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Taser Stun Guns an Independent Report 1994

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An Independent Report

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Published by:

T'Prin& Technology
Gateway Station
Aurora, CO 80044-1126 U.S.A

,,

All rights reserved. No part ofthis report may be reproduced or transmitted in any fonn or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval
system without written permission from the publisher.

Copyright C 1994 T'Prina Technology
Printed in the United States ofAmerica.

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I

Stun Guns
An Independent Report .

.

Stun guns that are available to
the public vary considerably in
both their electrical output characteristics as well as their safeness' . This report gives detailed
information by brand and model.
Electrical information includes
power, amount of energy per .
pulse, peak voltage, average voltage, peak current, average current, and pulse rate. The relative
physiological effects of each model were determined by testing on a
human subject.
Buying from a reputable retailer
may be no guarantee of quality or
safety. Because there has been so
little information available on the
performance of specific models of
stun guns, retailers as well as buyers have had few facts on which
to base their opinions and purchases. Most buyers do not wish
to tests the various models on
themselves and there is a dearth
of volunteer subjects (particularly
those who would volunteer to test
15 different models and be
shocked repeatedly with each
one). Also, while the medical literature offers several proposed
mechanisms by which these devices may produce a temporary
immobilization effect, there is no
sound data proving . which of
these mechanisms, or combination
ofmechanisms, is correct.

TEST FIRING A STUN GUN produces' an arc that is seen between the inner electrodes.
manufacturer, the size of the device and the appearance of a
'demonstration' arc. This study
proves that none of these factors
alone is an indicator of the performance or safety ofthe device.
Some stun guns are sold under
various brand names and model
numbers. The photographs included in this report are useful in
identifYing a particular device.

The biomedical engineer conducting these tests has 15 years experience in testing the physiological
effects of high voltage-high current medical devices as well as designing them to meet FDA
Typically the only information the standards.
•
buyer has is the price, the output
claimed
by
the
voltage
1

Table1:

Table J gives seven electrical parameters for each model tested.
All measurements were taken
while the stun gun probes were in
direct contact with the target.
This is the recommended mode of
use. Power can be delivered from
the stun gun to the target by arcing to the target, however, this is
not as efficient as direct contact.
~

The power delivered by a stun
gun varies with the condition under which it is used. For example,
the thickness of clothing worn by
the assailant, the area to which
the stun gun is applied - whether
bony, fatty or muscular - effects

Safety as discussed in this report refers to the safety of the user, not of the assailant on whom the stun gun may be

used.
<01994

T'Prina Technology

II

the amount of power that the stun metal door knob and draw a small quently produces only weak
gun will put out
arc do you fall to the ground neuromuscular stimulation.
•
biliz'e.
dl
muno
Ie
power that the stun gun will reliably deliver under a particular,
reasonable set of circumstances.
A change in conditions may reduce this power. The particular
set of conditions under which a
stun gun will deliver maximum
power varies from one model to
another. (This is problem is considered in the "Clothing Penetration" column of Table 2).

The third column of Table 1,
"Voltage" is the effective (or, to
the engineer, rms) value. This is
useful in comparing one device to
another regardless of the pulse
shape or waveform.
Column four, "Peak Voltage" is
the highest voltage that appears
across the electrodes while maximum power is being delivered to
the target. Note that this value is
significantly less than the voltage
you see in advertisements or on
the packaging. The advertised
voltage is typically a theoretical
voltage that would appear across
the probes if they were not in
contact with a target and were not
so close that an arc would occur
between the probes, in other
words this is the voltage that is
there when you are not using the
device on a target! The advertised number is generally nothing
more than a fascinating bit of
trivia. For example, consider the
tens-of-thousands of volts that
may be generated when shuftling
across a nylon carpet on a low humidity day. When you touch the
2

T'lP'rina Technology 1994

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Do not let a manufacturer's
claim of high voltage influence
your purchase.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The fifth column, "Current", is the
effective (rms) current that flows
while maximum power is being
delivered to the target.

In the final analysis the electrical
parameters shown in Table 1,
while they do give good guidance,
they do not give an absolute
method of determining performance. This is because, as mentioned earlier, stun guns vary in
how much power they deliver under different conditions. Hence
the need for actual testing on a
human subject.

