A person
so notified bears the burden of establishing the applicability of section 552.110.570 A copy of the
form the Act requires the governmental body to send to a person whose information may be subject
to section 552.110, as well as section 552.101, section 552.113, or section 552.131, can be found in
Part Nine of this Handbook.
1. Trade Secrets
The Texas Supreme Court has adopted the definition of the term “trade secret” from the Restatement
of Torts, section 757 (1939).571 The determination of whether any particular information is a trade
secret is a determination of fact.572 Noting that an exact definition of a trade secret is not possible,
the Restatement lists six factors to be considered in determining whether particular information
constitutes a trade secret:
(1)

the extent to which the information is known outside of [the company’s] business;

(2)

the extent to which it is known by employees and others involved in [the company’s
business];

(3)

the extent of measures taken by [the company] to guard the secrecy of the information;

(4)

the value of the information to [the company] and to [its] competitors;

(5)

the amount of effort or money expended by [the company] in developing the information;
[and]

(6)

the ease or difficulty with which the information could be properly acquired or duplicated
by others.573

A party asserting the trade secret prong of section 552.110 is not required to satisfy all six factors
listed in the Restatement in order to prevail on its claim.574 In addition, other circumstances may be
relevant in determining whether information qualifies as a trade secret.575 Open Records Decision

569

Gov’t Code § 552.305.

570

Gov’t Code § 552.305.

571

Hyde Corp. v. Huffines, 314 S.W .2d 763, 776 (Tex.), cert. denied, 358 U.S. 898 (1958).

572

Open Records Decision No. 552 at 2 (1990); see Envoy M ed. Sys. v. State, 108 S.W .3d 333, 337 (Tex.
App.— Austin 2003, no pet.).

573

R ESTATEM EN T O F T O RTS § 757 cmt. b (1939); see Ctr. for Econ. Justice v. Am. Ins. Ass’n, 39 S.W .3d 337, 344–45
(Tex. App.— Austin 2001, no pet.); Birnbaum v. Alliance of Am. Insurers, 994 S.W .2d 766, 783 (Tex. App.— Austin
1999, pet. denied).

574

See In re Bass, 113 S.W.3d 735, 740 (Tex. 2003).

575

See In re Bass, 113 S.W.3d 735, 740 (Tex. 2003).

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No. 552 (1990) noted that the attorney general is unable to resolve disputes of fact regarding the
status of information as “trade secrets” and must rely upon the facts alleged or upon those facts that
are discernible from the documents submitted for inspection. For this reason, the attorney general
will accept a claim for exception as a trade secret when a prima facie case is made that the
information in question constitutes a trade secret and no argument is made that rebuts that assertion
as a matter of law.576 In Open Records Decision No. 609 (1992), there was a factual dispute between
the governmental body and the proponent of the trade secret protection as to certain elements of a
prima facie case. Because the attorney general cannot resolve such factual disputes, the matter was
referred back to the governmental body for fact-finding.
2. Commercial or Financial Information Privileged or Confidential by Law
Section 552.110 now expressly includes the standard for excepting from disclosure commercial and
financial information.577 An interested person must demonstrate “based on specific factual evidence
that disclosure would cause substantial competitive harm to the person from whom the information
was obtained.” This standard resembles part of the test for applying the correlative exemption in the
federal Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(4), as set out in Nat’l Parks & Conservation
Ass’n v. Morton.578 That part of the National Parks test states that commercial or financial
information is confidential if disclosure of the information is likely to cause substantial harm to the
competitive position of the person from whom the information was obtained.579 The current
commercial and financial information branch of section 552.110 does not incorporate the part of the
National Parks test for information that is likely to impair the government’s ability to obtain
necessary information in the future. Like the federal standard, section 552.110(b) requires the
business enterprise whose information is at issue to make a specific factual or evidentiary showing,
not conclusory or generalized allegations, that substantial competitive injury would likely result from
disclosure.580

M. Section 552.111: Agency Memoranda
Section 552.111 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure:
An interagency or intraagency memorandum or letter that would not be available by law
to a party in litigation with the agency . . . .

576

Open Records Decision Nos. 669 at 2 (2000), 552 at 5 (1990).

577

The former section 552.110 excepted “commercial and financial information . . . privileged or confidential by statute
or judicial decision.” It did not set out the standard for excepting commercial or financial information. In 1996,
the attorney general followed the test for applying section 552(b)(4) of the federal Freedom of Information Act as
set forth in Nat’l Parks & Conservation Ass’n v. Morton, 498 F.2d 765 (D.C. Cir. 1974). See Open Records
Decision No. 639 at 2–3 (1996). However, the Third Court of Appeals held that National Parks was not a judicial
decision within the meaning of the former section 552.110. Birnbaum v. Alliance of Am. Insurers, 994 S.W .2d 766
(Tex. App.— Austin 1999, pet. denied). Consequently, after the Birnbaum decision, the attorney general no longer
used the National Parks standard for excepting commercial or financial information under former section 552.110.

578

Nat’l Parks & Conservation Ass’n v. Morton, 498 F.2d 765 (D.C. Cir. 1974).

579

See Nat’l Parks & Conservation Ass’n v. Morton, 498 F.2d 765, 770 (D.C. Cir. 1974).

580

See Open Records Decision No. 661 at 6 (1999).

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To be protected under section 552.111, information must consist of interagency or intraagency
communications. Although information protected by section 552.111 is most commonly generated
by agency personnel, information created for an agency by outside consultants acting on behalf of
the agency in an official capacity may be within section 552.111.581 An agency’s communications
with other agencies and third parties, however, are not protected unless the agency demonstrates that
the parties to the communications share a privity of interest.582 For example, correspondence
between a licensing agency and a licensee is not excepted under section 552.111.583
Also, to be protected under section 552.111, an interagency or intraagency communication must be
privileged from discovery in civil litigation involving the agency.584 The attorney general has
interpreted section 552.111 to incorporate both the deliberative process privilege and the work
product privilege.585
1. Deliberative Process Privilege
Section 552.111 has been read to incorporate the deliberative process privilege into the Public
Information Act for intraagency and interagency communications.586 The deliberative process
privilege, as incorporated into the Public Information Act, protects from disclosure intraagency and
interagency communications consisting of advice, opinion or recommendations on policymaking
matters of the governmental body at issue.587 The purpose of withholding advice, opinion or
recommendations under section 552.111 is “to encourage frank and open discussion within the
agency in connection with its decision-making processes” pertaining to policy matters.588 “An
agency’s policymaking functions do not encompass routine internal administrative and personnel
matters; disclosure of information relating to such matters will not inhibit free discussion among
agency personnel as to policy issues.”589 An agency’s policymaking functions do include, however,
administrative and personnel matters of broad scope that affect the governmental body’s policy

581

Open Records Decision No. 462 (1987) (construing statutory predecessor).

582

See Open Records Decision No. 561 at 9 (1990) (correspondence from Federal Bureau of Investigation officer to
city was not protected by statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.111, where no privity of interest or common
deliberative process existed between federal agency and city).

583

Open Records Decision No. 474 at 5 (1987) (construing statutory predecessor).

584

Open Records Decision Nos. 677 at 4 (2002), 615 at 2–3 (1993).

585

Open Records Decision Nos. 647 at 5–6 (1996), 615 at 5 (1993); see City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22
S.W .3d 351, 360 (Tex. 2000).

586

City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 351, 360 (Tex. 2000); Lett v. Klein Indep. Sch. Dist., 917
S.W .2d 455, 456 (Tex. App.— Houston [14th Dist.] 1996, writ denied); Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Gilbreath, 842
S.W .2d 408, 412–13 (Tex. App.— Austin 1992, no writ); Open Records Decision No. 615 at 5 (1993).

587

City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 351, 361, 364 (Tex. 2000); Arlington Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Tex.
Attorney Gen., 37 S.W .3d 152, 158 (Tex. App.— Austin 2001, no pet.); Open Records Decision No. 615 at 5 (1993).

588

Austin v. City of San Antonio, 630 S.W .2d 391, 394 (Tex. App.— San Antonio 1982, writ ref’d n.r.e.); see also City
of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 351, 361 (Tex. 2000); Lett v. Klein Indep. Sch. Dist., 917 S.W .2d
455, 456, 457 (Tex. App.— Houston [14th Dist.] 1996, writ denied); Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Gilbreath, 842
S.W .2d 408, 412 (Tex. App.— Austin 1992, no writ).

589

Open Records Decision No. 615 at 5 (1993); see City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 364 (Tex.
2000); Lett v. Klein Indep. Sch. Dist., 917 S.W .2d 455, 456 (Tex. App.— Houston [14th Dist.] 1996, writ denied).

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mission.590 For example, because the information at issue in Open Records Decision No. 615 (1993)
concerned the evaluation of a university professor’s job performance, the statutory predecessor to
section 552.111 did not except this information from required public disclosure. On the other hand,
the information at issue in Open Records Decision No. 631 (1995) was a report addressing
allegations of systematic discrimination against African-American and Hispanic faculty members
in the retention, tenure, and promotion process at a university. Rather than pertaining solely to the
internal administration of the university, the scope of the report was much broader and involved the
university’s educational mission. Accordingly, section 552.111 excepted from required public
disclosure the portions of the report that constituted advice, recommendations or opinions.591
Even when an internal memorandum relates to a governmental body’s policy functions, the
deliberative process privilege excepts from disclosure only the advice, recommendations, and
opinions found in that memorandum. The deliberative process privilege does not except from
disclosure purely factual information that is severable from the opinion portions of the
memorandum.592
Before June 29, 1993, the attorney general did not confine the application of the statutory
predecessor to section 552.111 solely to communications relating to agencies’ policymaking
functions. Given the change in the interpretation of the scope of section 552.111, a governmental
body that receives a request for information should exercise caution in relying on attorney general
decisions regarding the applicability of this exception written before June 29, 1993. For example,
in Open Records Decision No. 559 (1990), the attorney general held that the predecessor statute to
section 552.111 also protects drafts of a document that has been or will be released in final form to
the public and any comments or other notations on the drafts because they necessarily represent
advice, opinion, and recommendations of the drafter as to the form and content of the final
document. However, the rationale and scope of this open records decision have been modified
implicitly to apply only to those records involving an agency’s policy matters.
2. Work Product Privilege
The attorney general has also concluded that section 552.111 incorporates the privilege for work
product found in Texas Rule of Civil Procedure 192.5.593 Rule 192.5 defines work product as:
(1)

material prepared or mental impressions developed in anticipation of litigation or for
trial by or for a party or a party’s representatives, including the party’s attorneys,
consultants, sureties, indemnitors, insurers, employees, or agents; or

590

Open Records Decision No. 631 at 3 (1995); City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 969 S.W .2d 548, 557 (Tex.
App.— Dallas 1998), aff’d, 22 S.W.3d 351 (Tex. 2000).

591

Open Records Decision No. 631 at 3 (1995).

592

See Open Records Decision No. 615 at 4–5 (1993); City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W .3d 351 (Tex.
2000).

593

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 4–8 (2002).

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(2)

a communication made in anticipation of litigation or for trial between a party and
the party’s representatives or among a party’s representatives, including the party’s
attorneys, consultants, sureties, indemnitors, insurers, employees, or agents.594

A governmental body raising the work product privilege under section 552.111 bears the burden of
providing the relevant facts in each case to demonstrate the elements of the privilege.595 One element
of the work product test is that the information must have been made or developed for trial or in
anticipation of litigation.596 In order for the attorney general to conclude that information was
created for trial or in anticipation of litigation, the governmental body must demonstrate that at the
time the information was created or acquired:
a) a reasonable person would have concluded from the totality of the circumstances . . . that
there was a substantial chance that litigation would ensue; and b) the party resisting discovery
believed in good faith that there was a substantial chance that litigation would ensue and [created
or obtained the information] for the purpose of preparing for such litigation.597
A “substantial chance” of litigation does not mean a statistical probability, but rather “that litigation
is more than merely an abstract possibility or unwarranted fear.”598
Also, as part of the work product test, material or a mental impression must have been prepared or
developed by or for a party or a party’s representatives.599 Similarly, in the case of a communication,
the communication must have been between a party and the party’s representatives.600 Thus, a
governmental body claiming the work product privilege must identify the parties or potential parties
to the litigation, the person or entity that prepared the information, and any individual with whom
the information was shared.601
If a requestor seeks a governmental body’s entire litigation file, the governmental body may assert
the file is excepted from disclosure in its entirety because such a request implicates the core work
product aspect of the attorney work product privilege.602 In such an instance, if the governmental
body demonstrates the file was created in anticipation of litigation or for trial, the attorney general
will presume the entire file is within the scope of the privilege.603

594

T EX . R. C IV . P. 192.5(a).

595

See Open Records Decision No. 677 at 6 (2002).

596

T EX . R. C IV . P. 192.5(a); Open Records Decision No. 677 at 6 (2002)

597

Nat’l Tank Co. v. Brotherton, 851 S.W .2d 193, 207 (Tex. 1993); In re Monsanto Co., 998 S.W .2d 917, 923–24
(Tex. App.— W aco 1999, orig. proceeding).

598

Nat’l Tank Co. v. Brotherton, 851 S.W .2d 193, 204, 207 (Tex. 1993); see Open Records Decision No. 677 at 7
(2002).

599

T EX . R. C IV . P. 192.5(a)(1); Open Records Decision No. 677 at 7 (2002).

600

T EX . R. C IV . P. 192.5(a)(2); Open Records Decision No. 677 at 7–8 (2002).

601

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 8 (2002).

602

Open Records Decision No. 677 at 5–6 (2002).

603

See Open Records Decision No. 647 at 5 (1996) (citing Nat’l Union Fire Ins. Co. v. Valdez, 863 S.W .2d 458, 461
(Tex. 1993)) (organization of attorney’s litigation file necessarily reveals attorney’s thought processes); see also
Curry v. Walker, 873 S.W .2d 379, 380 (Tex. 1994) (“the decision as to what to include in [the file] necessarily

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N. Section 552.112: Certain Information Relating to Regulation of Financial
Institutions or Securities
Section 552.112 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information
contained in or relating to examination, operating, or condition reports prepared by
or for an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions
or securities, or both.

(b)

In this section, “securities” has the meaning assigned by The Securities Act (Article
581-1 et seq., Vernon’s Texas Civil Statutes).

(c)

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information
submitted by an individual or other entity to the Texas Legislative Council, or to any
state agency or department overseen by the Finance Commission of Texas and the
information has been or will be sent to the Texas Legislative Council, for the purpose
of performing a statistical or demographic analysis of information subject to Section
323.020. However, this subsection does not except from the requirements of Section
552.021 information that does not identify or tend to identify an individual or other
entity and that is subject to required public disclosure under Section 323.020(e).

This section protects specific examination, operating, or condition reports prepared or obtained by
agencies in regulating or supervising financial institutions or securities or information that indirectly
reveals the contents of such reports.604 Such reports typically disclose the financial status and
dealings of the institutions that file them. Section 552.112 does not protect general information
about the overall condition of an industry if the information does not identify particular institutions
under investigation or supervision.605 An entity must be a “financial institution” for its examination,
operating, or condition reports to be excepted by section 552.112; it is not sufficient that the entity
is regulated by an agency that regulates or supervises financial institutions.606 The attorney general
has stated that the term “financial institution” means “any banking corporation or trust company,
building and loan association, governmental agency, insurance company, or related corporation,
partnership, foundation, or the other institutions engaged primarily in lending or investing funds.”607
Notably, a Texas appeals court decision, Birnbaum v. Alliance of Am. Insurers,608 held that insurance
companies are not “financial institutions” under section 552.112, overruling the determination in
Open Records Decision No. 158 (1977) that insurance companies were “financial institutions” under
the statutory predecessor to the section. Section 552.112 is a permissive exception that a

reveals the attorney’s thought processes and concerning the prosecution or defense of the case”).
604

See generally Open Records Decision Nos. 261 (1980), 29 (1974).

605

Open Records Decision No. 483 at 9 (1987).

606

Open Records Decision No. 158 at 4–5 (1977).

607

Open Records Decision No. 158 at 5 (1977); see also Open Records Decision No. 392 at 3 (1983).

608

Birnbaum v. Alliance of Am. Insurers, 994 S.W .2d 766 (Tex. App.— Austin 1999, pet. denied).

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governmental body may waive at its discretion.609 Thus, section 552.112 only protects the interests
of a governmental body, rather than the interests of third parties.
The following open records decisions have considered whether information is excepted from
required public disclosure under section 552.112:
Open Records Decision No. 483 (1987) — Texas Savings and Loan Department report
containing a general discussion of the condition of the industry that does not identify particular
institutions under investigation or supervision is not excepted from disclosure;
Open Records Decision No. 392 (1983) — material collected by the Consumer Credit
Commissioner in an investigation of loan transactions was not protected by the statutory
predecessor to section 552.112 when the requested information did not consist of a detailed
description of the complete financial status of the company being investigated but rather
consisted of the records of the company’s particular transactions with persons filing consumer
complaints;
Open Records Decision No. 261 (1980) — form acknowledgment by bank board of directors that
Department of Banking examination report had been received is excepted from disclosure where
acknowledgment would reveal the conclusions reached by the department;
Open Records Decision No. 194 (1978) — pawn shop license application that includes
information about applicant’s net assets to assess compliance with Texas Pawnshop Act is not
excepted from disclosure because such information does not qualify as an examination,
operating, or condition report;
Open Records Decision No. 187 (1978) — property development plans submitted by a credit
union to the Credit Union Department were excepted from disclosure by the statutory
predecessor to section 552.112 because submission included detailed presentation of credit
union’s conditions and operations and the particular proposed investment; and
Open Records Decision No. 130 (1976) — investigative file of the enforcement division of the
State Securities Board is excepted from disclosure.

O. Section 552.113:
Information

Confidentiality of Geological or Geophysical

Section 552.113 makes confidential electric logs under Subchapter M, Chapter 91, of the Natural
Resources Code, and geological or geophysical information or data, including maps concerning
wells, except when filed in connection with an application or proceeding before an agency. This
exception also applies to geological, geophysical, and geochemical information, including electric
logs, filed with the General Land Office, and includes provisions for the expiration of confidentiality
of “confidential material,” as that term is defined, and the use of such material in administrative
proceedings before the General Land Office.
609

Birnbaum v. Alliance of Am. Insurers, 994 S.W .2d 766 (Tex. App.— Austin 1999, pet. denied).

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Section 552.113 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is:
(1) an electric log confidential under Subchapter M, Chapter 91, Natural Resources
Code;
(2) geological or geophysical information or data, including maps concerning wells,
except information filed in connection with an application or proceeding before
an agency; or
(3) confidential under Subsections (c) through (f).

(b)

Information that is shown to or examined by an employee of the General Land Office,
but not retained in the land office, is not considered to be filed with the land office.

(c)

In this section:
(1) “Confidential material” includes all well logs, geological, geophysical,
geochemical, and other similar data, including maps and other interpretations of
the material filed in the General Land Office:
(A) in connection with any administrative application or proceeding before the
land commissioner, the school land board, any board for lease, or the
commissioner’s or board’s staff; or
(B) in compliance with the requirements of any law, rule, lease, or agreement.
(2) “Electric logs” has the same meaning as it has in Chapter 91, Natural Resources
Code.
(3) “Administrative applications” and “administrative proceedings” include
applications for pooling or unitization, review of shut-in royalty payments, review
of leases or other agreements to determine their validity, review of any plan of
operations, review of the obligation to drill offset wells, or an application to pay
compensatory royalty.

(d)

Confidential material, except electric logs, filed in the General Land Office on or
after September 1, 1985, is public information and is available to the public under
Section 552.021 on and after the later of:
(1) five years from the filing date of the confidential material; or
(2) one year from the expiration, termination, or forfeiture of the lease in connection
with which the confidential material was filed.
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(e)

Electric logs filed in the General Land Office on or after September 1, 1985, are
either public information or confidential material to the same extent and for the same
periods provided for the same logs by Chapter 91, Natural Resources Code. A person
may request that an electric log that has been filed in the General Land Office be
made confidential by filing with the land office a copy of the written request for
confidentiality made to the Railroad Commission of Texas for the same log.

(f)

The following are public information:
(1) electric logs filed in the General Land Office before September 1, 1985; and
(2) confidential material, except electric logs, filed in the General Land Office before
September 1, 1985, provided, that Subsection (d) governs the disclosure of that
confidential material filed in connection with a lease that is a valid and subsisting
lease on September 1, 1995.

(g)

Confidential material may be disclosed at any time if the person filing the material,
or the person’s successor in interest in the lease in connection with which the
confidential material was filed, consents in writing to its release. A party consenting
to the disclosure of confidential material may restrict the manner of disclosure and
the person or persons to whom the disclosure may be made.

(h)

Notwithstanding the confidential nature of the material described in this section, the
material may be used by the General Land Office in the enforcement, by
administrative proceeding or litigation, of the laws governing the sale and lease of
public lands and minerals, the regulations of the land office, the school land board,
or of any board for lease, or the terms of any lease, pooling or unitization agreement,
or any other agreement or grant.

(i)

An administrative hearings officer may order that confidential material introduced
in an administrative proceeding remain confidential until the proceeding is finally
concluded, or for the period provided in Subsection (d), whichever is later.

(j)

Confidential material examined by an administrative hearings officer during the
course of an administrative proceeding for the purpose of determining its
admissibility as evidence shall not be considered to have been filed in the General
Land Office to the extent that the confidential material is not introduced into
evidence at the proceeding.

(k)

This section does not prevent a person from asserting that any confidential material
is exempt from disclosure as a trade secret or commercial information under
Section 552.110 or under any other basis permitted by law.

Open Records Decision No. 627 (1994) interpreted the predecessor to the current version of
section 552.113 as follows:

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[S]ection 552.113 excepts from required public disclosure all “geological or geophysical
information or data including maps concerning wells,” unless the information is filed in
connection with an application or proceeding before an agency . . . . We interpret “geological
or geophysical information” as section 552.113(2) uses the term to refer only to geological and
geophysical information regarding the exploration or development of natural resources.
[Footnote omitted] Furthermore, we reaffirm our prior determination that section 552.113
protects only geological and geophysical information that is commercially valuable. See
Open Records Decision Nos. 504 (1988) at 2; 479 (1987) at 2. Thus, we conclude that
section 552.113(2) protects from public disclosure only (i) geological and geophysical
information regarding the exploration or development of natural resources that is (ii)
commercially valuable.610
The decision explained that the phrase “information regarding the exploration or development of
natural resources” signifies “information indicating the presence or absence of natural resources in
a particular location, as well as information indicating the extent of a particular deposit or
accumulation.”611
Open Records Decision No. 627 (1994) overruled Open Records Decision No. 504 (1988) to the
extent the two decisions are inconsistent. In Open Records Decision No. 504 (1988), the attorney
general had interpreted the statutory predecessor to section 552.113 of the Government Code to
require the application of a test similar to the test used at that time to determine whether the statutory
predecessor to section 552.110 protected commercial information (including trade secrets) from
required public disclosure. Under that test, commercial information was “confidential” for purposes
of the exemption if disclosure of the information was likely to have either of the following effects:
(1) to impair the government’s ability to obtain necessary information in the future; or (2) to cause
substantial harm to the competitive position of the person from whom the information was
obtained.612
Following the issuance of Open Records Decision No. 504 (1988), the attorney general articulated
new tests for determining whether section 552.110 of the Government Code protects trade secret
information and commercial and financial information from required public disclosure.613 Thus,
Open Records Decision No. 627 (1994) re-examined the attorney general’s reliance upon the former
tests for section 552.110 to determine the applicability of section 552.113. That decision noted that
section 552.113, as the legislature originally enacted it, differed from its federal counterpart614 in that
the statutory predecessor to section 552.113 excepted from its scope “information filed in connection
with an application or proceeding before any agency.”615 Thus, the state exception to required public
disclosure exempted a more limited class of information than did the federal exemption.616
Consequently, the decision determined that grafting the balancing test used to limit the scope of the
610

Open Records Decision No. 627 at 3–4 (1994) (footnote omitted).

611

Open Records Decision No. 627 at 4 n.4 (1994).

612

Open Records Decision No. 504 at 4 (1988).

613

See Open Records Decision Nos. 592 at 2–8 (1991), 552 at 2–5 (1990).

614

5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(9).

615

Open Records Decision No. 627 at 2–3 (1994).

616

Open Records Decision No. 627 at 2–3 (1994).

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federal exemption to the plain language of section 552.113 was unnecessary.617 Since the current
version of section 552.113 took effect on September 1, 1995, there have been no published court
decisions interpreting the amended statute or the validity of Open Records Decision No. 627 (1994)
in light of the amendments to the statute.
The attorney general, however, has interpreted the term “commercially valuable” in a subsequent
decision. In Open Records Decision No. 669 (2000), the attorney general applied section 552.113
to digital mapping information supplied to the General Land Office by a third party. The specific
information at issue was information that the third party allowed to be disclosed to the public.618 The
attorney general held that the information was not protected under section 552.113 because the
information was publicly available and thus was not commercially valuable.619 Therefore, in order
to be commercially valuable for purposes of Open Records Decision No. 627 and section 552.113,
information must not be publicly available.620
When a governmental body believes requested information of a third party may be excepted
under this exception, the governmental body must notify the third party in accordance with
section 552.305. The notice the governmental body must send to the third party is found in Part Nine
of this Handbook.

P. Sections 552.026 and 552.114: Confidentiality of Student Records
The Public Information Act includes two provisions relating to student records, sections 552.026
and 552.114 of the Government Code.
1. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974
Section 552.026 incorporates into the Texas Public Information Act the federal Family Educational
Rights and Privacy Act of 1974,621 also known as “FERPA” or the “Buckley Amendment.”622
FERPA governs the availability of student records held by educational institutions or agencies that
receive federal funds under programs administered by the federal government. It prohibits, in most
circumstances, the release of personally identifiable information contained in a student’s education
records without a parent’s written consent.623 It also gives parents a right to inspect the education
records of their children.624 If a student has reached age 18 or is attending an institution of
post-secondary education, the rights established by FERPA attach to the student rather than to the

617

Open Records Decision No. 627 at 2–3 (1994).

618

Open Records Decision No. 669 at 6 (2000).

619

Open Records Decision No. 627 at 2–3 (1994).

620

Open Records Decision No. 627 at 2–3 (1994).

621

20 U.S.C. § 1232g.

622

See Open Records Decision No. 72 (1975) (compliance with federal law was required before enactment of statutory
predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.026).

623

20 U.S.C. § 1232g(b)(1).

624

20 U.S.C. § 1232g(a)(1).

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student’s parents.625 “Education records” for purposes of FERPA are records that contain
information directly related to a student and that are maintained by an educational institution or
agency.626
Information must be withheld from required public disclosure under FERPA only to the extent
“reasonable and necessary to avoid personally identifying a particular student.”627 Personally
identifying information is defined as including, but not limited to, the following information:
(a)

The student’s name;

(b)

The name of the student’s parent or other family members;

(c)

The address of the student or student’s family;

(d)

A personal identifier, such as the student’s social security number, student number, or
biometric record;

(e)

Other indirect identifiers, such as the student’s date of birth, place of birth, and mother’s
maiden name;

(f)

Other information that, alone or in combination, is linked or linkable to a specific student
that would allow a reasonable person in the school community, who does not have
personal knowledge of the relevant circumstances to identify the student with reasonable
certainty; or

(g)

Information requested by a person who the educational agency or institution reasonably
believes knows the identity of the student to whom the education records relate.628

An educational institution or agency may, however, release “directory information” to the public if
the educational institution or agency complies with certain procedures.629 Directory information
includes, but is not limited to, the following information: “the student’s name; address; telephone
listing; electronic mail address; photograph; date and place of birth; major field of study; grade level;
enrollment status (e.g., undergraduate or graduate, full-time or part-time); dates of attendance;
participation in officially recognized activities and sports; weight and height of members of athletic
teams; degrees, honors, and awards received; and the most recent educational agency or institution

625

20 U.S.C. § 1232g(d).

626

20 U.S.C. § 1232g(a)(4)(A).

627

Open Records Decision Nos. 332 (1982), 206 (1978).

628

34 C.F.R. § 99.3.

629

See 20 U.S.C. § 1232g(a)(5)(B).

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attended.”630 The attorney general has determined that marital status and expected date of graduation
also constitute directory information.631
University police department records concerning students previously were held to be education
records for the purposes of FERPA.632 However, FERPA was amended, effective July 23, 1992, to
provide that the term “education records” does not include “records maintained by a law enforcement
unit of the educational agency or institution that were created by that law enforcement unit for the
purpose of law enforcement.”633 On the basis of this provision, records created by a campus police
department are not excepted from required public disclosure by section 552.026 of the Government
Code.634
FERPA applies only to records at educational institutions or agencies receiving federal funds and
does not govern access to records in the custody of governmental bodies that are not educational
institutions or agencies.635 An “educational agency or institution” is “any public or private agency
or institution” that receives federal funds under an applicable program.636 Thus, an agency or
institution need not instruct students in order to qualify as an educational agency or institution under
FERPA. If education records are transferred by a school district or state institution of higher
education to a state administrative agency concerned with education, federal regulations provide that
the education records in the administrative agency’s possession are subject to FERPA.637
If there is a conflict between the provisions of the state Public Information Act and FERPA, the
federal statute prevails.638 However, the attorney general has been informed by the Family Policy
Compliance Office of the United States Department of Education that parents’ rights to information
about their children under FERPA do not prevail over school districts’ rights to assert the attorneyclient and work product privileges.639 As a general rule, however, exceptions to disclosure under the
Public Information Act do not apply to a request by a student or parent for the student’s own
education records pursuant to FERPA.640
In Open Records Decision No. 634 (1995), the attorney general stated that an educational agency or
institution that seeks a ruling under the Public Information Act should, before submitting “education

630

34 C.F.R. § 99.3.

631

Open Records Decision No. 96 (1975); see also Open Records Decision Nos. 244 (1980) (student rosters public),
242 (1980) (student parking permit information public), 193 (1978) (report of accident insurance claims paid to
identifiable students not public).

632

See Open Records Decision Nos. 342 at 2–3 (1982), 205 at 2 (1978).

633

20 U.S.C. § 1232g(a)(4)(B)(ii).

634

Open Records Decision N o. 612 at 2 (1992) (campus police department records were not excepted by statutory
predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.101, incorporating FERPA, or statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.114).

635

See Open Records Decision No. 390 at 3 (1983) (City of Fort W orth is not “educational agency” within FERPA).

636

20 U.S.C. § 1232g(a)(3).

637

20 U.S.C. § 1232g(b)(1)(E), (b)(4)(B); 34 C.F.R. §§ 99.31, .33, .35.

638

Open Records Decision No. 431 (1985).

639

Letter from LeRoy S. Rooker, Director, Family Policy Compliance Office, United States Dep’t of Educ., to Keith
B. Kyle (July 1999) (on file with the Open Records Division, Office of the Attorney General).

640

Open Records Decision No. 431 at 3 (1985).

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records” to the attorney general, either obtain parental consent to the disclosure of personally
identifiable nondirectory information in the records or edit the records to make sure that they contain
no personally identifiable nondirectory information. Subsequent correspondence from the United
States Department of Education advised that educational agencies and institutions may submit
personally identifiable information subject to FERPA to the attorney general for purposes of
obtaining rulings as to whether information contained therein must be withheld under FERPA or
state law.641 In 2006, however, the United States Department of Education Family Policy
Compliance Office informed the attorney general that FERPA does not permit state and local
educational authorities to disclose to the attorney general, without parental consent, unredacted,
personally identifiable information contained in education records for the purpose of our review in
the open records ruling process under the Public Information Act.642 Consequently, state and local
educational authorities that receive a request for education records from a member of the public
under the Public Information Act must not submit education records to the attorney general in
unredacted form, that is, in a form in which “personally identifiable information” is disclosed.643
Because the attorney general is prohibited from reviewing these education records to determine
whether appropriate redactions under FERPA have been made, the attorney general will not address
the applicability of FERPA to any records submitted as part of a request for decision. Such
determinations under FERPA must be made by the educational authority in possession of the
education records.644 Questions about FERPA should be directed to the following agency:
Family Policy Compliance Office
U.S. Department of Education
400 Maryland Ave., S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20202-5920
(202) 260-3887
2. Section 552.114: Confidentiality of Student Records
(a)

In this section, “student record” means:
(1) information that constitutes education records as that term is defined by the
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (20 U.S.C. Section
1232g(a)(4)); or
(2) information in a record of an applicant for admission to an educational
institution, including a transfer applicant.

641

See Letter from LeRoy S. Rooker, Director, Family Policy Compliance Office, United States Dep’t of Educ., to
David Anderson, Chief Counsel, Tex. Educ. Agency (April 29, 1998) (on file with the Open Records Division,
Office of the Attorney General).

642

This letter is available on the attorney general’s website at: http://www.oag.state.tx.us/open/20060725usdoe.pdf.

643

See 34 C.F.R. § 99.3 (defining “personally identifiable information”).

644

In the future, if an educational authority does obtain parental consent to submit unredacted education records and
the educational authority seeks a ruling from the attorney general on the proper redaction of those education records
in compliance with FERPA, we will rule accordingly.

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(b)

Information is confidential and excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021
if it is information in a student record at an educational institution funded wholly or
partly by state revenue. This subsection does not prohibit the disclosure or provision
of information included in an education record if the disclosure or provision is
authorized by 20 U.S.C. Section 1232g or other federal law.

(c)

A record covered by Subsection (b) shall be made available on the request of:
(1) educational institution personnel;
(2) the student involved or the student’s parent, legal guardian, or spouse; or
(3) a person conducting a child abuse investigation required by Subchapter D,
Chapter 261, Family Code.

(d)

Except as provided by Subsection (e), an educational institution may redact
information covered under Subsection (b) from information disclosed under Section
552.021 without requesting a decision from the attorney general.

(e)

If an applicant for admission to an educational institution described by Subsection
(b) or a parent or legal guardian of a minor applicant to an educational institution
described by Subsection (b) requests information in the record of the applicant, the
educational institution shall disclose any information that:
(1) is related to the applicant’s application for admission; and
(2) was provided to the educational institution by the applicant.645

The Eighty-fourth Legislature amended section 552.114 to include a definition of the term “student
record.”646 “Student record” means both information that constitutes an education record under
FERPA and information in the record of an applicant for admission to an educational institution,
including a transfer applicant.647 Section 552.114(b) deems information in a student record
confidential and states subsection (b) does not prohibit the release of an education record authorized
by FERPA or other federal law.648 Section 552.114(c) recognizes a right of access to student records
for certain enumerated individuals.649 The Eighty-fourth Legislature added subsections (d) and (e)
to section 552.114. Subsection (d) permits an educational institution to redact information in a
student record without requesting an attorney general decision.650 Subsection (e) gives an applicant
for admission, or the parent or legal guardian of a minor applicant, a right of access to information

645

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.114).

646

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.114(a)).

647

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.114(a)).

648

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.114(b)).

649

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.114(c)).

650

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.114(d)).

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that is related to the applicant’s admission application and was provided to the educational institution
by the applicant.651

Q. Section 552.115: Confidentiality of Birth and Death Records
Section 552.115 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

A birth or death record maintained by the vital statistics unit of the Texas
Department of State Health Services or a local registration official is excepted from
[required public disclosure], except that:
(1) a birth record is public information and available to the public on and after the
75th anniversary of the date of birth as shown on the record filed with the bureau
of vital statistics or local registration official;
(2) a death record is public information and available to the public on and after the
25th anniversary of the date of death as shown on the record filed with the vital
statistics unit or local registration official, except that if the decedent is
unidentified, the death record is public information and available to the public on
and after the first anniversary of the date of death;
(3) a general birth index or a general death index established or maintained by the
vital statistics unit or a local registration official is public information and
available to the public to the extent the index relates to a birth record or death
record that is public information and available to the public under Subdivision
(1) or (2);
(4) a summary birth index or a summary death index prepared or maintained by the
vital statistics unit or a local registration official is public information and
available to the public; and
(5) a birth or death record is available to the chief executive officer of a home-rule
municipality or the officer’s designee if:
(A) the record is used only to identify a property owner or other person to whom
the municipality is required to give notice when enforcing a state statute or
an ordinance;
(B) the municipality has exercised due diligence in the manner described by
Section 54.035(e), Local Government Code, to identify the person; and
(C) the officer or designee signs a confidentiality agreement that requires that:

651

Act of May 29, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 4046, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.114(e)).

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(i)

the information not be disclosed outside the office of the officer or
designee, or within the office for a purpose other than the purpose
described by Paragraph (A);

(ii)

the information be labeled as confidential;

(iii) the information be kept securely; and
(iv) the number of copies made of the information or the notes taken from
the information that implicate the confidential nature of the information
be controlled, with all copies or notes that are not destroyed or returned
remaining confidential and subject to the confidentiality agreement.652
(b)

Notwithstanding Subsection (a), a general birth index or a summary birth index is not
public information and is not available to the public if:
(1) the fact of an adoption or paternity determination can be revealed by the index;
or
(2) the index contains specific identifying information relating to the parents of a
child who is the subject of an adoption placement.

(c)

Subsection (a)(1) does not apply to the microfilming agreement entered into by the
Genealogical Society of Utah, a nonprofit corporation organized under the laws of the
State of Utah, and the Archives and Information Services Division of the Texas State
Library and Archives Commission.

(d)

For the purposes of fulfilling the terms of the agreement in Subsection (c), the
Genealogical Society of Utah shall have access to birth records on and after the 50th
anniversary of the date of birth as shown on the record filed with the bureau of vital
statistics or local registration official, but such birth records shall not be made
available to the public until the 75th anniversary of the date of birth as shown on the
record.

Section 552.115 specifically applies to birth and death records of a local registration official as well
as to those of the Texas Department of State Health Services.653 This section does not apply to birth
or death records maintained by other governmental bodies.654 Until the time limits set out above
have passed, a birth or death record may be obtained from the Vital Statistics Unit (the “Unit”) of
the Texas Department of State Health Services only in accordance with chapter 192 of the Health
and Safety Code.655 While birth records over seventy-five years old and death records over
twenty-five years old are not excepted from disclosure under the Public Information Act, a local
652

Act of May 21, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1485, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.115(a)).

653

Act of May 21, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1485, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.115(a)).

654

See Open Records Decision No. 338 (1982).

655

See generally Open Records Decision No. 596 (1991) (regarding availability of adoption records).

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registrar of the Unit656 is required by title 3 of the Health and Safety Code and rules promulgated
thereunder to deny physical access to these records and to provide copies of them for a certain fee.657
These specific provisions prevail over the more general provisions in the Act regarding inspection
and copying of public records.658
Section 552.115 specifically makes public a summary birth index and summary death index and also
makes public a general birth index or general death index to the extent that it relates to birth or death
records that would be public information under the section.659 However, a general or summary birth
index is not public information if it reveals the fact of an adoption or paternity determination or
contains identifying information relating to the parents of a child who is the subject of an adoption
placement.660 Although the Act contains no language that defines the categories of information that
comprise each type of index, the Texas Department of State Health Services has promulgated
administrative rules that define each type of index.661 In pertinent part, the current rule, which took
effect August 11, 2013, provides as follows:
(b)

Birth indexes.
(1) General birth indexes maintained or established by the Vital Statistics Unit or a
local registration official shall be prepared by event year, in alphabetical order
by surname of the registrant, followed by any given names or initials, the date of
the event, the county of occurrence, the state or local file number, the name of the
father, the maiden name of the mother, and sex of the registrant.
(2) A general birth index is public information and available to the public to the
extent the index relates to a birth record that is public on or after the 75th
anniversary of the date of birth as shown on the record unless the fact of an
adoption or paternity determination can be revealed or broken or if the index
contains specific identifying information relating to the parents of the child who
is the subject of an adoption placement. The Vital Statistics Unit and local
registration officials shall expunge or delete any state or local file numbers
included in any general birth index made available to the public because such file
numbers may be used to discover information concerning specific adoptions,
paternity determinations, or the identity of the parents of children who are the
subjects of adoption placements.

656

See Health & Safety Code § 191.022(c), (f).

657

See Attorney General Opinion DM-146 at 2 (1992); see also Attorney General Opinion MW -163 (1980).

658

Attorney General Opinion DM-146 at 5 (1992).

659

Act of May 21, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1485, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.115(a)).

660

Gov’t Code § 552.115(b).

661

Absent specific authority, a governmental body may not generally promulgate a rule that makes information
confidential so as to except the information from required public disclosure pursuant to section 552.101 of the Act.
See Gov’t Code § 552.101; see also Open Records Decision Nos. 484 (1987), 392 (1983), 216 (1978). In the instant
case, however, the attorney general has found the predecessor agency to the T exas Department of State Health
Services has been granted specific authority by the legislature to promulgate administrative rules that dictate the
public availability of information contained in and derived from vital records. See Open Records Decision
No. 596 (1991).

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(3) A summary birth index maintained or established by the Vital Statistics Unit or
a local registration official shall be prepared by event year, in alphabetical order
by surname of the registrant, followed by any given names or initials, the date of
the event, the county of occurrence, and sex of the registrant. A summary birth
index or any listings of birth records are not available to the public for searching
or inspection if the fact of adoption or paternity determination can be revealed
from specific identifying information.
(c)

Death indexes.
(1) A general death index maintained or established by the Vital Statistics Unit or a
local registration official shall be prepared by event year, in alphabetical order
by surname of the registrant, followed by any given names or initials; the date of
the event; the county of occurrence; the registrant’s social security number, sex,
and marital status; the name of the registrant’s spouse, if applicable; and the state
or local file number.
(2) A general death index is public information and available to the public to the
extent the index relates to a death record that is public on or after the 25th
anniversary of the date of death as shown on the record.
(3) A summary death index maintained or established by the Vital Statistics Unit or
a local registration official shall be prepared by event year, in alphabetical order
by surname of the registrant, followed by any given names or initials, the date of
the event, the county of occurrence, and sex of the registrant.662

Thus, the term “summary birth index” as used in section 552.115 refers to a list in alphabetical order
by surname of the child, and its contents are limited to the child’s name, date of birth, county of
birth, and sex. Additionally, the term “general birth index” refers to a list containing only those
categories of information that comprise a “summary birth index,” with the additional categories of
the file number and the parents’ names. The term “summary death index” as used in section 552.115
refers to a list in alphabetical order by surname of the deceased, and its contents are limited to the
deceased’s name or initials, date of death, county of death, and sex. Furthermore, the term “general
death index” refers to the same categories of information that comprise a “summary death index,”
with the additional categories of marital status, name of the deceased’s spouse, if applicable, and file
number.
Section 552.115 also provides that a birth or death record may be made available in certain
circumstances to the chief executive officer of a home rule municipality to aid in the identification
of a property owner.663

662

25 T.A.C. § 181.23(b)–(c).

663

Act of May 21, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1485, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.115(a)).

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R. Section 552.116: Audit Working Papers
Section 552.116 provides as follows:
(a)

An audit working paper of an audit of the state auditor or the auditor of a state
agency, an institution of higher education as defined by Section 61.003, Education
Code, a county, a municipality, a school district, a hospital district, or a joint board
operating under Section 22.074, Transportation Code, including any audit relating
to the criminal history background check of a public school employee, is excepted
from the requirements of Section 552.021. If information in an audit working paper
is also maintained in another record, that other record is not excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021 by this section.

(b)

In this section:
(1) “Audit” means an audit authorized or required by a statute of this state or the
United States, the charter or an ordinance of a municipality, an order of the
commissioners court of a county, the bylaws adopted by or other action of the
governing board of a hospital district, a resolution or other action of a board of
trustees of a school district, including an audit by the district relating to the
criminal history background check of a public school employee, or a resolution
or other action of a joint board described by Subsection (a) and includes an
investigation.
(2) “Audit working paper” includes all information, documentary or otherwise,
prepared or maintained in conducting an audit or preparing an audit report,
including:
(A) intra-agency and interagency communications; and
(B) drafts of the audit report or portions of those drafts.

“Audit working paper” is defined as including all information prepared or maintained in conducting
an audit or preparing an audit report including intra-agency or interagency communications and
drafts of audit reports.664 A governmental body that invokes section 552.116 must demonstrate the
audit working papers are from an audit authorized or required by an authority mentioned in
section 552.116(b)(1) and must identify that authority. To the extent that information in an
audit working paper is also maintained in another record, such other record is not excepted by
section 552.116, although such other record may be withheld from public disclosure under the Act’s
other exceptions.665 There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting the current version of
section 552.116.

664

Gov’t Code § 552.116(b).

665

Gov’t Code § 552.116(a).

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S.