•

Column six, "Peak Current" is the Table 2:
highest current that is delivered
through the target under conditions that permit maximum Cost
power.
The prices shown in column two
of Table 2 are those paid for the
test samples. The street price of
Column 7 of Table 1, "En- stun guns varies considerably.
ergy/PuIse" is an important pa- The best bargains can sometimes
rameter to consider. This is the be found at gun shows. .
amount of energy that is delivered
in each of the very short pulses
that the stun gun delivers. This
along with the pulse rate in col- The values given in Table 2, column 8 tells you a great deal about UIIJ1l three, are the peak voltages
a stun gun.
claimed by the manufacturer.
While these are frequently the
~
only information that the manThe last column, "Pulse Rate", is ufacturer provides, it can readily
the average number of pulses of be seen that they are not a good
energy that the stun gun delivers indicator of performance.
each second.
It appears that a pulse rate of approx 14 Hz or greater may be
adequate. A higher pulse rate is
not necessarily advantageous if
the energy per pulse is not adequate; for example, the SK7000
has a relatively high pulse rate of
28.6 Hz but a low power of only
80 millijoule per pulse and conse-

Column four, "Clothing Penetration", is a general guideline that
addresses the ability of the stun
gun to deliver energy through the
assailant's clothing. The amount
of energy delivered to the target
will of course vary with the thickness of the clothing as well as the
type of material. Even those

7'

,

•

rated as poor will penetrate thin
layers ofclothing.
The models tested here are 'civilian' or available to the public.
Some manufacturers sell models
"Neuromuscular Stimulation", or that they make available to only
stimulation of the nerves and the police.
muscles, described in column five, .
was determined by applying each One of the best known police
stun gun for a period of at least models is the Taser which is refive seconds while the degree of ported to have an energy output
stimulation was observed. Each of 0.800 joules per pulse. Comtest was repeated at least three pare this to the highest value for
times and all tests were made on the models tested here of 0.350
the same person so that a subjec- joules - less than half
tive comparison could be made.
The power of the police Taser is
approximately 10 watt as com~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
As they say, "DO NOT TRY pared to about 5 watt maximum
for the civilian models tested here.
TIIIS AT HOME.".
This allows for a considerable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
safety margin in terms of potential
The engineer conducting these hazard to any person the stun gun
tests has 15 years experience in might be used on. The Taser is
testing the physiological effects of reported by police to be effective
high voltage, high current medical 82% of the time in immobilizing
devices and is therefore familiar suspects.
with how to conduct these trials
The Taser is also reported to
safely, albeit not painlessly.
require a two to three second application to immobilize an

assailant. The manufacuters of the
models tested here generally recommend three to six seconds

Among the stun guns reviewed
there is considerable variation in
performance, size , features, and
cost. It is suggested that the
reader review each of the models
in order to become familiar with
stun gun characteristics, both
good and bad.
Waveforms are included for the
more technically inclined.

~ Notice:

The reader
is strongly advised to read the
cautions and disclaimers at the
end ofthis report before purchasing or using a stun gun or any
electronic self-defense device.

Models Reviewed

O-Mega SS
Nova Spirit
Myotron Venus
STN-160
SK-1200
Thunder Power
SK-6900
Thunder 945SP
SK-7000
Sigma-7 Model C
Super Thunder
Z-Force-Ultra
Z-Force ill
Z-Force I
STG-I
Pro-007
Personal Protector
Defender II

6
8
10
12

T'Prina Technology 1994

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
10
21
23

3

•

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•• •

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Table J.

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Stun Guns· Measured Electrical Parameters.

Model

Power
[watt]

Voltage
[volts, rms]

Peak Voltage
[kv]

Current
[rnA, rms]

Peak Current
[A]

Energy/Pulse
Doules]

Pulse Rate
[Hz]

O-MegaSS

5

121

16.4

41

5.5

0.35

14.3

Nova Spirit

5.3

164

24.9

33

5

0.28

18.9

Myotron Venus

5.2

161

23.9

32

4.8

0.25

20.8

STN-160

3.5

242

28.7

14

1.7

0.17

20

SK1200;
Thunder Power

4.2

171

25

25

3.6

0.19

22.2

SK6900;
Thunder 945SP

2.6

136

23

19

3.3

0.13

20

SK7000;
Sigma-7 Model C

2.4

143

20.7

17

1.9

0.08

28.6

Super Thunder

2.3

156

19.6

14

1.8

0.11

20

Z-Foree-U1tra

2.9

157

25.2

18

3

0.1

28.6

Z-Force III

2.4

184

29.7

13

2.1

0.07

28.6

1.8

124

20.4

15

2.4

0.06

28.6

STG-l

1.1

138

11

8

0.6

0.07

15.6

Pro-007 Personal
Protector

0.14

2

0.31

71

10.8

0.22

Single pulse.

(assumes
0.67 Hz)

(assumes
0.67 Hz)

~

~
A

. Z-Force I

(This device is nol a
slun gun.)

Defender II
@1994TIPrina TcclmololY

(assumes 0.67
Hz)

(assume 0.67 for
comparison)
.

Unit failed during test.
"'All measurements were made at maximum power.

•
•

«

•

•

•

---_._-

"

Table 2.

Model'

Cost

Voltage
Claimed
by• Mfr.

O-MegaSS

$149.95

120,000

. Nova Spirit

$89.95
160,000

Stun Gun Effects.

Clothing
Penetration

Neuromuscular Stimulation

Fair

Strongest stimulation.