Section 552.117: Confidentiality of Certain Addresses, Telephone
Numbers, Social Security Numbers, and Personal Family Information

The Eighty-fourth Legislature amended section 552.117 of the Government Code to except from
required public disclosure:
(a)

[I]nformation that relates to the home address, home telephone number, emergency
contact information, or social security number of the following person or that reveals
whether the person has family members:
(1) a current or former official or employee of a governmental body, except as
otherwise provided by Section 552.024;
(2) a peace officer as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal Procedure, or a
security officer commissioned under Section 51.212, Education Code, regardless
of whether the officer complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175, as applicable;
(3) a current or former employee of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or of
the predecessor in function of the department or any division of the department,
regardless of whether the current or former employee complies with Section
552.1175;
(4) a peace officer as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal Procedure, or other
law, a reserve law enforcement officer, a commissioned deputy game warden, or
a corrections officer in a municipal, county, or state penal institution in this state
who was killed in the line of duty, regardless of whether the deceased complied
with Section 552.024 or 552.1175;
(5) a commissioned security officer as defined by Section 1702.002, Occupations
Code, regardless of whether the officer complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175,
as applicable;
(6) an officer or employee of a community supervision and corrections department
established under Chapter 76 who performs a duty described by Section
76.004(b), regardless of whether the officer or employee complies with Section
552.024 or 552.1175;
(7) a current or former employee of the office of the attorney general who is or was
assigned to a division of that office the duties of which involve law enforcement,
regardless of whether the current or former employee complies with Section
552.024 or 552.1175;
(8) a current or former employee of the Texas Juvenile Justice Department or of the
predecessors in function of the department, regardless of whether the current or
former employee complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175;

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(9) a current or former juvenile probation or supervision officer certified by the
Texas Juvenile Justice Department, or the predecessors in function of the
department, under Title 12, Human Resources Code, regardless of whether the
current or former officer complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175;
(10) a current or former employee of a juvenile justice program or facility, as those
terms are defined by Section 261.405, Family Code, regardless of whether the
current or former employee complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175; or666
(11) a current or former member of the Texas military forces, as that term is defined
by Section 437.001.667
(b)

All documents filed with a county clerk and all documents filed with a district clerk
are exempt from this section.

Generally, a governmental body may not invoke section 552.117 as a basis for withholding an
official’s or an employee’s home address and telephone number if another law, such as a state statute
expressly authorizing child support enforcement officials to obtain information to locate absent
parents, requires the release of such information.668 Because the subsections of section 552.117 deal
with different categories of officials and employees and differ in their application, they are discussed
separately below.
1. Subsection (a)(1): Public Officials and Employees
Section 552.117, subsection (a)(1) must be read together with section 552.024, which provides as
follows:
(a)

Except as provided by Subsection (a-1), each employee or official of a governmental
body and each former employee or official of a governmental body shall choose
whether to allow public access to the information in the custody of the governmental
body that relates to the person’s home address, home telephone number, emergency
contact information, or social security number, or that reveals whether the person has
family members.

(a-1) A school district may not require an employee or former employee of the district to
choose whether to allow public access to the employee’s or former employee’s social
security number.
(b)

Each employee and official and each former employee and official shall state that
person’s choice under Subsection (a) to the main personnel officer of the
governmental body in a signed writing not later than the 14th day after the date on
which:

666

Act of May 26, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 1311, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.117(a)).

667

Act of May 20, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2152, § 2 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.117(a)(11)).

668

See Open Records Decision No. 516 at 3 (1989).

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(1) the employee begins employment with the governmental body;
(2) the official is elected or appointed; or
(3) the former employee or official ends service with the governmental body.
(c)

If the employee or official or former employee or official chooses not to allow public
access to the information:
(1) the information is protected under Subchapter C; and
(2) the governmental body may redact the information from any information the
governmental body discloses under Section 552.021 without the necessity of
requesting a decision from the attorney general under Subchapter G.

(c-1) If, under Subsection (c)(2), a governmental body redacts or withholds information
without requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the
information may be redacted or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision
from the attorney general about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall
establish procedures and deadlines for receiving information necessary to decide the
matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body, and any other
interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was
excepted from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business
day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision under this
subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the matter and
provide a copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental body, and any
interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief to the attorney
general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district
court.
(c-2) A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c)(2)
shall provide the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the
attorney general:
(1) a description of the redacted or withheld information;
(2) a citation to this section; and
(3) instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney
general regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from
required disclosure.

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(d)

If an employee or official or a former employee or official fails to state the person’s
choice within the period established by this section, the information is subject to
public access.

(e)

An employee or official or former employee or official of a governmental body who
wishes to close or open public access to the information may request in writing that
the main personnel officer of the governmental body close or open access.

(f)

This section does not apply to a person to whom Section 552.1175 applies.

Subsection (a)(1) pertains to a current or former official or employee of a governmental body.
To obtain the protection of section 552.117(a), public employees and officials must comply with
section 552.024(c). If these individuals elect to withhold their home addresses, home telephone
numbers, emergency contact information, social security numbers, and information that reveals
whether they have family members, the governmental body may redact such information without the
necessity of requesting an attorney general decision. If a governmental body chooses to redact this
information without requesting an attorney general decision, it must notify the requestor as
prescribed section 552.024(c-2) on the form created by the attorney general. The notice must include
instructions regarding how the requestor may seek an attorney general’s review of the governmental
body’s redactions. The form for notifying the requestor is published on the attorney general’s
website. The legislation enacting these provisions authorized the attorney general to promulgate
rules establishing procedures for review under section 552.024(c-1). These rules were promulgated
in Subchapter B of chapter 63 of title 1 of the Texas Administrative Code.669 These rules are
available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four of this Handbook.
In conjunction with section 552.024(a-1), section 552.147 of the Government Code makes social
security numbers of school district employees confidential. Thus, the social security number of an
employee of a school district is confidential in the custody of the school district even if the employee
does not elect confidentiality under section 552.024.
Significant decisions of the attorney general regarding sections 552.024 and 552.117 prior to the
recent amendments include the following:
Open Records Decision No. 622 (1994) — statutory predecessor to section 552.117(a)(1) excepts
employees’ former home addresses and telephone numbers from required public disclosure;
Open Records Decision No. 530 (1989) — addressing the time at which an employee may
exercise the options under the statutory predecessor to section 552.024;
Open Records Decision No. 506 (1988) — these provisions do not apply to telephone numbers
of mobile telephones that are provided to employees by a governmental body for work purposes;
and

669

See 1 T.A.C. §§ 63.11–.16.

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Open Records Decision No. 455 (1987) — statutory predecessor to section 552.117(a)(1)
continued to except an employee’s home address and telephone number from required public
disclosure after the employment relationship ends; it did not except, as a general rule, applicants’
or other private citizens’ home addresses and telephone numbers.
In addition, the attorney general has determined in informal letter rulings that section 552.117 can
apply to personal cellular telephone numbers of government employees as well as telephone numbers
that provide access to personal home facsimile machines of government employees.670 The attorney
general has also determined that section 552.117 does not protect a post office box number.671
2. Subsections (a)(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), and (10): Other Categories of Officers and
Employees
As noted above, to obtain the protection of section 552.117, subsection (a)(1), public employees and
officials must comply with the provisions of section 552.024. No action is necessary, however, on
the part of the personnel listed in subsections (a)(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), and (10).
Additionally, while subsection (a)(1) does not protect the home addresses, telephone numbers,
emergency contact information, social security numbers, and family information of applicants for
public employment,672 subsection (a)(2) protects this information about peace officers who apply for
peace officer positions in their department.673
In Open Records Decision No. 670 (2001), the attorney general determined that all governmental
bodies may withhold the home address, home telephone number, personal cellular phone number,
personal pager number, social security number, and information that reveals whether the individual
has family members, of any individual who meets the definition of “peace officer” set forth in
article 2.12 of the Texas Code of Criminal Procedure or “security officer” in section 51.212 of the
Texas Education Code, without the necessity of requesting an attorney general decision as to whether
the exception under section 552.117(a)(2) applies. This decision may be relied on as a “previous
determination” for the listed information.
3. Subsection (a)(11): Members of the Texas Military Forces
The Eighty-fourth Legislature amended section 552.117(a) by adding subsection (11), which protects
the home addresses, home telephone numbers, emergency contact information, social security
numbers, and family member information of current or former members of the Texas military
forces.674 The Texas military forces are defined as the Texas National Guard, the Texas State Guard,
and any other military forces organized under state law.675 In the same bill that added subsection (11)

670

See, e.g., Open Records Letter Nos. 2002-1488 (2002), 2001-0050 (2001).

671

See Open Records Decision No. 622 at 6 (1994) (legislative history makes clear that purpose of section 552.117
is to protect public employees from being harassed at home) (citing House Comm. on State Affairs, Bill Analysis,
H.B. 1979, 69th Leg. (1985) (emphasis added)).

672

Open Records Decision No. 455 at 2 (1987).

673

See Open Records Decision No. 532 at 6 (1989).

674

Act of May 20, 2015, 84 th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2152, § 2 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.117(a)(11)).

675

Gov’t Code § 437.001(14).

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to section 552.117(a), the Eighty-fourth Legislature added section 437.232 to the Government Code,
which provides as follows:
(a) In this section, “military personnel information” means a service member’s name, home
address, rank, official title, pay rate or grade, state active duty orders, deployment
locations, military duty addresses, awards and decorations, length of military service, and
medical records.
(b) A service member’s military personnel information is confidential and not subject to
disclosure under Chapter 552.676

T. Section 552.1175: Confidentiality of Certain Personal Information of Peace
Officers, County Jailers, Security Officers, Employees of Certain Criminal
or Juvenile Justice Agencies or Offices, and Federal and State Judges.
Section 552.1175 provides as follows:
(a)

This section applies only to:
(1) peace officers as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal Procedure;
(2) county jailers as defined by Section 1701.001, Occupations Code;
(3) current or former employees of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or of
the predecessor in function of the department or any division of the department;
(4) commissioned security officers as defined by Section 1702.002, Occupations Code;
(5) employees of a district attorney, criminal district attorney, or county or municipal
attorney whose jurisdiction includes any criminal law or child protective services
matters;
(6) officers and employees of a community supervision and corrections department
established under Chapter 76 who perform a duty described by Section 76.004(b);
(7) criminal investigators of the United States as described by Article 2.122(a), Code
of Criminal Procedure;
(8) police officers and inspectors of the United States Federal Protective Service;
(9) current and former employees of the office of the attorney general who are or
were assigned to a division of that office the duties of which involve law
enforcement;

676

Act of May 20, 2015, 84 th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2152, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 437.232).

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(10) current or former juvenile probation and detention officers certified by the
Texas Juvenile Justice Department, or the predecessors in function of the
department, under Title 12, Human Resources Code;
(11) current or former employees of a juvenile justice program or facility, as those
terms are defined by Section 261.405, Family Code;
(12) current or former employees of the Texas Juvenile Justice Department or the
predecessors in function of the department; and
(13) federal judges and state judges as defined by Section 13.0021, Election Code.677
(b)

Information that relates to the home address, home telephone number, emergency
contact information, date of birth, or social security number of an individual to whom
this section applies, or that reveals whether the individual has family members is
confidential and may not be disclosed to the public under this chapter if the
individual to whom the information relates:
(1) chooses to restrict public access to the information; and
(2) notifies the governmental body of the individual’s choice on a form provided by
the governmental body, accompanied by evidence of the individual’s status.

677

(c)

A choice made under Subsection (b) remains valid until rescinded in writing by the
individual.

(d)

This section does not apply to information in the tax appraisal records of an appraisal
district to which Section 25.025, Tax Code, applies.

(e)

All documents filed with a county clerk and all documents filed with a district clerk
are exempt from this section.

(f)

A governmental body may redact information that must be withheld under
Subsection (b) from any information the governmental body discloses under
Section 552.021 without the necessity of requesting a decision from the attorney
general under Subchapter G.

(g)

If, under Subsection (f), a governmental body redacts or withholds information
without requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the
information may be redacted or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision
from the attorney general about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall
establish procedures and deadlines for receiving information necessary to decide the

Act of May 31, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1296, § 9.008 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code
§ 552.1175(a)); Act of May 26, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 1311, § 2 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t
Code § 552.1175(a)).

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matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body, and any other
interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was
excepted from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business
day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision under this
subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the matter and
provide a copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental body, and any
interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief to the attorney
general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district
court.
(h)

A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (f)
shall provide the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the
attorney general:
(1) a description of the redacted or withheld information;
(2) a citation to this section; and
(3) instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney
general regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from
required disclosure.

Section 552.1175 excepts from public disclosure a listed person’s home address, home telephone
number, emergency contact information, date of birth, social security number, and family member
information. The attorney general has stated in numerous informal letter rulings that the protection
of section 552.117 only applies to information a governmental body holds in its capacity as an
employer.678 On the other hand, section 552.1175 affords the listed persons the opportunity to
withhold personal information contained in records maintained by any governmental body in any
capacity.679 However, these individuals may not elect under section 552.1175 to withhold personal
information contained in records maintained by county and district clerks or tax appraisal records
of an appraisal district subject to section 25.025 of the Tax Code.680
In Open Records Decision No. 678 (2003), the attorney general determined that notification provided
to a governmental body under section 552.1175 “imparts confidentiality to information only in the
possession of the notified governmental body.”681 If the information is transferred to another
governmental body, the individual must provide a separate notification to the receiving governmental
body in order for the information in its hands to remain confidential.682

678

See, e.g., Open Records Letter Nos. 99-3302 (1999), 96-2452 (1996).

679

See, e.g., Open Records Letter No. 2002-6335 (2002).

680

Gov’t Code § 552.1175(d)–(e).

681

Open Records Decision No. 678 at 4 (2003).

682

Open Records Decision No. 678 at 4–5 (2003).

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Also, unlike the requirement under section 552.117(a)(1) that an election to keep information
confidential be made before a governmental body receives the request for information,683 an election
under section 552.1175 can be made after a governmental body’s receipt of the request for
information.
Subsection (f) allows a governmental body to redact without the necessity of requesting an attorney
general decision the home address, home telephone number, emergency contact information, date
of birth, social security number, and family member information of a person described in
section 552.1175(a). Subsection (h) states that if a governmental body redacts in accordance with
subsection (f), it must provide the requestor with certain information on the form prescribed by the
attorney general, including instructions regarding how the requestor may seek an attorney general
review of the governmental body’s redactions. The form for notifying the requestor is located on
the attorney general’s website. The legislation enacting these provisions authorized the attorney
general to promulgate rules establishing procedures for its review under section 552.1175(g). These
rules are available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four of this Handbook.684

U. Section 552.1176: Confidentiality of Certain Information Maintained by
State Bar
Section 552.1176 to the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information that relates to the home address, home telephone number, electronic mail
address, social security number, or date of birth of a person licensed to practice law
in this state that is maintained under Chapter 81 is confidential and may not be
disclosed to the public under this chapter if the person to whom the information
relates:
(1) chooses to restrict public access to the information; and
(2) notifies the State Bar of Texas of the person’s choice, in writing or electronically,
on a form provided by the state bar.

(b)

A choice made under Subsection (a) remains valid until rescinded in writing or
electronically by the person.

(c)

All documents filed with a county clerk and all documents filed with a district clerk
are exempt from this section.

The protections of section 552.1176 only apply to records maintained by the State Bar.685 There are
no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

683

Open Records Decision No. 530 at 5 (1989).

684

See 1 T.A.C. §§ 63.11–.16.

685

Open Records Letter No. 2009-13358 (2009).

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V. Section 552.118:
Information

Confidentiality of Official Prescription Program

Section 552.118 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure:
(1)

information on or derived from an official prescription form or electronic
prescription record filed with the Texas State Board of Pharmacy under
Section 481.075, Health and Safety Code; or686

(2)

other information collected under Section 481.075 of that code.

Under the Official Prescription Program, health practitioners who prescribe certain controlled
substances must record certain information about the prescription on the official form, including the
name, address, and date of birth or age of the person for whom the controlled substance is
prescribed.687 The dispensing pharmacist is required to complete the form and provide a copy to the
Texas State Board of Pharmacy.688 Section 481.076 of the Health and Safety Code provides that the
board may release this information only to certain parties, including state investigators charged with
investigating health professionals or a law enforcement or prosecutorial official charged with
investigating or enforcing laws governing illicit drugs.689 Under section 552.118, copies of the
prescription forms filed with the board, any information derived from the forms, and any other
information collected under section 481.075 of the Health and Safety Code, are excepted from public
disclosure.

W.

Section 552.119: Confidentiality of Certain Photographs of Peace
Officers

Section 552.119 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

A photograph that depicts a peace officer as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal
Procedure, the release of which would endanger the life or physical safety of the
officer, is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 unless:
(1) the officer is under indictment or charged with an offense by information;
(2) the officer is a party in a civil service hearing or a case in arbitration; or
(3) the photograph is introduced as evidence in a judicial proceeding.

686

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 195, § 1 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code § 552.118).

687

Health & Safety Code § 481.075(a), (e).

688

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 195, § 10 (to be codified as an amendment to Health & Safety
Code § 481.075(i)).

689

Act of M ay 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 195, § 12 (to be codified as an amendment to Health & Safety
Code § 481.076).

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(b)

A photograph excepted from disclosure under Subsection (a) may be made public
only if the peace officer gives written consent to the disclosure.

In Open Records Decision No. 502 (1988), the attorney general held that there need not be a
threshold determination that release of a photograph would endanger an officer before the statutory
predecessor to section 552.119(a) could be invoked.690 However, in 2003, the attorney general
re-evaluated its interpretation of this provision and determined that, in order to withhold a peace
officer’s or security officer’s photograph under section 552.119, a governmental body must
demonstrate that release of the photograph would endanger the life or physical safety of the officer.691
Under section 552.119, a photograph of a peace officer cannot be withheld if (1) the officer is under
indictment or charged with an offense by information; (2) the officer is a party in a civil service
hearing or a case in arbitration; (3) the photograph is introduced as evidence in a judicial proceeding;
or (4) the officer gives written consent to the disclosure. Furthermore, in Open Records Decision
No. 536 (1989), the attorney general concluded that the statutory predecessor to section 552.119 did
not apply to photographs of officers who are no longer living.692 This opinion reasoned that the
section was inapplicable after an officer’s death because its purpose was to protect peace officers
from life-threatening harassment and to ensure this protection would be effective by granting the
discretionary authority to release the photograph only to the subject of the photograph.693 Protecting
the photographs of deceased officers would not serve this purpose.694

X. Section 552.120: Confidentiality of Certain Rare Books and Original
Manuscripts
Section 552.120 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure:
A rare book or original manuscript that was not created or maintained in the conduct of
official business of a governmental body and that is held by a private or public archival
and manuscript repository for the purpose of historical research . . . .
The attorney general has not issued an open records decision on this provision. A similar provision
applicable to state institutions of higher education is found in the Education Code:
Rare books, original manuscripts, personal papers, unpublished letters, and audio and
video tapes held by an institution of higher education for the purposes of historical
research are confidential, and the institution may restrict access by the public to those
materials to protect the actual or potential value of the materials and the privacy of the
donors.695

690

Open Records Decision No. 502 at 4–6 (1988).

691

Open Records Letter Nos. 2003-8009 (2003), 2003-8002 (2003).

692

Open Records Decision No. 536 at 2 (1989).

693

Open Records Decision No. 536 at 2 (1989).

694

Open Records Decision No. 536 at 2 (1989).

695

Educ. Code § 51.910(b).

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Y. Section 552.121: Confidentiality of Certain Documents Held for
Historical Research
Section 552.121 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure:
An oral history interview, personal paper, unpublished letter, or organizational record of
a nongovernmental entity that was not created or maintained in the conduct of official
business of a governmental body and that is held by a private or public archival and
manuscript repository for the purpose of historical research . . . to the extent that the
archival and manuscript repository and the donor of the interview, paper, letter, or record
agree to limit disclosure of the item.
The attorney general has not issued an open records decision on this provision. The Education Code
sets out a similar provision applicable to institutions of higher education. It states as follows:
An oral interview that is obtained for historical purposes by an agreement of
confidentiality between an interviewee and a state institution of higher education is not
public information. The interview becomes public information when the conditions of the
agreement of confidentiality have been met.696
An attorney general opinion requested by a committee of the legislature that enacted section
51.910(a) states that the Public Information Act prevents an institution of higher education from
agreeing to keep oral history information confidential unless the institution has specific authority
under law to make such agreements.697

Z.

Section 552.122: Test Items

Section 552.122 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure:
(a)

A test item developed by an educational institution that is funded wholly or in part
by state revenue . . . [; and]

(b)

A test item developed by a licensing agency or governmental body . . . .

The attorney general considered the scope of the phrase “test items” in Open Records Decision
No. 626 (1994). That decision considered whether employee evaluations and records used for
determining promotions were “test items” under section 552.122(b). “Test item” was defined as
“any standard means by which an individual’s or group’s knowledge or ability in a particular area
is evaluated.”698 The opinion held that in this instance the evaluations of the applicant for promotion
and the answers to questions asked of the applicant by the promotion board in evaluating the

696

Educ. Code § 51.910(a).

697

Attorney General Opinion JM-37 at 2 (1983).

698

Open Records Decision No. 626 at 6 (1994).

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applicant were not “test items” and that such a determination under section 552.122 had to be made
on a case-by-case basis.699

AA.

Section 552.123: Confidentiality of Name of Applicant for Chief
Executive Officer of Institution of Higher Education

Section 552.123 of the Government Code excepts from required public disclosure:
The name of an applicant for the position of chief executive officer of an institution of
higher education, and other information that would tend to identify the applicant, . . . ,
except that the governing body of the institution must give public notice of the name or
names of the finalists being considered for the position at least 21 days before the date of
the meeting at which final action or vote is to be taken on the employment of the person.
Thus, section 552.123 expressly permits the withholding of any identifying information about
candidates, not just their names.700 Before the addition of the statutory predecessor to section
552.123, the names of all persons being considered for public positions were available under the
Public Information Act.701 The addition of this section changed the law only in respect to applicants
for the position of university president.702 The exception protects the identities of all applicants for
the position of university president, whether they apply on their own initiative or are nominated.703
Section 552.123 does not protect the names of finalists for the university president position.

BB.

Section 552.1235: Confidentiality of Identity of Private Donor to
Institution of Higher Education

Section 552.1235 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

The name or other information that would tend to disclose the identity of a person,
other than a governmental body, who makes a gift, grant, or donation of money or
property to an institution of higher education or to another person with the intent
that the money or property be transferred to an institution of higher education is
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.

(b)

Subsection (a) does not except from required disclosure other information relating
to gifts, grants, and donations described by Subsection (a), including the amount or
value of an individual gift, grant, or donation.

699

Open Records Decision No. 626 at 6–8 (1994).

700

Gov’t Code § 552.123; see also Open Records Decision No. 540 at 3–4 (1990) (construing statutory predecessor
to Gov’t Code § 552.123).

701

See Hubert v. Harte-Hanks Tex. Newspapers, Inc., 652 S.W.2d 546, 551 (Tex. App.— Austin 1983, writ ref’d n.r.e.);
Open Records Decision No. 439 at 2 (1986).

702

See Open Records Decision No. 585 (1991) (availability of names of applicants for position of city manager).

703

See Open Records Decision No. 540 at 5 (1990).

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(c)

In this section, “institution of higher education” has the meaning assigned by
Section 61.003, Education Code.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. However, in an informal letter
ruling, the attorney general interpreted the term “person,” as used in this exception, to include a
“corporation, organization, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate,
trust, partnership, association, and any other legal entity.”704

CC.

Section 552.124: Confidentiality of Records of Library or Library
System

Section 552.124 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

A record of a library or library system, supported in whole or in part by public
funds, that identifies or serves to identify a person who requested, obtained, or used
a library material or service is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021
unless the record is disclosed:
(1) because the library or library system determines that disclosure is reasonably
necessary for the operation of the library or library system and the record is not
confidential under other state or federal law;
(2) under Section 552.023; or
(3) to a law enforcement agency or a prosecutor under a court order or subpoena
obtained after a showing to a district court that:
(1) disclosure of the record is necessary to protect the public safety; or
(2) the record is evidence of an offense or constitutes evidence that a particular
person committed an offense.

(b)

A record of a library or library system that is excepted from required disclosure
under this section is confidential.

The legislative history suggests that the purpose of this section is to codify, clarify, and extend a
prior decision of the attorney general.705 This section protects the identity of the individual library
user while allowing law enforcement officials access to such information by court order or subpoena.
An individual has a special right of access under section 552.023 to library records that relate to that
individual. There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. However, in an
informal ruling, the attorney general interpreted section 552.124 to except from disclosure any

704

Open Records Letter No. 2003-8748 (2003) (citing to Gov’t Code § 311.005(2)).

705

See Senate Comm. on State Affairs, Bill Analysis, S.B. 360, 73rd Leg., R.S. (1993); Open Records Decision No.
100 (1975) (identity of library user in connection with library materials he or she has reviewed was protected from
public disclosure under statutory predecessor to Gov’t Code § 552.101).

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information that specifically identifies library patrons.706 In a separate letter ruling, the attorney
general determined that section 552.124 does not except from disclosure information identifying
library employees or other persons not requesting, obtaining, or using a library material or service.707
In another letter ruling, the attorney general concluded section 552.124 is designed to protect
individual privacy.708 Therefore, because the right to privacy lapses at death, identifying information
that pertains solely to a deceased person may not be withheld under section 552.124.709

DD.

Section 552.125: Certain Audits

Section 552.125 of the Government Code provides as follows:
Any documents or information privileged under the Texas Environmental, Health, and
Safety Audit Privilege Act are excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
Information considered privileged under the Texas Environmental, Health, and Safety Audit
Privilege Act includes audit reports.710 Section 4(a) of article 4447cc of the Revised Civil Statutes
describes an audit report as “a report that includes each document and communication . . . produced
from an environmental or health and safety audit.”711 An environmental or health and safety audit
is defined under section 3(a)(4) of article 4447cc as:
a systematic voluntary evaluation, review, or assessment of compliance with environmental
or health and safety laws or with any permit issued under an environmental or health and
safety law conducted by an owner or operator, an employee of the owner or operator, a
person, including an employee or independent contractor of the person, that is considering
the acquisition of a regulated facility or operation, or an independent contractor of:
(A) a . . . facility or operation [regulated under an environmental or health and safety
law]; or
(B) an activity at a . . . facility or operation [regulated under an environmental or health
and safety law].712
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting section 552.125.

706

Open Records Letter No. 99-1566 (1999).

707

Open Records Letter No. 2000-3201 (2000).

708

Open Records Letter No. 2014-13140 at 4 (2014).

709

Open Records Letter No. 2014-13140 at 4 (2014).

710

Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. art. 4447cc, § 5.

711

Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. art. 4447cc, § 4(a).

712

Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. art. 4447cc, § 3(a)(4).

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EE.

Section 552.126:
Confidentiality of Name of Applicant for
Superintendent of Public School District

Section 552.126 of the Government Code provides as follows:
The name of an applicant for the position of superintendent of a public school district is
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021, except that the board of trustees must
give public notice of the name or names of the finalists being considered for the position
at least 21 days before the date of the meeting at which a final action or vote is to be taken
on the employment of the person.
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. However, in an informal ruling,
the attorney general determined section 552.126 protects all identifying information about
superintendent applicants, not just their names.713 Section 552.126 does not protect the names of the
finalists for a superintendent position.

FF.

Section 552.127: Confidentiality of Personal Information Relating to
Participants in Neighborhood Crime Watch Organization

Section 552.127 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from [required public disclosure] if the information identifies
a person as a participant in a neighborhood crime watch organization and relates to
the name, home address, business address, home telephone number, or business
telephone number of the person.

(b)

In this section, “neighborhood crime watch organization” means a group of residents
of a neighborhood or part of a neighborhood that is formed in affiliation or
association with a law enforcement agency in this state to observe activities within the
neighborhood or part of a neighborhood and to take other actions intended to reduce
crime in that area.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. In an informal ruling, the attorney
general found section 552.127 excepts from disclosure the name, home address, business address,
home telephone number, or business telephone number of a participant in a neighborhood crime
watch program.714 However, the attorney general also found the name, address, or contact
information of an organization participating in the neighborhood crime watch program is not
protected under section 552.127 unless the information relates to or identifies an individual
participant’s name, home or business address, or home or business telephone number.715

713

Open Records Letter No. 99-2495 (1999).

714

Open Records Letter No. 99-2830 (1999).

715

Open Records Letter No. 99-2830 (1999).

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GG.

Section 552.128: Confidentiality of Certain Information Submitted by
Potential Vendor or Contractor

Section 552.128 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information submitted by a potential vendor or contractor to a governmental body
in connection with an application for certification as a historically underutilized or
disadvantaged business under a local, state, or federal certification program is
excepted from [required public disclosure], except as provided by this section.

(b)

Notwithstanding Section 552.007 and except as provided by Subsection (c), the
information may be disclosed only:
(1) to a state or local governmental entity in this state, and the state or local
governmental entity may use the information only:
(A) for purposes related to verifying an applicant’s status as a historically
underutilized or disadvantaged business; or
(B) for the purpose of conducting a study of a public purchasing program
established under state law for historically underutilized or disadvantaged
businesses; or
(2) with the express written permission of the applicant or the applicant’s agent.

(c)

Information submitted by a vendor or contractor or a potential vendor or contractor
to a governmental body in connection with a specific proposed contractual
relationship, a specific contract, or an application to be placed on a bidders list,
including information that may also have been submitted in connection with an
application for certification as a historically underutilized or disadvantaged business,
is subject to required disclosure, excepted from required disclosure, or confidential
in accordance with other law.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. However, in informal rulings, the
attorney general has determined that the exception does not apply to documents created by the
governmental body rather than submitted by the potential vendor or contractor.716 Additionally, the
exception may cover information submitted orally by an applicant.717 Subsection (c) of the exception
does not make confidential a potential contractor’s bid proposals, but states that bidding information
is subject to public disclosure unless made confidential by law.718

716

Open Records Letter Nos. 99-0565 (1999), 98-0782 (1998).

717

Open Records Letter Nos. 99-0979 (1999), 99-0922 (1999).

718

Open Records Letter No. 99-1511 (1999).

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HH.

Section 552.129: Confidentiality of Certain Motor Vehicle Inspection
Information

Section 552.129 of the Government Code provides as follows:
A record created during a motor vehicle emissions inspection under Subchapter F,
Chapter 548, Transportation Code, that relates to an individual vehicle or owner of an
individual vehicle is excepted from [required public disclosure].
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

II. Section 552.130: Confidentiality of Certain Motor Vehicle Records
Section 552.130 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from [required public disclosure] if the information relates
to:
(1) a motor vehicle operator’s or driver’s license or permit issued by an agency of this
state or another state or country;
(2) a motor vehicle title or registration issued by an agency of this state or another
state or country; or
(3) a personal identification document issued by an agency of this state or another
state or country or a local agency authorized to issue an identification document.

(b)

Information described by Subsection (a) may be released only if, and in the manner,
authorized by Chapter 730, Transportation Code.

(c)

Subject to Chapter 730, Transportation Code, a governmental body may redact
information described by Subsection (a) from any information the governmental
body discloses under Section 552.021 without the necessity of requesting a decision
from the attorney general under Subchapter G.

(d)

If, under Subsection (c), a governmental body redacts or withholds information
without requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the
information may be redacted or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision
from the attorney general about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall
establish procedures and deadlines for receiving information necessary to decide the
matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body, and any other
interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information
was excepted from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th
business day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision
under this subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the
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matter and provide a copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental body,
and any interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief to the
attorney general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may
appeal a decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County
district court.
(e)

A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c)
shall provide the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the
attorney general:
(1) a description of the redacted or withheld information;
(2) a citation to this section; and
(3) instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the
attorney general regarding whether the redacted or withheld information
is excepted from required disclosure.

Examples of information excepted from required public disclosure under section 552.130(a)(1)
include the license number, class, restrictions, and expiration date of a driver’s license issued by an
agency of the State of Texas.719 Examples of information excepted from disclosure under
section 552.130(a)(2) include a vehicle identification number and license plate number relating to
a title or registration issued by an agency of the State of Texas.720 Section 552.130 protects
information relating to a license, title, or registration issued by this state, a state other than Texas,
or another country. However, section 552.130 does not apply to motor vehicle record information
found in a CR-3 accident report form. Access to a CR-3 accident report is specifically governed by
section 550.065 of the Transportation Code, not section 552.130.721
Because, section 552.130 was enacted to protect privacy interests, an individual or his authorized
representative has a special right of access to his motor vehicle record information, and such
information may not be withheld from that individual under section 552.130.722 Furthermore,
information otherwise protected under section 552.130 may be released if the governmental body
is authorized to release the information under chapter 730 of the Transportation Code. Section
552.222(c) of the Government Code permits the officer for public information or the officer’s agent
to require the requestor to provide additional identifying information sufficient for the officer or the
officer’s agent to determine whether the requestor is eligible to receive the information under
chapter 730 of the Transportation Code. It should be noted that a deceased person’s interest under

719

See, e.g., Open Records Letter Nos. 2002-7018 (2002), 2001-3659 (2001).

720

See, e.g., Open Records Letter Nos. 2000-4847 (2000), 2000-1083 (2000).

721

See discussion of section 550.065 of the Transportation Code in Part Two, Section II, Subsection H of this
Handbook.

722

See Gov’t Code § 552.023; Open Records Decision Nos. 684 at 12-13 (2009), 481 at 4 (1987) (privacy theories not
implicated when individual requests information concerning himself).

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section 552.130 lapses upon the person’s death, but section 552.130 would protect the interest of a
living person who has a co-ownership in the vehicle.723
Section 552.130(c) provides that subject to chapter 730 of the Transportation Code, a governmental
body may redact without the necessity of requesting an attorney general decision information that
is subject to subsection (a) of section 552.130. If a governmental body chooses to redact this
information without requesting an attorney general decision, it must notify the requestor as
prescribed by section 552.130(e) on the form created by the attorney general. The notice must
include instructions regarding how the requestor may seek an attorney general’s review of the
governmental body’s redactions. The form for notifying the requestor is located on the attorney
general’s website. Pursuant to section 552.130(d), the attorney general promulgated rules
establishing procedures for review of a governmental body’s redactions.724 These rules are available
on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four of this Handbook.
If a governmental body lacks the technological capability to redact the motor vehicle record
information from a requested video, it must seek a ruling from the attorney general if it wishes to
withhold the information from disclosure.

JJ.

Section 552.131: Confidentiality of Certain Economic Development
Information

Section 552.131 of the Government Code reads as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if the information
relates to economic development negotiations involving a governmental body and a
business prospect that the governmental body seeks to have locate, stay, or expand
in or near the territory of the governmental body and the information relates to:
(1) a trade secret of the business prospect; or
(2) commercial or financial information for which it is demonstrated based on
specific factual evidence that disclosure would cause substantial competitive harm
to the person from whom the information was obtained.

(b)

Unless and until an agreement is made with the business prospect, information about
a financial or other incentive being offered to the business prospect by the
governmental body or by another person is excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021.

723

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 13 (2009); see generally Moore v. Charles B. Pierce Film Enters., Inc., 589
S.W .2d 489, 491 (Tex. Civ. App.— Texarkana 1979, writ ref’d n.r.e.); Justice v. Belo Broadcasting Corp., 472 F.
Supp. 145, 146-47 (N.D. Tex. 1979); Attorney General Opinions JM-229 at 3 (1984), H-917 at 2-3(1976); Open
Records Decision No. 272 at 1 (1981) (privacy rights lapse upon death).

724

See 1 T.A.C. §§ 63.11–.16.

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(c)

After an agreement is made with the business prospect, this section does not except
from the requirements of Section 552.021 information about a financial or other
incentive being offered to the business prospect:
(1) by the governmental body; or
(2) by another person, if the financial or other incentive may directly or indirectly
result in the expenditure of public funds by a governmental body or a reduction
in revenue received by a governmental body from any source.

Section 552.131(a) applies to the same two types of information excepted from disclosure under
section 552.110: (1) trade secrets; and (2) commercial or financial information for which it is
demonstrated based on specific factual evidence that disclosure would cause substantial competitive
harm to the person from whom the information was obtained. However, unlike section 552.110,
section 552.131(a) applies only to information that relates to economic development negotiations
between a governmental body and a business prospect. Section 552.131(b) excepts from public
disclosure any information relating to a financial or other incentive that a governmental body or
another person offers to a business prospect that seeks to have locate, stay, or expand in or near the
territory of the governmental body. After the governmental body reaches an agreement with the
business prospect, information about a financial or other incentive offered the business prospect is
no longer excepted under section 552.131. There are no formal cases or opinions interpreting this
exception.
When a governmental body believes requested information of a third party may be excepted
under this exception, the governmental body must notify the third party in accordance with
section 552.305. The notice the governmental body must send to the third party is found in Part Nine
of this Handbook.

KK.

Section 552.132:
Information

Confidentiality of Crime Victim or Claimant

Section 552.132 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Except as provided by Subsection (d), in this section, “crime victim or claimant”
means a victim or claimant under Subchapter B, Chapter 56, Code of Criminal
Procedure, who has filed an application for compensation under that subchapter.

(b)

The following information held by the crime victim’s compensation division of the
attorney general’s office is confidential:
(1) the name, social security number, address, or telephone number of a crime victim
or claimant; or
(2) any other information the disclosure of which would identify or tend to identify
the crime victim or claimant.

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(c)

If the crime victim or claimant is awarded compensation under Section 56.34, Code
of Criminal Procedure, as of the date of the award of compensation, the name of the
crime victim or claimant and the amount of compensation awarded to that crime
victim or claimant are public information and are not excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021.

(d)

An employee of a governmental body who is also a victim under Subchapter B,
Chapter 56, Code of Criminal Procedure, regardless of whether the employee has
filed an application for compensation under that subchapter, may elect whether to
allow public access to information held by the attorney general’s office or other
governmental body that would identify or tend to identify the victim, including a
photograph or other visual representation of the victim. An election under this
subsection must be made in writing on a form developed by the governmental body,
be signed by the employee, and be filed with the governmental body before the third
anniversary of the latest to occur of one of the following:
(1) the date the crime was committed;
(2) the date employment begins; or
(3) the date the governmental body develops the form and provides it to
employees.

(e)

If the employee fails to make an election under Subsection (d), the identifying
information is excepted from disclosure until the third anniversary of the date the
crime was committed. In case of disability, impairment, or other incapacity of the
employee, the election may be made by the guardian of the employee or former
employee.

Section 552.132 makes both the victim’s and claimant’s identifying information confidential without
either party having to submit an election for non-disclosure to the Crime Victims’ Compensation
Division of the Office of the Attorney General. The attorney general has found that crime victims
have a special right of access to their own information under section 552.023 of the Government
Code.725 There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

LL.

Section 552.1325:
Crime Victim Impact Statement: Certain
Information Confidential

Section 552.1325 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

In this section:
(1) “Crime victim” means a person who is a victim as defined by Article 56.32, Code
of Criminal Procedure.

725

Open Records Letter No. 2001-0821 (2001).

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(2) “Victim impact statement” means a victim impact statement under Article 56.03,
Code of Criminal Procedure.
(b)

The following information that is held by a governmental body or filed with a court
and that is contained in a victim impact statement or was submitted for purposes of
preparing a victim impact statement is confidential:
(1) the name, social security number, address, and telephone number of a crime
victim; and
(2) any other information the disclosure of which would identify or tend to identify
the crime victim.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

MM.

Section 552.133:
Confidentiality of Public Power Utility
Competitive Matters

Section 552.133 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

In this section, “public power utility” means an entity providing electric or gas utility
services that is subject to the provisions of this chapter.

(a-1) For purposes of this section, “competitive matter” means a utility-related matter that is
related to the public power utility’s competitive activity, including commercial
information, and would, if disclosed, give advantage to competitors or prospective
competitors. The term:
(1)

means a matter that is reasonably related to the following categories of information:

(A)

generation unit specific and portfolio fixed and variable costs, including forecasts
of those costs, capital improvement plans for generation units, and generation
unit operating characteristics and outage scheduling;

(B)

bidding and pricing information for purchased power, generation and fuel, and
Electric Reliability Council of Texas bids, prices, offers, and related services and
strategies;

(C)

effective fuel and purchased power agreements and fuel transportation
arrangements and contracts;

(D)

risk management information, contracts, and strategies, including fuel hedging
and storage;

(E)

plans, studies, proposals, and analyses for system improvements, additions, or
sales, other than transmission and distribution system improvements inside the
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service area for which the public power utility is the sole certificated retail
provider; and
(F)

(2)

customer billing, contract, and usage information, electric power pricing
information, system load characteristics, and electric power marketing analyses
and strategies; and
does not include the following categories of information:

(A)

information relating to the provision of distribution access service, including the
terms and conditions of the service and the rates charged for the service but not
including information concerning utility-related services or products that are
competitive;

(B)

information relating to the provision of transmission service that is required to be
filed with the Public Utility Commission of Texas, subject to any confidentiality
provided for under the rules of the commission;

(C)

information for the distribution system pertaining to reliability and continuity of
service, to the extent not security-sensitive, that relates to emergency management,
identification of critical loads such as hospitals and police, records of interruption,
and distribution feeder standards;

(D)

any substantive rule or tariff of general applicability regarding rates, service
offerings, service regulation, customer protections, or customer service adopted by
the public power utility as authorized by law;

(E)

aggregate information reflecting receipts or expenditures of funds of the public
power utility, of the type that would be included in audited financial statements;

(F)

information relating to equal employment opportunities for minority groups, as
filed with local, state, or federal agencies;

(G)

information relating to the public power utility’s performance in contracting with
minority business entities;

(H)

information relating to nuclear decommissioning trust agreements, of the type
required to be included in audited financial statements;

(I)

information relating to the amount and timing of any transfer to an owning city’s
general fund;

(J)

information relating to environmental compliance as required to be filed with any
local, state, or national environmental authority, subject to any confidentiality
provided under the rules of those authorities;

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(K)

names of public officers of the public power utility and the voting records of those
officers for all matters other than those within the scope of a competitive resolution
provided for by this section;

(L)

a description of the public power utility’s central and field organization, including
the established places at which the public may obtain information, submit
information and requests, or obtain decisions and the identification of employees
from whom the public may obtain information, submit information or requests,
or obtain decisions;

(M)

information identifying the general course and method by which the public power
utility’s functions are channeled and determined, including the nature and
requirements of all formal and informal policies and procedures;

(N)

salaries and total compensation of all employees of a public power utility; or

(O)

information publicly released by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas in
accordance with a law, rule, or protocol generally applicable to similarly situated
market participants.

(b)

Information or records are excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if the
information or records are reasonably related to a competitive matter, as defined in this
section. Information or records of a municipally owned utility that are reasonably
related to a competitive matter are not subject to disclosure under this chapter, whether
or not, under the Utilities Code, the municipally owned utility has adopted customer
choice or serves in a multiply certificated service area. This section does not limit the
right of a public power utility governing body to withhold from disclosure information
deemed to be within the scope of any other exception provided for in this chapter, subject
to the provisions of this chapter.

(c)

The requirement of Section 552.022 that a category of information listed under Section
552.022(a) is public information and not excepted from required disclosure under this
chapter unless expressly confidential under law does not apply to information that is
excepted from required disclosure under this section.

Section 552.133 excepts from disclosure a public power utility’s information related to a competitive
matter. The exception defines “competitive matter” as a utility-related matter that is related to the
public power utility’s competitive activity. In order to be “utility-related,” the matter must relate to
the six enumerated categories of information. Section 552.133 lists fifteen categories of information
that may not be deemed competitive matters. In Open Records Decision No. 666 (2000), the
attorney general determined that a municipality may disclose information pertaining to a
municipally-owned power utility to a municipally-appointed citizen advisory board without waiving
its right thereafter to assert an exception under the Act in response to a future public request for
information.726

726

Open Records Decision No. 666 at 4 (2000).

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NN.

Section 552.134: Confidentiality of Certain Information Relating to
Inmate of Department of Criminal Justice

Section 552.134 of the Government Code reads as follows:
(a)

Except as provided by Subsection (b) or by Section 552.029, information obtained or
maintained by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice is excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information about an inmate who is confined
in a facility operated by or under a contract with the department.

(b)

Subsection (a) does not apply to:
(1) statistical or other aggregated information relating to inmates confined in one or
more facilities operated by or under a contract with the department; or
(2) information about an inmate sentenced to death.

(c)

This section does not affect whether information is considered confidential or
privileged under Section 508.313.

(d)

A release of information described by Subsection (a) to an eligible entity, as defined
by Section 508.313(d), for a purpose related to law enforcement, prosecution,
corrections, clemency, or treatment is not considered a release of information to the
public for purposes of Section 552.007 and does not waive the right to assert in the
future that the information is excepted from required disclosure under this section
or other law.

This section should be read with two other provisions concerning the required public disclosure of
Texas Department of Criminal Justice information, sections 552.029 and 508.313 of the Government
Code. Section 508.313 of the Government Code generally makes confidential all information the
Texas Department of Criminal Justice obtains and maintains about certain classes of inmates,
including an inmate of the institutional division subject to release on parole, release to mandatory
supervision, or executive clemency. Section 508.313 also applies to information about a releasee
and a person directly identified in any proposed plan of release for an inmate. Section 508.313
requires the release of the information it covers to the governor, a member of the Board of Pardons
and Paroles, the Criminal Justice Policy Council, or an eligible entity requesting information for a
law enforcement, prosecutorial, correctional, clemency, or treatment purpose.727 Thus, both
sections 552.134 and 508.313 make certain information confidential.
On the other hand, section 552.029 of the Government Code provides that certain specified
information cannot be withheld under sections 552.134 and 508.313.

727

Gov’t Code § 508.313(c).

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Section 552.029 of the Government Code reads as follows:
Notwithstanding Section 508.313 or 552.134, the following information about an inmate who
is confined in a facility operated by or under a contract with the Texas Department of
Criminal Justice is subject to required disclosure under Section 552.021:
(1)

the inmate’s name, identification number, age, birthplace, department photograph,
physical description, or general state of health or the nature of an injury to or critical
illness suffered by the inmate;

(2)

the inmate’s assigned unit or the date on which the unit received the inmate, unless
disclosure of the information would violate federal law relating to the confidentiality
of substance abuse treatment;

(3)

the offense for which the inmate was convicted or the judgment and sentence for that
offense;

(4)

the county and court in which the inmate was convicted;

(5)

the inmate’s earliest or latest possible release dates;

(6)

the inmate’s parole date or earliest possible parole date;

(7)

any prior confinement of the inmate by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or
its predecessor; or

(8)

basic information regarding the death of an inmate in custody, an incident involving
the use of force, or an alleged crime involving the inmate.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice has the discretion to release information otherwise
protected under section 552.134 to voter registrars for the purpose of maintaining accurate voter
registration lists.728

OO.

Section 552.135: Confidentiality of Certain Information Held by
School District

Section 552.135 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

728

“Informer” means a student or a former student or an employee or former employee
of a school district who has furnished a report of another person’s possible violation
of criminal, civil, or regulatory law to the school district or the proper regulatory
enforcement authority.

Open Records Decision No. 667 at 4 (2000).

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(b)

An informer’s name or information that would substantially reveal the identity of an
informer is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.

(c)

Subsection (b) does not apply:
(1) if the informer is a student or former student, and the student or former student,
or the legal guardian, or spouse of the student or former student consents to
disclosure of the student’s or former student’s name; or
(2) if the informer is an employee or former employee who consents to disclosure of
the employee’s or former employee’s name; or
(3) if the informer planned, initiated, or participated in the possible violation.

(d)

Information excepted under Subsection (b) may be made available to a law
enforcement agency or prosecutor for official purposes of the agency or prosecutor
upon proper request made in compliance with applicable law and procedure.

(e)

This section does not infringe on or impair the confidentiality of information
considered to be confidential by law, whether it be constitutional, statutory, or by
judicial decision, including information excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021.

A school district that seeks to withhold information under this exception must clearly identify to the
attorney general’s office the specific civil, criminal, or regulatory law that is alleged to have been
violated. The school district must also identify the individual who reported the alleged violation of
the law. There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

PP.

Section 552.136: Confidentiality of Credit Card, Debit Card, Charge
Card, and Access Device Numbers

Section 552.136 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

In this section, “access device” means a card, plate, code, account number, personal
identification number, electronic serial number, mobile identification number, or
other telecommunications service, equipment, or instrument identifier or means of
account access that alone or in conjunction with another access device may be used
to:
(1) obtain money, goods, services, or another thing of value; or
(2) initiate a transfer of funds other than a transfer originated solely by paper
instrument.

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(b)

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a credit card, debit card, charge
card, or access device number that is collected, assembled, or maintained by or for
a governmental body is confidential.

(c)

A governmental body may redact information that must be withheld under
Subsection (b) from any information the governmental body discloses under
Section 552.021 without the necessity of requesting a decision from the attorney
general under Subchapter G.

(d)

If, under Subsection (c), a governmental body redacts or withholds information
without requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the
information may be redacted or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision
from the attorney general about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall
establish procedures and deadlines for receiving information necessary to decide the
matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body, and any other
interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was
excepted from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business
day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision under this
subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the matter and
provide a copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental body, and any
interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief to the attorney
general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district
court.

(e)

A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c)
shall provide the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the
attorney general:
(1) a description of the redacted or withheld information;
(2) a citation to this section; and
(3) instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney
general regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from
required disclosure.

A governmental body that raises section 552.136 must demonstrate how the “access device number”
it seeks to withhold is used alone or in combination to obtain money, goods, services, or another
thing of value or initiate a transfer of funds. The attorney general has interpreted this exception to
include bank account and routing numbers, full and partial credit card numbers and their expiration
dates, and insurance policy numbers.729 Because section 552.136 protects privacy interests, a

729

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 9 (2009).

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Exceptions to Disclosure

governmental body may not invoke this exception to withhold an access device from the person to
whom the device belongs or that person’s authorized representative.730
Pursuant to section 552.136(c), a governmental body may redact without the necessity of requesting
an attorney general decision information that is subject to section 552.136. If a governmental body
chooses to redact this information without requesting an attorney general decision, it must notify the
requestor as prescribed by section 552.136(e) on the form created by the attorney general. The notice
must include instructions regarding how the requestor may seek an attorney general’s review of the
governmental body’s redactions. The form for notifying the requestor is located on the attorney
general’s website. The legislation enacting this provision authorized the attorney general to
promulgate rules establishing procedures for review under section 552.136(d). These rules were
promulgated in subchapter B of chapter 63 of title 1 of the Texas Administrative Code.731 These
rules are available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four of this Handbook.

QQ.

Section 552.137: Confidentiality of Certain E-mail Addresses

Section 552.137 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

Except as otherwise provided by this section, an e-mail address of a member of the
public that is provided for the purpose of communicating electronically with a
governmental body is confidential and not subject to disclosure under this chapter.

(b)

Confidential information described by this section that relates to a member of the
public may be disclosed if the member of the public affirmatively consents to its
release.

(c)

Subsection (a) does not apply to an e-mail address:
(1) provided to a governmental body by a person who has a contractual relationship
with the governmental body or by the contractor’s agent;
(2) provided to a governmental body by a vendor who seeks to contract with the
governmental body or by the vendor’s agent;
(3) contained in a response to a request for bids or proposals, contained in a response
to similar invitations soliciting offers or information relating to a potential
contract, or provided to a governmental body in the course of negotiating the
terms of a contract or potential contract;
(4) provided to a governmental body on a letterhead, cover sheet, printed document,
or other document made available to the public; or

730

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 12 (2009); see Gov’t Code § 552.023.

731

See 1 T.A.C. §§ 63.11–.16

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(5) provided to a governmental body for the purpose of providing public comment
on or receiving notices related to an application for a license as defined by
Section 2001.003(2) of this code, or receiving orders or decisions from a
governmental body.
(d)

Subsection (a) does not prevent a governmental body from disclosing an e-mail
address for any reason to another governmental body or to a federal agency.

In addition to the exceptions found in amended section 552.137(c), the attorney general has
determined that section 552.137 does not protect a government employee’s work e-mail address or
an institutional e-mail address or website address.732 Because a person may consent to the disclosure
of his or her e-mail address under the statute, the person has a right to his or her own e-mail
address.733 The attorney general issued Open Records Decision No. 684 (2009), a previous
determination to all governmental bodies authorizing them to withhold an e-mail address of a
member of the public without the necessity of requesting an attorney general decision.734

RR.

Section 552.138: Confidentiality of Family Violence Shelter Center,
Victims of Trafficking Shelter Center, and Sexual Assault Program
Information

Section 552.138 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

In this section:
(1) “Family violence shelter center” has the meaning assigned by Section 51.002,
Human Resources Code.
(2) “Sexual assault program” has the meaning assigned by Section 420.003.
(3) “Victims of trafficking shelter center” means:
(A) a program that:
(i)

is operated by a public or private nonprofit organization; and

(ii)

provides comprehensive residential and nonresidential services to
persons who are victims of trafficking under Section 20A.02, Penal
Code; or

732

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 10 (2009).

733

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 10 (2009).

734

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 10 (2009).

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(B) a child-placing agency, as defined by Section 42.002, Human Resources Code,
that provides services to persons who are victims of trafficking under
Section 20A.02, Penal Code.
(b)

Information maintained by a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking
shelter center, or sexual assault program is excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021 if it is information that relates to:
(1) the home address, home telephone number, or social security number of an
employee or a volunteer worker of a family violence shelter center, victims of
trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault program, regardless of whether the
employee or worker complies with Section 552.024;
(2) the location or physical layout of a family violence shelter center or victims of
trafficking shelter center;
(3) the name, home address, home telephone number, or numeric identifier of a
current or former client of a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking
shelter center, or sexual assault program;
(4) the provision of services, including counseling and sheltering, to a current or
former client of a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter
center, or sexual assault program;
(5) the name, home address, or home telephone number of a private donor to a family
violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault
program; or
(6) the home address or home telephone number of a member of the board of
directors or the board of trustees of a family violence shelter center, victims of
trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault program, regardless of whether the
board member complies with Section 552.024.

(c)

A governmental body may redact information maintained by a family violence shelter
center, victims of trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault program that may be
withheld under Subsection (b)(1) or (6) from any information the governmental body
discloses under Section 552.021 without the necessity of requesting a decision from
the attorney general under Subchapter G.

(d)

If, under Subsection (c), a governmental body redacts or withholds information
without requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the
information may be redacted or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision
from the attorney general about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall
establish procedures and deadlines for receiving information necessary to decide the
matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body, and any other
interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was
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excepted from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business
day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision under this
subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the matter and
provide a copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental body, and any
interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief to the attorney
general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district
court.
(e)

A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c)
shall provide the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the
attorney general:
(1) a description of the redacted or withheld information;
(2) a citation to this section; and
(3) instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney
general regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from
required disclosure.

Thus, section 552.138 allows a governmental body to redact the following information maintained
by a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault program
without the necessity of requesting an attorney general decision: the home address, home telephone
number, or social security number of an employee or volunteer worker. Section 552.138 also allows
the redaction of the home address or telephone number of a member of the board of directors or the
board of trustees without the necessity of requesting an attorney general decision. If a governmental
body chooses to redact this information without requesting an attorney general decision, it must
notify the requestor as prescribed section 552.138(e) on the form created by the attorney general.
The notice must include instructions regarding how the requestor may seek an attorney general’s
review of the governmental body’s redactions. The form for notifying the requestor is published on
the attorney general’s website. The legislation enacting these provisions authorized the attorney
general to promulgate rules establishing procedures for review under section 552.138(d). These rules
are available on the attorney general’s website and in Part Four of this Handbook.735

SS.

Section 552.139: Confidentiality of Government Information Related
to Security or Infrastructure Issues for Computers

Section 552.139 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

735

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information
that relates to computer network security, to restricted information under Section
2059.055, or to the design, operation, or defense of a computer network.

See 1 T.A.C. §§ 63.11–.16.

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(b)

The following information is confidential:
(1) a computer network vulnerability report;
(2) any other assessment of the extent to which data processing operations, a
computer, a computer program, network, system, or system interface, or software
of a governmental body or of a contractor of a governmental body is vulnerable
to unauthorized access or harm, including an assessment of the extent to which
the governmental body’s or contractor’s electronically stored information
containing sensitive or critical information is vulnerable to alteration, damage,
erasure, or inappropriate use; and
(3) a photocopy or other copy of an identification badge issued to an official or
employee of a governmental body.

(c)

Notwithstanding the confidential nature of the information described in this section,
the information may be disclosed to a bidder if the governmental body determines
that providing the information is necessary for the bidder to provide an accurate bid.
A disclosure under this subsection is not a voluntary disclosure for purposes of
Section 552.007.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

TT.

Section 552.140: Confidentiality of Military Discharge Records

Section 552.140 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

This section applies only to a military veteran’s Department of Defense Form DD-214
or other military discharge record that is first recorded with or that otherwise first
comes into the possession of a governmental body on or after September 1, 2003.

(b)

The record is confidential for the 75 years following the date it is recorded with or
otherwise first comes into the possession of a governmental body. During that period
the governmental body may permit inspection or copying of the record or disclose
information contained in the record only in accordance with this section or in
accordance with a court order.

(c)

On request and the presentation of proper identification, the following persons may
inspect the military discharge record or obtain from the governmental body free of
charge a copy or certified copy of the record:
(1) the veteran who is the subject of the record;
(2) the legal guardian of the veteran;

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(3) the spouse or a child or parent of the veteran or, if there is no living spouse, child,
or parent, the nearest living relative of the veteran;
(4) the personal representative of the estate of the veteran;
(5) the person named by the veteran, or by a person described by Subdivision (2), (3),
or (4), in an appropriate power of attorney executed in accordance with
Section 490, Chapter XII, Texas Probate Code;
(6) another governmental body; or
(7) an authorized representative of the funeral home that assists with the burial of the
veteran.
(d)

A court that orders the release of information under this section shall limit the
further disclosure of the information and the purposes for which the information may
be used.

(e)

A governmental body that obtains information from the record shall limit the
governmental body’s use and disclosure of the information to the purpose for which
the information was obtained.

In Open Records Decision No. 684 (2009), the attorney general issued a previous determination to
all governmental bodies authorizing them to withhold, a Form DD-214 or other military discharge
record that is first recorded with or that otherwise first comes into the possession of the
governmental body on or after September 1, 2003, under section 552.140 of the Government Code,
without the necessity of requesting an attorney general decision.736

UU.

Section 552.141: Confidentiality of Information in Application for
Marriage License

Section 552.141 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

736

Information that relates to the social security number of an individual that is
maintained by a county clerk and that is on an application for a marriage license,
including information in an application on behalf of an absent applicant and the
affidavit of an absent applicant, or is on a document submitted with an application
for a marriage license is confidential and may not be disclosed by the county clerk to
the public under this chapter.

Open Records Decision No. 684 at 11 (2009).

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(b)

If the county clerk receives a request to make information in a marriage license
application available under this chapter, the county clerk shall redact the portion of
the application that contains an individual’s social security number and release the
remainder of the information in the application.

This exception applies only to an application for a marriage license that is filed on or after
September 1, 2003.737 There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

VV.

Section 552.142: Confidentiality of Records Subject to Order of
Nondisclosure738, 739

The Eighty-fourth Legislature passed two bills, Senate Bill 1902 and House Bill 2286, that amend
Section 552.142 of the Government Code to provide as follows:
(a)

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if an order of
nondisclosure of criminal history record information with respect to the information
has been issued under Subchapter E-1, Chapter 411.740, 741

(b)

A person who is the subject of information that is excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021 under this section may deny the occurrence of the criminal
proceeding to which the information relates and the exception of the information
under this section, unless the information is being used against the person in a
subsequent criminal proceeding.742

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

737

See Act of May 21, 2003, 78th Leg., R.S., ch. 804, § 2, 2003 Tex. Gen. Laws 2356.

738

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1902, § 26 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code 552.142).

739

Footnote intentionally omitted.

740

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1902, § 27 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code 552.142(a)).

741

Footnote intentionally omitted.

742

Act of June 1, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 2286, § 2.02 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code 552.142(b)).

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WW.

Section 552.1425: Civil Penalty: Dissemination of Certain Criminal
History Information

The Eighty-fourth Legislature amended Section 552.1425 of the Government Code to provide as
follows:
(a)

A private entity that compiles and disseminates for compensation criminal history
record information may not compile or disseminate information with respect to which
the entity has received notice that:
(1) an order of expunction has been issued under Article 55.02, Code of Criminal
Procedure; or
(2) an order of nondisclosure of criminal history record information has been issued
under Subchapter E-1, Chapter 411.743, 744

(b)

A district court may issue a warning to a private entity for a first violation of
Subsection (a). After receiving a warning for the first violation, the private entity is
liable to the state for a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each subsequent
violation.

(c)

The attorney general or an appropriate prosecuting attorney may sue to collect a civil
penalty under this section.

(d)

A civil penalty collected under this section shall be deposited in the state treasury to
the credit of the general revenue fund.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this section.

XX. Section 552.143: Confidentiality of Certain Investment Information
Section 552.143 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

All information prepared or provided by a private investment fund and held by a
governmental body that is not listed in Section 552.0225(b) is confidential and
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.

743

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 1902, § 28 (to be codified as an amendment to Gov’t Code 552.1425(a)).

744

Footnote intentionally omitted.

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(b)

Unless the information has been publicly released, pre-investment and postinvestment diligence information, including reviews and analyses, prepared or
maintained by a governmental body or a private investment fund is confidential and
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021, except to the extent it is subject
to disclosure under Subsection (c).

(c)

All information regarding a governmental body’s direct purchase, holding, or
disposal of restricted securities that is not listed in Section 552.0225(b)(2)–(9), (11),
or (13)–(16) is confidential and excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
This subsection does not apply to a governmental body’s purchase, holding, or
disposal of restricted securities for the purpose of reinvestment nor does it apply to
a private investment fund’s investment in restricted securities. This subsection
applies to information regarding a direct purchase, holding, or disposal of restricted
securities by the Texas growth fund, created under Section 70, Article XVI, Texas
Constitution, that is not listed in Section 552.0225(b).

(d)

For the purposes of this chapter:
(1) “Private investment fund” means an entity, other than a governmental body, that
issues restricted securities to a governmental body to evidence the investment of
public funds for the purpose of reinvestment.
(2) “Reinvestment” means investment in a person that makes or will make other
investments.
(3) “Restricted securities” has the meaning assigned by 17 C.F.R. Section
230.144(a)(3).

(e)

Repealed by Acts 2011, 82nd Leg., 1st C.S., ch. 4 (S.B. 1), § 17.05(1)

(f)

This section does not apply to the Texas Mutual Insurance Company or a successor
to the company.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. Section 552.0225 makes public
certain investment information. The attorney general has determined in an informal letter ruling that
section 552.143 is subject to the public disclosure requirements of section 552.0225.745

745

Open Records Letter No. 2005-6095 (2005).

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YY. Section 552.144: Working Papers and Electronic Communications of
Administrative Law Judges at State Office of Administrative Hearings
Section 552.144 of the Government Code provides as follows:
The following working papers and electronic communications of an administrative law
judge at the State Office of Administrative Hearings are excepted from the requirements
of Section 552.021:
(1) notes and electronic communications recording the observations, thoughts, questions,
deliberations, or impressions of an administrative law judge;
(2) drafts of a proposal for decision;
(3) drafts of orders made in connection with conducting contested case hearings; and
(4) drafts of orders made in connection with conducting alternative dispute resolution
procedures.
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

ZZ.

Section 552.145: Confidentiality of Texas No-Call List

Section 552.145 of the Government Code provides as follows:
The Texas no-call list created under Subchapter B, Chapter 304, Business & Commerce
Code, and any information provided to or received from the administrator of the national
do-not-call registry maintained by the United States government, as provided by
Sections 304.051 and 304.56, Business & Commerce Code, are excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021.
Section 552.145 applies specifically to the no-call list and information provided to or removed from
the administrator of the do-not-call registry.746
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

AAA. Section 552.146: Certain Communications with Assistant or Employee
of Legislative Budget Board
Section 552.146 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

746

All written or otherwise recorded communications, including conversations,
correspondence, and electronic communications, between a member of the legislature

See, e.g., Open Records Letter Nos. 2009-10649 (2009), 2009-07316 (2009).

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or the lieutenant governor and an assistant or employee of the Legislative Budget
Board are excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(b)

Memoranda of a communication between a member of the legislature or the
lieutenant governor and an assistant or employee of the Legislative Budget Board are
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 without regard to the method used
to store or maintain the memoranda.

(c)

This section does not except from required disclosure a record or memoranda of a
communication that occurs in public during an open meeting or public hearing
conducted by the Legislative Budget Board.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

BBB. Section 552.147: Social Security Numbers
Section 552.147 of the Government Code was amended by the Eighty-third Legislature and provides
as follows:
(a)

Except as provided by Subsection (a-1), the social security number of a living person
is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021, but is not confidential under
this section and this section does not make the social security number of a living
person confidential under another provision of this chapter or other law.

(a-1) The social security number of an employee of a school district in the custody of the
district is confidential.
(b)

A governmental body may redact the social security number of a living person from
any information the governmental body discloses under Section 552.021 without the
necessity of requesting a decision from the attorney general under Subchapter G.

(c)

Notwithstanding any other law, a county or district clerk may disclose in the ordinary
course of business a social security number that is contained in information held by
the clerk’s office, and that disclosure is not official misconduct and does not subject
the clerk to civil or criminal liability of any kind under the law of this state, including
any claim for damages in a lawsuit or the criminal penalty imposed by Section
552.352.

(d)

Unless another law requires a social security number to be maintained in a
government document, on written request from an individual or the individual’s
representative the clerk shall redact within a reasonable amount of time all but the
last four digits of the individual’s social security number from information
maintained in the clerk’s official public records, including electronically stored
information maintained by or under the control of the clerk. The individual or the
individual’s representative must identify, using a form provided by the clerk, the

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specific document or documents from which the partial social security number shall
be redacted.
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. However, the attorney general has
determined in an informal letter ruling that Section 552.147(a-1) makes confidential the social
security numbers of both current and former school district employees.747

CCC. Section 552.148: Confidentiality of Certain Personal Information
Maintained by Municipality Pertaining to a Minor
Section 552.148 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

In this section, “minor” means a person younger than 18 years of age.

(b)

The following information maintained by a municipality for purposes related to the
participation by a minor in a recreational program or activity is excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021:
(1) the name, age, home address, home telephone number, or social security number
of the minor;
(2) a photograph of the minor; and
(3) the name of the minor’s parent or legal guardian.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

DDD. Section 552.149: Confidentiality of Records of Comptroller or
Appraisal District Received from Private Entity
Section 552.149 of the Government Code provides as follows:

747

(a)

Information relating to real property sales prices, descriptions, characteristics, and
other related information received from a private entity by the comptroller or the
chief appraiser of an appraisal district under Chapter 6, Tax Code, is excepted from
the requirements of Section 552.021.

(b)

Notwithstanding Subsection (a), the property owner or the owner’s agent may, on
request, obtain from the chief appraiser of the applicable appraisal district a copy of
each item of information described by Section 41.461(a)(2), Tax Code, and a copy of
each item of information that the chief appraiser took into consideration but does not
plan to introduce at the hearing on the protest. In addition, the property owner or
agent may, on request, obtain from the chief appraiser comparable sales data from

Open Records Letter No. 2013-18655 at 6 (2013).

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a reasonable number of sales that is relevant to any matter to be determined by the
appraisal review board at the hearing on the property owner’s protest. Information
obtained under this subsection:
(1) remains confidential in the possession of the property owner or agent; and
(2) may not be disclosed or used for any purpose except as evidence or argument at
the hearing on the protest.
(c)

Notwithstanding Subsection (a) or Section 403.304, so as to assist a property owner
or an appraisal district in a protest filed under Section 403.303, the property owner,
the district, or an agent of the property owner or district may, on request, obtain
from the comptroller any information, including confidential information, obtained
by the comptroller in connection with the comptroller’s finding that is being
protested. Confidential information obtained by a property owner, an appraisal
district, or an agent of the property owner or district under this subsection:
(1) remains confidential in the possession of the property owner, district, or
agent; and
(2) may not be disclosed to a person who is not authorized to receive or inspect the
information.

(d)

Notwithstanding Subsection (a) or Section 403.304, so as to assist a school district in
the preparation of a protest filed or to be filed under Section 403.303, the school
district or an agent of the school district may, on request, obtain from the comptroller
or the appraisal district any information, including confidential information,
obtained by the comptroller or the appraisal district that relates to the appraisal of
property involved in the comptroller’s finding that is being protested. Confidential
information obtained by a school district or an agent of the school district under this
subsection:
(1) remains confidential in the possession of the school district or agent; and
(2) may not be disclosed to a person who is not authorized to receive or inspect the
information.

(e)

This section applies to information described by Subsections (a), (c), and (d) and to
an item of information or comparable sales data described by Subsection (b) only if
the information, item of information, or comparable sales data relates to real
property that is located in a county having a population of more than 50,000.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

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EEE. Section 552.150:
Confidentiality of Information That Could
Compromise Safety of Officer or Employee of Hospital District
Section 552.150 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a) Information in the custody of a hospital district that relates to an employee or officer
of the hospital district is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if:
(1) it is information that, if disclosed under the specific circumstances pertaining to
the individual, could reasonably be expected to compromise the safety of the
individual, such as information that describes or depicts the likeness of the
individual, information stating the times that the individual arrives at or departs
from work, a description of the individual’s automobile, or the location where the
individual works or parks; and
(2) the employee or officer applies in writing to the hospital district’s officer for
public information to have the information withheld from public disclosure under
this section and includes in the application:
(A) a description of the information; and
(B) the specific circumstances pertaining to the individual that demonstrate why
disclosure of the information could reasonably be expected to compromise
the safety of the individual.
(b) On receiving a written request for information described in an application submitted
under Subsection (a)(2), the officer for public information shall:
(1) request a decision from the attorney general in accordance with Section 552.301
regarding withholding the information; and
(2) include a copy of the application submitted under Subsection (a)(2) with the
request for the decision.
(c) Repealed by Acts 2011, 82nd Leg., ch. 609 (S.B. 470), § 1.
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. In an informal letter ruling, the
attorney general has determined Section 552.150 does not apply to former employees of a hospital
district.748

748

Open Records Letter No. 2014-15073A at 8 (2014).

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FFF.

Section 552.151:
Confidentiality of Information Concerning
Information Regarding Select Agents

Section 552.151 of the Government Code provides as follows:
(a)

The following information that pertains to a biological agent or toxin identified or
listed as a select agent under federal law, including under the Public Health Security
and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Pub. L. No. 107-188)
and regulations adopted under that Act, is excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021:
(1) the specific location of a select agent within an approved facility;
(2) personal identifying information of an individual whose name appears in
documentation relating to the chain of custody of select agents, including a
materials transfer agreement; and
(3) the identity of an individual authorized to possess, use, or access a select agent.

(b)

This section does not except from disclosure the identity of the select agents present
at a facility.

(c)

This section does not except from disclosure the identity of an individual faculty
member or employee whose name appears or will appear on published research.

(d)

This section does not except from disclosure otherwise public information relating to
contracts of a governmental body.

(e)

If a resident of another state is present in Texas and is authorized to possess, use, or
access a select agent in conducting research or other work at a Texas facility,
information relating to the identity of that individual is subject to disclosure under
this chapter only to the extent the information would be subject to disclosure under
the laws of the state of which the person is a resident.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

GGG. Section 552.152: Confidentiality of Information Concerning Public
Employee or Officer Personal Safety
Section 552.152 of the Government Code provides as follows:
Information in the custody of a governmental body that relates to an employee or officer
of the governmental body is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if, under
the specific circumstances pertaining to the employee or officer, disclosure of the
information would subject the employee or officer to a substantial threat of physical harm.

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There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception. However, in an informal letter
ruling, the attorney general considered a request to the Texas Department of Public Safety for
information pertaining to travel expenses incurred by the Governor’s security detail.749 The Texas
Department of Public Safety claimed section 552.152 of the Government Code excepted from
disclosure travel vouchers and supporting documentation submitted by agents of the Executive
Protection Bureau for reimbursement of travel expenses.750 Relying on representations the Texas
Department of Public Safety made about protecting the Governor and his family from physical harm,
the attorney general concluded release of the travel vouchers and supporting documentation would
subject the Governor and the agents to a substantial threat of physical harm, and therefore, the
information must be withheld from disclosure under section 552.152.751

HHH. Section 552.153: Proprietary Records and Trade Secrets Involved in
Certain Partnerships
Section 552.153 of the Government Code was amended by the Eighty-third Legislature and provides
as follows:
(a)

In this section, “affected jurisdiction,” “comprehensive agreement,” “contracting
person,” “interim agreement,” “qualifying project,” and “responsible governmental
entity” have the meanings assigned those terms by Section 2267.001.

(b)

Information in the custody of a responsible governmental entity that relates to a
proposal for a qualifying project authorized under Chapter 2267 is excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021 if:
(1)

(2)

the information consists of memoranda, staff evaluations, or other records
prepared by the responsible governmental entity, its staff, outside advisors, or
consultants exclusively for the evaluation and negotiation of proposals filed
under Chapter 2267 for which:
(A)

disclosure to the public before or after the execution of an interim or
comprehensive agreement would adversely affect the financial interest
or bargaining position of the responsible governmental entity; and

(B)

the basis for the determination under Paragraph (A) is documented in
writing by the responsible governmental entity; or

the records are provided by a proposer to a responsible governmental entity or
affected jurisdiction under Chapter 2267 and contain:
(A)

trade secrets of the proposer;

749

Open Records Letter No. 2014-02048 (2014).

750

Open Records Letter No. 2014-02048 at 1 (2014).

751

Open Records Letter No. 2014-02048 at 3-4 (2014).

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(c)

(d)

(B)

financial records of the proposer, including balance sheets and financial
statements, that are not generally available to the public through
regulatory disclosure or other means; or

(C)

work product related to a competitive bid or proposal submitted by the
proposer that, if made public before the execution of an interim or
comprehensive agreement, would provide a competing proposer an
unjust advantage or adversely affect the financial interest or bargaining
position of the responsible governmental entity or the proposer.

Except as specifically provided by Subsection (b), this section does not authorize the
withholding of information concerning:
(1)

the terms of any interim or comprehensive agreement, service contract, lease,
partnership, or agreement of any kind entered into by the responsible
governmental entity and the contracting person or the terms of any financing
arrangement that involves the use of any public money; or

(2)

the performance of any person developing or operating a qualifying project
under Chapter 2267.

In this section, “proposer” has the meaning assigned by Section 2267.001.

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

III.

Section 552.154: Name of Applicant for Executive Director, Chief
Investment Officer, or Chief Audit Executive of Teacher Retirement
System of Texas

Section 552.154 of the Government Code was renumbered by the Eighty-third Legislature and
provides as follows:
The name of an applicant for the position of executive director, chief investment officer,
or chief audit executive of the Teacher Retirement System of Texas is excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021, except that the board of trustees of the Teacher
Retirement System of Texas must give public notice of the names of three finalists being
considered for one of those positions at least 21 days before the date of the meeting at
which the final action or vote is to be taken on choosing a finalist for employment.
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

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JJJ.

Section 552.155: Confidentiality of Certain Property Tax Appraisal
Photographs

Section 552.155 of the Government Code was added by the Eighty-fourth Legislature and provides
as follows:
(a)

Except as provided by Subsection (b) or (c), a photograph that is taken by the chief
appraiser of an appraisal district or the chief appraiser’s authorized representative
for property tax appraisal purposes and that shows the interior of an improvement
to property is confidential and excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.

(b)

A governmental body shall disclose a photograph described by Subsection (a) to a
requestor who had an ownership interest in the improvement to property shown in
the photograph on the date the photograph was taken.

(c)

A photograph described by Subsection (a) may be used as evidence in and provided
to the parties to a protest under Chapter 41, Tax Code, or an appeal of a
determination by the appraisal review board under Chapter 42, Tax Code, if it is
relevant to the determination of a matter protested or appealed. A photograph that
is used as evidence:
(1)

remains confidential in the possession of the person to whom it is disclosed; and

(2)

may not be disclosed or used for any other purpose.

(c-1) Notwithstanding any other law, a photograph described by Subsection (a) may be
used to ascertain the location of equipment used to produce or transmit oil and gas
for purposes of taxation if that equipment is located on January 1 in the appraisal
district that appraises property for the equipment for the preceding 365 consecutive
days.752
There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

KKK. Section 552.156: Confidentiality of Continuity of Operations Plan
Section 552.156 of the Government Code was added by the Eighty-fourth Legislature and provides
as follows:
(a)

Except as otherwise provided by this section, the following information is excepted
from disclosure under this chapter:
(1)

752

a continuity of operations plan developed under Section 412.054, Labor Code;
and

Act of May 27, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., S.B. 46, § 1 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.155(a), (b), (c), (c-1)).

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(2)

all records written, produced, collected, assembled, or maintained as part of the
development or review of a continuity of operations plan developed under
Section 412.054, Labor Code.

(b)

Forms, standards, and other instructional, informational, or planning materials
adopted by the office to provide guidance or assistance to a state agency in developing
a continuity of operations plan under Section 412.054, Labor Code, are public
information subject to disclosure under this chapter.

(c)

A governmental body may disclose or make available information that is confidential
under this section to another governmental body or a federal agency.

(d)

Disclosing information to another governmental body or a federal agency under this
section does not waive or affect the confidentiality of that information.753

There are no cases or formal opinions interpreting this exception.

753

Act of May 30, 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., H.B. 1832, § 5 (to be codified at Gov’t Code § 552.156).

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Text of the Texas Public Information Act

PART THREE: TEXT OF THE TEXAS PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT
GOVERNMENT CODE CHAPTER 552. PUBLIC INFORMATION
SUBCHAPTER A. GENERAL PROVISIONS
§ 552.001.

Policy; Construction

(a) Under the fundamental philosophy of the American constitutional form of representative
government that adheres to the principle that government is the servant and not the master of the
people, it is the policy of this state that each person is entitled, unless otherwise expressly
provided by law, at all times to complete information about the affairs of government and the
official acts of public officials and employees. The people, in delegating authority, do not give
their public servants the right to decide what is good for the people to know and what is not good
for them to know. The people insist on remaining informed so that they may retain control over
the instruments they have created. The provisions of this chapter shall be liberally construed to
implement this policy.
(b) This chapter shall be liberally construed in favor of granting a request for information.
§ 552.002.

Definition of Public Information; Media Containing Public Information

(a) In this chapter, “public information” means information that is written, produced, collected,
assembled, or maintained under a law or ordinance or in connection with the transaction of
official business:
(1)

by a governmental body;

(2)

for a governmental body and the governmental body:
(A) owns the information;
(B) has a right of access to the information; or
(C) spends or contributes public money for the purpose of writing, producing, collecting,
assembling, or maintaining the information; or

(3)

by an individual officer or employee of a governmental body in the officer’s or employee’s
official capacity and the information pertains to official business of the governmental body.

(a-1) Information is in connection with the transaction of official business if the information is
created by, transmitted to, received by, or maintained by an officer or employee of the
governmental body in the officer’s or employee’s official capacity, or a person or entity
performing official business or a governmental function on behalf of a governmental body, and
pertains to official business of the governmental body.

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(a-2) The definition of “public information” provided by Subsection (a) applies to and includes any
electronic communication created, transmitted, received, or maintained on any device if the
communication is in connection with the transaction of official business.
(b) The media on which public information is recorded include:
(1)

paper;

(2)

film;

(3)

a magnetic, optical, solid state, or other device that can store an electronic signal;

(4)

tape;

(5)

Mylar; and

(6)

any physical material on which information may be recorded, including linen, silk,
and vellum.

(c) The general forms in which the media containing public information exist include a book, paper,
letter, document, e-mail, Internet posting, text message, instant message, other electronic
communication, printout, photograph, film, tape, microfiche, microfilm, photostat, sound
recording, map, and drawing and a voice, data, or video representation held in computer memory.
§ 552.003.

Definitions

In this chapter:
(1)

“Governmental body”:
(A)

means:
(i)

a board, commission, department, committee, institution, agency, or office that
is within or is created by the executive or legislative branch of state government
and that is directed by one or more elected or appointed members;

(ii)

a county commissioners court in the state;

(iii) a municipal governing body in the state;
(iv) a deliberative body that has rulemaking or quasi-judicial power and that is
classified as a department, agency, or political subdivision of a county or
municipality;
(v)

a school district board of trustees;

(vi) a county board of school trustees;
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(vii) a county board of education;
(viii) the governing board of a special district;
(ix) the governing body of a nonprofit corporation organized under Chapter 67, Water
Code, that provides a water supply or wastewater service, or both, and is exempt
from ad valorem taxation under Section 11.30, Tax Code;
(x)

a local workforce development board created under Section 2308.253;

(xi) a nonprofit corporation that is eligible to receive funds under the federal
community services block grant program and that is authorized by this state to
serve a geographic area of the state; and
(xii) the part, section, or portion of an organization, corporation, commission,
committee, institution, or agency that spends or that is supported in whole or in
part by public funds; and
(B)
(2)

does not include the judiciary.

“Manipulation” means the process of modifying, reordering, or decoding of information with
human intervention.

(2-a) “Official business” means any matter over which a governmental body has any authority,
administrative duties, or advisory duties.
(3)

“Processing” means the execution of a sequence of coded instructions by a computer producing
a result.

(4)

“Programming” means the process of producing a sequence of coded instructions that can be
executed by a computer.

(5)

“Public funds” means funds of the state or of a governmental subdivision of the state.

(6)

“Requestor” means a person who submits a request to a governmental body for inspection or
copies of public information.

§ 552.0035. Access to Information of Judiciary
(a)

Access to information collected, assembled, or maintained by or for the judiciary is governed
by rules adopted by the Supreme Court of Texas or by other applicable laws and rules.

(b)

This section does not address whether information is considered to be information collected,
assembled, or maintained by or for the judiciary.

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§ 552.0036. Certain Property Owners’ Associations Subject to Law
A property owners’ association is subject to this chapter in the same manner as a governmental body:
(1)

(2)

if:
(A)

membership in the property owners’ association is mandatory for owners or for a
defined class of owners of private real property in a defined geographic area in a county
with a population of 2.8 million or more or in a county adjacent to a county with a
population of 2.8 million or more;

(B)

the property owners’ association has the power to make mandatory special assessments
for capital improvements or mandatory regular assessments; and

(C)

the amount of the mandatory special or regular assessments is or has ever been based
in whole or in part on the value at which the state or a local governmental body
assesses the property for purposes of ad valorem taxation under Section 20, Article
VIII, Texas Constitution; or

if the property owners’ association:
(A)

provides maintenance, preservation, and architectural control of residential and
commercial property within a defined geographic area in a county with a population
of 2.8 million or more or in a county adjacent to a county with a population of 2.8
million or more; and

(B)

is a corporation that:
(i)

is governed by a board of trustees who may employ a general manager to execute
the association’s bylaws and administer the business of the corporation;

(ii)

does not require membership in the corporation by the owners of the property
within the defined area; and

(iii) was incorporated before January 1, 2006.
§ 552.0038. Public Retirement Systems Subject to Law
(a)

In this section, “governing body of a public retirement system” and “public retirement system”
have the meanings assigned those terms by Section 802.001.

(b)

Except as provided by Subsections (c) through (i), the governing body of a public retirement
system is subject to this chapter in the same manner as a governmental body.

(c)

Records of individual members, annuitants, retirees, beneficiaries, alternate payees, program
participants, or persons eligible for benefits from a retirement system under a retirement plan
or program administered by the retirement system that are in the custody of the system or in
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the custody of an administering firm, a carrier, or another governmental agency, including the
comptroller, acting in cooperation with or on behalf of the retirement system are confidential
and not subject to public disclosure. The retirement system, administering firm, carrier, or
governmental agency is not required to accept or comply with a request for a record or
information about a record or to seek an opinion from the attorney general because the records
are exempt from the provisions of this chapter, except as otherwise provided by this section.
(d)

Records may be released to a member, annuitant, retiree, beneficiary, alternate payee, program
participant, or person eligible for benefits from the retirement system or to an authorized
attorney, family member, or representative acting on behalf of the member, annuitant, retiree,
beneficiary, alternate payee, program participant, or person eligible for benefits. The
retirement system may release the records to:
(1)

an administering firm, carrier, or agent or attorney acting on behalf of the retirement
system;

(2)

another governmental entity having a legitimate need for the information to perform
the purposes of the retirement system; or

(3)

a party in response to a subpoena issued under applicable law.

(e)

A record released or received by the retirement system under this section may be transmitted
electronically, including through the use of an electronic signature or certification in a form
acceptable to the retirement system. An unintentional disclosure to, or unauthorized access by,
a third party related to the transmission or receipt of information under this section is not a
violation by the retirement system of any law, including a law or rule relating to the protection
of confidential information.

(f)

The records of an individual member, annuitant, retiree, beneficiary, alternate payee, program
participant, or person eligible for benefits from the retirement system remain confidential after
release to a person as authorized by this section. The records may become part of the public
record of an administrative or judicial proceeding related to a contested case, and the member,
annuitant, retiree, beneficiary, alternate payee, program participant, or person eligible for
benefits waives the confidentiality of the records, including medical records, unless the records
are closed to public access by a protective order issued under applicable law.

(g)

The retirement system may require a person to provide the person’s social security number as
the system considers necessary to ensure the proper administration of all services, benefits,
plans, and programs under the retirement system’s administration, oversight, or participation
or as otherwise required by state or federal law.

(h)

The retirement system has sole discretion in determining whether a record is subject to this
section. For purposes of this section, a record includes any identifying information about a
person, living or deceased, who is or was a member, annuitant, retiree, beneficiary, alternate
payee, program participant, or person eligible for benefits from the retirement system under
any retirement plan or program administered by the retirement system.

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(i)

To the extent of a conflict between this section and any other law with respect to the
confidential information held by a public retirement system or other entity described by
Subsection (c) concerning an individual member, annuitant, retiree, beneficiary, alternate
payee, program participant, or person eligible for benefits from the retirement system, the
prevailing provision is the provision that provides the greater substantive and procedural
protection for the privacy of information concerning that individual member, annuitant, retiree,
beneficiary, alternate payee, program participant, or person eligible for benefits.

§ 552.004.

Preservation of Information

A governmental body or, for information of an elective county office, the elected county officer, may
determine a time for which information that is not currently in use will be preserved, subject to any
applicable rule or law governing the destruction and other disposition of state and local government
records or public information.
§ 552.005.

Effect of Chapter on Scope of Civil Discovery

(a)

This chapter does not affect the scope of civil discovery under the Texas Rules of Civil
Procedure.

(b)

Exceptions from disclosure under this chapter do not create new privileges from discovery.

§ 552.0055. Subpoena Duces Tecum or Discovery Request
A subpoena duces tecum or a request for discovery that is issued in compliance with a statute or a
rule of civil or criminal procedure is not considered to be a request for information under this
chapter.
§ 552.006.

Effect of Chapter on Withholding Public Information

This chapter does not authorize the withholding of public information or limit the availability of
public information to the public, except as expressly provided by this chapter.
§ 552.007.

Voluntary Disclosure of Certain Information When Disclosure Not Required

(a)

This chapter does not prohibit a governmental body or its officer for public information from
voluntarily making part or all of its information available to the public, unless the disclosure
is expressly prohibited by law or the information is confidential under law.

(b)

Public information made available under Subsection (a) must be made available to any person.

§ 552.008.
(a)

Information for Legislative Purposes

This chapter does not grant authority to withhold information from individual members,
agencies, or committees of the legislature to use for legislative purposes.

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(b)

A governmental body on request by an individual member, agency, or committee of the
legislature shall provide public information, including confidential information, to the
requesting member, agency, or committee for inspection or duplication in accordance with this
chapter if the requesting member, agency, or committee states that the public information is
requested under this chapter for legislative purposes. A governmental body, by providing
public information under this section that is confidential or otherwise excepted from required
disclosure under law, does not waive or affect the confidentiality of the information for
purposes of state or federal law or waive the right to assert exceptions to required disclosure
of the information in the future. The governmental body may require the requesting individual
member of the legislature, the requesting legislative agency or committee, or the members or
employees of the requesting entity who will view or handle information that is received under
this section and that is confidential under law to sign a confidentiality agreement that covers
the information and requires that:
(1)

the information not be disclosed outside the requesting entity, or within the requesting
entity for purposes other than the purpose for which it was received;

(2)

the information be labeled as confidential;

(3)

the information be kept securely; or

(4)

the number of copies made of the information or the notes taken from the information
that implicate the confidential nature of the information be controlled, with all copies
or notes that are not destroyed or returned to the governmental body remaining
confidential and subject to the confidentiality agreement.

(b-1) A member, committee, or agency of the legislature required by a governmental body to sign
a confidentiality agreement under Subsection (b) may seek a decision as provided by
Subsection (b-2) about whether the information covered by the confidentiality agreement is
confidential under law. A confidentiality agreement signed under Subsection (b) is void to the
extent that the agreement covers information that is finally determined under Subsection (b-2)
to not be confidential under law.
(b-2) The member, committee, or agency of the legislature may seek a decision from the attorney
general about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall establish procedures and deadlines
for receiving information necessary to decide the matter and briefs from the requestor, the
governmental body, and any other interested person. The attorney general shall promptly
render a decision requested under this subsection, determining whether the information
covered by the confidentiality agreement is confidential under law, not later than the 45th
business day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision under this
subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the matter and provide a
copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental body, and any interested person who
submitted necessary information or a brief to the attorney general about the matter. The
requestor or the governmental body may appeal a decision of the attorney general under this
subsection to a Travis County district court. A person may appeal a decision of the attorney
general under this subsection to a Travis County district court if the person claims a proprietary

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interest in the information affected by the decision or a privacy interest in the information that
a confidentiality law or judicial decision is designed to protect.
(c)

This section does not affect:
(1)

the right of an individual member, agency, or committee of the legislature to obtain
information from a governmental body under other law, including under the rules of
either house of the legislature;

(2)

the procedures under which the information is obtained under other law; or

(3)

the use that may be made of the information obtained under other law.

§ 552.009.

(a)

Open Records Steering Committee: Advice to Attorney General; Electronic
Availability of Public Information

The open records steering committee is composed of two representatives of the attorney
general’s office and:
(1)

a representative of each of the following, appointed by its governing entity:
(A) the comptroller’s office;
(B) the Department of Public Safety;
(C) the Department of Information Resources; and
(D) the Texas State Library and Archives Commission;

(2)

five public members, appointed by the attorney general; and

(3)

a representative of each of the following types of local governments, appointed by the
attorney general:
(A) a municipality;
(B) a county; and
(C) a school district.

(b)

The representative of the attorney general designated by the attorney general is the presiding
officer of the committee. The committee shall meet as prescribed by committee procedures
or at the call of the presiding officer.

(c)

The committee shall advise the attorney general regarding the office of the attorney general’s
performance of its duties under Sections 552.010, 552.205, 552.262, 552.269, and 552.274.

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(d)

The members of the committee who represent state governmental bodies and the public
members of the committee shall periodically study and determine the types of public
information for which it would be useful to the public or cost-effective for the government if
the type of information were made available by state governmental bodies by means of the
Internet or another electronic format. The committee shall report its findings and
recommendations to the governor, the presiding officer of each house of the legislature, and
the budget committee and state affairs committee of each house of the legislature.

(e)

Chapter 2110 does not apply to the size, composition, or duration of the committee. Chapter
2110 applies to the reimbursement of a public member’s expenses related to service on the
committee. Any reimbursement of the expenses of a member who represents a state or local
governmental body may be paid only from funds available to the state or local governmental
body the member represents.

§ 552.010. State Governmental Bodies: Fiscal and Other Information Relating to Making
Information Accessible
(a)

Each state governmental body shall report to the attorney general the information the attorney
general requires regarding:
(1)

the number and nature of requests for information the state governmental body
processes under this chapter in the period covered by the report; and

(2)

the cost to the state governmental body in that period in terms of capital expenditures
and personnel time of:
(A) responding to requests for information under this chapter; and
(B) making information available to the public by means of the Internet or another
electronic format.

(b)

(c)

The attorney general shall design and phase in the reporting requirements in a way that:
(1)

minimizes the reporting burden on state governmental bodies; and

(2)

allows the legislature and state governmental bodies to estimate the extent to which it
is cost-effective for state government, and if possible the extent to which it is costeffective or useful for members of the public, to make information available to the
public by means of the Internet or another electronic format as a supplement or
alternative to publicizing the information only in other ways or making the information
available only in response to requests made under this chapter.

The attorney general shall share the information reported under this section with the open
records steering committee.

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§ 552.011.

Uniformity

The attorney general shall maintain uniformity in the application, operation, and interpretation of this
chapter. To perform this duty, the attorney general may prepare, distribute, and publish any
materials, including detailed and comprehensive written decisions and opinions, that relate to or are
based on this chapter.
§ 552.012.
(a)

(b)

Open Records Training

This section applies to an elected or appointed public official who is:
(1)

a member of a multimember governmental body;

(2)

the governing officer of a governmental body that is headed by a single officer rather
than by a multimember governing body; or

(3)

the officer for public information of a governmental body, without regard to whether
the officer is elected or appointed to a specific term.

Each public official shall complete a course of training of not less than one and not more than
two hours regarding the responsibilities of the governmental body with which the official
serves and its officers and employees under this chapter not later than the 90th day after the
date the public official:
(1)

takes the oath of office, if the person is required to take an oath of office to assume the
person’s duties as a public official; or

(2)

otherwise assumes the person’s duties as a public official, if the person is not required to
take an oath of office to assume the person’s duties.

(c) A public official may designate a public information coordinator to satisfy the training
requirements of this section for the public official if the public information coordinator is
primarily responsible for administering the responsibilities of the public official or governmental
body under this chapter. Designation of a public information coordinator under this subsection
does not relieve a public official from the duty to comply with any other requirement of this
chapter that applies to the public official. The designated public information coordinator shall
complete the training course regarding the responsibilities of the governmental body with which
the coordinator serves and of its officers and employees under this chapter not later than the 90th
day after the date the coordinator assumes the person’s duties as coordinator.
(d) The attorney general shall ensure that the training is made available. The office of the attorney
general may provide the training and may also approve any acceptable course of training offered
by a governmental body or other entity. The attorney general shall ensure that at least one course
of training approved or provided by the attorney general is available on videotape or a
functionally similar and widely available medium at no cost. The training must include
instruction in:

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(1)

the general background of the legal requirements for open records and public information;

(2)

the applicability of this chapter to governmental bodies;

(3)

procedures and requirements regarding complying with a request for information under this
chapter;

(4)

the role of the attorney general under this chapter; and

(5)

penalties and other consequences for failure to comply with this chapter.

(e) The office of the attorney general or other entity providing the training shall provide a certificate
of course completion to persons who complete the training required by this section. A
governmental body shall maintain and make available for public inspection the record of its
public officials’ or, if applicable, the public information coordinator’s completion of the training.
(f) Completing the required training as a public official of the governmental body satisfies the
requirements of this section with regard to the public official’s service on a committee or
subcommittee of the governmental body and the public official’s ex officio service on any other
governmental body.
(g) The training required by this section may be used to satisfy any corresponding training
requirements concerning this chapter or open records required by law for a public official or
public information coordinator. The attorney general shall attempt to coordinate the training
required by this section with training required by other law to the extent practicable.
(h) A certificate of course completion is admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution under this
chapter. However, evidence that a defendant completed a course of training offered under this
section is not prima facie evidence that the defendant knowingly violated this chapter.
SUBCHAPTER B. RIGHT OF ACCESS TO PUBLIC INFORMATION
§ 552.021.

Availability of Public Information

Public information is available to the public at a minimum during the normal business hours of the
governmental body.
§ 552.0215. Right of Access to Certain Information After 75 Years
(a) Except as provided by Section 552.147, the confidentiality provisions of this chapter, or other
law, information that is not confidential but is excepted from required disclosure under
Subchapter C is public information and is available to the public on or after the 75th anniversary
of the date the information was originally created or received by the governmental body.
(b) This section does not limit the authority of a governmental body to establish retention periods
for records under applicable law.

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§ 552.022.

Categories of Public Information; Examples

(a) Without limiting the amount or kind of information that is public information under this chapter,
the following categories of information are public information and not excepted from required
disclosure unless made confidential under this chapter or other law:
(1)

a completed report, audit, evaluation, or investigation made of, for, or by a governmental
body, except as provided by Section 552.108;

(2)

the name, sex, ethnicity, salary, title, and dates of employment of each employee and
officer of a governmental body;

(3)

information in an account, voucher, or contract relating to the receipt or expenditure of
public or other funds by a governmental body;

(4)

the name of each official and the final record of voting on all proceedings in a
governmental body;

(5)

all working papers, research material, and information used to estimate the need for or
expenditure of public funds or taxes by a governmental body, on completion of the
estimate;

(6)

the name, place of business, and the name of the municipality to which local sales and use
taxes are credited, if any, for the named person, of a person reporting or paying sales and
use taxes under Chapter 151, Tax Code;

(7)

a description of an agency’s central and field organizations, including:
(A) the established places at which the public may obtain information, submit
information or requests, or obtain decisions;
(B) the employees from whom the public may obtain information, submit information or
requests, or obtain decisions;
(C) in the case of a uniformed service, the members from whom the public may obtain
information, submit information or requests, or obtain decisions; and
(D) the methods by which the public may obtain information, submit information or
requests, or obtain decisions;

(8)

a statement of the general course and method by which an agency’s functions are channeled
and determined, including the nature and requirements of all formal and informal policies
and procedures;

(9)

a rule of procedure, a description of forms available or the places at which forms may be
obtained, and instructions relating to the scope and content of all papers, reports, or
examinations;
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(10) a substantive rule of general applicability adopted or issued by an agency as authorized by
law, and a statement of general policy or interpretation of general applicability formulated
and adopted by an agency;
(11) each amendment, revision, or repeal of information described by Subdivisions (7)–(10);
(12) final opinions, including concurring and dissenting opinions, and orders issued in the
adjudication of cases;
(13) a policy statement or interpretation that has been adopted or issued by an agency;
(14) administrative staff manuals and instructions to staff that affect a member of the public;
(15) information regarded as open to the public under an agency’s policies;
(16) information that is in a bill for attorney’s fees and that is not privileged under the
attorney-client privilege;
(17) information that is also contained in a public court record; and
(18) a settlement agreement to which a governmental body is a party.
(b) A court in this state may not order a governmental body or an officer for public information to
withhold from public inspection any category of public information described by Subsection (a)
or to not produce the category of public information for inspection or duplication, unless the
category of information is confidential under this chapter or other law.
§ 552.0221. Employee or Trustee of Public Employee Pension System
(a) Information concerning the employment of an employee of a public employee pension system
is public information under the terms of this chapter, including information concerning the
income, salary, benefits, and bonuses received from the pension system by the employee in the
person’s capacity as an employee of the system, and is not removed from the application of this
chapter, made confidential, or otherwise excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 by
any statute intended to protect the records of persons as members, beneficiaries, or retirees of a
public employee pension system in their capacity as such.
(b) Information concerning the service of a trustee of a public employee pension system is public
information under the terms of this chapter, including information concerning the income, salary,
benefits, and bonuses received from the pension system by the trustee in the person’s capacity
as a trustee of the system, and is not removed from the application of this chapter, made
confidential, or otherwise excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 by any statute
intended to protect the records of persons as members, beneficiaries, or retirees of a public
employee pension system in their capacity as such.
(c) Information subject to Subsections (a) and (b) must be released only to the extent the information
is not excepted from required disclosure under this subchapter or Subchapter C.
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(d) For purposes of this section, “benefits” does not include pension benefits provided to an
individual by a pension system under the statutory plan covering the individual as a member,
beneficiary, or retiree of the pension system.
§ 552.0225. Right of Access to Investment Information
(a) Under the fundamental philosophy of American government described by Section 552.001, it is
the policy of this state that investments of government are investments of and for the people and
the people are entitled to information regarding those investments. The provisions of this section
shall be liberally construed to implement this policy.
(b) The following categories of information held by a governmental body relating to its investments
are public information and not excepted from disclosure under this chapter:
(1)

the name of any fund or investment entity the governmental body is or has invested in;

(2)

the date that a fund or investment entity described by Subdivision (1) was established;

(3)

each date the governmental body invested in a fund or investment entity described by
Subdivision (1);

(4)

the amount of money, expressed in dollars, the governmental body has committed to a fund
or investment entity;

(5)

the amount of money, expressed in dollars, the governmental body is investing or has
invested in any fund or investment entity;

(6)

the total amount of money, expressed in dollars, the governmental body received from any
fund or investment entity in connection with an investment;

(7)

the internal rate of return or other standard used by a governmental body in connection with
each fund or investment entity it is or has invested in and the date on which the return or
other standard was calculated;

(8)

the remaining value of any fund or investment entity the governmental body is or has
invested in;

(9)

the total amount of fees, including expenses, charges, and other compensation, assessed
against the governmental body by, or paid by the governmental body to, any fund or
investment entity or principal of any fund or investment entity in which the governmental
body is or has invested;

(10) the names of the principals responsible for managing any fund or investment entity in
which the governmental body is or has invested;
(11) each recusal filed by a member of the governing board in connection with a deliberation
or action of the governmental body relating to an investment;
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(12) a description of all of the types of businesses a governmental body is or has invested in
through a fund or investment entity;
(13) the minutes and audio or video recordings of each open portion of a meeting of the
governmental body at which an item described by this subsection was discussed;
(14) the governmental body’s percentage ownership interest in a fund or investment entity the
governmental body is or has invested in;
(15) any annual ethics disclosure report submitted to the governmental body by a fund or
investment entity the governmental body is or has invested in; and
(16) the cash-on-cash return realized by the governmental body for a fund or investment entity
the governmental body is or has invested in.
(c) This section does not apply to the Texas Mutual Insurance Company or a successor to the
company.
(d) This section does not apply to a private investment fund’s investment in restricted securities, as
defined in Section 552.143.
§ 552.023.

Special Right of Access to Confidential Information

(a) A person or a person’s authorized representative has a special right of access, beyond the right
of the general public, to information held by a governmental body that relates to the person and
that is protected from public disclosure by laws intended to protect that person’s privacy
interests.
(b) A governmental body may not deny access to information to the person, or the person’s
representative, to whom the information relates on the grounds that the information is considered
confidential by privacy principles under this chapter but may assert as grounds for denial of
access other provisions of this chapter or other law that are not intended to protect the person’s
privacy interests.
(c) A release of information under Subsections (a) and (b) is not an offense under Section 552.352.
(d) A person who receives information under this section may disclose the information to others only
to the extent consistent with the authorized purposes for which consent to release the information
was obtained.
(e) Access to information under this section shall be provided in the manner prescribed by Sections
552.229 and 552.307.

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§ 552.024.

Electing to Disclose Address and Telephone Number

(a) Except as provided by Subsection (a-1), each employee or official of a governmental body and
each former employee or official of a governmental body shall choose whether to allow public
access to the information in the custody of the governmental body that relates to the person’s
home address, home telephone number, emergency contact information, or social security
number, or that reveals whether the person has family members.
(a-1) A school district may not require an employee or former employee of the district to choose
whether to allow public access to the employee’s or former employee’s social security number.
(b) Each employee and official and each former employee and official shall state that person’s
choice under Subsection (a) to the main personnel officer of the governmental body in a signed
writing not later than the 14th day after the date on which:
(1)

the employee begins employment with the governmental body;

(2)

the official is elected or appointed; or

(3)

the former employee or official ends service with the governmental body.

(c) If the employee or official or former employee or official chooses not to allow public access to
the information:
(1)

the information is protected under Subchapter C; and

(2)

the governmental body may redact the information from any information the governmental
body discloses under Section 552.021 without the necessity of requesting a decision from
the attorney general under Subchapter G.

(c-1) If, under Subsection (c)(2), a governmental body redacts or withholds information without
requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the information may be redacted
or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision from the attorney general about the
matter. The attorney general by rule shall establish procedures and deadlines for receiving
information necessary to decide the matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body,
and any other interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was excepted
from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business day after the date the
attorney general received the request for a decision under this subsection. The attorney general
shall issue a written decision on the matter and provide a copy of the decision to the requestor,
the governmental body, and any interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief
to the attorney general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district court.

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(c-2) A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c)(2) shall
provide the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the attorney general:
(1)

a description of the redacted or withheld information;

(2)

a citation to this section; and

(3)

instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney general
regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from required
disclosure.

(d) If an employee or official or a former employee or official fails to state the person’s choice
within the period established by this section, the information is subject to public access.
(e) An employee or official or former employee or official of a governmental body who wishes to
close or open public access to the information may request in writing that the main personnel
officer of the governmental body close or open access.
(f) This section does not apply to a person to whom Section 552.1175 applies.
§ 552.025.

Tax Rulings and Opinions

(a) A governmental body with taxing authority that issues a written determination letter, technical
advice memorandum, or ruling that concerns a tax matter shall index the letter, memorandum,
or ruling by subject matter.
(b) On request, the governmental body shall make the index prepared under Subsection (a) and the
document itself available to the public, subject to the provisions of this chapter.
(c) Subchapter C does not authorize withholding from the public or limiting the availability to the
public of a written determination letter, technical advice memorandum, or ruling that concerns
a tax matter and that is issued by a governmental body with taxing authority.
§ 552.026.

Education Records

This chapter does not require the release of information contained in education records of an
educational agency or institution, except in conformity with the Family Educational Rights and
Privacy Act of 1974, Sec. 513, Pub. L. No. 93-380, 20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g.
§ 552.027.

Exception: Information Available Commercially; Resource Material

(a) A governmental body is not required under this chapter to allow the inspection of or to provide
a copy of information in a commercial book or publication purchased or acquired by the
governmental body for research purposes if the book or publication is commercially available
to the public.

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(b) Although information in a book or publication may be made available to the public as a resource
material, such as a library book, a governmental body is not required to make a copy of the
information in response to a request for public information.
(c) A governmental body shall allow the inspection of information in a book or publication that is
made part of, incorporated into, or referred to in a rule or policy of a governmental body.
§ 552.028.

Request for Information from Incarcerated Individual

(a) A governmental body is not required to accept or comply with a request for information from:
(1)

an individual who is imprisoned or confined in a correctional facility; or

(2)

an agent of that individual, other than that individual’s attorney when the attorney is
requesting information that is subject to disclosure under this chapter.

(b) This section does not prohibit a governmental body from disclosing to an individual described
by Subsection (a)(1), or that individual’s agent, information held by the governmental body
pertaining to that individual.
(c) In this section, “correctional facility” means:
(1)

a secure correctional facility, as defined by Section 1.07, Penal Code;

(2)

a secure correctional facility and a secure detention facility, as defined by Section 51.02,
Family Code; and

(3)

a place designated by the law of this state, another state, or the federal government for the
confinement of a person arrested for, charged with, or convicted of a criminal offense.

§ 552.029.

Right of Access to Certain Information Relating to Inmate of Department of
Criminal Justice

Notwithstanding Section 508.313 or 552.134, the following information about an inmate who is
confined in a facility operated by or under a contract with the Texas Department of Criminal Justice
is subject to required disclosure under Section 552.021:
(1)

the inmate’s name, identification number, age, birthplace, department photograph, physical
description, or general state of health or the nature of an injury to or critical illness suffered
by the inmate;

(2)

the inmate’s assigned unit or the date on which the unit received the inmate, unless
disclosure of the information would violate federal law relating to the confidentiality of
substance abuse treatment;

(3)

the offense for which the inmate was convicted or the judgment and sentence for that
offense;
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(4)

the county and court in which the inmate was convicted;

(5)

the inmate’s earliest or latest possible release dates;

(6)

the inmate’s parole date or earliest possible parole date;

(7)

any prior confinement of the inmate by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or its
predecessor; or

(8)

basic information regarding the death of an inmate in custody, an incident involving the
use of force, or an alleged crime involving the inmate.

SUBCHAPTER C. INFORMATION EXCEPTED FROM REQUIRED DISCLOSURE
§ 552.101.

Exception: Confidential Information

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information considered to
be confidential by law, either constitutional, statutory, or by judicial decision.
§ 552.102.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Personnel Information

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information in a
personnel file, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of
personal privacy, except that all information in the personnel file of an employee of a
governmental body is to be made available to that employee or the employee’s designated
representative as public information is made available under this chapter. The exception to
public disclosure created by this subsection is in addition to any exception created by Section
552.024. Public access to personnel information covered by Section 552.024 is denied to the
extent provided by that section.
(b) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is a transcript from an
institution of higher education maintained in the personnel file of a professional public school
employee, except that this section does not exempt from disclosure the degree obtained or the
curriculum on a transcript in the personnel file of the employee.
§ 552.103.

Exception: Litigation or Settlement Negotiations Involving the State or a Political
Subdivision

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information relating
to litigation of a civil or criminal nature to which the state or a political subdivision is or may be
a party or to which an officer or employee of the state or a political subdivision, as a consequence
of the person’s office or employment, is or may be a party.
(b) For purposes of this section, the state or a political subdivision is considered to be a party to
litigation of a criminal nature until the applicable statute of limitations has expired or until the
defendant has exhausted all appellate and postconviction remedies in state and federal court.

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(c) Information relating to litigation involving a governmental body or an officer or employee of a
governmental body is excepted from disclosure under Subsection (a) only if the litigation is
pending or reasonably anticipated on the date that the requestor applies to the officer for public
information for access to or duplication of the information.
§ 552.104. Exception: Information Related to Competition or Bidding
(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information that, if
released, would give advantage to a competitor or bidder.
(b) The requirement of Section 552.022 that a category of information listed under Section
552.022(a) is public information and not excepted from required disclosure under this chapter
unless expressly confidential under law does not apply to information that is excepted from
required disclosure under this section.
§ 552.105.

Exception: Information Related to Location or Price of Property

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information relating to:
(1)

the location of real or personal property for a public purpose prior to public announcement
of the project; or

(2)

appraisals or purchase price of real or personal property for a public purpose prior to the
formal award of contracts for the property.

§ 552.106.

Exception: Certain Legislative Documents

(a) A draft or working paper involved in the preparation of proposed legislation is excepted from
the requirements of Section 552.021.
(b) An internal bill analysis or working paper prepared by the governor’s office for the purpose of
evaluating proposed legislation is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.107.

Exception: Certain Legal Matters

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if:
(1)

it is information that the attorney general or an attorney of a political subdivision is
prohibited from disclosing because of a duty to the client under the Texas Rules of
Evidence or the Texas Disciplinary Rules of Professional Conduct; or

(2)

a court by order has prohibited disclosure of the information.

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§ 552.108.

Exception:
Information

Certain Law Enforcement, Corrections, and Prosecutorial

(a) Information held by a law enforcement agency or prosecutor that deals with the detection,
investigation, or prosecution of crime is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if:
(1)

release of the information would interfere with the detection, investigation, or prosecution
of crime;

(2)

it is information that deals with the detection, investigation, or prosecution of crime only
in relation to an investigation that did not result in conviction or deferred adjudication;

(3)

it is information relating to a threat against a peace officer or detention officer collected or
disseminated under Section 411.048; or

(4)

it is information that:
(A) is prepared by an attorney representing the state in anticipation of or in the course of
preparing for criminal litigation; or
(B) reflects the mental impressions or legal reasoning of an attorney representing the
state.

(b) An internal record or notation of a law enforcement agency or prosecutor that is maintained for
internal use in matters relating to law enforcement or prosecution is excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021 if:
(1)

release of the internal record or notation would interfere with law enforcement or
prosecution;

(2)

the internal record or notation relates to law enforcement only in relation to an
investigation that did not result in conviction or deferred adjudication; or

(3)

the internal record or notation:
(A) is prepared by an attorney representing the state in anticipation of or in the course of
preparing for criminal litigation; or
(B) reflects the mental impressions or legal reasoning of an attorney representing the
state.

(c) This section does not except from the requirements of Section 552.021 information that is basic
information about an arrested person, an arrest, or a crime.

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§ 552.1081. Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Information Regarding Execution of
Convict.
Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it contains identifying
information under Article 43.14, Code of Criminal Procedure, including that of:
(1)

any person who participates in an execution procedure, including a person who uses,
supplies, or administers a substance during the execution; and

(2)

any person or entity that manufactures, transports, tests, procures, compounds, prescribes,
dispenses, or provides a substance or supplies used in an execution.

§ 552.1085. Confidentiality of Sensitive Crime Scene Image
(a) In this section:
(1)

“Deceased person’s next of kin” means:
(A) the surviving spouse of the deceased person;
(B) if there is no surviving spouse of the deceased, an adult child of the deceased person;
or
(C) if there is no surviving spouse or adult child of the deceased, a parent of the deceased
person.

(2)

“Defendant” means a person being prosecuted for the death of the deceased person or a
person convicted of an offense in relation to that death and appealing that conviction.

(3)

“Expressive work” means:
(A) a fictional or nonfictional entertainment, dramatic, literary, or musical work that is
a play, book, article, musical composition, audiovisual work, radio or television
program, work of art, or work of political, educational, or newsworthy value;
(B) a work the primary function of which is the delivery of news, information, current
events, or other matters of public interest or concern; or
(C) an advertisement or commercial announcement of a work described by Paragraph (A)
or (B).

(4)

“Local governmental entity” means a county, municipality, school district, charter school,
junior college district, or other political subdivision of this state.

(5)

“Public or private institution of higher education” means:
(A) an institution of higher education, as defined by Section 61.003, Education Code; or
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(B) a private or independent institution of higher education, as defined by Section 61.003,
Education Code.
(6)

“Sensitive crime scene image” means a photograph or video recording taken at a crime
scene, contained in or part of a closed criminal case, that depicts a deceased person in a
state of dismemberment, decapitation, or similar mutilation or that depicts the deceased
person’s genitalia.

(7)

“State agency” means a department, commission, board, office, or other agency that is a
part of state government and that is created by the constitution or a statute of this state.
The term includes an institution of higher education as defined by Section 61.003,
Education Code.

(b) For purposes of this section, an Internet website, the primary function of which is not the
delivery of news, information, current events, or other matters of public interest or concern, is
not an expressive work.
(c) A sensitive crime scene image in the custody of a governmental body is confidential and
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 and a governmental body may not permit a
person to view or copy the image except as provided by this section. This section applies to any
sensitive crime scene image regardless of the date that the image was taken or recorded.
(d) Notwithstanding Subsection (c) and subject to Subsection (e), the following persons may view
or copy information that constitutes a sensitive crime scene image from a governmental body:
(1)

the deceased person’s next of kin;

(2)

a person authorized in writing by the deceased person’s next of kin;

(3)

a defendant or the defendant’s attorney;

(4)

a person who establishes to the governmental body an interest in a sensitive crime scene
image that is based on, connected with, or in support of the creation, in any medium, of an
expressive work;

(5)

a person performing bona fide research sponsored by a public or private institution of
higher education with approval of a supervisor of the research or a supervising faculty
member;

(6)

a state agency;

(7)

an agency of the federal government; or

(8)

a local governmental entity.

(e) This section does not prohibit a governmental body from asserting an exception to disclosure of
a sensitive crime scene image to a person identified in Subsection (d) on the grounds that the
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image is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 under another provision of this
chapter or another law.
(f) Not later than the 10th business day after the date a governmental body receives a request for a
sensitive crime scene image from a person described by Subsection (d)(4) or (5), the
governmental body shall notify the deceased person’s next of kin of the request in writing. The
notice must be sent to the next of kin’s last known address.
(g) A governmental body that receives a request for information that constitutes a sensitive crime
scene image shall allow a person described in Subsection (d) to view or copy the image not later
than the 10th business day after the date the governmental body receives the request unless the
governmental body files a request for an attorney general decision under Subchapter G regarding
whether an exception to public disclosure applies to the information.
§ 552.109.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Private Communications of an Elected
Office Holder

Private correspondence or communications of an elected office holder relating to matters the
disclosure of which would constitute an invasion of privacy are excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021.
§ 552.110. Exception: Confidentiality of Trade Secrets; Confidentiality of Certain
Commercial or Financial Information
(a) A trade secret obtained from a person and privileged or confidential by statute or judicial
decision is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(b) Commercial or financial information for which it is demonstrated based on specific factual
evidence that disclosure would cause substantial competitive harm to the person from whom the
information was obtained is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.111. Exception: Agency Memoranda
An interagency or intraagency memorandum or letter that would not be available by law to a party
in litigation with the agency is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.112.

Exception: Certain Information Relating to Regulation of Financial Institutions
or Securities

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information contained
in or relating to examination, operating, or condition reports prepared by or for an agency
responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions or securities, or both.
(b) In this section, “securities” has the meaning assigned by The Securities Act (Article 581-1 et
seq., Vernon’s Texas Civil Statutes).

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(c) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information submitted
by an individual or other entity to the Texas Legislative Council, or to any state agency or
department overseen by the Finance Commission of Texas and the information has been or will
be sent to the Texas Legislative Council, for the purpose of performing a statistical or
demographic analysis of information subject to Section 323.020. However, this subsection does
not except from the requirements of Section 552.021 information that does not identify or tend
to identify an individual or other entity and that is subject to required public disclosure under
Section 323.020(e).
§ 552.113.

Exception: Confidentiality of Geological or Geophysical Information

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is:
(1)

an electric log confidential under Subchapter M, Chapter 91, Natural Resources Code;

(2)

geological or geophysical information or data, including maps concerning wells, except
information filed in connection with an application or proceeding before an agency; or

(3)

confidential under Subsections (c) through (f).

(b) Information that is shown to or examined by an employee of the General Land Office, but not
retained in the land office, is not considered to be filed with the land office.
(c) In this section:
(1)

“Confidential material” includes all well logs, geological, geophysical, geochemical, and
other similar data, including maps and other interpretations of the material filed in the
General Land Office:
(A) in connection with any administrative application or proceeding before the land
commissioner, the school land board, any board for lease, or the commissioner’s or
board’s staff; or
(B) in compliance with the requirements of any law, rule, lease, or agreement.

(2)

“Electric logs” has the same meaning as it has in Chapter 91, Natural Resources Code.

(3)

“Administrative applications” and “administrative proceedings” include applications for
pooling or unitization, review of shut-in royalty payments, review of leases or other
agreements to determine their validity, review of any plan of operations, review of the
obligation to drill offset wells, or an application to pay compensatory royalty.

(d) Confidential material, except electric logs, filed in the General Land Office on or after
September 1, 1985, is public information and is available to the public under Section 552.021
on and after the later of:

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(1)

five years from the filing date of the confidential material; or

(2)

one year from the expiration, termination, or forfeiture of the lease in connection with
which the confidential material was filed.

(e) Electric logs filed in the General Land Office on or after September 1, 1985, are either public
information or confidential material to the same extent and for the same periods provided for the
same logs by Chapter 91, Natural Resources Code. A person may request that an electric log that
has been filed in the General Land Office be made confidential by filing with the land office a
copy of the written request for confidentiality made to the Railroad Commission of Texas for the
same log.
(f) The following are public information:
(1)

electric logs filed in the General Land Office before September 1, 1985; and

(2)

confidential material, except electric logs, filed in the General Land Office before
September 1, 1985, provided, that Subsection (d) governs the disclosure of that
confidential material filed in connection with a lease that is a valid and subsisting lease on
September 1, 1995.

(g) Confidential material may be disclosed at any time if the person filing the material, or the
person’s successor in interest in the lease in connection with which the confidential material was
filed, consents in writing to its release. A party consenting to the disclosure of confidential
material may restrict the manner of disclosure and the person or persons to whom the disclosure
may be made.
(h) Notwithstanding the confidential nature of the material described in this section, the material
may be used by the General Land Office in the enforcement, by administrative proceeding or
litigation, of the laws governing the sale and lease of public lands and minerals, the regulations
of the land office, the school land board, or of any board for lease, or the terms of any lease,
pooling or unitization agreement, or any other agreement or grant.
(i) An administrative hearings officer may order that confidential material introduced in an
administrative proceeding remain confidential until the proceeding is finally concluded, or for
the period provided in Subsection (d), whichever is later.
(j) Confidential material examined by an administrative hearings officer during the course of an
administrative proceeding for the purpose of determining its admissibility as evidence shall not
be considered to have been filed in the General Land Office to the extent that the confidential
material is not introduced into evidence at the proceeding.
(k) This section does not prevent a person from asserting that any confidential material is exempt
from disclosure as a trade secret or commercial information under Section 552.110 or under any
other basis permitted by law.

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§ 552.114. Exception: Confidentiality of Student Records
(a) In this section, “student record” means:
(1)

information that constitutes education records as that term is defined by the Family
Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (20 U.S.C. Section 1232g(a)(4)); or

(2)

information in a record of an applicant for admission to an educational institution,
including a transfer applicant.

(b) Information is confidential and excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is
information in a student record at an educational institution funded wholly or partly by state
revenue. This subsection does not prohibit the disclosure or provision of information included
in an education record if the disclosure or provision is authorized by 20 U.S.C. Section 1232g
or other federal law.
(c) A record covered by Subsection (b) shall be made available on the request of:
(1)

educational institution personnel;

(2)

the student involved or the student’s parent, legal guardian, or spouse; or

(3)

a person conducting a child abuse investigation required by Subchapter D, Chapter 261,
Family Code.

(d) Except as provided by Subsection (e), an educational institution may redact information covered
under Subsection (b) from information disclosed under Section 552.021 without requesting a
decision from the attorney general.
(e) If an applicant for admission to an educational institution described by Subsection (b) or a parent
or legal guardian of a minor applicant to an educational institution described by Subsection (b)
requests information in the record of the applicant, the educational institution shall disclose any
information that:
(1)

is related to the applicant’s application for admission; and

(2)

was provided to the educational institution by the applicant.

§ 552.115.

Exception: Confidentiality of Birth and Death Records

(a) A birth or death record maintained by the vital statistics unit of the Department of State Health
Services or a local registration official is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021,
except that:
(1)

a birth record is public information and available to the public on and after the 75th
anniversary of the date of birth as shown on the record filed with the vital statistics unit or
local registration official;
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(2)

a death record is public information and available to the public on and after the 25th
anniversary of the date of death as shown on the record filed with the vital statistics unit
or local registration official, except that if the decedent is unidentified, the death record is
public information and available to the public on and after the first anniversary of the date
of death;

(3)

a general birth index or a general death index established or maintained by the vital
statistics unit or a local registration official is public information and available to the public
to the extent the index relates to a birth record or death record that is public information
and available to the public under Subdivision (1) or (2);

(4)

a summary birth index or a summary death index prepared or maintained by the vital
statistics unit or a local registration official is public information and available to the
public; and

(5)

a birth or death record is available to the chief executive officer of a home-rule
municipality or the officer’s designee if:
(A) the record is used only to identify a property owner or other person to whom the
municipality is required to give notice when enforcing a state statute or an ordinance;
(B) the municipality has exercised due diligence in the manner described by Section
54.035(e), Local Government Code, to identify the person; and
(C) the officer or designee signs a confidentiality agreement that requires that:
(i)

the information not be disclosed outside the office of the officer or designee, or
within the office for a purpose other than the purpose described by Paragraph
(A);

(ii)

the information be labeled as confidential;

(iii) the information be kept securely; and
(iv) the number of copies made of the information or the notes taken from the
information that implicate the confidential nature of the information be
controlled, with all copies or notes that are not destroyed or returned remaining
confidential and subject to the confidentiality agreement.
(b) Notwithstanding Subsection (a), a general birth index or a summary birth index is not public
information and is not available to the public if:
(1)

the fact of an adoption or paternity determination can be revealed by the index; or

(2)

the index contains specific identifying information relating to the parents of a child who
is the subject of an adoption placement.

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(c) Subsection (a)(1) does not apply to the microfilming agreement entered into by the Genealogical
Society of Utah, a nonprofit corporation organized under the laws of the State of Utah, and the
Archives and Information Services Division of the Texas State Library and Archives
Commission.
(d) For the purposes of fulfilling the terms of the agreement in Subsection (c), the Genealogical
Society of Utah shall have access to birth records on and after the 50th anniversary of the date
of birth as shown on the record filed with the bureau of vital statistics or local registration
official, but such birth records shall not be made available to the public until the 75th anniversary
of the date of birth as shown on the record.
§ 552.116.

Exception: Audit Working Papers

(a) An audit working paper of an audit of the state auditor or the auditor of a state agency, an
institution of higher education as defined by Section 61.003, Education Code, a county, a
municipality, a school district, a hospital district, or a joint board operating under Section 22.074,
Transportation Code, including any audit relating to the criminal history background check of
a public school employee, is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021. If information
in an audit working paper is also maintained in another record, that other record is not excepted
from the requirements of Section 552.021 by this section.
(b) In this section:
(1)

“Audit” means an audit authorized or required by a statute of this state or the United States,
the charter or an ordinance of a municipality, an order of the commissioners court of a
county, the bylaws adopted by or other action of the governing board of a hospital district,
a resolution or other action of a board of trustees of a school district, including an audit by
the district relating to the criminal history background check of a public school employee,
or a resolution or other action of a joint board described by Subsection (a) and includes an
investigation.

(2)

“Audit working paper” includes all information, documentary or otherwise, prepared or
maintained in conducting an audit or preparing an audit report, including:
(A) intra-agency and interagency communications; and
(B) drafts of the audit report or portions of those drafts.

§ 552.117.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Addresses, Telephone Numbers, Social
Security Numbers, and Personal Family Information

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information that relates
to the home address, home telephone number, emergency contact information, or social security
number of the following person or that reveals whether the person has family members:
(1)

a current or former official or employee of a governmental body, except as otherwise
provided by Section 552.024;
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(2)

a peace officer as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal Procedure, or a security officer
commissioned under Section 51.212, Education Code, regardless of whether the officer
complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175, as applicable;

(3)

a current or former employee of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or of the
predecessor in function of the department or any division of the department, regardless of
whether the current or former employee complies with Section 552.1175;

(4)

a peace officer as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal Procedure, or other law, a
reserve law enforcement officer, a commissioned deputy game warden, or a corrections
officer in a municipal, county, or state penal institution in this state who was killed in the
line of duty, regardless of whether the deceased complied with Section 552.024 or
552.1175;

(5)

a commissioned security officer as defined by Section 1702.002, Occupations Code,
regardless of whether the officer complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175, as applicable;

(6)

an officer or employee of a community supervision and corrections department established
under Chapter 76 who performs a duty described by Section 76.004(b), regardless of
whether the officer or employee complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175;

(7)

a current or former employee of the office of the attorney general who is or was assigned
to a division of that office the duties of which involve law enforcement, regardless of
whether the current or former employee complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175;

(8)

a current or former employee of the Texas Juvenile Justice Department or of the
predecessors in function of the department, regardless of whether the current or former
employee complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175;

(9)

a current or former juvenile probation or supervision officer certified by the Texas Juvenile
Justice Department, or the predecessors in function of the department, under Title 12,
Human Resources Code, regardless of whether the current or former officer complies with
Section 552.024 or 552.1175;

(10) a current or former employee of a juvenile justice program or facility, as those terms are
defined by Section 261.405, Family Code, regardless of whether the current or former
employee complies with Section 552.024 or 552.1175; or
(11) a current or former member of the Texas military forces, as that term is defined by
Section 437.001.
(b) All documents filed with a county clerk and all documents filed with a district clerk are exempt
from this section.

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§ 552.1175. Confidentiality of Certain Personal Information of Peace Officers, County Jailers,
Security Officers, Employees of Certain Criminal or Juvenile Justice Agencies or
Offices, and Federal and State Judges.
(a)

This section applies only to:
(1) peace officers as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal Procedure;
(2) county jailers as defined by Section 1701.001, Occupations Code;
(3) current or former employees of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice or of the
predecessor in function of the department or any division of the department;
(4) commissioned security officers as defined by Section 1702.002, Occupations Code;
(5) employees of a district attorney, criminal district attorney, or county or municipal
attorney whose jurisdiction includes any criminal law or child protective services
matters;
(6) officers and employees of a community supervision and corrections department
established under Chapter 76 who perform a duty described by Section 76.004(b);
(7) criminal investigators of the United States as described by Article 2.122(a), Code of
Criminal Procedure;
(8) police officers and inspectors of the United States Federal Protective Service;
(9) current and former employees of the office of the attorney general who are or were
assigned to a division of that office the duties of which involve law enforcement;
(10) current or former juvenile probation and detention officers certified by the Texas
Juvenile Justice Department, or the predecessors in function of the department, under
Title 12, Human Resources Code;
(11) current or former employees of a juvenile justice program or facility, as those terms
are defined by Section 261.405, Family Code;
(12) current or former employees of the Texas Juvenile Justice Department or the
predecessors in function of the department; and
(13) federal judges and state judges as defined by Section 13.0021, Election Code.

(b)

Information that relates to the home address, home telephone number, emergency contact
information, date of birth, or social security number of an individual to whom this section
applies, or that reveals whether the individual has family members is confidential and
may not be disclosed to the public under this chapter if the individual to whom the
information relates:
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(1) chooses to restrict public access to the information; and
(2) notifies the governmental body of the individual’s choice on a form provided by the
governmental body, accompanied by evidence of the individual’s status.
(c)

A choice made under Subsection (b) remains valid until rescinded in writing by the
individual.

(d)

This section does not apply to information in the tax appraisal records of an appraisal
district to which Section 25.025, Tax Code, applies.

(e)

All documents filed with a county clerk and all documents filed with a district clerk are
exempt from this section.

(f)

A governmental body may redact information that must be withheld under Subsection (b)
from any information the governmental body discloses under Section 552.021 without the
necessity of requesting a decision from the attorney general under Subchapter G.

(g)

If, under Subsection (f), a governmental body redacts or withholds information without
requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the information may be
redacted or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision from the attorney general
about the matter. The attorney general by rule shall establish procedures and deadlines for
receiving information necessary to decide the matter and briefs from the requestor, the
governmental body, and any other interested person. The attorney general shall promptly
render a decision requested under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or
withheld information was excepted from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than
the 45th business day after the date the attorney general received the request for a decision
under this subsection. The attorney general shall issue a written decision on the matter and
provide a copy of the decision to the requestor, the governmental body, and any interested
person who submitted necessary information or a brief to the attorney general about the
matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a decision of the attorney
general under this subsection to a Travis County district court.

(h)

A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (f) shall
provide the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the attorney
general:
(1) a description of the redacted or withheld information;
(2) a citation to this section; and
(3) instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney general
regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from required
disclosure.

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§ 552.1176. Confidentiality of Certain Information Maintained by State Bar
(a) Information that relates to the home address, home telephone number, electronic mail address,
social security number, or date of birth of a person licensed to practice law in this state that is
maintained under Chapter 81 is confidential and may not be disclosed to the public under this
chapter if the person to whom the information relates:
(1)

chooses to restrict public access to the information; and

(2)

notifies the State Bar of Texas of the person’s choice, in writing or electronically, on a
form provided by the state bar.

(b) A choice made under Subsection (a) remains valid until rescinded in writing or electronically by
the person.
(c) All documents filed with a county clerk and all documents filed with a district clerk are exempt
from this section.
§ 552.118.

Exception: Confidentiality of Official Prescription Program Information

Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is:
(1)

information on or derived from an official prescription form or electronic prescription
record filed with the Texas State Board of Pharmacy under Section 481.075, Health and
Safety Code; or

(2)

other information collected under Section 481.075 of that code.

§ 552.119.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Photographs of Peace Officers

(a) A photograph that depicts a peace officer as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal
Procedure, the release of which would endanger the life or physical safety of the officer, is
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 unless:
(1)

the officer is under indictment or charged with an offense by information;

(2)

the officer is a party in a civil service hearing or a case in arbitration; or

(3)

the photograph is introduced as evidence in a judicial proceeding.

(b) A photograph excepted from disclosure under Subsection (a) may be made public only if the
peace officer gives written consent to the disclosure.

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§ 552.120.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Rare Books and Original Manuscripts

A rare book or original manuscript that was not created or maintained in the conduct of official
business of a governmental body and that is held by a private or public archival and manuscript
repository for the purpose of historical research is excepted from the requirements of Section
552.021.
§ 552.121.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Documents Held for Historical Research

An oral history interview, personal paper, unpublished letter, or organizational record of a
nongovernmental entity that was not created or maintained in the conduct of official business of a
governmental body and that is held by a private or public archival and manuscript repository for the
purpose of historical research is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 to the extent that
the archival and manuscript repository and the donor of the interview, paper, letter, or record agree
to limit disclosure of the item.
§ 552.122.

Exception: Test Items

(a) A test item developed by an educational institution that is funded wholly or in part by state
revenue is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(b) A test item developed by a licensing agency or governmental body is excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.123.

Exception: Confidentiality of Name of Applicant for Chief Executive Officer of
Institution of Higher Education

The name of an applicant for the position of chief executive officer of an institution of higher
education, and other information that would tend to identify the applicant, is excepted from the
requirements of Section 552.021, except that the governing body of the institution must give public
notice of the name or names of the finalists being considered for the position at least 21 days before
the date of the meeting at which final action or vote is to be taken on the employment of the person.
§ 552.1235. Exception: Confidentiality of Identity of Private Donor to Institution of Higher
Education
(a) The name or other information that would tend to disclose the identity of a person, other than a
governmental body, who makes a gift, grant, or donation of money or property to an institution
of higher education or to another person with the intent that the money or property be transferred
to an institution of higher education is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(b) Subsection (a) does not except from required disclosure other information relating to gifts,
grants, and donations described by Subsection (a), including the amount or value of an individual
gift, grant, or donation.
(c) In this section, “institution of higher education” has the meaning assigned by Section 61.003,
Education Code.
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§ 552.124.

Exception: Confidentiality of Records of Library or Library System

(a) A record of a library or library system, supported in whole or in part by public funds, that
identifies or serves to identify a person who requested, obtained, or used a library material or
service is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 unless the record is disclosed:
(1)

because the library or library system determines that disclosure is reasonably necessary for
the operation of the library or library system and the record is not confidential under other
state or federal law;

(2)

under Section 552.023; or

(3)

to a law enforcement agency or a prosecutor under a court order or subpoena obtained after
a showing to a district court that:
(A) disclosure of the record is necessary to protect the public safety; or
(B) the record is evidence of an offense or constitutes evidence that a particular person
committed an offense.

(b) A record of a library or library system that is excepted from required disclosure under this section
is confidential.
§ 552.125.

Exception: Certain Audits

Any documents or information privileged under the Texas Environmental, Health, and Safety Audit
Privilege Act are excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.126. Exception: Confidentiality of Name of Applicant for Superintendent of Public
School District
The name of an applicant for the position of superintendent of a public school district is excepted
from the requirements of Section 552.021, except that the board of trustees must give public notice
of the name or names of the finalists being considered for the position at least 21 days before the date
of the meeting at which a final action or vote is to be taken on the employment of the person.
§ 552.127. Exception: Confidentiality of Personal Information Relating to Participants in
Neighborhood Crime Watch Organization
(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if the information identifies
a person as a participant in a neighborhood crime watch organization and relates to the name,
home address, business address, home telephone number, or business telephone number of the
person.
(b) In this section, “neighborhood crime watch organization” means a group of residents of a
neighborhood or part of a neighborhood that is formed in affiliation or association with a law
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enforcement agency in this state to observe activities within the neighborhood or part of a
neighborhood and to take other actions intended to reduce crime in that area.
§ 552.128.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Information Submitted by Potential
Vendor or Contractor

(a) Information submitted by a potential vendor or contractor to a governmental body in connection
with an application for certification as a historically underutilized or disadvantaged business
under a local, state, or federal certification program is excepted from the requirements of Section
552.021, except as provided by this section.
(b) Notwithstanding Section 552.007 and except as provided by Subsection (c), the information may
be disclosed only:
(1)

to a state or local governmental entity in this state, and the state or local governmental
entity may use the information only:
(A) for purposes related to verifying an applicant’s status as a historically underutilized
or disadvantaged business; or
(B) for the purpose of conducting a study of a public purchasing program established
under state law for historically underutilized or disadvantaged businesses; or

(2)

with the express written permission of the applicant or the applicant’s agent.

(c) Information submitted by a vendor or contractor or a potential vendor or contractor to a
governmental body in connection with a specific proposed contractual relationship, a specific
contract, or an application to be placed on a bidders list, including information that may also
have been submitted in connection with an application for certification as a historically
underutilized or disadvantaged business, is subject to required disclosure, excepted from required
disclosure, or confidential in accordance with other law.
§ 552.129.

Confidentiality of Certain Motor Vehicle Inspection Information

A record created during a motor vehicle emissions inspection under Subchapter F, Chapter 548,
Transportation Code, that relates to an individual vehicle or owner of an individual vehicle is
excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.130. Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Motor Vehicle Records
(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if the information relates to:
(1)

a motor vehicle operator’s or driver’s license or permit issued by an agency of this state or
another state or country;

(2)

a motor vehicle title or registration issued by an agency of this state or another state or
country; or
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(3)

a personal identification document issued by an agency of this state or another state or
country or a local agency authorized to issue an identification document.

(b) Information described by Subsection (a) may be released only if, and in the manner, authorized
by Chapter 730, Transportation Code.
(c) Subject to Chapter 730, Transportation Code, a governmental body may redact information
described by Subsection (a) from any information the governmental body discloses under
Section 552.021 without the necessity of requesting a decision from the attorney general under
Subchapter G.
(d) If, under Subsection (c), a governmental body redacts or withholds information without
requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the information may be redacted
or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision from the attorney general about the
matter. The attorney general by rule shall establish procedures and deadlines for receiving
information necessary to decide the matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body,
and any other interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was excepted
from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business day after the date the
attorney general received the request for a decision under this subsection. The attorney general
shall issue a written decision on the matter and provide a copy of the decision to the requestor,
the governmental body, and any interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief
to the attorney general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district court.
(e) A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c) shall provide
the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the attorney general:
(1) a description of the redacted or withheld information;
(2) a citation to this section; and
(3) instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney general
regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from required
disclosure.
§ 552.131.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Economic Development Information

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if the information relates to
economic development negotiations involving a governmental body and a business prospect that
the governmental body seeks to have locate, stay, or expand in or near the territory of the
governmental body and the information relates to:
(1)

a trade secret of the business prospect; or

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(2)

commercial or financial information for which it is demonstrated based on specific factual
evidence that disclosure would cause substantial competitive harm to the person from
whom the information was obtained.

(b) Unless and until an agreement is made with the business prospect, information about a financial
or other incentive being offered to the business prospect by the governmental body or by another
person is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(c) After an agreement is made with the business prospect, this section does not except from the
requirements of Section 552.021 information about a financial or other incentive being offered
to the business prospect:
(1)

by the governmental body; or

(2)

by another person, if the financial or other incentive may directly or indirectly result in the
expenditure of public funds by a governmental body or a reduction in revenue received by
a governmental body from any source.

§ 552.132.

Confidentiality of Crime Victim or Claimant Information

(a) Except as provided by Subsection (d), in this section, “crime victim or claimant” means a victim
or claimant under Subchapter B, Chapter 56, Code of Criminal Procedure, who has filed an
application for compensation under that subchapter.
(b) The following information held by the crime victim’s compensation division of the attorney
general’s office is confidential:
(1)

the name, social security number, address, or telephone number of a crime victim or
claimant; or

(2)

any other information the disclosure of which would identify or tend to identify the crime
victim or claimant.

(c) If the crime victim or claimant is awarded compensation under Section 56.34, Code of Criminal
Procedure, as of the date of the award of compensation, the name of the crime victim or claimant
and the amount of compensation awarded to that crime victim or claimant are public information
and are not excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(d) An employee of a governmental body who is also a victim under Subchapter B, Chapter 56,
Code of Criminal Procedure, regardless of whether the employee has filed an application for
compensation under that subchapter, may elect whether to allow public access to information
held by the attorney general’s office or other governmental body that would identify or tend to
identify the victim, including a photograph or other visual representation of the victim. An
election under this subsection must be made in writing on a form developed by the governmental
body, be signed by the employee, and be filed with the governmental body before the third
anniversary of the latest to occur of one of the following:

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(1)

the date the crime was committed;

(2)

the date employment begins; or

(3)

the date the governmental body develops the form and provides it to employees.

(e) If the employee fails to make an election under Subsection (d), the identifying information is
excepted from disclosure until the third anniversary of the date the crime was committed. In case
of disability, impairment, or other incapacity of the employee, the election may be made by the
guardian of the employee or former employee.
§ 552.1325. Crime Victim Impact Statement: Certain Information Confidential
(a) In this section:
(1)

“Crime victim” means a person who is a victim as defined by Article 56.32, Code of
Criminal Procedure.

(2)

“Victim impact statement” means a victim impact statement under Article 56.03, Code of
Criminal Procedure.

(b) The following information that is held by a governmental body or filed with a court and that is
contained in a victim impact statement or was submitted for purposes of preparing a victim
impact statement is confidential:
(1)

the name, social security number, address, and telephone number of a crime victim; and

(2)

any other information the disclosure of which would identify or tend to identify the crime
victim.

§ 552.133.

Exception: Confidentiality of Public Power Utility Competitive Matters

(a) In this section, “public power utility” means an entity providing electric or gas utility services
that is subject to the provisions of this chapter.
(a-1) For purposes of this section, “competitive matter” means a utility-related matter that is related
to the public power utility’s competitive activity, including commercial information, and would, if
disclosed, give advantage to competitors or prospective competitors. The term:
(1)

means a matter that is reasonably related to the following categories of information:
(A) generation unit specific and portfolio fixed and variable costs, including forecasts of
those costs, capital improvement plans for generation units, and generation unit
operating characteristics and outage scheduling;

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(B) bidding and pricing information for purchased power, generation and fuel, and
Electric Reliability Council of Texas bids, prices, offers, and related services and
strategies;
(C) effective fuel and purchased power agreements and fuel transportation arrangements
and contracts;
(D) risk management information, contracts, and strategies, including fuel hedging and
storage;
(E) plans, studies, proposals, and analyses for system improvements, additions, or sales,
other than transmission and distribution system improvements inside the service area
for which the public power utility is the sole certificated retail provider; and
(F)

(2)

customer billing, contract, and usage information, electric power pricing information,
system load characteristics, and electric power marketing analyses and strategies; and

does not include the following categories of information:
(A) information relating to the provision of distribution access service, including the
terms and conditions of the service and the rates charged for the service but not
including information concerning utility-related services or products that are
competitive;
(B) information relating to the provision of transmission service that is required to be
filed with the Public Utility Commission of Texas, subject to any confidentiality
provided for under the rules of the commission;
(C) information for the distribution system pertaining to reliability and continuity of
service, to the extent not security-sensitive, that relates to emergency management,
identification of critical loads such as hospitals and police, records of interruption,
and distribution feeder standards;
(D) any substantive rule or tariff of general applicability regarding rates, service
offerings, service regulation, customer protections, or customer service adopted by
the public power utility as authorized by law;
(E) aggregate information reflecting receipts or expenditures of funds of the public power
utility, of the type that would be included in audited financial statements;
(F)

information relating to equal employment opportunities for minority groups, as filed
with local, state, or federal agencies;

(G) information relating to the public power utility’s performance in contracting with
minority business entities;

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(H) information relating to nuclear decommissioning trust agreements, of the type
required to be included in audited financial statements;
(I)

information relating to the amount and timing of any transfer to an owning city’s
general fund;

(J)

information relating to environmental compliance as required to be filed with any
local, state, or national environmental authority, subject to any confidentiality
provided under the rules of those authorities;

(K) names of public officers of the public power utility and the voting records of those
officers for all matters other than those within the scope of a competitive resolution
provided for by this section;
(L) a description of the public power utility’s central and field organization, including the
established places at which the public may obtain information, submit information
and requests, or obtain decisions and the identification of employees from whom the
public may obtain information, submit information or requests, or obtain decisions;
(M) information identifying the general course and method by which the public power
utility’s functions are channeled and determined, including the nature and
requirements of all formal and informal policies and procedures;
(N) salaries and total compensation of all employees of a public power utility; or
(O) information publicly released by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas in
accordance with a law, rule, or protocol generally applicable to similarly situated
market participants.
(b) Information or records are excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if the information
or records are reasonably related to a competitive matter, as defined in this section. Information
or records of a municipally owned utility that are reasonably related to a competitive matter are
not subject to disclosure under this chapter, whether or not, under the Utilities Code, the
municipally owned utility has adopted customer choice or serves in a multiply certificated
service area. This section does not limit the right of a public power utility governing body to
withhold from disclosure information deemed to be within the scope of any other exception
provided for in this chapter, subject to the provisions of this chapter.
(c) The requirement of Section 552.022 that a category of information listed under Section
552.022(a) is public information and not excepted from required disclosure under this chapter
unless expressly confidential under law does not apply to information that is excepted from
required disclosure under this section.

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§ 552.134.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Information Relating to Inmate of
Department of Criminal Justice

(a) Except as provided by Subsection (b) or by Section 552.029, information obtained or maintained
by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice is excepted from the requirements of Section
552.021 if it is information about an inmate who is confined in a facility operated by or under
a contract with the department.
(b) Subsection (a) does not apply to:
(1)

statistical or other aggregated information relating to inmates confined in one or more
facilities operated by or under a contract with the department; or

(2)

information about an inmate sentenced to death.

(c) This section does not affect whether information is considered confidential or privileged under
Section 508.313.
(d) A release of information described by Subsection (a) to an eligible entity, as defined by Section
508.313(d), for a purpose related to law enforcement, prosecution, corrections, clemency, or
treatment is not considered a release of information to the public for purposes of Section 552.007
and does not waive the right to assert in the future that the information is excepted from required
disclosure under this section or other law.
§ 552.135.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Information Held by School District

(a) “Informer” means a student or a former student or an employee or former employee of a school
district who has furnished a report of another person’s possible violation of criminal, civil, or
regulatory law to the school district or the proper regulatory enforcement authority.
(b) An informer’s name or information that would substantially reveal the identity of an informer
is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(c) Subsection (b) does not apply:
(1)

if the informer is a student or former student, and the student or former student, or the legal
guardian, or spouse of the student or former student consents to disclosure of the student’s
or former student’s name; or

(2)

if the informer is an employee or former employee who consents to disclosure of the
employee’s or former employee’s name; or

(3)

if the informer planned, initiated, or participated in the possible violation.

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(d) Information excepted under Subsection (b) may be made available to a law enforcement agency
or prosecutor for official purposes of the agency or prosecutor upon proper request made in
compliance with applicable law and procedure.
(e) This section does not infringe on or impair the confidentiality of information considered to be
confidential by law, whether it be constitutional, statutory, or by judicial decision, including
information excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.136.

Confidentiality of Credit Card, Debit Card, Charge Card, and Access Device
Numbers

(a) In this section, “access device” means a card, plate, code, account number, personal
identification number, electronic serial number, mobile identification number, or other
telecommunications service, equipment, or instrument identifier or means of account access that
alone or in conjunction with another access device may be used to:
(1)

obtain money, goods, services, or another thing of value; or

(2)

initiate a transfer of funds other than a transfer originated solely by paper instrument.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a credit card, debit card, charge card, or
access device number that is collected, assembled, or maintained by or for a governmental body
is confidential.
(c) A governmental body may redact information that must be withheld under Subsection (b) from
any information the governmental body discloses under Section 552.021 without the necessity
of requesting a decision from the attorney general under Subchapter G.
(d) If, under Subsection (c), a governmental body redacts or withholds information without
requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the information may be redacted
or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision from the attorney general about the
matter. The attorney general by rule shall establish procedures and deadlines for receiving
information necessary to decide the matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body,
and any other interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was excepted
from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business day after the date the
attorney general received the request for a decision under this subsection. The attorney general
shall issue a written decision on the matter and provide a copy of the decision to the requestor,
the governmental body, and any interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief
to the attorney general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district court.
(e) A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c) shall provide
the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the attorney general:
(1)

a description of the redacted or withheld information;

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(2)

a citation to this section; and

(3)

instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney general
regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from required
disclosure.

§ 552.137.

Confidentiality of Certain E-mail Addresses

(a) Except as otherwise provided by this section, an e-mail address of a member of the public that
is provided for the purpose of communicating electronically with a governmental body is
confidential and not subject to disclosure under this chapter.
(b) Confidential information described by this section that relates to a member of the public may be
disclosed if the member of the public affirmatively consents to its release.
(c) Subsection (a) does not apply to an e-mail address:
(1)

provided to a governmental body by a person who has a contractual relationship with the
governmental body or by the contractor’s agent;

(2)

provided to a governmental body by a vendor who seeks to contract with the governmental
body or by the vendor’s agent;

(3)

contained in a response to a request for bids or proposals, contained in a response to similar
invitations soliciting offers or information relating to a potential contract, or provided to
a governmental body in the course of negotiating the terms of a contract or potential
contract;

(4)

provided to a governmental body on a letterhead, coversheet, printed document, or other
document made available to the public; or

(5)

provided to a governmental body for the purpose of providing public comment on or
receiving notices related to an application for a license as defined by Section 2001.003(2)
of this code, or receiving orders or decisions from a governmental body.

(d) Subsection (a) does not prevent a governmental body from disclosing an e-mail address for any
reason to another governmental body or to a federal agency.
§ 552.138.

Exception: Confidentiality of Family Violence Shelter Center, Victims of
Trafficking Shelter Center, and Sexual Assault Program Information

(a) In this section:
(1)

“Family violence shelter center” has the meaning assigned by Section 51.002, Human
Resources Code.

(2)

“Sexual assault program” has the meaning assigned by Section 420.003.
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(3)

“Victims of trafficking shelter center” means:
(A) a program that:
(i) is operated by a public or private nonprofit organization; and
(ii) provides comprehensive residential and nonresidential services to persons who
are victims of trafficking under Section 20A.02, Penal Code; or
(B) a child-placing agency, as defined by Section 42.002, Human Resources Code, that
provides services to persons who are victims of trafficking under Section 20A.02,
Penal Code.

(b) Information maintained by a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center,
or sexual assault program is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is
information that relates to:
(1)

the home address, home telephone number, or social security number of an employee or
a volunteer worker of a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center,
or sexual assault program, regardless of whether the employee or worker complies with
Section 552.024;

(2)

the location or physical layout of a family violence shelter center or victims of trafficking
shelter center;

(3)

the name, home address, home telephone number, or numeric identifier of a current or
former client of a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center, or
sexual assault program;

(4)

the provision of services, including counseling and sheltering, to a current or former client
of a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault
program;

(5)

the name, home address, or home telephone number of a private donor to a family violence
shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault program; or

(6)

the home address or home telephone number of a member of the board of directors or the
board of trustees of a family violence shelter center, victims of trafficking shelter center,
or sexual assault program, regardless of whether the board member complies with
Section 552.024.

(c) A governmental body may redact information maintained by a family violence shelter center,
victims of trafficking shelter center, or sexual assault program that may be withheld under
Subsection (b)(1) or (6) from any information the governmental body discloses under
Section 552.021 without the necessity of requesting a decision from the attorney general under
Subchapter G.

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(d) If, under Subsection (c), a governmental body redacts or withholds information without
requesting a decision from the attorney general about whether the information may be redacted
or withheld, the requestor is entitled to seek a decision from the attorney general about the
matter. The attorney general by rule shall establish procedures and deadlines for receiving
information necessary to decide the matter and briefs from the requestor, the governmental body,
and any other interested person. The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested
under this subsection, determining whether the redacted or withheld information was excepted
from required disclosure to the requestor, not later than the 45th business day after the date the
attorney general received the request for a decision under this subsection. The attorney general
shall issue a written decision on the matter and provide a copy of the decision to the requestor,
the governmental body, and any interested person who submitted necessary information or a brief
to the attorney general about the matter. The requestor or the governmental body may appeal a
decision of the attorney general under this subsection to a Travis County district court.
(e) A governmental body that redacts or withholds information under Subsection (c) shall provide
the following information to the requestor on a form prescribed by the attorney general:
(1)

a description of the redacted or withheld information;

(2)

a citation to this section; and

(3)

instructions regarding how the requestor may seek a decision from the attorney general
regarding whether the redacted or withheld information is excepted from required
disclosure.

§ 552.139.

Exception: Confidentiality of Government Information Related to Security or
Infrastructure Issues for Computers

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if it is information that relates
to computer network security, to restricted information under Section 2059.055, or to the design,
operation, or defense of a computer network.
(b) The following information is confidential:
(1)

a computer network vulnerability report;

(2)

any other assessment of the extent to which data processing operations, a computer, a
computer program, network, system, or system interface, or software of a governmental
body or of a contractor of a governmental body is vulnerable to unauthorized access or
harm, including an assessment of the extent to which the governmental body’s or
contractor’s electronically stored information containing sensitive or critical information
is vulnerable to alteration, damage, erasure, or inappropriate use; and

(3)

a photocopy or other copy of an identification badge issued to an official or employee of
a governmental body.

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(c) Notwithstanding the confidential nature of the information described in this section, the
information may be disclosed to a bidder if the governmental body determines that providing the
information is necessary for the bidder to provide an accurate bid. A disclosure under this
subsection is not a voluntary disclosure for purposes of Section 552.007.
§ 552.140. Exception: Confidentiality of Military Discharge Records
(a) This section applies only to a military veteran’s Department of Defense Form DD-214 or other
military discharge record that is first recorded with or that otherwise first comes into the
possession of a governmental body on or after September 1, 2003.
(b) The record is confidential for the 75 years following the date it is recorded with or otherwise first
comes into the possession of a governmental body. During that period the governmental body
may permit inspection or copying of the record or disclose information contained in the record
only in accordance with this section or in accordance with a court order.
(c) On request and the presentation of proper identification, the following persons may inspect the
military discharge record or obtain from the governmental body free of charge a copy or certified
copy of the record:
(1)

the veteran who is the subject of the record;

(2)

the legal guardian of the veteran;

(3)

the spouse or a child or parent of the veteran or, if there is no living spouse, child, or
parent, the nearest living relative of the veteran;

(4)

the personal representative of the estate of the veteran;

(5)

the person named by the veteran, or by a person described by Subdivision (2), (3), or (4),
in an appropriate power of attorney executed in accordance with Section 490, Chapter XII,
Texas Probate Code;

(6)

another governmental body; or

(7)

an authorized representative of the funeral home that assists with the burial of the veteran.

(d) A court that orders the release of information under this section shall limit the further disclosure
of the information and the purposes for which the information may be used.
(e) A governmental body that obtains information from the record shall limit the governmental
body’s use and disclosure of the information to the purpose for which the information was
obtained.

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§ 552.141. Confidentiality of Information in Application for Marriage License
(a) Information that relates to the social security number of an individual that is maintained by a
county clerk and that is on an application for a marriage license, including information in an
application on behalf of an absent applicant and the affidavit of an absent applicant, or is on a
document submitted with an application for a marriage license is confidential and may not be
disclosed by the county clerk to the public under this chapter.
(b) If the county clerk receives a request to make information in a marriage license application
available under this chapter, the county clerk shall redact the portion of the application that
contains an individual’s social security number and release the remainder of the information in
the application.
§ 552.142.

Exception: Confidentiality of Records Subject to Order of Nondisclosure

(a) Information is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if an order of nondisclosure
of criminal history record information with respect to the information has been issued under
Subchapter E-1, Chapter 411.
(b) A person who is the subject of information that is excepted from the requirements of Section
552.021 under this section may deny the occurrence of the criminal proceeding to which the
information relates and the exception of the information under this section, unless the
information is being used against the person in a subsequent criminal proceeding.
§ 552.1425. Civil Penalty: Dissemination of Certain Criminal History Information
(a) A private entity that compiles and disseminates for compensation criminal history record
information may not compile or disseminate information with respect to which the entity has
received notice that:
(1)

an order of expunction has been issued under Article 55.02, Code of Criminal Procedure;
or

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(2)

an order of nondisclosure of criminal history record information has been issued under
Subchapter E-1, Chapter 411.

(b) A district court may issue a warning to a private entity for a first violation of Subsection (a).
After receiving a warning for the first violation, the private entity is liable to the state for a civil
penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each subsequent violation.
(c) The attorney general or an appropriate prosecuting attorney may sue to collect a civil penalty
under this section.
(d) A civil penalty collected under this section shall be deposited in the state treasury to the credit
of the general revenue fund.
§ 552.143.

Confidentiality of Certain Investment Information

(a) All information prepared or provided by a private investment fund and held by a governmental
body that is not listed in Section 552.0225(b) is confidential and excepted from the requirements
of Section 552.021.
(b) Unless the information has been publicly released, pre-investment and post-investment diligence
information, including reviews and analyses, prepared or maintained by a governmental body or
a private investment fund is confidential and excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021,
except to the extent it is subject to disclosure under Subsection (c).
(c) All information regarding a governmental body’s direct purchase, holding, or disposal of
restricted securities that is not listed in Section 552.0225(b)(2)–(9), (11), or (13)–(16) is
confidential and excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021. This subsection does not
apply to a governmental body’s purchase, holding, or disposal of restricted securities for the
purpose of reinvestment nor does it apply to a private investment fund’s investment in restricted
securities. This subsection applies to information regarding a direct purchase, holding, or
disposal of restricted securities by the Texas growth fund, created under Section 70, Article XVI,
Texas Constitution, that is not listed in Section 552.0225(b).
(d) For the purposes of this chapter:
(1)

“Private investment fund” means an entity, other than a governmental body, that issues
restricted securities to a governmental body to evidence the investment of public funds for
the purpose of reinvestment.

(2)

“Reinvestment” means investment in a person that makes or will make other investments.

(3)

“Restricted securities” has the meaning assigned by 17 C.F.R. Section 230.144(a)(3).

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(e) Repealed by Acts 2011, 82nd Leg., 1st C.S., ch. 4 (S.B. 1), § 17.05(1).
(f) This section does not apply to the Texas Mutual Insurance Company or a successor to the
company.
§ 552.144.

Exception: Working Papers and Electronic Communications of Administrative
Law Judges at State Office of Administrative Hearings

The following working papers and electronic communications of an administrative law judge at the
State Office of Administrative Hearings are excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021:
(1)

notes and electronic communications recording the observations, thoughts, questions,
deliberations, or impressions of an administrative law judge;

(2)

drafts of a proposal for decision;

(3)

drafts of orders made in connection with conducting contested case hearings; and

(4)

drafts of orders made in connection with conducting alternative dispute resolution
procedures.

§ 552.145. Exception: Confidentiality of Texas No-Call List
The Texas no-call list created under Subchapter B, Chapter 304, Business & Commerce Code, and
any information provided to or received from the administrator of the national do-not-call registry
maintained by the United States government, as provided by Sections 304.051 and 304.56, Business
& Commerce Code, are excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021.
§ 552.146.

Exception: Certain Communications with Assistant or Employee of Legislative
Budget Board

(a) All written or otherwise recorded communications, including conversations, correspondence, and
electronic communications, between a member of the legislature or the lieutenant governor and
an assistant or employee of the Legislative Budget Board are excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021.
(b) Memoranda of a communication between a member of the legislature or the lieutenant governor
and an assistant or employee of the Legislative Budget Board are excepted from the requirements
of Section 552.021 without regard to the method used to store or maintain the memoranda.
(c) This section does not except from required disclosure a record or memoranda of a
communication that occurs in public during an open meeting or public hearing conducted by the
Legislative Budget Board.

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§ 552.147. Social Security Numbers
(a) Except as provided by Subsection (a-1), the social security number of a living person is excepted
from the requirements of Section 552.021, but is not confidential under this section and this
section does not make the social security number of a living person confidential under another
provision of this chapter or other law.
(a-1) The social security number of an employee of a school district in the custody of the district is
confidential.
(b) A governmental body may redact the social security number of a living person from any
information the governmental body discloses under Section 552.021 without the necessity of
requesting a decision from the attorney general under Subchapter G.
(c) Notwithstanding any other law, a county or district clerk may disclose in the ordinary course of
business a social security number that is contained in information held by the clerk’s office, and
that disclosure is not official misconduct and does not subject the clerk to civil or criminal
liability of any kind under the law of this state, including any claim for damages in a lawsuit or
the criminal penalty imposed by Section 552.352.
(d) Unless another law requires a social security number to be maintained in a government
document, on written request from an individual or the individual’s representative the clerk shall
redact within a reasonable amount of time all but the last four digits of the individual’s social
security number from information maintained in the clerk’s official public records, including
electronically stored information maintained by or under the control of the clerk. The individual
or the individual’s representative must identify, using a form provided by the clerk, the specific
document or documents from which the partial social security number shall be redacted.
§ 552.148. Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Personal Information Maintained by
Municipality Pertaining to a Minor
(a) In this section, “minor” means a person younger than 18 years of age.
(b) The following information maintained by a municipality for purposes related to the participation
by a minor in a recreational program or activity is excepted from the requirements of Section
552.021:
(1)

the name, age, home address, home telephone number, or social security number of the
minor;

(2)

a photograph of the minor; and

(3)

the name of the minor’s parent or legal guardian.

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§ 552.149.

Exception: Confidentiality of Records of Comptroller or Appraisal District
Received from Private Entity

(a) Information relating to real property sales prices, descriptions, characteristics, and other related
information received from a private entity by the comptroller or the chief appraiser of an
appraisal district under Chapter 6, Tax Code, is excepted from the requirements of Section
552.021.
(b) Notwithstanding Subsection (a), the property owner or the owner’s agent may, on request, obtain
from the chief appraiser of the applicable appraisal district a copy of each item of information
described by Section 41.461(a)(2), Tax Code, and a copy of each item of information that the
chief appraiser took into consideration but does not plan to introduce at the hearing on the
protest. In addition, the property owner or agent may, on request, obtain from the chief appraiser
comparable sales data from a reasonable number of sales that is relevant to any matter to be
determined by the appraisal review board at the hearing on the property owner’s protest.
Information obtained under this subsection:
(1)

remains confidential in the possession of the property owner or agent; and

(2)

may not be disclosed or used for any purpose except as evidence or argument at the hearing
on the protest.

(c) Notwithstanding Subsection (a) or Section 403.304, so as to assist a property owner or an
appraisal district in a protest filed under Section 403.303, the property owner, the district, or an
agent of the property owner or district may, on request, obtain from the comptroller any
information, including confidential information, obtained by the comptroller in connection with
the comptroller’s finding that is being protested. Confidential information obtained by a property
owner, an appraisal district, or an agent of the property owner or district under the subsection:
(1)

remains confidential in the possession of the property owner, district, or agent; and

(2)

may not be disclosed to a person who is not authorized to receive or inspect the
information.

(d) Notwithstanding Subsection (a) or Section 403.304, so as to assist a school district in the
preparation of a protest filed or to be filed under Section 403.303, the school district or an agent
of the school district may, on request, obtain from the comptroller or the appraisal district any
information, including confidential information, obtained by the comptroller or the appraisal
district that relates to the appraisal of property involved in the comptroller’s finding that is being
protested. Confidential information obtained by a school district or an agent of the school
district under this subsection:
(1)

remains confidential in the possession of the school district or agent; and

(2)

may not be disclosed to a person who is not authorized to receive or inspect the
information.

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(e) This section applies to information described by Subsections (a), (c), and (d) and to an item of
information or comparable sales data described by Subsection (b) only if the information, item
of information, or comparable sales data relates to real property that is located in a county having
a population of more than 50,000.
§ 552.150.

Exception: Confidentiality of Information That Could Compromise Safety of
Officer or Employee of Hospital District

(a) Information in the custody of a hospital district that relates to an employee or officer of the
hospital district is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if:
(1)

it is information that, if disclosed under the specific circumstances pertaining to the
individual, could reasonably be expected to compromise the safety of the individual, such
as information that describes or depicts the likeness of the individual, information stating
the times that the individual arrives at or departs from work, a description of the
individual’s automobile, or the location where the individual works or parks; and

(2)

the employee or officer applies in writing to the hospital district’s officer for public
information to have the information withheld from public disclosure under this section and
includes in the application:
(A) a description of the information; and
(B) the specific circumstances pertaining to the individual that demonstrate why disclosure
of the information could reasonably be expected to compromise the safety of the
individual.

(b) On receiving a written request for information described in an application submitted under
Subsection (a)(2), the officer for public information shall:
(1)

request a decision from the attorney general in accordance with Section 552.301 regarding
withholding the information; and

(2)

include a copy of the application submitted under Subsection (a)(2) with the request for the
decision.

(c) Repealed by Acts 2011, 82nd Leg., ch. 609 (S.B. 470), § 1.
§ 552.151.

Exception: Confidentiality of Information Concerning Information Regarding
Select Agents

(a) The following information that pertains to a biological agent or toxin identified or listed as a
select agent under federal law, including under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism
Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Pub. L. No. 107-188) and regulations adopted under
that Act, is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021:

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(1)

the specific location of a select agent within an approved facility;

(2)

personal identifying information of an individual whose name appears in documentation
relating to the chain of custody of select agents, including a materials transfer agreement;
and

(3)

the identity of an individual authorized to possess, use, or access a select agent.

(b) This section does not except from disclosure the identity of the select agents present at a facility.
(c) This section does not except from disclosure the identity of an individual faculty member or
employee whose name appears or will appear on published research.
(d) This section does not except from disclosure otherwise public information relating to contracts
of a governmental body.
(e) If a resident of another state is present in Texas and is authorized to possess, use, or access a
select agent in conducting research or other work at a Texas facility, information relating to the
identity of that individual is subject to disclosure under this chapter only to the extent the
information would be subject to disclosure under the laws of the state of which the person is a
resident.
§ 552.152.

Exception: Confidentiality of Information Concerning Public Employee or
Officer Personal Safety

Information in the custody of a governmental body that relates to an employee or officer of the
governmental body is excepted from the requirements of Section 552.021 if, under the specific
circumstances pertaining to the employee or officer, disclosure of the information would subject the
employee or officer to a substantial threat of physical harm.
§ 552.153.

Proprietary Records and Trade Secrets Involved in Certain Partnerships

(a) In this section, “affected jurisdiction,” “comprehensive agreement,” “contracting person,”
“interim agreement,” “qualifying project,” and “responsible governmental entity” have the
meanings assigned those terms by Section 2267.001.
(b) Information in the custody of a responsible governmental entity that relates to a proposal for a
qualifying project authorized under Chapter 2267 is excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021 if:
(1)

the information consists of memoranda, staff evaluations, or other records prepared by the
responsible governmental entity, its staff, outside advisors, or consultants exclusively for
the evaluation and negotiation of proposals filed under Chapter 2267 for which:

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(A) disclosure to the public before or after the execution of an interim or comprehensive
agreement would adversely affect the financial interest or bargaining position of the
responsible governmental entity; and
(B) the basis for the determination under Paragraph (A) is documented in writing by the
responsible governmental entity; or
(2)

the records are provided by a proposer to a responsible governmental entity or affected
jurisdiction under Chapter 2267 and contain:
(A) trade secrets of the proposer;
(B) financial records of the proposer, including balance sheets and financial statements,
that are not generally available to the public through regulatory disclosure or other
means; or
(C) work product related to a competitive bid or proposal submitted by the proposer that,
if made public before the execution of an interim or comprehensive agreement,
would provide a competing proposer an unjust advantage or adversely affect the
financial interest or bargaining position of the responsible governmental entity or the
proposer.

(c) Except as specifically provided by Subsection (b), this section does not authorize the withholding
of information concerning:
(1)

the terms of any interim or comprehensive agreement, service contract, lease, partnership,
or agreement of any kind entered into by the responsible governmental entity and the
contracting person or the terms of any financing arrangement that involves the use of any
public money; or

(2)

the performance of any person developing or operating a qualifying project under
Chapter 2267.

(d) In this section, “proposer” has the meaning assigned by Section 2267.001.
§ 552.154.

Exception: Name of Applicant for Executive Director, Chief Investment Officer,
or Chief Audit Executive of Teacher Retirement System of Texas

The name of an applicant for the position of executive director, chief investment officer, or chief
audit executive of the Teacher Retirement System of Texas is excepted from the requirements of
Section 552.021, except that the board of trustees of the Teacher Retirement System of Texas must
give public notice of the names of three finalists being considered for one of those positions at least
21 days before the date of the meeting at which the final action or vote is to be taken on choosing
a finalist for employment.

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§ 552.155.

Exception: Confidentiality of Certain Property Tax Appraisal Photographs.

(a) Except as provided by Subsection (b) or (c), a photograph that is taken by the chief appraiser of
an appraisal district or the chief appraiser’s authorized representative for property tax appraisal
purposes and that shows the interior of an improvement to property is confidential and excepted
from the requirements of Section 552.021.
(b) A governmental body shall disclose a photograph described by Subsection (a) to a requestor who
had an ownership interest in the improvement to property shown in the photograph on the date
the photograph was taken.
(c) A photograph described by Subsection (a) may be used as evidence in and provided to the parties
to a protest under Chapter 41, Tax Code, or an appeal of a determination by the appraisal review
board under Chapter 42, Tax Code, if it is relevant to the determination of a matter protested or
appealed. A photograph that is used as evidence:
(1)

remains confidential in the possession of the person to whom it is disclosed; and

(2)

may not be disclosed or used for any other purpose.

(c-1) Notwithstanding any other law, a photograph described by Subsection (a) may be used to
ascertain the location of equipment used to produce or transmit oil and gas for purposes of
taxation if that equipment is located on January 1 in the appraisal district that appraises property
for the equipment for the preceding 365 consecutive days.
§ 552.156.

Exception: Confidentiality of Continuity of Operations Plan.

(a) Except as otherwise provided by this section, the following information is excepted from
disclosure under this chapter:
(1)

a continuity of operations plan developed under Section 412.054, Labor Code; and

(2)

all records written, produced, collected, assembled, or maintained as part of the
development or review of a continuity of operations plan developed under Section 412.054,
Labor Code.

(b) Forms, standards, and other instructional, informational, or planning materials adopted by the
office to provide guidance or assistance to a state agency in developing a continuity of operations
plan under Section 412.054, Labor Code, are public information subject to disclosure under this
chapter.
(c) A governmental body may disclose or make available information that is confidential under this
section to another governmental body or a federal agency.
(d) Disclosing information to another governmental body or a federal agency under this section does
not waive or affect the confidentiality of that information.

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SUBCHAPTER D. OFFICER FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION
§ 552.201.

Identity of Officer for Public Information

(a) The chief administrative officer of a governmental body is the officer for public information,
except as provided by Subsection (b).
(b) Each elected county officer is the officer for public information and the custodian, as defined by
Section 201.003, Local Government Code, of the information created or received by that county
officer’s office.
§ 552.202.

Department Heads

Each department head is an agent of the officer for public information for the purposes of complying
with this chapter.
§ 552.203.

General Duties of Officer for Public Information

Each officer for public information, subject to penalties provided in this chapter, shall:
(1)

make public information available for public inspection and copying;

(2)

carefully protect public information from deterioration, alteration, mutilation, loss, or
unlawful removal; and

(3)

repair, renovate, or rebind public information as necessary to maintain it properly.

§ 552.204.

Scope of Responsibility of Officer for Public Information

An officer for public information is responsible for the release of public information as required by
this chapter. The officer is not responsible for:
(1)

the use made of the information by the requestor; or

(2)

the release of information after it is removed from a record as a result of an update, a
correction, or a change of status of the person to whom the information pertains.

§ 552.205.

Informing Public of Basic Rights and Responsibilities Under this Chapter

(a) An officer for public information shall prominently display a sign in the form prescribed by the
attorney general that contains basic information about the rights of a requestor, the
responsibilities of a governmental body, and the procedures for inspecting or obtaining a copy
of public information under this chapter. The officer shall display the sign at one or more places
in the administrative offices of the governmental body where it is plainly visible to:
(1)

members of the public who request public information in person under this chapter; and

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(2)

employees of the governmental body whose duties include receiving or responding to
requests under this chapter.

(b) The attorney general by rule shall prescribe the content of the sign and the size, shape, and other
physical characteristics of the sign. In prescribing the content of the sign, the attorney general
shall include plainly written basic information about the rights of a requestor, the responsibilities
of a governmental body, and the procedures for inspecting or obtaining a copy of public
information under this chapter that, in the opinion of the attorney general, is most useful for
requestors to know and for employees of governmental bodies who receive or respond to
requests for public information to know.
SUBCHAPTER E. PROCEDURES RELATED TO ACCESS
§ 552.221.

Application for Public Information; Production of Public Information

(a) An officer for public information of a governmental body shall promptly produce public
information for inspection, duplication, or both on application by any person to the officer. In
this subsection, “promptly” means as soon as possible under the circumstances, that is, within
a reasonable time, without delay.
(b) An officer for public information complies with Subsection (a) by:
(1)

providing the public information for inspection or duplication in the offices of the
governmental body; or

(2)

sending copies of the public information by first class United States mail if the person
requesting the information requests that copies be provided and pays the postage and any
other applicable charges that the requestor has accrued under Subchapter F.

(b-1) In addition to the methods of production described by Subsection (b), an officer for public
information for a political subdivision of this state complies with Subsection (a) by referring a
requestor to an exact Internet location or uniform resource locator (URL) address on a website
maintained by the political subdivision and accessible to the public if the requested information
is identifiable and readily available on that website. If the person requesting the information
prefers a manner other than access through the URL, the political subdivision must supply the
information in the manner required by Subsection (b).
(b-2) If an officer for public information for a political subdivision provides by e-mail an Internet
location or uniform resource locator (URL) address as permitted by Subsection (b-1), the e-mail
must contain a statement in a conspicuous font clearly indicating that the requestor may
nonetheless access the requested information by inspection or duplication or by receipt through
United States mail, as provided by Subsection (b).
(c) If the requested information is unavailable at the time of the request to examine because it is in
active use or in storage, the officer for public information shall certify this fact in writing to the

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requestor and set a date and hour within a reasonable time when the information will be available
for inspection or duplication.
(d) If an officer for public information cannot produce public information for inspection or
duplication within 10 business days after the date the information is requested under Subsection
(a), the officer shall certify that fact in writing to the requestor and set a date and hour within a
reasonable time when the information will be available for inspection or duplication.
§ 552.222.

Permissible Inquiry by Governmental Body to Requestor

(a) The officer for public information and the officer’s agent may not make an inquiry of a requestor
except to establish proper identification or except as provided by Subsection (b), (c), or (c-1).
(b) If what information is requested is unclear to the governmental body, the governmental body may
ask the requestor to clarify the request. If a large amount of information has been requested, the
governmental body may discuss with the requestor how the scope of a request might be
narrowed, but the governmental body may not inquire into the purpose for which information
will be used.
(c) If the information requested relates to a motor vehicle record, the officer for public information
or the officer’s agent may require the requestor to provide additional identifying information
sufficient for the officer or the officer’s agent to determine whether the requestor is eligible to
receive the information under Chapter 730, Transportation Code. In this subsection, “motor
vehicle record” has the meaning assigned that term by Section 730.003, Transportation Code.
(c-1) If the information requested includes a photograph described by Section 552.155(a), the officer
for public information or the officer’s agent may require the requestor to provide additional
information sufficient for the officer or the officer’s agent to determine whether the requestor is
eligible to receive the information under Section 552.155(b).
(d) If by the 61st day after the date a governmental body sends a written request for clarification or
discussion under Subsection (b) or an officer for public information or agent sends a written
request for additional information under Subsection (c) the governmental body, officer for public
information, or agent, as applicable, does not receive a written response from the requestor, the
underlying request for public information is considered to have been withdrawn by the requestor.
(e) A written request for clarification or discussion under Subsection (b) or a written request for
additional information under Subsection (c) must include a statement as to the consequences of
the failure by the requestor to timely respond to the request for clarification, discussion, or
additional information.
(f) Except as provided by Subsection (g), if the requestor’s request for public information included
the requestor’s physical or mailing address, the request may not be considered to have been
withdrawn under Subsection (d) unless the governmental body, officer for public information,
or agent, as applicable, sends the request for clarification or discussion under Subsection (b) or

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the written request for additional information under Subsection (c) to that address by certified
mail.
(g) If the requestor ‘s request for public information was sent by electronic mail, the request may be
considered to have been withdrawn under Subsection (d) if:
(1)

the governmental body, officer for public information, or agent, as applicable, sends the
request for clarification or discussion under Subsection (b) or the written request for
additional information under Subsection (c) by electronic mail to the same electronic mail
address from which the original request was sent or to another electronic mail address
provided by the requestor; and

(2)

the governmental body, officer for public information, or agent, as applicable, does not
receive from the requestor a written response or response by electronic mail within the
period described by Subsection (d).

§ 552.223.

Uniform Treatment of Requests for Information

The officer for public information or the officer’s agent shall treat all requests for information
uniformly without regard to the position or occupation of the requestor, the person on whose behalf
the request is made, or the status of the individual as a member of the media.
§ 552.224.

Comfort and Facility

The officer for public information or the officer’s agent shall give to a requestor all reasonable
comfort and facility for the full exercise of the right granted by this chapter.
§ 552.225.

Time for Examination

(a) A requestor must complete the examination of the information not later than the 10th business
day after the date the custodian of the information makes it available. If the requestor does not
complete the examination of the information within 10 business days after the date the custodian
of the information makes the information available and does not file a request for additional time
under Subsection (b), the requestor is considered to have withdrawn the request.
(b) The officer for public information shall extend the initial examination period by an additional
10 business days if, within the initial period, the requestor files with the officer for public
information a written request for additional time. The officer for public information shall extend
an additional examination period by another 10 business days if, within the additional period,
the requestor files with the officer for public information a written request for more additional
time.
(c) The time during which a person may examine information may be interrupted by the officer for
public information if the information is needed for use by the governmental body. The period
of interruption is not considered to be a part of the time during which the person may examine
the information.

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§ 552.226.

Removal of Original Record

This chapter does not authorize a requestor to remove an original copy of a public record from the
office of a governmental body.
§ 552.227.

Research of State Library Holdings Not Required

An officer for public information or the officer’s agent is not required to perform general research
within the reference and research archives and holdings of state libraries.
§ 552.228.

Providing Suitable Copy of Public Information Within Reasonable Time

(a) It shall be a policy of a governmental body to provide a suitable copy of public information
within a reasonable time after the date on which the copy is requested.
(b) If public information exists in an electronic or magnetic medium, the requestor may request a
copy in an electronic medium, such as on diskette or on magnetic tape. A governmental body
shall provide a copy in the requested medium if:
(1)

the governmental body has the technological ability to produce a copy of the requested
information in the requested medium;

(2)

the governmental body is not required to purchase any software or hardware to
accommodate the request; and

(3)

provision of a copy of the information in the requested medium will not violate the terms
of any copyright agreement between the governmental body and a third party.

(c) If a governmental body is unable to comply with a request to produce a copy of information in
a requested medium for any of the reasons described by this section, the governmental body shall
provide a copy in another medium that is acceptable to the requestor. A governmental body is
not required to copy information onto a diskette or other material provided by the requestor but
may use its own supplies.
§ 552.229.

Consent to Release Information Under Special Right of Access

(a) Consent for the release of information excepted from disclosure to the general public but
available to a specific person under Sections 552.023 and 552.307 must be in writing and signed
by the specific person or the person’s authorized representative.
(b) An individual under 18 years of age may consent to the release of information under this section
only with the additional written authorization of the individual’s parent or guardian.
(c) An individual who has been adjudicated incompetent to manage the individual’s personal affairs
or for whom an attorney ad litem has been appointed may consent to the release of information

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under this section only by the written authorization of the designated legal guardian or attorney
ad litem.
§ 552.230.

Rules of Procedure for Inspection and Copying of Public Information

(a) A governmental body may promulgate reasonable rules of procedure under which public
information may be inspected and copied efficiently, safely, and without delay.
(b) A rule promulgated under Subsection (a) may not be inconsistent with any provision of this
chapter.
§ 552.231.

Responding to Requests for Information That Require Programming or
Manipulation of Data

(a) A governmental body shall provide to a requestor the written statement described by Subsection
(b) if the governmental body determines:
(1)

that responding to a request for public information will require programming or
manipulation of data; and

(2)

that:
(A) compliance with the request is not feasible or will result in substantial interference
with its ongoing operations; or
(B) the information could be made available in the requested form only at a cost that
covers the programming and manipulation of data.

(b) The written statement must include:
(1)

a statement that the information is not available in the requested form;

(2)

a description of the form in which the information is available;

(3)

a description of any contract or services that would be required to provide the information
in the requested form;

(4)

a statement of the estimated cost of providing the information in the requested form, as
determined in accordance with the rules established by the attorney general under
Section 552.262; and

(5)

a statement of the anticipated time required to provide the information in the requested
form.

(c) The governmental body shall provide the written statement to the requestor within 20 days after
the date of the governmental body’s receipt of the request. The governmental body has an

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additional 10 days to provide the statement if the governmental body gives written notice to the
requestor, within 20 days after the date of receipt of the request, that the additional time is
needed.
(d) On providing the written statement to the requestor as required by this section, the governmental
body does not have any further obligation to provide the information in the requested form or in
the form in which it is available unless within 30 days the requestor states in writing to the
governmental body that the requestor:
(1)

wants the governmental body to provide the information in the requested form according
to the cost and time parameters set out in the statement or according to other terms to
which the requestor and the governmental body agree; or

(2)

wants the information in the form in which it is available.

(d-1) If a requestor does not make a timely written statement under Subsection (d), the requestor is
considered to have withdrawn the request for information.
(e) The officer for public information of a governmental body shall establish policies that assure the
expeditious and accurate processing of requests for information that require programming or
manipulation of data. A governmental body shall maintain a file containing all written
statements issued under this section in a readily accessible location.
§ 552.232.

Responding to Repetitious or Redundant Requests

(a) A governmental body that determines that a requestor has made a request for information for
which the governmental body has previously furnished copies to the requestor or made copies
available to the requestor on payment of applicable charges under Subchapter F, shall respond
to the request, in relation to the information for which copies have been already furnished or
made available, in accordance with this section, except that:
(1)

this section does not prohibit the governmental body from furnishing the information or
making the information available to the requestor again in accordance with the request; and

(2)

the governmental body is not required to comply with this section in relation to information
that the governmental body simply furnishes or makes available to the requestor again in
accordance with the request.

(b) The governmental body shall certify to the requestor that copies of all or part of the requested
information, as applicable, were previously furnished to the requestor or made available to the
requestor on payment of applicable charges under Subchapter F. The certification must include:
(1)

a description of the information for which copies have been previously furnished or made
available to the requestor;

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(2)

the date that the governmental body received the requestor’s original request for that
information;

(3)

the date that the governmental body previously furnished copies of or made available
copies of the information to the requestor;

(4)

a certification that no subsequent additions, deletions, or corrections have been made to
that information; and

(5)

the name, title, and signature of the officer for public information or the officer’s agent
making the certification.

(c) A charge may not be imposed for making and furnishing a certification required under
Subsection (b).
(d) This section does not apply to information for which the governmental body has not previously
furnished copies to the requestor or made copies available to the requestor on payment of
applicable charges under Subchapter F. A request by the requestor for information for which
copies have not previously been furnished or made available to the requestor, including
information for which copies were not furnished or made available because the information was
redacted from other information that was furnished or made available or because the information
did not yet exist at the time of an earlier request, shall be treated in the same manner as any other
request for information under this chapter.
SUBCHAPTER F. CHARGES FOR PROVIDING COPIES OF PUBLIC INFORMATION
§ 552.261.

Charge for Providing Copies of Public Information

(a) The charge for providing a copy of public information shall be an amount that reasonably
includes all costs related to reproducing the public information, including costs of materials,
labor, and overhead. If a request is for 50 or fewer pages of paper records, the charge for
providing the copy of the public information may not include costs of materials, labor, or
overhead, but shall be limited to the charge for each page of the paper record that is photocopied,
unless the pages to be photocopied are located in:
(1)

two or more separate buildings that are not physically connected with each other; or

(2)

a remote storage facility.

(b) If the charge for providing a copy of public information includes costs of labor, the requestor
may require the governmental body’s officer for public information or the officer’s agent to
provide the requestor with a written statement as to the amount of time that was required to
produce and provide the copy. The statement must be signed by the officer for public
information or the officer’s agent and the officer’s or the agent’s name must be typed or legibly
printed below the signature. A charge may not be imposed for providing the written statement
to the requestor.

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(c) For purposes of Subsection (a), a connection of two buildings by a covered or open sidewalk, an
elevated or underground passageway, or a similar facility is insufficient to cause the buildings
to be considered separate buildings.
(d) Charges for providing a copy of public information are considered to accrue at the time the
governmental body advises the requestor that the copy is available on payment of the applicable
charges.
§ 552.2615. Required Itemized Estimate of Charges
(a) If a request for a copy of public information will result in the imposition of a charge under this
subchapter that exceeds $40, or a request to inspect a paper record will result in the imposition
of a charge under Section 552.271 that exceeds $40, the governmental body shall provide the
requestor with a written itemized statement that details all estimated charges that will be
imposed, including any allowable charges for labor or personnel costs. If an alternative less
costly method of viewing the records is available, the statement must include a notice that the
requestor may contact the governmental body regarding the alternative method. The
governmental body must inform the requestor of the responsibilities imposed on the requestor
by this section and of the rights granted by this entire section and give the requestor the
information needed to respond, including:
(1)

that the requestor must provide the governmental body with a mailing, facsimile
transmission, or electronic mail address to receive the itemized statement and that it is the
requestor’s choice which type of address to provide;

(2)

that the request is considered automatically withdrawn if the requestor does not respond
in writing to the itemized statement and any updated itemized statement in the time and
manner required by this section; and

(3)

that the requestor may respond to the statement by delivering the written response to the
governmental body by mail, in person, by facsimile transmission if the governmental body
is capable of receiving documents transmitted in that manner, or by electronic mail if the
governmental body has an electronic mail address.

(b) A request described by Subsection (a) is considered to have been withdrawn by the requestor if
the requestor does not respond in writing to the itemized statement by informing the
governmental body within 10 business days after the date the statement is sent to the requestor
that:
(1)

the requestor will accept the estimated charges;

(2)

the requestor is modifying the request in response to the itemized statement; or

(3)

the requestor has sent to the attorney general a complaint alleging that the requestor has
been overcharged for being provided with a copy of the public information.

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(c) If the governmental body later determines, but before it makes the copy or the paper record
available, that the estimated charges will exceed the charges detailed in the written itemized
statement by 20 percent or more, the governmental body shall send to the requestor a written
updated itemized statement that details all estimated charges that will be imposed, including any
allowable charges for labor or personnel costs. If the requestor does not respond in writing to
the updated estimate in the time and manner described by Subsection (b), the request is
considered to have been withdrawn by the requestor.
(d) If the actual charges that a governmental body imposes for a copy of public information, or for
inspecting a paper record under Section 552.271, exceeds $40, the charges may not exceed:
(1)

the amount estimated in the updated itemized statement; or

(2)

if an updated itemized statement is not sent to the requestor, an amount that exceeds by 20
percent or more the amount estimated in the itemized statement.

(e) An itemized statement or updated itemized statement is considered to have been sent by the
governmental body to the requestor on the date that:
(1)

the statement is delivered to the requestor in person;

(2)

the governmental body deposits the properly addressed statement in the United States mail;
or

(3)

the governmental body transmits the properly addressed statement by electronic mail or
facsimile transmission, if the requestor agrees to receive the statement by electronic mail
or facsimile transmission, as applicable.

(f) A requestor is considered to have responded to the itemized statement or the updated itemized
statement on the date that:
(1)

the response is delivered to the governmental body in person;

(2)

the requestor deposits the properly addressed response in the United States mail; or

(3)

the requestor transmits the properly addressed response to the governmental body by
electronic mail or facsimile transmission.

(g) The time deadlines imposed by this section do not affect the application of a time deadline
imposed on a governmental body under Subchapter G.
§ 552.262.

Rules of the Attorney General

(a) The attorney general shall adopt rules for use by each governmental body in determining charges
for providing copies of public information under this subchapter and in determining the charge,
deposit, or bond required for making public information that exists in a paper record available

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for inspection as authorized by Sections 552.271(c) and (d). The rules adopted by the attorney
general shall be used by each governmental body in determining charges for providing copies
of public information and in determining the charge, deposit, or bond required for making public
information that exists in a paper record available for inspection, except to the extent that other
law provides for charges for specific kinds of public information. The charges for providing
copies of public information may not be excessive and may not exceed the actual cost of
producing the information or for making public information that exists in a paper record
available for inspection. A governmental body, other than an agency of state government, may
determine its own charges for providing copies of public information and its own charge,
deposit, or bond for making public information that exists in a paper record available for
inspection but may not charge an amount that is greater than 25 percent more than the amount
established by the attorney general unless the governmental body requests an exemption under
Subsection (c).
(b) The rules of the attorney general shall prescribe the methods for computing the charges for
providing copies of public information in paper, electronic, and other kinds of media and the
charge, deposit, or bond required for making public information that exists in a paper record
available for inspection. The rules shall establish costs for various components of charges for
providing copies of public information that shall be used by each governmental body in
providing copies of public information or making public information that exists in a paper record
available for inspection.
(c) A governmental body may request that it be exempt from part or all of the rules adopted by the
attorney general for determining charges for providing copies of public information or the
charge, deposit, or bond required for making public information that exists in a paper record
available for inspection. The request must be made in writing to the attorney general and must
state the reason for the exemption. If the attorney general determines that good cause exists for
exempting a governmental body from a part or all of the rules, the attorney general shall give
written notice of the determination to the governmental body within 90 days of the request. On
receipt of the determination, the governmental body may amend its charges for providing copies
of public information or its charge, deposit, or bond required for making public information that
exists in a paper record available for inspection according to the determination of the attorney
general.
(d) The attorney general shall publish annually in the Texas Register a list of the governmental
bodies that have authorization from the attorney general to adopt any modified rules for
determining the cost of providing copies of public information or making public information that
exists in a paper record available for inspection.
(e) The rules of the attorney general do not apply to a state governmental body that is not a state
agency for purposes of Subtitle D, Title 10.

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§ 552.263.

Bond for Payment of Costs or Cash Prepayment for Preparation of Copy of
Public Information

(a) An officer for public information or the officer’s agent may require a deposit or bond for
payment of anticipated costs for the preparation of a copy of public information if:
(1)

the officer for public information or the officer’s agent has provided the requestor with the
written itemized statement required under Section 552.2615 detailing the estimated charge
for providing the copy; and

(2)

the charge for providing the copy of the public information specifically requested by the
requestor is estimated by the governmental body to exceed:
(A) $100, if the governmental body has more than 15 full-time employees; or
(B) $50, if the governmental body has fewer than 16 full-time employees.

(b) The officer for public information or the officer’s agent may not require a deposit or bond be
paid under Subsection (a) as a down payment for copies of public information that the requestor
may request in the future.
(c) An officer for public information or the officer’s agent may require a deposit or bond for
payment of unpaid amounts owing to the governmental body in relation to previous requests that
the requestor has made under this chapter before preparing a copy of public information in
response to a new request if those unpaid amounts exceed $100. The officer for public
information or the officer’s agent may not seek payment of those unpaid amounts through any
other means.
(d) The governmental body must fully document the existence and amount of those unpaid amounts
or the amount of any anticipated costs, as applicable, before requiring a deposit or bond under
this section. The documentation is subject to required public disclosure under this chapter.
(e) For purposes of Subchapters F and G, a request for a copy of public information is considered
to have been received by a governmental body on the date the governmental body receives the
deposit or bond for payment of anticipated costs or unpaid amounts if the governmental body’s
officer for public information or the officer’s agent requires a deposit or bond in accordance with
this section.
(e-1) If a requestor modifies the request in response to the requirement of a deposit or bond
authorized by this section, the modified request is considered a separate request for the purposes
of this chapter and is considered received on the date the governmental body receives the written
modified request.
(f) A requestor who fails to make a deposit or post a bond required under Subsection (a) before the
10th business day after the date the deposit or bond is required is considered to have withdrawn

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the request for the copy of the public information that precipitated the requirement of the deposit
or bond.
§ 552.264.

Copy of Public Information Requested by Member of Legislature

One copy of public information that is requested from a state agency by a member, agency, or
committee of the legislature under Section 552.008 shall be provided without charge.
§ 552.265.

Charge For Paper Copy Provided by District or County Clerk

The charge for providing a paper copy made by a district or county clerk’s office shall be the charge
provided by Chapter 51 of this code, Chapter 118, Local Government Code, or other applicable law.
§ 552.266.

Charge For Copy of Public Information Provided by Municipal Court Clerk

The charge for providing a copy made by a municipal court clerk shall be the charge provided by
municipal ordinance.
§ 552.2661. Charge for Copy of Public Information Provided by School District
A school district that receives a request to produce public information for inspection or publication
or to produce copies of public information in response to a requestor who, within the preceding 180
days, has accepted but failed to pay written itemized statements of estimated charges from the district
as provided under Section 552.261(b) may require the requestor to pay the estimated charges for the
request before the request is fulfilled.
§ 552.267.

Waiver or Reduction of Charge for Providing Copy of Public Information

(a) A governmental body shall provide a copy of public information without charge or at a reduced
charge if the governmental body determines that waiver or reduction of the charge is in the
public interest because providing the copy of the information primarily benefits the general
public.
(b) If the cost to a governmental body of processing the collection of a charge for providing a copy
of public information will exceed the amount of the charge, the governmental body may waive
the charge.
§ 552.268.

Efficient Use of Public Resources

A governmental body shall make reasonably efficient use of supplies and other resources to avoid
excessive reproduction costs.
§ 552.269.

Overcharge or Overpayment for Copy of Public Information

(a) A person who believes the person has been overcharged for being provided with a copy of public
information may complain to the attorney general in writing of the alleged overcharge, setting

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forth the reasons why the person believes the charges are excessive. The attorney general shall
review the complaint and make a determination in writing as to the appropriate charge for
providing the copy of the requested information. The governmental body shall respond to the
attorney general to any written questions asked of the governmental body by the attorney general
regarding the charges for providing the copy of the public information. The response must be
made to the attorney general within 10 business days after the date the questions are received by
the governmental body. If the attorney general determines that a governmental body has
overcharged for providing the copy of requested public information, the governmental body shall
promptly adjust its charges in accordance with the determination of the attorney general.
(b) A person who overpays for a copy of public information because a governmental body refuses
or fails to follow the rules for charges adopted by the attorney general is entitled to recover three
times the amount of the overcharge if the governmental body did not act in good faith in
computing the costs.
§ 552.270.

Charge for Government Publication

(a) This subchapter does not apply to a publication that is compiled and printed by or for a
governmental body for public dissemination. If the cost of the publication is not determined by
state law, a governmental body may determine the charge for providing the publication.
(b) This section does not prohibit a governmental body from providing a publication free of charge
if state law does not require that a certain charge be made.
§ 552.271.

Inspection of Public Information in Paper Record if Copy Not Requested

(a) If the requestor does not request a copy of public information, a charge may not be imposed for
making available for inspection any public information that exists in a paper record, except as
provided by this section.
(b) If a requested page contains confidential information that must be edited from the record before
the information can be made available for inspection, the governmental body may charge for the
cost of making a photocopy of the page from which confidential information must be edited. No
charge other than the cost of the photocopy may be imposed under this subsection.
(c) Except as provided by Subsection (d), an officer for public information or the officer’s agent may
require a requestor to pay, or to make a deposit or post a bond for the payment of, anticipated
personnel costs for making available for inspection public information that exists in paper
records only if:
(1)

the public information specifically requested by the requestor:
(A) is older than five years; or

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(B) completely fills, or when assembled will completely fill, six or more archival boxes;
and
(2)

the officer for public information or the officer’s agent estimates that more than five hours
will be required to make the public information available for inspection.

(d) If the governmental body has fewer than 16 full-time employees, the payment, the deposit, or the
bond authorized by Subsection (c) may be required only if:
(1)

the public information specifically requested by the requestor:
(A) is older than three years; or
(B) completely fills, or when assembled will completely fill, three or more archival boxes;
and

(2)

the officer for public information or the officer’s agent estimates that more than two hours
will be required to make the public information available for inspection.

§ 552.272.

Inspection of Electronic Record if Copy Not Requested

(a) In response to a request to inspect information that exists in an electronic medium and that is not
available directly on-line to the requestor, a charge may not be imposed for access to the
information, unless complying with the request will require programming or manipulation of
data. If programming or manipulation of data is required, the governmental body shall notify the
requestor before assembling the information and provide the requestor with an estimate of
charges that will be imposed to make the information available. A charge under this section
must be assessed in accordance with this subchapter.
(b) If public information exists in an electronic form on a computer owned or leased by a
governmental body and if the public has direct access to that computer through a computer
network or other means, the electronic form of the information may be electronically copied from
that computer without charge if accessing the information does not require processing,
programming, or manipulation on the government-owned or government-leased computer before
the information is copied.
(c) If public information exists in an electronic form on a computer owned or leased by a
governmental body and if the public has direct access to that computer through a computer
network or other means and the information requires processing, programming, or manipulation
before it can be electronically copied, a governmental body may impose charges in accordance
with this subchapter.
(d) If information is created or kept in an electronic form, a governmental body is encouraged to
explore options to separate out confidential information and to make public information available
to the public through electronic access through a computer network or by other means.

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(e) The provisions of this section that prohibit a governmental entity from imposing a charge for
access to information that exists in an electronic medium do not apply to the collection of a fee
set by the supreme court after consultation with the Judicial Committee on Information
Technology as authorized by Section 77.031 for the use of a computerized electronic judicial
information system.
§ 552.274. Report by Attorney General on Cost of Copies
(a) The attorney general shall:
(1)

biennially update a report prepared by the attorney general about the charges made by state
agencies for providing copies of public information; and

(2)

provide a copy of the updated report on the attorney general’s open records page on the
Internet not later than March 1 of each even-numbered year.

(b) Repealed by Acts 2011, 82nd Leg., ch. 1083 (S.B. 1179), § 25(62).
(c) In this section, “state agency” has the meaning assigned by Sections 2151.002(2)(A) and (C).
§ 552.275. Requests That Require Large Amounts of Employee or Personnel Time
(a) A governmental body may establish a reasonable limit on the amount of time that personnel of
the governmental body are required to spend producing public information for inspection or
duplication by a requestor, or providing copies of public information to a requestor, without
recovering its costs attributable to that personnel time.
(b) A time limit established under Subsection (a) may not be less than 36 hours for a requestor
during the 12-month period that corresponds to the fiscal year of the governmental body.
(c) In determining whether a time limit established under Subsection (a) applies, any time spent
complying with a request for public information submitted in the name of a minor, as defined
by Section 101.003(a), Family Code, is to be included in the calculation of the cumulative
amount of time spent complying with a request for public information by a parent, guardian, or
other person who has control of the minor under a court order and with whom the minor resides,
unless that parent, guardian, or other person establishes that another person submitted that
request in the name of the minor.
(d) If a governmental body establishes a time limit under Subsection (a), each time the governmental
body complies with a request for public information, the governmental body shall provide the
requestor with a written statement of the amount of personnel time spent complying with that
request and the cumulative amount of time spent complying with requests for public information
from that requestor during the applicable 12-month period. The amount of time spent preparing
the written statement may not be included in the amount of time included in the statement
provided to the requestor under this subsection.

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(e) If in connection with a request for public information, the cumulative amount of personnel time
spent complying with requests for public information from the same requestor equals or exceeds
the limit established by the governmental body under Subsection (a), the governmental body
shall provide the requestor with a written estimate of the total cost, including materials,
personnel time, and overhead expenses, necessary to comply with the request. The written
estimate must be provided to the requestor on or before the 10th day after the date on which the
public information was requested. The amount of this charge relating to the cost of locating,
compiling, and producing the public information shall be established by rules prescribed by the
attorney general under Sections 552.262(a) and (b).
(f) If the governmental body determines that additional time is required to prepare the written
estimate under Subsection (e) and provides the requestor with a written statement of that
determination, the governmental body must provide the written statement under that subsection
as soon as practicable, but on or before the 10th day after the date the governmental body
provided the statement under this subsection.
(g) If a governmental body provides a requestor with the written statement under Subsection (e), the
governmental body is not required to produce public information for inspection or duplication
or to provide copies of public information in response to the requestor’s request unless on or
before the 10th day after the date the governmental body provided the written statement under
that subsection, the requestor submits a statement in writing to the governmental body in which
the requestor commits to pay the lesser of:
(1)

the actual costs incurred in complying with the requestor’s request, including the cost of
materials and personnel time and overhead; or

(2)

the amount stated in the written statement provided under Subsection (e).

(h) If the requestor fails or refuses to submit the written statement under Subsection (g), the
requestor is considered to have withdrawn the requestor’s pending request for public
information.
(i) This section does not prohibit a governmental body from providing a copy of public information
without charge or at a reduced rate under Section 552.267 or from waiving a charge for providing
a copy of public information under that section.
(j) This section does not apply if the requestor is and individual who, for a substantial portion of the
individual’s livelihood or for substantial financial gain, gathers, compiles, prepares, collects,
photographs, records, writes, edits, reports, investigates, processes, or publishes news or
information for and is seeking the information for:
(1)

a radio or television broadcast station that holds a broadcast license for an assigned
frequency issued by the Federal Communications Commission;

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(2)

a newspaper that is qualified under Section 2051.044 to publish legal notices or is a free
newspaper of general circulation and that is published at least once a week and available
and of interest to the general public in connection with the dissemination of news;

(3)

a newspaper of general circulation that is published on the Internet by a news medium
engaged in the business of disseminating news or information to the general public; or

(4)

a magazine that is published at least once a week or on the Internet by a news medium
engaged in the business of disseminating news or information to the general public.

(k) This section does not apply if the requestor is an elected official of the United States, this state,
or a political subdivision of this state.
(l) This section does not apply if the requestor is a representative of a publicly funded legal services
organization that is exempt from federal income taxation under Section 501(a), Internal Revenue
Code of 1986, as amended, by being listed as an exempt entity under Section 501(c)(3) of that
code.
SUBCHAPTER G. ATTORNEY GENERAL DECISIONS
§ 552.301. Request for Attorney General Decision
(a) A governmental body that receives a written request for information that it wishes to withhold
from public disclosure and that it considers to be within one of the exceptions under Subchapter
C must ask for a decision from the attorney general about whether the information is within that
exception if there has not been a previous determination about whether the information falls
within one of the exceptions.
(a-1) For the purposes of this subchapter, if a governmental body receives a written request by
United States mail and cannot adequately establish the actual date on which the governmental
body received the request, the written request is considered to have been received by the
governmental body on the third business day after the date of the postmark on a properly
addressed request.
(b) The governmental body must ask for the attorney general’s decision and state the exceptions that
apply within a reasonable time but not later than the 10th business day after the date of receiving
the written request.
(c) For purposes of this subchapter, a written request includes a request made in writing that is sent
to the officer for public information, or the person designated by that officer, by electronic mail
or facsimile transmission.
(d) A governmental body that requests an attorney general decision under Subsection (a) must
provide to the requestor within a reasonable time but not later than the 10th business day after
the date of receiving the requestor’s written request:

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(1)

a written statement that the governmental body wishes to withhold the requested
information and has asked for a decision from the attorney general about whether the
information is within an exception to public disclosure; and

(2)

a copy of the governmental body’s written communication to the attorney general asking
for the decision or, if the governmental body’s written communication to the attorney
general discloses the requested information, a redacted copy of that written
communication.

(e) A governmental body that requests an attorney general decision under Subsection (a) must within
a reasonable time but not later than the 15th business day after the date of receiving the written
request:
(1)

submit to the attorney general:
(A) written comments stating the reasons why the stated exceptions apply that would allow
the information to be withheld;
(B) a copy of the written request for information;
(C) a signed statement as to the date on which the written request for information was
received by the governmental body or evidence sufficient to establish that date; and
(D) a copy of the specific information requested, or submit representative samples of the
information if a voluminous amount of information was requested; and

(2)

label that copy of the specific information, or of the representative samples, to indicate
which exceptions apply to which parts of the copy.

(e-1) A governmental body that submits written comments to the attorney general under Subsection
(e)(1)(A) shall send a copy of those comments to the person who requested the information from
the governmental body not later than the 15th business day after the date of receiving the written
request. If the written comments disclose or contain the substance of the information requested,
the copy of the comments provided to the person must be a redacted copy.
(f) A governmental body must release the requested information and is prohibited from asking for
a decision from the attorney general about whether information requested under this chapter is
within an exception under Subchapter C if:
(1)

the governmental body has previously requested and received a determination from the
attorney general concerning the precise information at issue in a pending request; and

(2)

the attorney general or a court determined that the information is public information under
this chapter that is not excepted by Subchapter C.

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(g) A governmental body may ask for another decision from the attorney general concerning the
precise information that was at issue in a prior decision made by the attorney general under this
subchapter if:
(1)

a suit challenging the prior decision was timely filed against the attorney general in
accordance with this chapter concerning the precise information at issue;

(2)

the attorney general determines that the requestor has voluntarily withdrawn the request for
the information in writing or has abandoned the request; and

(3)

the parties agree to dismiss the lawsuit.

§ 552.302.

Failure to Make Timely Request for Attorney General Decision; Presumption that
Information Is Public

If a governmental body does not request an attorney general decision as provided by Section 552.301
and provide the requestor with the information required by Sections 552.301(d) and (e-1), the
information requested in writing is presumed to be subject to required public disclosure and must
be released unless there is a compelling reason to withhold the information.
§ 552.303.

Delivery of Requested Information to Attorney General; Disclosure of Requested
Information; Attorney General Request for Submission of Additional Information

(a) A governmental body that requests an attorney general decision under this subchapter shall
supply to the attorney general, in accordance with Section 552.301, the specific information
requested. Unless the information requested is confidential by law, the governmental body may
disclose the requested information to the public or to the requestor before the attorney general
makes a final determination that the requested information is public or, if suit is filed under this
chapter, before a final determination that the requested information is public has been made by
the court with jurisdiction over the suit, except as otherwise provided by Section 552.322.
(b) The attorney general may determine whether a governmental body’s submission of information
to the attorney general under Section 552.301 is sufficient to render a decision.
(c) If the attorney general determines that information in addition to that required by Section
552.301 is necessary to render a decision, the attorney general shall give written notice of that
fact to the governmental body and the requestor.
(d) A governmental body notified under Subsection (c) shall submit the necessary additional
information to the attorney general not later than the seventh calendar day after the date the
notice is received.
(e) If a governmental body does not comply with Subsection (d), the information that is the subject
of a person’s request to the governmental body and regarding which the governmental body fails
to comply with Subsection (d) is presumed to be subject to required public disclosure and must
be released unless there exists a compelling reason to withhold the information.

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§ 552.3035. Disclosure of Requested Information by Attorney General
The attorney general may not disclose to the requestor or the public any information submitted to
the attorney general under Section 552.301(e)(1)(D).
§ 552.304.

Submission of Public Comments

(a) A person may submit written comments stating reasons why the information at issue in a request
for an attorney general decision should or should not be released.
(b) A person who submits written comments to the attorney general under Subsection (a) shall send
a copy of those comments to both the person who requested the information from the
governmental body and the governmental body. If the written comments submitted to the
attorney general disclose or contain the substance of the information requested from the
governmental body, the copy of the comments sent to the person who requested the information
must be a redacted copy.
(c) In this section, “written comments” includes a letter, a memorandum, or a brief.
§ 552.305.

Information Involving Privacy or Property Interests of Third Party

(a) In a case in which information is requested under this chapter and a person’s privacy or property
interests may be involved, including a case under Section 552.101, 552.104, 552.110, or
552.114, a governmental body may decline to release the information for the purpose of
requesting an attorney general decision.
(b) A person whose interests may be involved under Subsection (a), or any other person, may submit
in writing to the attorney general the person’s reasons why the information should be withheld
or released.
(c) The governmental body may, but is not required to, submit its reasons why the information
should be withheld or released.
(d) If release of a person’s proprietary information may be subject to exception under Section
552.101, 552.110, 552.113, or 552.131, the governmental body that requests an attorney general
decision under Section 552.301 shall make a good faith attempt to notify that person of the
request for the attorney general decision. Notice under this subsection must:
(1)

be in writing and sent within a reasonable time not later than the 10th business day after
the date the governmental body receives the request for the information; and

(2)

include:
(A) a copy of the written request for the information, if any, received by the governmental
body; and

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(B) a statement, in the form prescribed by the attorney general, that the person is entitled
to submit in writing to the attorney general within a reasonable time not later than the
10th business day after the date the person receives the notice:
(i) each reason the person has as to why the information should be withheld; and
(ii) a letter, memorandum, or brief in support of that reason.
(e) A person who submits a letter, memorandum, or brief to the attorney general under Subsection
(d) shall send a copy of that letter, memorandum, or brief to the person who requested the
information from the governmental body. If the letter, memorandum, or brief submitted to the
attorney general contains the substance of the information requested, the copy of the letter,
memorandum, or brief may be a redacted copy.
§ 552.306.

Rendition of Attorney General Decision; Issuance of Written Opinion

(a) Except as provided by Section 552.011, the attorney general shall promptly render a decision
requested under this subchapter, consistent with the standards of due process, determining
whether the requested information is within one of the exceptions of Subchapter C. The attorney
general shall render the decision not later than the 45th business day after the date the attorney
general received the request for a decision. If the attorney general is unable to issue the decision
within the 45-day period, the attorney general may extend the period for issuing the decision by
an additional 10 business days by informing the governmental body and the requestor, during the
original 45-day period, of the reason for the delay.
(b) The attorney general shall issue a written opinion of the determination and shall provide a copy
of the opinion to the requestor.
§ 552.307.

Special Right of Access; Attorney General Decisions

(a) If a governmental body determines that information subject to a special right of access under
Section 552.023 is exempt from disclosure under an exception of Subchapter C, other than an
exception intended to protect the privacy interest of the requestor or the person whom the
requestor is authorized to represent, the governmental body shall, before disclosing the
information, submit a written request for a decision to the attorney general under the procedures
of this subchapter.
(b) If a decision is not requested under Subsection (a), the governmental body shall release the
information to the person with a special right of access under Section 552.023 not later than the
10th business day after the date of receiving the request for information.

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§ 552.308.

Timeliness of Action by United States Mail, Interagency Mail, or Common
Contract Carrier

(a) When this subchapter requires a request, notice, or other document to be submitted or otherwise
given to a person within a specified period, the requirement is met in a timely fashion if the
document is sent to the person by first class United States mail or common or contract carrier
properly addressed with postage or handling charges prepaid and:
(1)

it bears a post office cancellation mark or a receipt mark of a common or contract carrier
indicating a time within that period; or

(2)

the person required to submit or otherwise give the document furnishes satisfactory proof
that it was deposited in the mail or with a common or contract carrier within that period.

(b) When this subchapter requires an agency of this state to submit or otherwise give to the attorney
general within a specified period a request, notice, or other writing, the requirement is met in a
timely fashion if:
(1)

the request, notice, or other writing is sent to the attorney general by interagency mail; and

(2)

the agency provides evidence sufficient to establish that the request, notice, or other writing
was deposited in the interagency mail within that period.

§ 552.309. Timeliness of Action by Electronic Submission
(a) When this subchapter requires a request, notice, or other document to be submitted or otherwise
given to the attorney general within a specified period, the requirement is met in a timely fashion
if the document is submitted to the attorney general through the attorney general’s designated
electronic filing system within that period.
(b) The attorney general may electronically transmit a notice, decision, or other document. When
this subchapter requires the attorney general to deliver a notice, decision, or other document
within a specified period, the requirement is met in a timely fashion if the document is
electronically transmitted by the attorney general within that period.
(c) This section does not affect the right of a person or governmental body to submit information
to the attorney general under Section 552.308.
SUBCHAPTER H. CIVIL ENFORCEMENT
§ 552.321.

Suit for Writ of Mandamus

(a) A requestor or the attorney general may file suit for a writ of mandamus compelling a
governmental body to make information available for public inspection if the governmental body
refuses to request an attorney general’s decision as provided by Subchapter G or refuses to

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supply public information or information that the attorney general has determined is public
information that is not excepted from disclosure under Subchapter C.
(b) A suit filed by a requestor under this section must be filed in a district court for the county in
which the main offices of the governmental body are located. A suit filed by the attorney general
under this section must be filed in a district court of Travis County, except that a suit against a
municipality with a population of 100,000 or less must be filed in a district court for the county
in which the main offices of the municipality are located.
§ 552.3215. Declaratory Judgment or Injunctive Relief
(a) In this section:
(1)

“Complainant” means a person who claims to be the victim of a violation of this chapter.

(2)

“State agency” means a board, commission, department, office, or other agency that:
(A) is in the executive branch of state government;
(B) was created by the constitution or a statute of this state; and
(C) has statewide jurisdiction.

(b) An action for a declaratory judgment or injunctive relief may be brought in accordance with this
section against a governmental body that violates this chapter.
(c) The district or county attorney for the county in which a governmental body other than a state
agency is located or the attorney general may bring the action in the name of the state only in a
district court for that county. If the governmental body extends into more than one county, the
action may be brought only in the county in which the administrative offices of the governmental
body are located.
(d) If the governmental body is a state agency, the Travis County district attorney or the attorney
general may bring the action in the name of the state only in a district court of Travis County.
(e) A complainant may file a complaint alleging a violation of this chapter. The complaint must be
filed with the district or county attorney of the county in which the governmental body is located
unless the governmental body is the district or county attorney. If the governmental body
extends into more than one county, the complaint must be filed with the district or county
attorney of the county in which the administrative offices of the governmental body are located.
If the governmental body is a state agency, the complaint may be filed with the Travis County
district attorney. If the governmental body is the district or county attorney, the complaint must
be filed with the attorney general. To be valid, a complaint must:
(1)

be in writing and signed by the complainant;

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(2)

state the name of the governmental body that allegedly committed the violation, as
accurately as can be done by the complainant;

(3)

state the time and place of the alleged commission of the violation, as definitely as can be
done by the complainant; and

(4)

in general terms, describe the violation.

(f) A district or county attorney with whom the complaint is filed shall indicate on the face of the
written complaint the date the complaint is filed.
(g) Before the 31st day after the date a complaint is filed under Subsection (e), the district or county
attorney shall:
(1)

determine whether:
(A) the violation alleged in the complaint was committed; and
(B) an action will be brought against the governmental body under this section; and

(2)

notify the complainant in writing of those determinations.

(h) Notwithstanding Subsection (g)(1), if the district or county attorney believes that that official has
a conflict of interest that would preclude that official from bringing an action under this section
against the governmental body complained of, before the 31st day after the date the complaint
was filed the county or district attorney shall inform the complainant of that official’s belief and
of the complainant’s right to file the complaint with the attorney general. If the district or county
attorney determines not to bring an action under this section, the district or county attorney shall:
(1)

include a statement of the basis for that determination; and

(2)

return the complaint to the complainant.

(i) If the district or county attorney determines not to bring an action under this section, the
complainant is entitled to file the complaint with the attorney general before the 31st day after
the date the complaint is returned to the complainant. On receipt of the written complaint, the
attorney general shall comply with each requirement in Subsections (g) and (h) in the time
required by those subsections. If the attorney general decides to bring an action under this
section against a governmental body located only in one county in response to the complaint, the
attorney general must comply with Subsection (c).
(j) An action may be brought under this section only if the official proposing to bring the action
notifies the governmental body in writing of the official’s determination that the alleged violation
was committed and the governmental body does not cure the violation before the fourth day after
the date the governmental body receives the notice.

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(k) An action authorized by this section is in addition to any other civil, administrative, or criminal
action provided by this chapter or another law.
§ 552.322.

Discovery of Information Under Protective Order Pending Final Determination

In a suit filed under this chapter, the court may order that the information at issue may be discovered
only under a protective order until a final determination is made.
§ 552.3221. In Camera Inspection of Information
(a) In any suit filed under this chapter, the information at issue may be filed with the court for in
camera inspection as is necessary for the adjudication of the case.
(b) Upon receipt of the information at issue for in camera inspection, the court shall enter an order
that prevents release to or access by any person other than the court, a reviewing court of appeals,
or parties permitted to inspect the information pursuant to a protective order. The order shall
further note the filing date and time.
(c) The information at issue filed with the court for in camera inspection shall be:
(1)

appended to the order and transmitted by the court to the clerk for filing as “information
at issue”;

(2)

maintained in a sealed envelope or in a manner that precludes disclosure of the
information; and

(3)

transmitted by the clerk to any court of appeal as part of the clerk’s record.

(d) Information filed with the court under this section does not constitute “court records” within the
meaning of Rule 76a, Texas Rules of Civil Procedure, and shall not be made available by the
clerk or any custodian of record for public inspection.
(e) For purposes of this section, “information at issue” is defined as information held by a
governmental body that forms the basis of a suit under this chapter.
§ 552.323.

Assessment of Costs of Litigation and Reasonable Attorney Fees

(a) In an action brought under Section 552.321 or 552.3215, the court shall assess costs of litigation
and reasonable attorney fees incurred by a plaintiff who substantially prevails, except that the
court may not assess those costs and fees against a governmental body if the court finds that the
governmental body acted in reasonable reliance on:
(1)

a judgment or an order of a court applicable to the governmental body;

(2)

the published opinion of an appellate court; or

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(3)

a written decision of the attorney general, including a decision issued under Subchapter G
or an opinion issued under Section 402.042.

(b) In an action brought under Section 552.324, the court may assess costs of litigation and
reasonable attorney’s fees incurred by a plaintiff or defendant who substantially prevails. In
exercising its discretion under this subsection, the court shall consider whether the conduct of
the governmental body had a reasonable basis in law and whether the litigation was brought in
good faith.
§ 552.324.

Suit by Governmental Body

(a) The only suit a governmental body may file seeking to withhold information from a requestor
is a suit that:
(1)

is filed in a Travis County district court against the attorney general in accordance with
Section 552.325 and

(2)

seeks declaratory relief from compliance with a decision by the attorney general issued
under Subchapter G.

(b) The governmental body must bring the suit not later than the 30th calendar day after the date the
governmental body receives the decision of the attorney general determining that the requested
information must be disclosed to the requestor. If the governmental body does not bring suit
within that period, the governmental body shall comply with the decision of the attorney general.
If a governmental body wishes to preserve an affirmative defense for its officer of public
information as provided in Section 552.353(b)(3), a suit must be filed within the deadline
provided in Section 552.353(b)(3).
§ 552.325.

Parties to Suit Seeking to Withhold Information

(a) A governmental body, officer for public information, or other person or entity that files a suit
seeking to withhold information from a requestor may not file suit against the person requesting
the information. The requestor is entitled to intervene in the suit.
(b) The governmental body, officer for public information, or other person or entity that files the suit
shall demonstrate to the court that the governmental body, officer for public information, or other
person or entity made a timely good faith effort to inform the requestor, by certified mail or by
another written method of notice that requires the return of a receipt, of:
(1)

the existence of the suit, including the subject matter and cause number of the suit and the
court in which the suit is filed;

(2)

the requestor’s right to intervene in the suit or to choose to not participate in the suit;

(3)

the fact that the suit is against the attorney general in Travis County district court; and

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(4)

the address and phone number of the office of the attorney general.

(c) If the attorney general enters into a proposed settlement that all or part of the information that
is the subject of the suit should be withheld, the attorney general shall notify the requestor of that
decision and, if the requestor has not intervened in the suit, of the requestor’s right to intervene
to contest the withholding. The attorney general shall notify the requestor:
(1)

in the manner required by the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure, if the requestor has
intervened in the suit; or

(2)

by certified mail or by another written method of notice that requires the return of a receipt,
if the requestor has not intervened in the suit.

(d) The court shall allow the requestor a reasonable period to intervene after the attorney general
attempts to give notice under Subsection (c)(2).
§ 552.326.

Failure to Raise Exceptions Before Attorney General

(a) Except as provided by Subsection (b), the only exceptions to required disclosure within
Subchapter C that a governmental body may raise in a suit filed under this chapter are exceptions
that the governmental body properly raised before the attorney general in connection with its
request for a decision regarding the matter under Subchapter G.
(b) Subsection (a) does not prohibit a governmental body from raising an exception:
(1)

based on a requirement of federal law; or

(2)

involving the property or privacy interests of another person.

§ 552.327.

Dismissal of Suit Due to Requestor’s Withdrawal or Abandonment of Request

A court may dismiss a suit challenging a decision of the attorney general brought in accordance with
this chapter if:
(1)

all parties to the suit agree to the dismissal; and

(2)

the attorney general determines and represents to the court that the requestor has
voluntarily withdrawn the request for information in writing or has abandoned the request.

SUBCHAPTER I. CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS
§ 552.351.

Destruction, Removal, or Alteration of Public Information

(a) A person commits an offense if the person wilfully destroys, mutilates, removes without
permission as provided by this chapter, or alters public information.

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(b) An offense under this section is a misdemeanor punishable by:
(1)

a fine of not less than $25 or more than $4,000;

(2)

confinement in the county jail for not less than three days or more than three months; or

(3)

both the fine and confinement.

(c) It is an exception to the application of Subsection (a) that the public information was transferred
under Section 441.204.
§ 552.352.

Distribution or Misuse of Confidential Information

(a) A person commits an offense if the person distributes information considered confidential under
the terms of this chapter.
(a-1) An officer or employee of a governmental body who obtains access to confidential information
under Section 552.008 commits an offense if the officer or employee knowingly:
(1)

uses the confidential information for a purpose other than the purpose for which the
information was received or for a purpose unrelated to the law that permitted the officer
or employee to obtain access to the information, including solicitation of political
contributions or solicitation of clients;

(2)

permits inspection of the confidential information by a person who is not authorized to
inspect the information; or

(3)

discloses the confidential information to a person who is not authorized to receive the
information.

(a-2) For purposes of Subsection (a-1), a member of an advisory committee to a governmental body
who obtains access to confidential information in that capacity is considered to be an officer or
employee of the governmental body.
(b) An offense under this section is a misdemeanor punishable by:
(1)

a fine of not more than $1,000;

(2)

confinement in the county jail for not more than six months; or

(3)

both the fine and confinement.

(c) A violation under this section constitutes official misconduct.

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§ 552.353.

Failure or Refusal of Officer for Public Information to Provide Access to or
Copying of Public Information

(a) An officer for public information, or the officer’s agent, commits an offense if, with criminal
negligence, the officer or the officer’s agent fails or refuses to give access to, or to permit or
provide copying of, public information to a requestor as provided by this chapter.
(b) It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under Subsection (a) that the officer for public
information reasonably believed that public access to the requested information was not required
and that:
(1)

the officer acted in reasonable reliance on a court order or a written interpretation of this
chapter contained in an opinion of a court of record or of the attorney general issued under
Subchapter G;

(2)

the officer requested a decision from the attorney general in accordance with Subchapter
G, and the decision is pending; or

(3)

not later than the 10th calendar day after the date of receipt of a decision by the attorney
general that the information is public, the officer or the governmental body for whom the
defendant is the officer for public information filed a petition for a declaratory judgment
against the attorney general in a Travis County district court seeking relief from
compliance with the decision of the attorney general, as provided by Section 552.324, and
the cause is pending.

(c) It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under Subsection (a) that a person or entity has, not
later than the 10th calendar day after the date of receipt by a governmental body of a decision by
the attorney general that the information is public, filed a cause of action seeking relief from
compliance with the decision of the attorney general, as provided by Section 552.325, and the
cause is pending.
(d) It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under Subsection (a) that the defendant is the agent
of an officer for public information and that the agent reasonably relied on the written instruction
of the officer for public information not to disclose the public information requested.
(e) An offense under this section is a misdemeanor punishable by:
(1)

a fine of not more than $1,000;

(2)

confinement in the county jail for not more than six months; or

(3)

both the fine and confinement.

(f) A violation under this section constitutes official misconduct.

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PART FOUR: RULES PROMULGATED
GENERAL

BY

THE

ATTORNEY

TEXAS ADMINISTRATIVE CODE, TITLE 1, CHAPTER 63
Subchapter A.
§ 63.1.

Confidentiality of Information Requested for Legislative
Purposes

Definition, Purpose, and Application

(a)

In this subchapter, “legislative requestor” means an individual member, agency, or
committee of the legislature.

(b)

This subchapter governs the procedures by which the attorney general shall render a
decision sought by a legislative requestor under Texas Government Code § 552.008(b-2).

(c)

Texas Government Code § 552.308 applies to all deadlines established in this subchapter.

§ 63.2.

Request for Attorney General Decision Regarding Confidentiality

(a)

If a governmental body that receives a written request for information from a legislative
requestor under Texas Government Code § 552.008 determines the requested information
is confidential and requires the legislative requestor to sign a confidentiality agreement, the
legislative requestor may ask for an attorney general decision about whether the
information covered by the confidentiality agreement is confidential under law.

(b)

A request for an attorney general decision must:

(1) be in writing and signed by the legislative requestor;
(2) state the name of the governmental body to whom the original request for information was
made; and
(3) state the date the original request was made.
(c)

The legislative requestor must submit a copy of the original request with the request for a
decision. If the legislative requestor is unable to do so, the legislative requestor must
include a written description of the original request in the request for a decision.

(d)

The legislative requestor may submit written comments to the attorney general stating
reasons why the requested information should not be considered confidential by law. The
written comments must be labeled to indicate whether any portion of the comments
discloses or contains the substance of the specific information deemed confidential by the
governmental body. A legislative requestor who submits written comments to the attorney
general shall send a copy of those comments to the governmental body.

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(e)

§ 63.3.

The deadlines in § 63.3 and § 63.6 of this subchapter commence on the date on which the
attorney general receives from the legislative requestor all of the information required by
subsections (b) and (c) of this section.
Notice

(a)

The attorney general shall notify the governmental body in writing of a request for a
decision and provide the governmental body a copy of the request for a decision within a
reasonable time but not later than the 5th business day after the date of receiving the
request for a decision.

(b)

The attorney general shall provide the legislative requestor a copy of the written notice to
the governmental body, excluding a copy of the request for a decision, within a reasonable
time but not later than the 5th business day after the date of receiving the request for a
decision.

§ 63.4.
(a)

Submission of Documents and Comments
Within a reasonable time but not later than the 10th business day after the date of receiving
the attorney general’s written notice of the request for a decision, a governmental body
shall:

(1) submit to the attorney general:
(A) written comments stating the law that deems the requested information confidential and
the reasons why the stated law applies to the information;
(B) a copy of the written request for information; and
(C) a copy of the specific information deemed confidential by the governmental body, or
representative samples of the information if a voluminous amount of information was
requested; and
(2) label the copy of the specific information, or the representative samples, to indicate which
laws apply to which parts of the copy; and
(3) label the written comments to indicate whether any portion of the comments discloses or
contains the substance of the specific information deemed confidential by the governmental
body.
(b)

A governmental body that submits written comments to the attorney general shall send a
copy of those comments to the legislative requestor within a reasonable time but not later
than the 10th business day after the date of receiving the attorney general’s written notice
of the request for a decision.

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(c)

If a governmental body determines a person may have a property interest in the requested
information, the governmental body shall notify that person in accordance with Texas
Government Code § 552.305(d). The governmental body shall notify the affected person
not later than the 10th business day after receiving written notice of the request for a
decision.

(d)

If a person notified in accordance with Texas Government Code § 552.305 decides to
submit written comments to the attorney general, the person must do so not later than the
10th business day after receiving the notice. The written comments must be labeled to
indicate whether any portion of the comments discloses or contains the substance of the
specific information deemed confidential by the governmental body.

(e)

Any interested person may submit written comments to the attorney general stating why
the requested information is or is not confidential. The written comments must be labeled
to indicate whether any portion of the comments discloses or contains the substance of the
specific information deemed confidential by the governmental body.

(f)

A person who submits written comments under subsection (d) or (e) of this section shall
send a copy of those comments to both the legislative requestor and the governmental
body.

§ 63.5.

Additional Information

(a)

The attorney general may determine whether a governmental body’s submission of
information under § 63.4(a) of this subchapter is sufficient to render a decision.

(b)

If the attorney general determines that information in addition to that required by § 63.4(a)
of this subchapter is necessary to render a decision, the attorney general shall give written
notice of that fact to the governmental body and the legislative requestor.

(c)

A governmental body notified under subsection (b) of this section shall submit the
necessary additional information to the attorney general not later than the seventh calendar
day after the date the notice is received.

§ 63.6.

Rendition of Attorney General Decision; Issuance of Written Decision

(a)

The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested under this subchapter, not
later than the 45th business day after the date of receiving the request for a decision.

(b)

The attorney general shall issue a written decision and shall provide a copy of the decision
to the legislative requestor, the governmental body, and any interested person who
submitted necessary information or a brief to the attorney general about the matter.

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Subchapter B.

Review of Public Information Redactions

§ 63.11. Purpose and Application
(a)

This subchapter governs the procedures by which the attorney general shall render a
decision sought by a requestor under Texas Government Code §§ 552.024(c-1),
552.1175(g), 552.130(d), 552.136(d), or 552.138(d).

(b)

Texas Government Code §552.308 and §552.309 apply to all deadlines established in this
subchapter.

§ 63.12. Request for Review by the Attorney General
(a)

If a governmental body redacts or withholds information under Texas Government Code
§§ 552.024(c)(2), 552.1175(f), 552.130(c), 552.136(c), or 552.138(c) without requesting
a decision from the attorney general about whether the information may be redacted or
withheld, the requestor may ask the attorney general to review the governmental body’s
determination that the information at issue is excepted from required disclosure.

(b)

A request for review by the attorney general must:

(1) be in writing and signed by the requestor;
(2) state the name of the governmental body to whom the original request for information was
made; and
(3) state the date the original request was made.
(c)

The requestor must submit a copy of the original request with the request for review. If the
requestor is unable to do so, the requestor must include a written description of the original
request in the request for review.

(d)

The requestor may submit written comments to the attorney general stating reasons why
the information at issue should be released.

(e)

The deadlines in § 63.13 and § 63.16 of this subchapter commence on the date on which
the attorney general receives from the requestor all of the information required by
subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

§ 63.13. Notice
(a)

The attorney general shall notify the governmental body in writing of a request for review
and provide the governmental body a copy of the request for review not later than the 5th
business day after the date of receiving the request for review.

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(b)

The attorney general shall provide the requestor a copy of the written notice to the
governmental body, excluding a copy of the request for review, not later than the 5th
business day after the date of receiving the request for review.

§ 63.14. Submission of Documents and Comments
(a)

A governmental body shall provide to the attorney general within a reasonable time but not
later than the 10th business day after the date of receiving the attorney general’s written
notice of the request for review:

(1) an unredacted copy of the specific information requested, or representative samples of the
information if a voluminous amount of information was requested;
(2) a copy of the specific information requested, or representative samples of the information
if a voluminous amount of information was requested, illustrating the information redacted
or withheld;
(3) written comments stating the reasons why the information at issue was redacted or
withheld;
(4) a copy of the written request for information; and
(5) a copy of the form letter the governmental body provided to the requestor as required by
Texas Government Code §§ 552.024(c-2), 552.1175(h), 552.130(e), 552.136(e), and
552.138(e).
(b)

A governmental body that submits written comments to the attorney general shall send a
copy of those comments to the requestor within a reasonable time but not later than the
10th business day after the date of receiving the attorney general’s written notice of the
request for review. If the written comments disclose or contain the substance of the
information at issue, the copy of the comments provided to the requestor must be a
redacted copy.

(c)

A person may submit written comments to the attorney general stating why the information
at issue in a request for review should or should not be released.

(d)

A person who submits written comments under subsection (c) of this section shall send a
copy of those comments to both the requestor and the governmental body. If the written
comments disclose or contain the substance of the information at issue, the copy of the
comments sent to the requestor must be a redacted copy.

§ 63.15. Additional Information
(a)

The attorney general may determine whether a governmental body’s submission of
information under § 63.14(a) of this subchapter is sufficient to render a decision.

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(b)

If the attorney general determines that information in addition to that required by § 63.14(a)
of this subchapter is necessary to render a decision, the attorney general shall give written
notice of that fact to the governmental body and the requestor.

(c)

A governmental body notified under subsection (b) of this section shall submit the
necessary additional information to the attorney general not later than the 7th calendar day
after the date the notice is received.

§ 63.16. Rendition of Attorney General Decision; Issuance of Written Decision
(a)

The attorney general shall promptly render a decision requested under this subchapter, not
later than the 45th business day after the date of receiving the request for review.

(b)

The attorney general shall issue a written decision and shall provide a copy of the decision
to the requestor, the governmental body, and any interested person who submitted
necessary information or a brief to the attorney general about the matter.

Subchapter C.

Electronic Submission of Request for Attorney General
Open Records Decision

§ 63.21. Definitions and Purpose
(a)

The following words and terms, when used in this subchapter, shall have the following
meanings:

(1) “Governmental body” means a governmental body as defined in Texas Government Code
§ 552.003(1).
(2) “Request for decision” means a request for an attorney general open records decision made
by a governmental body pursuant to Texas Government Code § 552.301 and § 552.309.
(3) “Requestor” means a requestor as defined in Texas Government Code § 552.003(6).
(4) “Interested Third Party” means any third party who wishes to submits comments,
documents, or other materials for consideration in the attorney general’s open records
decision process under Texas Government Code § 552.304 or § 552.305.
(5) “Attorney General’s Designated Electronic Filing System” means the online, electronic
filing system designated by the attorney general as the system for submitting documents
and other materials to the attorney general under Texas Government Code § 552.309.
(b)

This subchapter governs the procedures by which the attorney general may charge and
collect a nonrefundable administrative convenience fee for the electronic submission of
documents and other materials to the attorney general under Texas Government Code
§ 552.309.

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§ 63.22. Electronic Submission of Request for Attorney General Decision
(a)

A governmental body that requests a decision from the attorney general under Texas
Government Code § 552.301 about whether requested public information is excepted from
public disclosure may submit that request for decision to the attorney general through the
attorney general’s designated electronic filing system.

(b)

The governmental body’s request for decision must comply with the requirements of Texas
Government Code § 552.301.

(c)

The deadlines in Texas Government Code § 552.301 and § 552.303 are met if the
governmental body timely submits the required documents and other materials through the
attorney general’s designated electronic filing system within the time prescribed.

(d)

The governmental body must comply with the requirements of Texas Government Code
§ 552.301(d) and (e-1), and § 552.305 regardless of whether the request for attorney
general decision is submitted electronically or through another permissible method of
submission.

(e)

To use the attorney general’s designated electronic filing system, the governmental body
must agree to and comply with the terms and conditions of use as outlined on the attorney
general’s designated electronic filing system website.

(f)

The confidentiality of Texas Government Code § 552.3035 applies to information
submitted under Texas Government Code § 552.301(e)(1)(D) through the attorney
general’s designated electronic filing system.

§ 63.23. Electronic Submission of Documents or other Materials by Interested Third Party
(a)

An interested third party may submit, through the attorney general’s designated electronic
filing system, the reasons why the requested public information should be withheld or
released along with any necessary supporting documentation for consideration in the
attorney general’s open records decision process.

(b)

The deadline in Texas Government Code § 552.305(d)(2)(B) is met if the interested third
party timely submits the reasons why the requested public information should be withheld
or released along with any necessary supporting documentation through the attorney
general’s designated electronic filing system within the time prescribed.

(c)

The interested third party must comply with the requirements of Texas Government Code
§ 552.305(e) regardless of whether the interested third party submits materials
electronically or through another permissible method of submission.

(d)

To use the attorney general’s designated electronic filing system, the interested third party
must agree to and comply with the terms and conditions of use as outlined on the attorney
general’s designated electronic filing system website.

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§ 63.24. Administrative Convenience Fee
(a)

Each request for decision submitted through the attorney general’s designated electronic
filing system will be assessed a nonrefundable administrative convenience fee, to be set by
the attorney general, that reasonably relates to the cost of the resources expended to
develop and administer the attorney general’s designated electronic filing system.

(b)

Subsequent electronic submissions by the same governmental body related to the same
request for decision will not be assessed an additional nonrefundable administrative
convenience fee by the attorney general.

(c)

An interested third party that submits arguments or documents through the attorney
general’s designated electronic filing system will be assessed a nonrefundable
administrative convenience fee, to be set by the attorney general, that reasonably relates to
the cost of the resources expended to develop and administer the attorney general’s
designated electronic filing system.

(d)

Subsequent electronic submissions by the same interested third party related to the same
request for decision will not be assessed an additional nonrefundable administrative
convenience fee by the attorney general.

(e)

The administrative fee described in subsection (a) of this section shall be collected
electronically by the state electronic internet portal.

TEXAS ADMINISTRATIVE CODE, TITLE 1, CHAPTER 70
Chapter 70.

Cost of Copies of Public Information

§ 70.1. Purpose
(a) The Office of the Attorney General (the “Attorney General”) must:
(1)

Adopt rules for use by each governmental body in determining charges under Texas
Government Code, Chapter 552 (Public Information) Subchapter F (Charges for Providing
Copies of Public Information);

(2)

Prescribe the methods for computing the charges for copies of public information in paper,
electronic, and other kinds of media; and

(3)

Establish costs for various components of charges for public information that shall be used
by each governmental body in providing copies of public information.

(b) Governmental bodies must use the charges established by these rules, unless:
(1)

Other law provides for charges for specific kinds of public information;

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(2)

They are a governmental body other than a state agency, and their charges are within a 25
percent variance above the charges established by the Attorney General;

(3)

They request and receive an exemption because their actual costs are higher; or

(4)

In accordance with Chapter 552 of the Texas Government Code (also known as the Public
Information Act), the governmental body may grant a waiver or reduction for charges for
providing copies of public information pursuant to § 552.267 of the Texas Government
Code.
(A) A governmental body shall furnish a copy of public information without charge or
at a reduced charge if the governmental body determines that waiver or reduction of
the fee is in the public interest because furnishing the information primarily benefits
the general public; or
(B) If the cost to the governmental body of processing the collection of a charge for a
copy of public information will exceed the amount of the charge, the governmental
body may waive the charge.

§ 70.2. Definitions
The following words and terms, when used in these sections, shall have the following meanings,
unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
(1)

Actual cost—The sum of all direct costs plus a proportional share of overhead or indirect
costs. Actual cost should be determined in accordance with generally accepted
methodologies.

(2)

Client/Server System—A combination of two or more computers that serve a particular
application through sharing processing, data storage, and end-user interface presentation.
PCs located in a LAN environment containing file servers fall into this category as do
applications running in an X-window environment where the server is a UNIX based
system.

(3)

Attorney General—The Office of the Attorney General of Texas.

(4)

Governmental Body—An entity as defined by § 552.003 of the Texas Government Code.

(5)

Mainframe Computer—A computer located in a controlled environment and serving large
applications and/or large numbers of users. These machines usually serve an entire
organization or some group of organizations. These machines usually require an operating
staff. IBM and UNISYS mainframes, and large Digital VAX 9000 and VAX Clusters fall
into this category.

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(6)

Midsize Computer—A computer smaller than a Mainframe Computer that is not
necessarily located in a controlled environment. It usually serves a smaller organization
or a sub-unit of an organization. IBM AS/400 and Digital VAX/VMS multi-user
single-processor systems fall into this category.

(7)

Nonstandard copy—Under § 70.1 through § 70.11 of this title, a copy of public information
that is made available to a requestor in any format other than a standard paper copy.
Microfiche, microfilm, diskettes, magnetic tapes, CD-ROM are examples of nonstandard
copies. Paper copies larger than 8 1/2 by 14 inches (legal size) are also considered
nonstandard copies.

(8)

PC—An IBM compatible PC, Macintosh or Power PC based computer system operated
without a connection to a network.

(9)

Standard paper copy—Under § 70.1 through § 70.11 of this title, a copy of public
information that is a printed impression on one side of a piece of paper that measures up
to 8 1/2 by 14 inches. Each side of a piece of paper on which information is recorded is
counted as a single copy. A piece of paper that has information recorded on both sides is
counted as two copies.

(10) Archival box—A carton box measuring approximately 12.5" width x 15.5" length x 10"
height, or able to contain approximately 1.5 cubic feet in volume.
§ 70.3.

Charges for Providing Copies of Public Information

(a) The charges in this section to recover costs associated with providing copies of public
information are based on estimated average costs to governmental bodies across the state. When
actual costs are 25% higher than those used in these rules, governmental bodies other than
agencies of the state, may request an exemption in accordance with § 70.4 of this title (relating
to Requesting an Exemption).
(b) Copy charge.
(1)

Standard paper copy. The charge for standard paper copies reproduced by means of an
office machine copier or a computer printer is $.10 per page or part of a page. Each side
that has recorded information is considered a page.

(2)

Nonstandard copy. The charges in this subsection are to cover the materials onto which
information is copied and do not reflect any additional charges, including labor, that may
be associated with a particular request. The charges for nonstandard copies are:
(A) Diskette—$1.00;
(B) Magnetic tape—actual cost
(C) Data cartridge—actual cost;

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(D) Tape cartridge—actual cost;
(E) Rewritable CD (CD-RW)—$1.00;
(F)

Non-rewritable CD (CD-R)—$1.00;

(G) Digital video disc (DVD)—$3.00;
(H) JAZ drive—actual cost;
(I)

Other electronic media—actual cost;

(J)

VHS video cassette—$2.50;

(K) Audio cassette—$1.00;
(L) Oversize paper copy (e.g.: 11 inches by 17 inches, greenbar, bluebar, not including
maps and photographs using specialty paper—see also § 70.9 of this title)—$.50;
(M) Specialty paper (e.g.: Mylar, blueprint, blueline, map, photographic—actual cost.
(c) Labor charge for programming. If a particular request requires the services of a programmer in
order to execute an existing program or to create a new program so that requested information
may be accessed and copied, the governmental body may charge for the programmer’s time.
(1)

The hourly charge for a programmer is $28.50 an hour. Only programming services shall
be charged at this hourly rate.

(2)

Governmental bodies that do not have in-house programming capabilities shall comply
with requests in accordance with § 552.231 of the Texas Government Code.

(3)

If the charge for providing a copy of public information includes costs of labor, a
governmental body shall comply with the requirements of § 552.261(b) of the Texas
Government Code.

(d) Labor charge for locating, compiling, manipulating data, and reproducing public information.
(1)

The charge for labor costs incurred in processing a request for public information is $15
an hour. The labor charge includes the actual time to locate, compile, manipulate data, and
reproduce the requested information.

(2)

A labor charge shall not be billed in connection with complying with requests that are for
50 or fewer pages of paper records, unless the documents to be copied are located in:
(A) Two or more separate buildings that are not physically connected with each other; or

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(B) A remote storage facility.
(3)

A labor charge shall not be recovered for any time spent by an attorney, legal assistant, or
any other person who reviews the requested information:
(A) To determine whether the governmental body will raise any exceptions to disclosure
of the requested information under the Texas Government Code, Subchapter C,
Chapter 552; or
(B) To research or prepare a request for a ruling by the attorney general’s office pursuant
to § 552.301 of the Texas Government Code.

(4)

When confidential information pursuant to a mandatory exception of the Act is mixed with
public information in the same page, a labor charge may be recovered for time spent to
redact, blackout, or otherwise obscure confidential information in order to release the
public information. A labor charge shall not be made for redacting confidential
information for requests of 50 or fewer pages, unless the request also qualifies for a labor
charge pursuant to Texas Government Code, § 552.261(a)(1) or (2).

(5)

If the charge for providing a copy of public information includes costs of labor, a
governmental body shall comply with the requirements of Texas Government Code,
Chapter 552, § 552.261(b).

(6)

For purposes of paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection, two buildings connected by a covered
or open sidewalk, an elevated or underground passageway, or a similar facility, are not
considered to be separate buildings.

(e) Overhead charge.
(1)

Whenever any labor charge is applicable to a request, a governmental body may include
in the charges direct and indirect costs, in addition to the specific labor charge. This
overhead charge would cover such costs as depreciation of capital assets, rent, maintenance
and repair, utilities, and administrative overhead. If a governmental body chooses to
recover such costs, a charge shall be made in accordance with the methodology described
in paragraph (3) of this subsection. Although an exact calculation of costs will vary, the
use of a standard charge will avoid complication in calculating such costs and will provide
uniformity for charges made statewide.

(2)

An overhead charge shall not be made for requests for copies of 50 or fewer pages of
standard paper records unless the request also qualifies for a labor charge pursuant to Texas
Government Code, § 552.261(a)(1) or (2).

(3)

The overhead charge shall be computed at 20% of the charge made to cover any labor costs
associated with a particular request. Example: if one hour of labor is used for a particular
request, the formula would be as follows: Labor charge for locating, compiling, and
reproducing, $15.00 x .20 = $3.00; or Programming labor charge, $28.50 x .20 = $5.70.

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If a request requires one hour of labor charge for locating, compiling, and reproducing
information ($15.00 per hour); and one hour of programming labor charge ($28.50 per
hour), the combined overhead would be: $15.00 + $28.50 = $43.50 x .20 = $8.70.
(f) Microfiche and microfilm charge.
(1)

If a governmental body already has information that exists on microfiche or microfilm and
has copies available for sale or distribution, the charge for a copy must not exceed the cost
of its reproduction. If no copies of the requested microfiche or microfilm are available and
the information on the microfiche or microfilm can be released in its entirety, the
governmental body should make a copy of the microfiche or microfilm. The charge for a
copy shall not exceed the cost of its reproduction. The Texas State Library and Archives
Commission has the capacity to reproduce microfiche and microfilm for governmental
bodies. Governmental bodies that do not have in-house capability to reproduce microfiche
or microfilm are encouraged to contact the Texas State Library before having the
reproduction made commercially.

(2)

If only a master copy of information in microfilm is maintained, the charge is $.10 per page
for standard size paper copies, plus any applicable labor and overhead charge for more than
50 copies.

(g) Remote document retrieval charge.
(1)

Due to limited on-site capacity of storage documents, it is frequently necessary to store
information that is not in current use in remote storage locations. Every effort should be
made by governmental bodies to store current records on-site. State agencies are
encouraged to store inactive or non-current records with the Texas State Library and
Archives Commission. To the extent that the retrieval of documents results in a charge to
comply with a request, it is permissible to recover costs of such services for requests that
qualify for labor charges under current law.

(2)

If a governmental body has a contract with a commercial records storage company,
whereby the private company charges a fee to locate, retrieve, deliver, and return to storage
the needed record(s), no additional labor charge shall be factored in for time spent locating
documents at the storage location by the private company’s personnel. If after delivery to
the governmental body, the boxes must still be searched for records that are responsive to
the request, a labor charge is allowed according to subsection (d)(1) of this section.

(h) Computer resource charge.
(1)

The computer resource charge is a utilization charge for computers based on the amortized
cost of acquisition, lease, operation, and maintenance of computer resources, which might
include, but is not limited to, some or all of the following: central processing units (CPUs),
servers, disk drives, local area networks (LANs), printers, tape drives, other peripheral
devices, communications devices, software, and system utilities.

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(2)

These computer resource charges are not intended to substitute for cost recovery
methodologies or charges made for purposes other than responding to public information
requests.

(3)

The charges in this subsection are averages based on a survey of governmental bodies with
a broad range of computer capabilities. Each governmental body using this cost recovery
charge shall determine which category(ies) of computer system(s) used to fulfill the public
information request most closely fits its existing system(s), and set its charge accordingly.
Type of System—Rate: mainframe—$10 per CPU minute; Midsize—$1.50 per CPU
minute; Client/Server—$2.20 per clock hour; PC or LAN—$1.00 per clock hour.

(4)

The charge made to recover the computer utilization cost is the actual time the computer
takes to execute a particular program times the applicable rate. The CPU charge is not
meant to apply to programming or printing time; rather it is solely to recover costs
associated with the actual time required by the computer to execute a program. This time,
called CPU time, can be read directly from the CPU clock, and most frequently will be a
matter of seconds. If programming is required to comply with a particular request, the
appropriate charge that may be recovered for programming time is set forth in subsection
(d) of this section. No charge should be made for computer print-out time. Example: If
a mainframe computer is used, and the processing time is 20 seconds, the charges would
be as follows: $10 / 3 = $3.33; or $10 / 60 x 20 = $3.33.

(5)

A governmental body that does not have in-house computer capabilities shall comply with
requests in accordance with the § 552.231 of the Texas Government Code.

(i) Miscellaneous supplies. The actual cost of miscellaneous supplies, such as labels, boxes, and
other supplies used to produce the requested information, may be added to the total charge for
public information.
(j) Postal and shipping charges. Governmental bodies may add any related postal or shipping
expenses which are necessary to transmit the reproduced information to the requesting party.
(k) Sales tax. Pursuant to Office of the Comptroller of Public Accounts’ rules sales tax shall not be
added on charges for public information (34 TAC, Part 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter O, § 3.341 and
§ 3.342).
(l) Miscellaneous charges: A governmental body that accepts payment by credit card for copies of
public information and that is charged a “transaction fee” by the credit card company may
recover that fee.
(m)These charges are subject to periodic reevaluation and update.
§ 70.4.

Requesting an Exemption

(a) Pursuant to § 552.262(c) of the Public Information Act, a governmental body may request that
it be exempt from part or all of these rules.

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(b) State agencies must request an exemption if their charges to recover costs are higher than those
established by these rules.
(c) Governmental bodies, other than agencies of the state, must request an exemption before seeking
to recover costs that are more than 25% higher than the charges established by these rules.
(d) an exemption request must be made in writing, and must contain the following elements:
(1)

A statement identifying the subsection(s) of these rules for which an exemption is sought;

(2)

The reason(s) the exemption is requested;

(3)

A copy of the proposed charges;

(4)

The methodology and figures used to calculate/compute the proposed charges;

(5)

Any supporting documentation, such as invoices, contracts, etc.; and

(6)

The name, title, work address, and phone number of a contact person at the governmental
body.

(e) The contact person shall provide sufficient information and answer in writing any questions
necessary to process the request for exemption.
(f) If there is good cause to grant the exemption, because the request is duly documented,
reasonable, and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, the exemption shall
be granted. The name of the governmental body shall be added to a list to be published annually
in the Texas Register.
(g) If the request is not duly documented and/or the charges are beyond cost recovery, the request
for exemption shall be denied. The letter of denial shall:
(1)

Explain the reason(s) the exemption cannot be granted; and

(2)

Whenever possible, propose alternative charges.

(h) All determinations to grant or deny a request for exemption shall be completed promptly, but
shall not exceed 90 days from receipt of the request by the Attorney General.
§ 70.5.

Access to Information Where Copies Are Not Requested

(a) Access to information in standard paper form. A governmental body shall not charge for making
available for inspection information maintained in standard paper form. Charges are permitted
only where the governmental body is asked to provide, for inspection, information that contains
mandatory confidential information and public information. When such is the case, the

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governmental body may charge to make a copy of the page from which information must be
edited. No other charges are allowed except as follows:
(1)

The governmental body has 16 or more employees and the information requested takes
more than five hours to prepare the public information for inspection; and
(A) Is older than five years; or
(B) Completely fills, or when assembled will completely fill, six or more archival boxes.

(2)

The governmental body has 15 or fewer full-time employees and the information requested
takes more than two hours to prepare the public information for inspection; and
(A) Is older than three years; or
(B) Completely fills, or when assembled will completely fill, three or more archival
boxes.

(3)

A governmental body may charge pursuant to paragraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of this
subsection only for the production of those documents that qualify under those paragraphs.

(b) Access to information in other than standard form. In response to requests for access, for
purposes of inspection only, to information that is maintained in other than standard form, a
governmental body may not charge the requesting party the cost of preparing and making
available such information, unless complying with the request will require programming or
manipulation of data.
§ 70.6.

Format for Copies of Public Information

(a) If a requesting party asks that information be provided on computer-compatible media of a
particular kind, and the requested information is electronically stored and the governmental body
has the capability of providing it in that format and it is able to provide it at no greater expense
or time, the governmental body shall provide the information in the requested format.
(b) The extent to which a requestor can be accommodated will depend largely on the technological
capability of the governmental body to which the request is made.
(c) A governmental body is not required to purchase any hardware, software or programming
capabilities that it does not already possess to accommodate a particular kind of request.
(d) Provision of a copy of public information in the requested medium shall not violate the terms of
any copyright agreement between the governmental body and a third party.
(e) if the governmental body does not have the required technological capabilities to comply with
the request in the format preferred by the requestor, the governmental body shall proceed in
accordance with § 552.228(c) of the Public Information Act.

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(f) If a governmental body receives a request requiring programming or manipulation of data, the
governmental body should proceed in accordance with § 552.231 of the Public Information Act.
Manipulation of data under § 552.231 applies only to information stored in electronic format.
§ 70.7.

Estimates and Waivers of Public Information Charges

(a) A governmental body is required to provide a requestor with an itemized statement of estimated
charges if charges for copies of public information will exceed $40, or if a charge in accordance
with § 70.5 of this title (relating to Access to Information Where Copies Are Not Requested) will
exceed $40 for making public information available for inspection. The itemized statement of
estimated charges is to be provided before copies are made to enable requestors to make the
choices allowed by the Act. A governmental body that fails to provide the required statement
may not collect more than $40. The itemized statement must be provided free of charge and
shall contain the following information:
(1)

The itemized estimated charges, including any allowable charges for labor, overhead,
copies, etc.;

(2)

Whether a less costly or no-cost way of viewing the information is available;

(3)

A statement that the requestor must respond in writing by mail, in person, by facsimile if
the governmental body is capable of receiving such transmissions, or by electronic mail,
if the governmental body has an electronic mail address;

(4)

A statement that the request will be considered to have been automatically withdrawn by
the requestor if a written response from the requestor is not received within ten business
days after the date the statement was sent, in which the requestor states that the requestor:
(A) Will accept the estimated charges;
(B) Is modifying the request in response to the itemized statement; or
(C) Has sent to the Attorney General a complaint alleging that the requestor has been
overcharged for being provided with a copy of the public information.

(b) If after starting the work, but before making the copies available, the governmental body
determines that the initially accepted estimated statement will be exceeded by 20% or more, an
updated statement must be sent. If the requestor does not respond to the updated statement, the
request is considered to have been withdrawn by the requestor.
(c) If the actual charges exceed $40, the charges may not exceed:
(1)

The amount estimated on the updated statement; or

(2)

An amount that exceeds by more than 20% the amount in the initial statement, if an
updated statement was not sent.

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(d) A governmental body that provides a requestor with the statement mentioned in subsection (a)
of this section, may require a deposit or bond as follows:
(1)

The governmental body has 16 or more full-time employees and the estimated charges are
$100 or more; or

(2)

The governmental body has 15 or fewer full-time employees and the estimated charges are
$50 or more.

(e) If a request for the inspection of paper records will qualify for a deposit or a bond as detailed in
subsection (d) of this section, a governmental body may request:
(1)

A bond for the entire estimated amount; or

(2)

A deposit not to exceed 50 percent of the entire estimated amount.

(f) A governmental body may require payment of overdue and unpaid balances before preparing a
copy in response to a new request if:
(1)

The governmental body provided, and the requestor accepted, the required itemized
statements for previous requests that remain unpaid; and

(2)

The aggregated unpaid amount exceeds $100.

(g) A governmental body may not seek payment of said unpaid amounts through any other means.
(h) A governmental body that cannot produce the public information for inspection and/or
duplication within 10 business days after the date the written response from the requestor has
been received, shall certify to that fact in writing, and set a date and hour within a reasonable
time when the information will be available.
§ 70.8.

Processing Complaints of Overcharges

(a) Pursuant to § 552.269(a) of the Texas Government Code, requestors who believe they have been
overcharged for a copy of public information may complain to the Attorney General.
(b) The complaint must be in writing, and must:
(1)

Set forth the reason(s) the person believes the charges are excessive;

(2)

Provide a copy of the original request and a copy of any correspondence from the
governmental body stating the proposed charges; and

(3)

Be received by the Attorney General within 10 business days after the person knows of the
occurrence of the alleged overcharge.

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(4)

Failure to provide the information listed within the stated timeframe will result in the
complaint being dismissed.

(c) The Attorney General shall address written questions to the governmental body, regarding the
methodology and figures used in the calculation of the charges which are the subject of the
complaint.
(d) The governmental body shall respond in writing to the questions within 10 business days from
receipt of the questions.
(e) The Attorney General may use tests, consultations with records managers and technical
personnel at the Attorney General and other agencies, and any other reasonable resources to
determine appropriate charges.
(f) If the Attorney General determines that the governmental body overcharged for requested public
information, the governmental body shall adjust its charges in accordance with the determination,
and shall refund the difference between what was charged and what was determined to be
appropriate charges.
(g) The Attorney General shall send a copy of the determination to the complainant and to the
governmental body.
(h) Pursuant to § 552.269(b) of the Texas Government Code, a requestor who overpays because a
governmental body refuses or fails to follow the charges established by the Attorney General,
is entitled to recover three times the amount of the overcharge if the governmental body did not
act in good faith in computing the charges.
§ 70.9.

Examples of Charges for Copies of Public Information

The following tables present a few examples of the calculations of charges for information:
(1) TABLE 1 (Fewer than 50 pages of paper records): $.10 per copy x number of copies
(standard-size paper copies); + Labor charge (if applicable); + Overhead charge (if applicable);
+ Document retrieval charge (if applicable); + Postage and shipping (if applicable) = $ TOTAL
CHARGE.
(2) TABLE 2 (More than 50 pages of paper records or nonstandard copies): $.10 per copy x
number of copies (standard-size paper copies), or cost of nonstandard copy (e.g., diskette,
oversized paper, etc.); + Labor charge (if applicable); + Overhead charge (if applicable);
+ Document retrieval charge (if applicable); + Actual cost of miscellaneous supplies (if
applicable); + Postage and shipping (if applicable) = $ TOTAL CHARGE.

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(3) TABLE 3 (Information that Requires Programming or Manipulation of Data): Cost of copy
(standard or nonstandard, whichever applies); + Labor charge; + Overhead charge; + Computer
resource charge; + Programming time (if applicable); + Document retrieval charge (if
applicable); + Actual cost of miscellaneous supplies (if applicable); + Postage and shipping (if
applicable) = $ TOTAL CHARGE.
(4) TABLE 4 (Maps): Cost of paper (Cost of Roll/Avg. # of Maps); + Cost of Toner (Black or
Color, # of Maps per Toner Cartridge); + Labor charge (if applicable); + Overhead charge
(if applicable) + Plotter/Computer resource Charge; + Actual cost of miscellaneous supplies
(if applicable); + Postage and shipping (if applicable) = $ TOTAL CHARGE.
(5) TABLE 5 (Photographs): Cost of Paper (Cost of Sheet of Photographic Paper/Avg. # of
Photographs per Sheet); + Developing/Fixing Chemicals (if applicable); + Labor charge
(if applicable); + Overhead charge (if applicable); + Postage and shipping (if applicable) =
$ TOTAL CHARGE.
§ 70.10. The Attorney General Charge Schedule
The following is a summary of the charges for copies of public information that have been adopted
by the Attorney General.
(1)

Standard paper copy—$.10 per page.

(2)

Nonstandard-size copy:
(A) Diskette: $1.00;
(B) Magnetic tape: actual cost;
(C) Data cartridge: actual cost;
(D) Tape cartridge: actual cost;
(E) Rewritable CD (CD-RW)—$1.00;
(F)

Non-rewritable CD (CD-R)—$1.00;

(G) Digital video disc (DVD)—$3.00;
(H) JAZ drive—actual cost;
(I)

Other electronic media—actual cost;

(J)

VHS video cassette—$2.50;

(K) Audio cassette—$1.00;

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(L) Oversize paper copy (e.g.: 11 inches by 17 inches, greenbar, bluebar, not including
maps and photographs using specialty paper)—$.50;
(M) Specialty paper (e.g.: Mylar, blueprint, blueline, map, photographic)—actual cost.
(3)

Labor charge:
(A) For programming—$28.50 per hour;
(B) For locating, compiling, and reproducing—$15 per hour.

(4)

Overhead charge—20% of labor charge.

(5)

Microfiche or microfilm charge:
(A) Paper copy—$.10 per page;
(B) Fiche or film copy—Actual cost.

(6)

Remote document retrieval charge—Actual cost.

(7)

Computer resource charge:
(A) mainframe—$10 per CPU minute;
(B) Midsize—$1.50 per CPU minute;
(C) Client/Server system—$2.20 per clock hour;
(D) PC or LAN—$1.00 per clock hour.

(8)

Miscellaneous supplies—Actual cost.

(9)

Postage and shipping charge—Actual cost.

(10) Photographs—Actual cost as calculated in accordance with § 70.9(5) of this title.
(11) Maps—Actual cost as calculated in accordance with § 70.9(4) of this title.
(12) Other costs—Actual cost.
(13) Outsourced/Contracted Services—Actual cost for the copy. May not include development
costs.
(14) No Sales Tax—No Sales Tax shall be applied to copies of public information.

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§ 70.11. Informing the Public of Basic Rights and Responsibilities Under the Public
Information Act
(a)

Pursuant to Texas Government Code, Chapter 552, Subchapter D, § 552.205, an officer for
public information shall prominently display a sign in the form prescribed by the Attorney
General.

(b)

The sign shall contain basic information about the rights of requestors and responsibilities
of governmental bodies that are subject to Chapter 552, as well as the procedures for
inspecting or obtaining a copy of public information under said chapter.

(c)

The sign shall have the minimum following characteristics:

(d)

(1)

Be printed on plain paper.

(2)

Be no less than 8 1/2 inches by 14 inches in total size, exclusive of framing.

(3)

The sign may be laminated to prevent alterations.

The sign will contain the following wording:
(1)

The Public Information Act. Texas Government Code, Chapter 552, gives you the
right to access government records; and an officer for public information and the
officer’s agent may not ask why you want them. All government information is
presumed to be available to the public. Certain exceptions may apply to the
disclosure of the information. Governmental bodies shall promptly release requested
information that is not confidential by law, either constitutional, statutory, or by
judicial decision, or information for which an exception to disclosure has not been
sought.

(2)

Rights of Requestors. You have the right to:
(A)

Prompt access to information that is not confidential or otherwise protected;

(B)

Receive treatment equal to all other requestors, including accommodation in
accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements;

(C)

Receive certain kinds of information without exceptions, like the voting
record of public officials, and other information;

(D)

Receive a written itemized statement of estimated charges, when charges will
exceed $40, in advance of work being started and opportunity to modify the
request in response to the itemized statement;

(E)

Choose whether to inspect the requested information (most often at no
charge), receive copies of the information, or both;

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(3)

(F)

A waiver or reduction of charges if the governmental body determines that
access to the information primarily benefits the general public;

(G)

Receive a copy of the communication from the governmental body asking the
Attorney General for a ruling on whether the information can be withheld
under one of the accepted exceptions, or if the communication discloses the
requested information, a redacted copy;

(H)

Lodge a written complaint about overcharges for public information with the
Attorney General. Complaints of other possible violations may be filed with
the county or district attorney of the county where the governmental body,
other than a state agency, is located. If the complaint is against the county or
district attorney, the complaint must be filed with the Attorney General.

Responsibilities of Governmental Bodies. All governmental bodies responding to
information requests have the responsibility to:
(A)

Establish reasonable procedures for inspecting or copying public information
and inform requestors of these procedures;

(B)

Treat all requestors uniformly and shall give to the requestor all reasonable
comfort and facility, including accommodation in accordance with ADA
requirement;

(C)

Be informed about open records laws and educate employees on the
requirements of those laws;

(D)

Inform requestors of the estimated charges greater than $40 and any changes
in the estimates above 20 percent of the original estimate, and confirm that
the requestor accepts the charges, has amended the request, or has sent a
complaint of overcharges to the Attorney General, in writing before finalizing
the request;

(E)

Inform the requestor if the information cannot be provided promptly and set
a date and time to provide it within a reasonable time;

(F)

Request a ruling from the Attorney General regarding any information the
governmental body wishes to withhold, and send a copy of the request for
ruling, or a redacted copy, to the requestor;

(G)

Segregate public information from information that may be withheld and
provide that public information promptly;

(H)

Make a good faith attempt to inform third parties when their proprietary
information is being requested from the governmental body;

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(I)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Respond in writing to all written communications from the Attorney General
regarding complaints about the charges for the information and other alleged
violations of the Act.

Procedures to Obtain Information
(A)

Submit a request by mail, fax, email or in person, according to a
governmental body’s reasonable procedures.

(B)

Include enough description and detail about the information requested to
enable the governmental body to accurately identify and locate the
information requested.

(C)

Cooperate with the governmental body’s reasonable efforts to clarify the type
or amount of information requested.

Information to be released.
(A)

You may review it promptly, and if it cannot be produced within 10 business
days the public information officer will notify you in writing of the
reasonable date and time when it will be available;

(B)

Keep all appointments to inspect records and to pick up copies. Failure to
keep appointments may result in losing the opportunity to inspect the
information at the time requested;

(C)

Cost of Records.
(i)

You must respond to any written estimate of charges within 10
business days of the date the governmental body sent it or the request
is considered automatically withdrawn;

(ii)

If estimated costs exceed $100.00 (or $50.00 if a governmental body
has fewer than 16 full time employees) the governmental body may
require a bond, prepayment or deposit;

(iii)

You may ask the governmental body to determine whether providing
the information primarily benefits the general public, resulting in a
waiver or reduction of charges;

(iv)

Make timely payment for all mutually agreed charges. A
governmental body can demand payment of overdue balances
exceeding $100.00, or obtain a security deposit, before processing
additional requests from you.

Information that may be withheld due to an exception.

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(A)

(7)

(i)

Request an Attorney General Opinion and state which exception
apply;

(ii)

Notify the requestor of the referral to the Attorney General; and

(iii)

Notify third parties if the request involves their proprietary
information;

(B)

Failure to request an Attorney General opinion and to notify the requestor
within 10 business days will result in a presumption that the information is
open unless there is a compelling reason to withhold it.

(C)

Requestors may send a letter to the Attorney General arguing for release, and
may review arguments made by the governmental body. If the arguments
disclose the requested information, the requestor may obtain a redacted copy.

(D)

The Attorney General must issue a decision no later than the 45th business
day after the Attorney General received the request for a decision. The
Attorney General may request an additional 10 business days extension.

(E)

Governmental bodies may not ask the Attorney General to “reconsider” an
opinion.

Additional Information on Sign.
(A)

The sign must contain information of the governmental body’s officer for
public information, or the officer’s agent, as well as the mailing address,
phone and fax numbers, and email address, if any, where requestors may send
a request for information to the officer or the officer’s agent. The sign must
also contain the physical address at which requestors may request information
in person.

(B)

The sign must contain information of the local county attorney or district
attorney where requestors may submit a complaint of alleged violations of the
Act, as well as the contact information for the Attorney General.
The sign must also contain contact information of the person or persons with
whom a requestor may make special arrangements for accommodation
pursuant to the American with Disabilities Act.

(C)

(e)

By the 10th business day after a governmental body receives your written
request, a governmental body must:

A governmental body may comply with Texas Government Code, § 552.205 and this rule
by posting the sign provided by the Attorney General.

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§ 70.12. Allowable Charges Under Section 552.275 of the Texas Government Code
(a)

A governmental body shall utilize the methods established in 1 TAC § 70.3(c)–(e) when
calculating allowable charges under Section 552.275 of the Texas Government Code.

(b)

When calculating the amount of time spent complying with an individual’s public
information request(s) pursuant to Section 552.275 of the Texas Government Code, a
governmental body may not include time spent on:
(1)

Determining the meaning and/or scope of the request(s);

(2)

Requesting a clarification from the requestor;

(3)

Comparing records gathered from different sources;

(4)

Determining which exceptions to disclosure under Chapter 552 of the Texas
Government Code, if any, may apply to information that is responsive to the
request(s);

(5)

Preparing the information and/or correspondence required under Sections 552.301,
552.303, and 552.305 of the Government Code;

(6)

Reordering, reorganizing, or in any other way bringing information into compliance
with well established and generally accepted information management practices; or

(7)

Providing instruction to, or learning by, employees or agents of the governmental
body of new practices, rules, and/or procedures, including the management of
electronic records.

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PART FIVE:

TABLE OF CASES

A & T Consultants, Inc. v. Sharp, 904 S.W.2d 668 (Tex. 1995). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 19, 95, 98
Abbott v. City of Corpus Christi, 109 S.W.3d 113
(Tex. App.—Austin 2003, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 45, 103
Abbott v. Dallas Area Rapid Transit, 410 S.W.3d 876
(Tex. App.—Austin 2013, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Abbott v. Tex. Dep’t of Mental Health & Mental Retardation, 212 S.W.3d 648
(Tex. App.—Austin 2006, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Abbott v. Tex. State Bd. of Pharmacy, 391 S.W.3d 253
(Tex. App.—Austin 2012, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 72
Adkisson v. Paxton, 459 S.W.3d 761 (Tex. App.—Austin 2015, no pet.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Arlington Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Tex. Attorney Gen., 37 S.W.3d 152
(Tex. App.—Austin 2001, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Ashpole v. Millard, 778 S.W.2d 169 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.] 1989, no writ).. . . . . . . . 12
Austin v. City of San Antonio, 630 S.W.2d 391
(Tex. App.—San Antonio 1982, writ ref’d n.r.e.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90, 118
Baytown Sun v. City of Mont Belvieu, 145 S.W.3d 268
(Tex. App.—Houston [14th Dist.] 2004, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Benavides v. Lee, 665 S.W.2d 151 (Tex. App.—San Antonio 1983, no writ). . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 13
Birnbaum v. Alliance of Am. Insurers, 994 S.W.2d 766
(Tex. App.—Austin 1999, pet. denied). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116, 117, 121
Blankenship v. Brazos Higher Educ. Auth., Inc., 975 S.W.2d 353
(Tex. App.—Waco 1998, pet. denied).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 36
Boeing Co. v. Paxton, No. 12-1007, 2015 WL 3854264 (Tex. June 19, 2015).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Cain v. Hearst Corp., 878 S.W.2d 577 (Tex. 1994). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
City of Dallas v. Abbott, 304 S.W.3d 380 (Tex. 2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 45, 61
City of Fort Worth v. Cornyn, 86 S.W.3d 320 (Tex. App.—Austin 2002, no pet.).. . . . . . . . . . 102
City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 22 S.W.3d 351 (Tex. 2000). . . . . . 63, 65, 67, 118, 119

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City of Garland v. Dallas Morning News, 969 S.W.2d 548
(Tex. App.—Dallas 1998), aff’d, 22 S.W.3d 551 (Tex. 2000). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
City of Lubbock v. Cornyn, 993 S.W.2d 461 (Tex. App.—Austin 1999, no pet.).. . . . . . . . . . . 101
City of San Antonio v. San Antonio Express-News, 47 S.W.3d 556
(Tex. App.—San Antonio 2000, pet. denied). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
City of San Antonio v. Tex. Attorney Gen., 851 S.W.2d 946
(Tex. App.—Austin 1993, writ denied). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 103
Conely v. Peck, 929 S.W.2d 630 (Tex. App.—Austin 1996, no writ).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 35
Cornyn v. City of Garland, 994 S.W.2d 258 (Tex. App.—Austin 1999, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Ctr. for Econ. Justice v. Am. Ins. Ass’n, 39 S.W.3d 337
(Tex. App.—Austin 2001, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Curry v. Walker, 873 S.W.2d 379 (Tex. 1994). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Dallas Area Rapid Transit v. Dallas Morning News, 4 S.W.3d 469
(Tex. App.—Dallas 1999, no pet.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Dallas Morning News v. City of Arlington, No. 03-10-00192-CV, 2011 WL 182886
(Tex. App.—Austin Jan. 21, 2011, no pet.) (mem. op.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Dominguez v. Gilbert, 48 S.W.3d 789 (Tex. App.—Austin 2001, no pet.).. . . . . . . . . . . 22, 35, 71
Envoy Med. Sys. v. State, 108 S.W.3d 333 (Tex. App.—Austin 2003, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . 72, 116
Ex parte Pruitt, 551 S.W.2d 706 (Tex. 1977). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Fish v. Dallas Indep. Sch. Dist., 31 S.W.3d 678
(Tex. App.—Eastland 2000, pet. denied). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 27
Ford v. City of Huntsville, 242 F.3d 235 (5th Cir. 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Greater Houston P’ship v. Abbott, No. 03-11-00130-CV, 2013 WL 491016
(Tex. App.—Austin Jan. 31, 2013, no pet. h.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 9
Hancock v. State Bd. of Ins., 797 S.W.2d 379 (Tex. App.—Austin 1990, no writ). . . . . . . . 43, 44
Harlandale Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Cornyn, 25 S.W.3d 328
(Tex. App.—Austin 2000, pet. denied). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Harrison v. Vance, 34 S.W.3d 660 (Tex. App.—Dallas 2000, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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Heard v. Houston Post Co., 684 S.W.2d 210
(Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.] 1984, writ ref’d n.r.e.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84, 86
Heidenheimer v. Tex. Dep’t of Transp., No. 03-02-00187-CV, 2003 WL 124248
(Tex. App.—Austin Jan. 16, 2003, pet. denied) (mem. op., not designated for publication). . . . 87
Hickman v. Moya, 976 S.W.2d 360 (Tex. App.—Waco 1998, pet. denied). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Holmes v. Morales, 924 S.W.2d 920 (Tex. 1996). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Houston Chronicle Publ’g Co. v. City of Houston, 531 S.W.2d 177
(Tex. Civ. App.—Houston [14th Dist.] 1975), writ ref’d n.r.e. per curiam,
536 S.W.2d 559 (Tex. 1976). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97, 100
Houston Chronicle Publ’g Co. v. Woods, 949 S.W.2d 492
(Tex. App.—Beaumont 1997, orig. proceeding). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Hubert v. Harte-Hanks Tex. Newspapers, Inc., 652 S.W.2d 546
(Tex. App.—Austin 1983, writ ref’d n.r.e.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 82, 148
Hudson v. Paxton, No. 03-13-00368-CV, 2015 WL 739605 (Tex. App.—Austin
Feb. 20, 2015, pet. denied) (mem. op.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Huie v. DeShazo, 922 S.W.2d 920 (Tex. 1996).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 92
Hyde Corp. v. Huffines, 314 S.W.2d 763 (Tex.), cert. denied, 358 U.S. 898 (1958). . . . . . . . . 116
In re Bass, 113 S.W.3d 735 (Tex. 2003). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
In re City of Georgetown, 53 S.W.3d 328 (Tex. 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 68, 92
In re Monsanto Co., 998 S.W.2d 917 (Tex. App.—Waco 1999, orig. proceeding). . . . . . . . . . 120
In re Nolo Press/Folk Law, Inc., 991 S.W.2d 768 (Tex. 1999).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
In re Tex. Farmers Ins. Exch., 990 S.W.2d 337
(Tex. App.—Texarkana 1999, orig. proceeding).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
In re Valero Energy Corp., 973 S.W.2d 453
(Tex. App.—Houston [14th Dist.] 1998, orig. proceeding).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 92
Indus. Found. v. Tex. Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W.2d 668
(Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 75, 78, 114
Jackson v. State Office of Admin. Hearings, 351 S.W.3d 290 (Tex. 2011).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Jordan v. Court of Appeals for Fourth Supreme Judicial Dist., 701 S.W.2d 644
(Tex. 1985).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

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Justice v. Belo Broadcasting Corp., 472 F. Supp. 145 (N.D. Tex. 1979). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79, 155
Kallinen v. City of Houston, No. 14-0015, 2015 WL 1275385 (Tex. March 20, 2015).. . . . . . . . 59
Keever v. Finlan, 988 S.W.2d 300 (Tex. App.—Dallas 1999, pet. dism’d). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Kneeland v. Nat’l Collegiate Athletic Ass’n, 850 F.2d 224 (5th Cir. 1988),
cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1042 (1989). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Lett v. Klein Indep. Sch. Dist., 917 S.W.2d 455
(Tex. App.—Houston [14th Dist.] 1996, writ denied).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Moore v. Charles B. Pierce Film Enters., Inc., 589 S.W.2d 489
(Tex. Civ. App.—Texarkana 1979, writ ref’d n.r.e.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79, 155
Moore v. Henry, 960 S.W.2d 82 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.] 1996, no writ). . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Morales v. Ellen, 840 S.W.2d 519 (Tex. App.—El Paso 1992, writ denied). . . . . . . . . 61, 77, 102
Mutscher v. State, 514 S.W.2d 905 (Tex. Crim. App. 1974).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Nat’l Archives & Records Admin. v. Favish, 541 U.S. 157 (2004). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Nat’l Parks & Conservation Ass’n v. Morton, 498 F.2d 765 (D.C. Cir. 1974). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Nat’l Tank Co. v. Brotherton, 851 S.W.2d 193 (Tex. 1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92, 120
Nat’l Union Fire Ins. Co. v. Valdez, 863 S.W.2d 458 (Tex. 1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Osborne v. Johnson, 954 S.W.2d 180 (Tex. App.—Waco 1997, orig. proceeding). . . . . . . . . . . 91
Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. v. Caldwell, 818 S.W.2d 749 (Tex. 1991). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Paul v. Davis, 424 U.S. 693 (1976). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Paxton v. City of Dallas, No. 03-13-00546-CV, 2015 WL 3394061
(Tex. App.—Austin May 22, 2015, pet. denied) (mem. op.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Permian Report v. Lacy, 817 S.W.2d 175 (Tex. App.—El Paso 1991, writ denied). . . . . . . . . . . 8
Ramie v. City of Hedwig Village, 765 F.2d 490 (5th Cir. 1985), cert. denied,
474 U.S. 1062 (1986).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Roviaro v. United States, 353 U.S. 53 (1957). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Simmons v. Kuzmich, 166 S.W.3d 342 (Tex. App.—Fort Worth 2005, no pet.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

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Star-Telegram, Inc. v. Doe, 915 S.W.2d 471 (Tex. 1995).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Star-Telegram, Inc. v. Walker, 834 S.W.2d 54 (Tex. 1992). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Tex. Comm’n on Envtl. Quality v. Abbott, 311 S.W.3d 663
(Tex. App.—Austin 2010, pet. denied). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Tex. Comptroller of Pub. Accounts v. Attorney Gen. of Tex., 354 S.W.3d 336
(Tex. 2010).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 80, 82
Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Abbott, 310 S.W.3d 670 (Tex. App.—Austin 2010, no pet.). . . . . 109
Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Cox Tex. Newspapers, L.P. & Hearst Newspapers, L.P.,
343 S.W.3d 112 (Tex. 2011). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Tex. Dep’t of Pub. Safety v. Gilbreath, 842 S.W.2d 408
(Tex. App.—Austin 1992, no writ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59, 118
Tex. State Bd. of Chiropractic Exam’rs v. Abbott, 391 S.W.3d 343
(Tex. App.—Austin 2013, no pet.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Tex. State Employees Union v. Tex. Dep’t of Mental Health & Mental Retardation,
746 S.W.2d 203 (Tex. 1987). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Thomas v. Cornyn, 71 S.W.3d 473 (Tex. App.—Austin 2002, no pet.). . . . . . 2, 35 42, 59, 67, 83
Thomas v. El Paso County Cmty. Coll. Dist., 68 S.W.3d 722
(Tex. App.—El Paso 2001, no pet.).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
United States Dep’t of Justice v. Reporters Comm. for Freedom of the Press,
489 U.S. 749 (1989).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
United States v. Amalgamated Life Ins. Co., 534 F. Supp. 676 (S.D.N.Y. 1982). . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
United States v. Napper, 887 F.2d 1528 (11th Cir. 1989). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Univ. of Tex. Law Sch. v. Tex. Legal Found., 958 S.W.2d 479
(Tex. App.—Austin 1997, orig. proceeding). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84, 85
Whalen v. Roe, 429 U.S. 589 (1977). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

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PART SIX:

TABLE OF STATUTES, RULES, REGULATIONS

Texas Constitution
Art. III, sec. 52(a).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 26
Art. IV, sec. 22.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Art. V, sec. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Texas Civil Statutes
Art. 4447cc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Texas Code of Criminal Procedure
2.12.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43.14.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56.03.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56.32.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56.34.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62.002.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62.005.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62.051.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62.053.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62.054.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

141
111
158
157
157
108
108
108
108
108

Texas Alcoholic Beverage Code
5.14.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.31.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.36.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.361.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95
95
95
95

Texas Civil Practice & Remedies Code
154.073.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Ch. 101.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Texas Education Code
21.355.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
51.212.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 136, 140, 213
51.910.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146, 147
61.003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 149, 212, 217
Ch. 21, Subch. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Tit. 2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Tit. 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Texas Election Code
13.0021.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
18.008.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Texas Family Code
51.02.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 105, 201
51.03.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
51.14(d). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104, 105
58.007.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104-106
101.003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107, 255
261.001.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

261.201.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 106-108
Ch. 261.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 72, 130, 210
Texas Government Code
306.003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
306.004.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
311.005(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
402.006.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
402.041.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
402.042.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
402.043.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
402.044.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
402.045.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
411.048.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94, 96, 99, 100, 204
411.081.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
411.082.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104, 106
411.083.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
418.176-.182. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
420.003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166, 227
441.180-.205. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
466.019.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
466.020.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
508.313.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161, 201, 225
551.022.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
551.104.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
552.001.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 28, 69, 184, 197
552.002.. . . . . . . 2, 10-11, 14, 16-17, 19, 92, 184
552.003.. . . . . . . . . 7, 8, 12, 13, 27, 50, 185, 186
552.0035.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 12, 13, 186
552.0036.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 10, 187
552.0038.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
552.004.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 189
552.005.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 189
552.0055.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 189
552.006.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
552.007.. . . . . . . . . 28, 29, 34, 71, 152, 161, 189,
219, 225
552.008.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 189, 252, 268
552.009.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
552.010.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191, 192
552.011.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 65, 193, 194, 261
552.012.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 6, 193, 194
552.021.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 15, 42, 85, 194
552.0215.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64, 194
552.022.. . . . . 44, 67, 68, 73, 87, 90, 92, 93, 102,
195, 196, 203
552.0221.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
552.0225.. . . . . . 69, 70, 172, 173, 197, 198, 232
552.023.. . . . . . . . 29, 31, 33, 149, 154, 157, 198,
218, 244, 261

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552.024.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 137, 199, 202
552.025.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
552.026.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 32, 126-128, 200
552.027.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 200
552.028.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 201
552.029.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161, 201, 225
552.101.. . . . . 3, 43, 45, 46, 48, 64, 66, 71, 73, 74,
76-81, 90, 101, 104, 114,
116, 128, 133, 149, 202
552.102.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45, 80, 82-83, 195
552.103.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 43, 45, 83-86, 202
552.104.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 67, 86, 203, 260
552.105.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 203
552.106.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 203
552.107.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 67-68, 90-93, 203
552.108.. . . . . . . 67, 93, 95-99, 102, 110, 195, 204
552.1081.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 205
552.1085.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79, 112, 114, 205
552.109.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 114, 207
552.110.. . . . . . . . . . 45, 46, 48, 71, 115-117, 124,
125, 156, 207, 209, 260
552.111.. . . . . . . 26, 29, 35, 43, 45, 67-68, 86, 89,
92, 117-119, 207
552.112.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121-122, 207
552.113.. . . . . 46, 48, 116, 122-126, 208-209, 260
552.114.. . . . . . 29, 32, 43, 46, 126, 128, 210, 260
552.115.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131-134, 210-211
552.116.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 212
552.117.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 136-140, 212
552.1175.. . . . . . . 33, 139, 141-144, 200, 214, 274
552.1176.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144, 216
552.118.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145, 216
552.119.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145-146, 216
552.120.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146, 216
552.121.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147, 216
552.122.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147, 216
552.123.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148, 217
552.1235.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148, 217
552.124.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149, 218
552.125.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150, 218
552.126.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151, 218
552.127.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151, 218
552.128.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152, 219
552.129.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153, 219
552.130.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 51, 53, 153-154, 219
552.131.. . . . . . . . . 46, 48, 116, 155-156, 220, 260
552.132.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 156-157, 221
552.1325.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157-158, 222
552.133.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 158-160, 222
552.134.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1561-162, 201, 225
552.135.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162-163, 225
552.136.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 51, 53, 163, 226

552.137.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 165, 227
552.138.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166, 227, 274
552.139.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168-169, 229
552.140.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169-170, 230
552.141.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170, 231
552.142.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171-172, 231
552.1425.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172, 231-232
552.143.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 172-173, 232
552.144.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174, 233
552.145.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174, 233
552.146.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174-175, 233
552.147.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64, 139, 175-176, 234
552.148.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176, 234
552.149.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176, 235
552.150.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178, 236
552.151.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179, 236
552.152.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 110, 179, 180, 237
552.153.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180, 237
552.154.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181, 238
552.155.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182, 239
552.156.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182-183, 239
552.201.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 240
552.202.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 240
552.203.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 64, 240
552.204.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 240
552.205.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 240
552.221.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21, 23, 25, 28, 241
552.222.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 23, 154, 242
552.223.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-24, 243
552.224.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
552.225.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 243
552.226.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 244
552.227.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 244
552.228.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-27, 244
552.229.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
552.230.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 245
552.231.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 55, 245-246
552.232.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 246-247
552.261.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 247
552.2615.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-55, 248-249
552.262.. . . . . . . . 50, 57, 191, 245, 249-250, 256
552.263.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 251
552.264.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
552.265.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
552.266.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
552.2661.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
552.267.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 252, 256
552.268.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
552.269.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 191, 252
552.270.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
552.271.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52, 53, 57, 253
552.272.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52, 53, 57, 254

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552.274.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191, 255
552.275.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 55, 255-256, 295
552.301.. . . . 18, 35, 36, 38, 41, 42, 44, 47,61, 65,
109, 257-258, 315-316
552.302.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 39, 40, 43, 44-46, 259
552.303.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 41, 46, 259
552.3035.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 49, 260
552.304.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 79, 260
552.305.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-48, 61, 126, 156, 260
552.306.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 40, 49, 261
552.307.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198, 244, 261
552.308.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 49-50, 262
552.309.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 50, 262, 273, 275
552.321.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-58, 63, 262-265
552.3215.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 59-61, 263-265
552.322.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 62, 259, 265
552.3221.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 63, 265
552.323.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 265
552.324.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 62, 266
552.325.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 61, 266
552.326.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 267
552.327.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 267
552.351.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 58, 64, 267
552.352.. . . . . . 30, 42, 58, 71, 175, 198, 234, 268
552.353.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 62, 63, 266, 269
660.2035.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109, 110
76.006(g). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
81.011(a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
81.033.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2051.044.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 257
2151.002.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
2252.907.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2308.253.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 186
Ch. 2001.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Ch. 402.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Ch. 411, Subch. F.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Ch. 51.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Ch. 551.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Ch. 76.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136, 141, 213, 214
Texas Health & Safety Code
191.022.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
481.075.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145, 216
481.076.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
611.002.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
772.118.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
772.218.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
772.318.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73, 108
773.091.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Ch. 192.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Ch. 772.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73, 108
Tit. 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Texas Human Resources Code
51.002.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156, 227
Ch. 42.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107, 182, 239
Tit. 12.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137, 142, 213, 214
Texas Insurance Code
1.15.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
21.28.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.39.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Texas Local Government Code
118.011.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
118.144.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
143.051–.055. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
143.089.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
143.1214(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
191.008.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
202.002(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
54.035(e). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131, 211
Ch. 143.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Chs. 201 - 205. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Texas Natural Resources Code
Ch. 91.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122, 123, 208
Texas Occupations Code
159.002(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
901.160.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1701.001.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Texas Penal Code
1.07.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 201
37.10.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Texas Rules of Civil Procedure
76a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
192.5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-68, 119-120
Texas Rules of Evidence
503. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 90-92
511. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Texas Tax Code
11.30.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 186
25.025.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
41.461.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176, 235
Ch. 151.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

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Texas Transportation Code
22.074.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 212
550.065.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 102, 154
724.018.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
730.003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 242
Ch. 521, Subch. C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Ch. 548, Subch. F.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153, 219
Ch. 550.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Ch. 730.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 153-154, 220, 242

1 T.A.C. § 70.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 279
1 T.A.C. § 70.4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 283
1 T.A.C. § 70.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 284
1 T.A.C. § 70.6.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 285
1 T.A.C. § 70.7.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 54, 286
1 T.A.C. § 70.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 56-57, 287
1 T.A.C. § 70.9.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 288
1 T.A.C. § 70.10.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 289
1 T.A.C. § 70.11.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 279, 291
1 T.A.C. § 70.12.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 295
25 T.A.C. § 181.23.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

Texas Utilities Code
182.052.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Texas Rules of Judicial Administration
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 7, 12, 13, 305-314

Texas Administrative Code
1 T.A.C. § 63.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 260
1 T.A.C. § 63.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 260-261
1 T.A.C. § 63.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 261
1 T.A.C. § 63.4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 261-262
1 T.A.C. § 63.5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 262
1 T.A.C. § 63.6.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 262
1 T.A.C. § 63.11.. . . 135, 140, 151, 161, 164, 263
1 T.A.C. § 63.12.. . . 135, 140, 151, 161, 164, 263
1 T.A.C. § 63.13.. . . . . . . 135, 140, 151, 161, 164,
263-264
1 T.A.C. § 63.14.. . . 135, 140, 151, 161, 164, 264
1 T.A.C. § 63.15.. . . . . . . 135, 140, 151, 161, 164,
264-265
1 T.A.C. § 63.16.. . . 135, 140, 151, 161, 164, 265
1 T.A.C. § 63.21.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 265
1 T.A.C. § 63.22.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 266
1 T.A.C. § 63.23.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 266
1 T.A.C. § 63.24.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 267
1 T.A.C. § 70.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 277
1 T.A.C. § 70.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 52, 278

United States Code
5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(9). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
20 U.S.C. § 1232g. . . . . . . . . . 32, 126, 128, 200
42 U.S.C. § 1320d-1(a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
42 U.S.C. § 1320d-2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
42 U.S.C. §§ 12101 et seq... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
49 U.S.C. § 114. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
United States Code of Federal Regulations
17 C.F.R. § 230.144. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173, 232
34 C.F.R. § 99.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127, 128, 129
34 C.F.R. § 99.31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
34 C.F.R. § 99.33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
34 C.F.R. § 99.35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
45 C.F.R. Pt. 160. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
45 C.F.R. Pt. 164. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
45 C.F.R. § 160.103. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
49 C.F.R. Pt. 1520. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

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PART SEVEN: RULES OF JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION
Rule 12. Public Access to Judicial Records
12.1 Policy. The purpose of this rule is to provide public access to information in the judiciary
consistent with the mandates of the Texas Constitution that the public interests are best served by
open courts and by an independent judiciary. The rule should be liberally construed to achieve its
purpose.
12.2

Definitions. In this rule:
(a)

Judge means a regularly appointed or elected judge or justice.

(b)

Judicial agency means an office, board, commission, or other similar entity that is in
the Judicial Department and that serves an administrative function for a court. A task
force or committee created by a court or judge is a “judicial agency”.

(c)

Judicial officer means a judge, former or retired visiting judge, referee,
commissioner, special master, court-appointed arbitrator, or other person exercising
adjudicatory powers in the judiciary. A mediator or other provider of non-binding
dispute resolution services is not a “judicial officer”.

(d)

Judicial record means a record made or maintained by or for a court or judicial
agency in its regular course of business but not pertaining to its adjudicative function,
regardless of whether that function relates to a specific case. A record of any nature
created, produced, or filed in connection with any matter that is or has been before
a court is not a judicial record. A record is a document, paper, letter, map, book,
tape, photograph, film, recording, or other material, regardless of electronic or
physical form, characteristics, or means of transmission.

(e)

Records custodian means the person with custody of a judicial record determined as
follows:
(1)

The judicial records of a court with only one judge, such as any trial court, are
in the custody of that judge. Judicial records pertaining to the joint
administration of a number of those courts, such as the district courts in a
particular county or region, are in the custody of the judge who presides over
the joint administration, such as the local or regional administrative judge.

(2)

The judicial records of a court with more than one judge, such as any
appellate court, are in the custody of the chief justice or presiding judge, who
must act under this rule in accordance with the vote of a majority of the
judges of the court. But the judicial records relating specifically to the
service of one such judge or that judge’s own staff are in the custody of that
judge.

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12.3

(3)

The judicial records of a judicial officer not covered by subparagraphs (1)
and (2) are in the custody of that officer.

(4)

The judicial records of a judicial agency are in the custody of its presiding
officer, who must act under this rule in accordance with agency policy or the
vote of a majority of the members of the agency.

Applicability. This rule does not apply to:
(a)

records or information to which access is controlled by:
(1)

a state or federal court rule, including:
(A)

a rule of civil or criminal procedure, including Rule 76a, Texas Rules
of Civil Procedure;

(B)

a rule of appellate procedure;

(C)

a rule of evidence;

(D)

a rule of administration;

(2)

a state or federal court order not issued merely to thwart the purpose of this
rule;

(3)

the Code of Judicial Conduct;

(4)

Chapter 552, Government Code, or another statute or provision of law;

(b)

records or information to which Chapter 552, Government Code, is made
inapplicable by statute, rule, or other provision of law, other than Section
552.003(1)(B);

(c)

records or information relating to an arrest or search warrant or a supporting affidavit,
access to which is controlled by:

(d)

(1)

a state or federal court rule, including a rule of civil or criminal procedure,
appellate procedure, or evidence; or

(2)

common law, court order, judicial decision, or another provision of law

elected officials other than judges.

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12.4

Access to Judicial Records.
(a)

(b)

Generally. Judicial records other than those covered by Rules 12.3 and 12.5 are open
to the general public for inspection and copying during regular business hours. But
this rule does not require a court, judicial agency, or records custodian to:
(1)

create a record, other than to print information stored in a computer;

(2)

retain a judicial record for a specific period of time;

(3)

allow the inspection of or provide a copy of information in a book or
publication commercially available to the public; or

(4)

respond to or comply with a request for a judicial record from or on behalf of
an individual who is imprisoned or confined in a correctional facility as
defined in Section 1.07(a), Penal Code, or in any other such facility in any
state, federal, or foreign jurisdiction.

Voluntary Disclosure. A records custodian may voluntarily make part or all of the
information in a judicial record available to the public, subject to Rules 12.2(e)(2)
and 12.2(e)(4), unless the disclosure is expressly prohibited by law or exempt under
this rule, or the information is confidential under law. Information voluntarily
disclosed must be made available to any person who requests it.

12.5 Exemptions from Disclosure. The following records are exempt from disclosure under
this rule:
(a)

Judicial Work Product and Drafts. Any record that relates to a judicial officer’s
adjudicative decision-making process prepared by that judicial officer, by another
judicial officer, or by court staff, an intern, or any other person acting on behalf of or
at the direction of the judicial officer.

(b)

Security Plans. Any record, including a security plan or code, the release of which
would jeopardize the security of an individual against physical injury or jeopardize
information or property against theft, tampering, improper use, illegal disclosure,
trespass, unauthorized access, or physical injury.

(c)

Personnel Information. Any personnel record that, if disclosed, would constitute a
clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

(d)

Home Address and Family Information. Any record reflecting any person’s home
address, home or personal telephone number, social security number, or family
members.

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(e)

Applicants for Employment or Volunteer Services. Any records relating to an
applicant for employment or volunteer services.

(f)

Internal Deliberations on Court or Judicial Administration Matters. Any record
relating to internal deliberations of a court or judicial agency, or among judicial
officers or members of a judicial agency, on matters of court or judicial
administration.

(g)

Court Law Library Information. Any record in a law library that links a patron’s
name with the materials requested or borrowed by that patron.

(h)

Judicial Calendar Information. Any record that reflects a judicial officer’s
appointments or engagements that are in the future or that constitute an invasion of
personal privacy.

(i)

Information Confidential Under Other Law. Any record that is confidential or
exempt from disclosure under a state or federal constitutional provision, statute or
common law, including information that relates to:

(j)

(k)

(1)

a complaint alleging misconduct against a judicial officer, if the complaint is
exempt from disclosure under Chapter 33, Government Code, or other law;

(2)

a complaint alleging misconduct against a person who is licensed or regulated
by the courts, if the information is confidential under applicable law; or

(3)

a trade secret or commercial or financial information made privileged or
confidential by statute or judicial decision.

Litigation or Settlement Negotiations. Any judicial record relating to civil or
criminal litigation or settlement negotiations:
(1)

in which a court or judicial agency is or may be a party; or

(2)

in which a judicial officer or member of a judicial agency is or may be a party
as a consequence of the person’s office or employment.

Investigations of Character or Conduct. Any record relating to an investigation of
any person’s character or conduct, unless:
(1)

the record is requested by the person being investigated; and

(2)

release of the record, in the judgment of the records custodian, would not
impair the investigation.

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(l)

12.6

Examinations. Any record relating to an examination administered to any person,
unless requested by the person after the examination is concluded.

Procedures for Obtaining Access to Judicial Records.
(a)

Request. A request to inspect or copy a judicial record must be in writing and must
include sufficient information to reasonably identify the record requested. The
request must be sent to the records custodian and not to a court clerk or other agent
for the records custodian. A requestor need not have detailed knowledge of the
records custodian’s filing system or procedures in order to obtain the information.

(b)

Time for Inspection and Delivery of Copies. As soon as practicable—and not more
than 14 days—after actual receipt of a request to inspect or copy a judicial record, if
the record is available, the records custodian must either:
(1)

allow the requestor to inspect the record and provide a copy if one is
requested; or

(2)

send written notice to the requestor stating that the record cannot within the
prescribed period be produced or a copy provided, as applicable, and setting
a reasonable date and time when the document will be produced or a copy
provided, as applicable.

(c)

Place for Inspection. A records custodian must produce a requested judicial record
at a convenient, public area.

(d)

Part of Record Subject to Disclosure. If part of a requested record is subject to
disclosure under this rule and part is not, the records custodian must redact the
portion of the record that is not subject to disclosure, permit the remainder of the
record to be inspected, and provide a copy if requested.

(e)

Copying; Mailing. The records custodian may deliver the record to a court clerk for
copying. The records custodian may mail the copy to a requestor who has prepaid
the postage.

(f)

Recipient of Request not Custodian of Record. A judicial officer or a presiding
officer of a judicial agency who receives a request for a judicial record not in his or
her custody as defined by this rule must promptly attempt to ascertain who the
custodian of the record is. If the recipient of the request can ascertain who the
custodian of the requested record is, the recipient must promptly refer the request to
that person and notify the requestor in writing of the referral. The time for response
prescribed in Rule 12.6(b) does not begin to run until the referral is actually received
by the records custodian. If the recipient cannot ascertain who the custodian of the
requested record is, the recipient must promptly notify the requestor in writing that

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the recipient is not the custodian of the record and cannot ascertain who the custodian
of the record is.

12.7

(g)

Inquiry to Requestor. A person requesting a judicial record may not be asked to
disclose the purpose of the request as a condition of obtaining the judicial record.
But a records custodian may make inquiry to establish the proper identification of the
requestor or to clarify the nature or scope of a request.

(h)

Uniform Treatment of Requests. A records custodian must treat all requests for
information uniformly without regard to the position or occupation of the requestor
or the person on whose behalf a request is made, including whether the requestor or
such person is a member of the media.

Costs for Copies of Judicial Records; Appeal of Assessment.
(a)

(b)

12.8

Cost. The cost for a copy of a judicial record is either:
(1)

the cost prescribed by statute, or

(2)

if no statute prescribes the cost, the cost the Office of the Attorney General
prescribes by rule in the Texas Administrative Code.

Waiver or Reduction of Cost Assessment by Records Custodian. A records custodian
may reduce or waive the charge for a copy of a judicial record if:
(1)

doing so is in the public interest because providing the copy of the record
primarily benefits the general public, or

(2)

the cost of processing collection of a charge will exceed the amount of the
charge.

(c)

Appeal of Cost Assessment. A person who believes that a charge for a copy of a
judicial record is excessive may appeal the overcharge in the manner prescribed by
Rule 12.9 for the appeal of the denial of access to a judicial record.

(d)

Records Custodian Not Personally Responsible for Cost. A records custodian is not
required to incur personal expense in furnishing a copy of a judicial record.

Denial of Access to a Judicial Record.
(a)

When Request May be Denied. A records custodian may deny a request for a judicial
record under this rule only if the records custodian:
(1)

reasonably determines that the requested judicial record is exempt from
required disclosure under this rule; or

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(2)

12.9

makes specific, non-conclusory findings that compliance with the request
would substantially and unreasonably impede the routine operation of the
court or judicial agency.

(b)

Time to Deny. A records custodian who denies access to a judicial record must
notify the person requesting the record of the denial within a reasonable time—not
to exceed 14 days—after receipt of the request, or before the deadline for responding
to the request extended under Rule 12.6(b)(2).

(c)

Contents of Notice of Denial. A notice of denial must be in writing and must:
(1)

state the reason for the denial;

(2)

inform the person of the right of appeal provided by Rule 12.9; and

(3)

include the name and address of the Administrative Director of the Office of
Court Administration.

Relief from Denial of Access to Judicial Records.
(a)

Appeal. A person who is denied access to a judicial record may appeal the denial by
filing a petition for review with the Administrative Director of the Office of Court
Administration.

(b)

Contents of Petition for Review. The petition for review:
(1)

must include a copy of the request to the record custodian and the records
custodian’s notice of denial;

(2)

may include any supporting facts, arguments, and authorities that the
petitioner believes to be relevant; and

(3)

may contain a request for expedited review, the grounds for which must be
stated.

(c)

Time for Filing. The petition must be filed not later than 30 days after the date that
the petitioner receives notice of a denial of access to the judicial record.

(d)

Notification of Records Custodian and Presiding Judges. Upon receipt of the
petition for review, the Administrative Director must promptly notify the records
custodian who denied access to the judicial record and the presiding judge of each
administrative judicial region of the filing of the petition.

(e)

Response. A records custodian who denies access to a judicial record and against
whom relief is sought under this section may—within 14 days of receipt of notice

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from the Administrative Director—submit a written response to the petition for
review and include supporting facts and authorities in the response. The records
custodian must mail a copy of the response to the petitioner. The records custodian
may also submit for in camera inspection any record, or a sample of records, to which
access has been denied.
(f)

Formation of Special Committee. Upon receiving notice under Rule 12.9(d), the
presiding judges must refer the petition to a special committee of not less than five
of the presiding judges for review. The presiding judges must notify the
Administrative Director, the petitioner, and the records custodian of the names of the
judges selected to serve on the committee.

(g)

Procedure for Review. The special committee must review the petition and the
records custodian’s response and determine whether the requested judicial record
should be made available under this rule to the petitioner. The special committee
may request the records custodian to submit for in camera inspection a record, or a
sample of records, to which access has been denied. The records custodian may
respond to the request in whole or in part but it not required to do so.

(h)

Considerations. When determining whether the requested judicial record should be
made available under this rule to petition, the special committee must consider:
(1)

the text and policy of this Rule;

(2)

any supporting and controverting facts, arguments, and authorities in the
petition and the response; and

(3)

prior applications of this Rule by other special committees or by courts.

(i)

Expedited Review. On request of the petitioner, and for good cause shown, the
special committee may schedule an expedited review of the petition.

(j)

Decision. The special committee’s determination must be supported by a written
decision that must:
(1)

issue within 60 days of the date that the Administrative Director received the
petition for review;

(2)

either grant the petition in whole or in part or sustain the denial of access to
the requested judicial record;

(3)

state the reasons for the decision, including appropriate citations to this rule;
and

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(4)

(k)

identify the record or portions of the record to which access is ordered or
denied, but only if the description does not disclose confidential information.

Notice of Decision. The special committee must send the decision to the
Administrative Director. On receipt of the decision from the special committee, the
Administrative Director must:
(1)

immediately notify the petitioner and the records custodian of the decision
and include a copy of the decision with the notice; and

(2)

maintain a copy of the special committee’s decision in the Administrative
Director’s office for public inspection.

(l)

Publication of Decisions. The Administrative Director must publish periodically to
the judiciary and the general public the special committees’ decisions.

(m)

Final Decision. A decision of a special committee under this rule is not appealable
but is subject to review by mandamus.

(n)

Appeal to Special Committee Not Exclusive Remedy. The right of review provided
under this subdivision is not exclusive and does not preclude relief by mandamus.

12.10 Sanctions. A records custodian who fails to comply with this rule, knowing that the failure
to comply is in violation of the rule, is subject to sanctions under the Code of Judicial Conduct.
Comment to 2008 change:
The Attorney General’s rule, adopted in accordance with Section 552.262 of the
Government Code, is in Section 70.3 of Title 1 of the Texas Administrative Code.
Comments
1.

Although the definition of “judicial agency” in Rule 12.2(b) is comprehensive,
applicability of the rule is restricted by Rule 12.3. The rule does not apply to judicial
agencies whose records are expressly made subject to disclosure by statute, rule, or
law. An example is the State Bar (“an administrative agency of the judicial
department”, Tex. Gov’t Code § 81.011(a)), which is subject to the Public
Information Act. Tex. Gov’t Code § 81.033. Thus, no judicial agency must comply
with both the Act and this rule; at most one can apply. Nor does the rule apply to
judicial agencies expressly excepted from the Act by statute (other than by the
general judiciary exception in section 552.003(b) of the Act), rule, or law. Examples
are the Board of Legal Specialization, Tex. Gov’t Code § 81.033, and the Board of
Disciplinary Appeals, Tex. R. Disciplinary App. 7.12. Because these boards are
expressly excepted from the Act, their records are not subject to disclosure under this
rule, even though no law affirmatively makes their records confidential. The Board

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of Law Examiners is partly subject to the Act and partly exempt, Tex. Gov’t Code
§ 82.003, and therefore this rule is inapplicable to it. An example of a judicial
agency subject to the rule is the Supreme Court Advisory Committee, which is
neither subject to nor expressly excepted from the Act, and whose records are not
made confidential by any law.
2.

As stated in Rule 12.4, this rule does not require the creation or retention of records,
but neither does it permit the destruction of records that are required to be maintained
by statute or other law, such as Tex. Gov’t Code §§ 441.158-.167, .180-.203; Tex.
Local Gov’t Code ch. 203; and 13 Tex. Admin. Code § 7.122.

3.

Rule 12.8 allows a records custodian to deny a record request that would substantially
and unreasonably impede the routine operation of the court or judicial agency. As
an illustration, and not by way of limitation, a request for “all judicial records” that
is submitted every day or even every few days by the same person or persons acting
in concert could substantially and unreasonably impede the operations of a court or
judicial agency that lacked the staff to respond to such repeated requests.

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PART EIGHT: PUBLIC INFORMATION ACT DEADLINES FOR
GOVERNMENTAL BODIES
Step

Action

Section

Deadline

1

Governmental body must either release
requested public information promptly, or if
not within ten days of receipt of request, its
Public Information Officer (“PIO”) must
certify fact that governmental body cannot
produce the information within ten days and
state date and hour within reasonable time
when the information will be available.

552.221(a)

Promptly; Within ten business days of
receipt of request for information make
public information available, or

552.221(d)

Certify to requestor date and hour
when public information will be
available.

2

Governmental body seeking to withhold
information based on one or more of the
exceptions under Subchapter C must request
an attorney general decision stating all
exceptions that apply, if there has not been a
previous determination.

552.301(b)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the tenth business day after
receipt of the request for information.

3

Governmental body must provide notice to the
requestor of the request for attorney general
decision and a copy of the governmental
body’s request for an attorney general
decision.

552.301(d)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the tenth business day after
receipt of the request for information.

4

Governmental body must submit to the
attorney general comments explaining why the
exceptions raised in Step 2 apply.

552.301(e)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the fifteenth business day after
receipt of the request for information.

5

Governmental body must submit to attorney
general copy of written request for
information.

552.301(e)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the fifteenth business day after
receipt of the request for information.

6

Governmental body must submit to attorney
general signed statement as to date on which
written request for information was received.

552.301(e)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the fifteenth business day after
receipt of the request for information.

7

Governmental body must submit to attorney
general copy of information requested or
representative sample if voluminous amount of
information is requested.

552.301(e)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the fifteenth business day after
receipt of the request for information.

8

Governmental body must copy the requestor
on written comments submitted to the attorney
general in Step 4.

552.301
(e-1)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the fifteenth business day after
receipt of the request for information.

9

a) Governmental body makes a good faith
attempt to notify person whose proprietary
information may be protected from disclosure
under sections 552.101, 552.110, 552.113, or
552.131. Notification includes: 1) copy of
written request; 2) letter, in the form
prescribed by the attorney general, stating that
the third party may submit to the attorney
general reasons requested information should
be withheld.

552.305(d)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the tenth business day after date
governmental body receives request
for information.

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Due

Done

Step

Action

Section

Deadline

b) Third party may submit brief to attorney
general.

552.305(d)

Within a reasonable time, but not later
than the tenth business day of
receiving notice from governmental
body.

10

Governmental body must submit to attorney
general additional information if requested by
attorney general.

552.303(d)

Not later than the seventh calendar day
after date governmental body received
written notice of attorney general’s
need for additional information.

11

Governmental body desires attorney general
reconsideration of attorney general decision.

552.301(f)

Public Information Act prohibits a
governmental body from seeking the
attorney general’s reconsideration of
an open records ruling.

12

Governmental body files suit challenging the
attorney general decision.

552.324

Within thirty calendar days after the
date governmental body receives
attorney general decision.

13

Governmental body files suit against the
attorney general challenging the attorney
general decision to preserve an affirmative
defense to prosecution for failing to produce
requested information.

552.353(b)

Within ten calendar days after
governmental body receives attorney
general’s decision that information is
public.

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Done

Part Nine

Notice Statement to Persons Whose Proprietary
Information is Requested
(A governmental body must provide this notice to a person whose proprietary interests may be
affected by release of information within ten business days after receipt of the written request for
information.)

NOTE: This notice is updated periodically. Please check the OAG website
http://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov for the latest version.

Date

Third Party Address
Dear M:
We have received a formal request to inspect or copy some of our files. A copy of the request for
information is enclosed. The requested files include records we received from you or from your
company. The Office of the Attorney General is reviewing this matter, and they will issue a decision
on whether Texas law requires us to release your records. Generally, the Public Information Act (the
“Act”) requires the release of requested information, but there are exceptions. As described below,
you have the right to object to the release of your records by submitting written arguments to the
attorney general that one or more exceptions apply to your records. You are not required to submit
arguments to the attorney general, but if you decide not to submit arguments, the Office of the
Attorney General will presume that you have no interest in withholding your records from disclosure.
In other words, if you fail to take timely action, the attorney general will more than likely rule that
your records must be released to the public. If you decide to submit arguments, you must do so not
later than the tenth business day after the date you receive this notice.
If you submit arguments to the attorney general, you must:
a)

identify the legal exceptions that apply,

b)

identify the specific parts of each document that are covered by each exception, and

c)

explain why each exception applies.

Gov’t Code § 552.305(d). A claim that an exception applies without further explanation will not
suffice. Attorney General Opinion H-436 (1974). You may contact this office to review the
information at issue in order to make your arguments. We will provide the attorney general with a
copy of the request for information and a copy of the requested information, along with other

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material required by the Act. The attorney general is generally required to issue a decision within
45 business days.
Please send your written comments to the Office of the Attorney General at the following address:
Office of the Attorney General
Open Records Division
P.O. Box 12548
Austin, Texas 78711-2548
If you wish to submit your written comments electronically, you may only do so via the Office of
the Attorney General’s eFiling System. An administrative convenience charge will be assessed for
use of the eFiling System. No other method of electronic submission is available. Please visit the
attorney general’s website at http://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov for more information.
In addition, you are required to provide the requestor with a copy of your communication to
the Office of the Attorney General. Gov’t Code § 552.305(e). You may redact the requestor’s
copy of your communication to the extent it contains the substance of the requested information.
Gov’t Code § 552.305(e).
Commonly Raised Exceptions
In order for a governmental body to withhold requested information, specific tests or factors for the
applicability of a claimed exception must be met. Failure to meet these tests may result in the release
of requested information. We have listed the most commonly claimed exceptions in the Government
Code concerning proprietary information and the leading cases or decisions discussing them. This
listing is not intended to limit any exceptions or statutes you may raise.
Section 552.101: Information Made Confidential by Law
Open Records Decision No. 652 (1997).
Section 552.104: Confidentiality of Information Relating to Competition
Boeing Co. v. Paxton, No. 12-1007, 2015 WL 3854264, at *9 (Tex. June 19, 2015).
Section 552.110: Confidentiality of Trade Secrets and Commercial or Financial Information
Trade Secrets:
In re Bass, 113 S.W.3d 735 (Tex. 2003).
Hyde Corp. v. Huffines, 314 S.W.2d 763, 776 (Tex.), cert. denied, 358 U.S. 898 (1958).
Open Records Decision No. 552 (1990).

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Commercial or Financial Information:
Birnbaum v. Alliance of Am. Insurers, 994 S.W.2d 766 (Tex. App.—Austin 1999, pet.
filed) (construing previous version of section 552.110), abrogated by In re Bass, 113
S.W.3d 735 (Tex. 2003).
Open Records Decision No. 639 (1996).
Open Records Decision No. 661 (1999).
Section 552.113: Confidentiality of Geological or Geophysical Information
Open Records Decision No. 627 (1994).
Section 552.131: Confidentiality of Certain Economic Development Negotiation Information
If you have questions about this notice or release of information under the Act, please refer to
the Public Information Handbook published by the Office of the Attorney General, or contact
the attorney general’s Open Government Hotline at (512) 478-OPEN (6736) or toll-free
at (877) 673-6839 (877-OPEN TEX). To access the Public Information Handbook or Attorney
General Opinions, including those listed above, please visit the attorney general’s website at
http://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov.
Sincerely,

Officer for Public Information or Designee
Name of Governmental Body
Enclosure: Copy of request for information
cc:

Requestor
address
(w/o enclosures)
Open Records Division
Office of the Attorney General
P.O. Box 12548
Austin, Texas 78711-2548
(w/o enclosures)

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Part Ten

TEXAS GOVERNMENT CODE SECTION 552.024
PUBLIC ACCESS OPTION FORM
[Note: This form should be completed and signed by the employee no later than the 14th day after
the date the employee begins employment, the public official is elected or appointed, or a former
employee or official ends employment or service.]

_______________________________________
(Name)

The Public Information Act allows employees, public officials and former employees and officials
to elect whether to keep certain information about them confidential. Unless you choose to keep it
confidential, the following information about you may be subject to public release if requested under
the Texas Public Information Act. Therefore, please indicate whether you wish to allow public
release of the following information.
PUBLIC ACCESS?
NO
YES
Home Address
Home Telephone Number
Social Security Number
Emergency Contact Information
Information that reveals whether you have family members

______________________________________
(Signature)
_________________
(Date)

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