Good

Moderate

Excellent

Moderate

Good

Moderate

Comments

STN-160

$94.95

Myotron Venus

$149.75

SK1200;
Thunder Power

$64.95

120,000

Good

Weak.

SK6900;
Thunder 945SP

$69.95

65,000

Good

Weak.

SK7000;
Sigma-7 Model C

$102.37

45,00050,000

Good

Weak.

Super Thunder

$70.95

75,000

Excellent

Weak.

Leakage from pin.

Leakage through edge of battery cap.

Leakage through pin.

.

Z-Force-Ultra

$50.00

150,000

Good

Weak.

Very strong leakage from both
switches

Z-Force III

$69.95

100,000

Good

Minimal.

Leakage at switch and case
joint.

Z-Force I

$49.95

80,000

Good

Minimal.

Leakage from edge opposite switch.

STG-I

Kit $79.50

50100,000

$34.95

"-

Pro-007
Personal Protector

400V
76A

V>

Defender II

$52.95

90,000

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Minimal.
Poor

No muscle stimulation.
Unit failed during test.

© 1994 TIIP.·inA Tedmo)olY
•

Causes a burn on the tissue surface.
This device is not a stun gun.

--~.

!!in:

Network, Incorporated

Q.:M.i.giTM
This stun gun clearly has the
strongest effect of those tested.
Not only did it stand out in effectiveness but it showed no arcing
or discernible leakage current to
the hand ofthe user.
The Super Stunner has two
switches, an on-off switch and a
trigger switch. The on-off switch
is useful in that it may prevent the
device from being activated accidentally. It has a potential disadvantage in that if it is
inadvertently left on for an extended period the battery will be
drained. An automatic timeout
on this function would be very desirable. The on-off switch, which
is not spring loaded, protrudes in
such a way that it can easily be
pressed to the 'on' position
unintentionally while the stun gun
is being carried in a purse or
pocket.
This is the only model tested to
include a battery indicator - a
small red LED - that glows when
the safety switch is in the 'on'
position and the battery ostensibly
has sufficient energy remaining.
The other stun guns must be activated and arced in order to verify
the battery condition, resulting in
significant wear on those units
with internal spark gaps.

battery energy remains. But, in
fact, there may not be enough energy to cause a single spark, let
alone enough to discourage an
assailant.

Unfortunately, the battery condition light does not always operate
as intended. If the on-off switch
is left in the 'on' position and the
battery drained to a low level, the
battery condition light may still
glow indicating that sufficient

The O-Mega Super Stunner has
two other potential drawbacks.
Firstly it is a fairly large unit and
therefore may be inconvenient to
carry; though some may consider
its size an advantage in that it is
easier to get a good grip on.

6

T'IPrina Technology 1994

Super Stunner
Secondly it is not as good as
some of the other stun guns at
penetrating very thick layers of
clothing.
The distributors of the O-Mega
state in the literature that accompanies their product. "A very
small percentage of people, however, can withstand this amount
of electric shock, so O-Mega cannot absolutely guarantee that their

'7'

Stun Guns will render everyone
unconscious. ". Some of the other
distributors are not so forthright
in their claims..

O-Mega'IM Super Thunder

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The Super Stunner has a belt clip
as well as very sturdy strap.

"I

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4

•

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While the manufacturers of three
other devices tested claim higher
voltages they did not perform
nearly as well as the O-Mega Super Stunner.
Batteries

This device uses two 9- volt batteries, e.g. Duracell MN1604.
Waveform

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30

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@ 19941"lPrin& l'ecbnolo:y

The waveform to the right shows
a single output pulse of the Super
Stunner. The pulse is seen to be
very short, delivering most of its
power in less than ten millionths
of a second. NoU Table 1 tllll1

Distributed by ~TM, Network Incorporated, 3544 Overland Avenue, Los Angeles, CA
90034. Made in Taiwan. No telephone number is given on the
packaging or in the enclosed
instructions..

•

•

T'P.;"" Technology 1994

7

'7

Nova Technologies, Inc.
--"

The Nova Owner's Manual does
not specifY voltage but does claim
"an equivalent current of about 3
mil1iamps" under unspecified
conditions. An 'equivalent current' means that the Spirits' output
is estimated to be equivalent in
current hazard to about 3 milliamps of low frequency (50Hz)
sine wave current. The actual
output - 33 mil1iamps measured at
maximum power output - is of
•
•
course not a contmuous sme wave
but a series of short duration, high
voltage pulses.

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Batteries
This model requires a speciallithiurn battery pack sold only through
Nova Technologies. As with the
Myotron Venus, it consists of 3
each 3-volt Duracell Lithium
batteries.

•

Waveform
The waveforms, as well as the
electrical and neuromuscular
stimulation characteristics, of the
Spirit are virtually identical to
that of the Myoton Venus. The
differences that can be seen in Table J are insignificant in that they
might be accounted for by small
variances in battery capacity, internal spark gap condition, and
production tolerences.

-- -. -,' -: .. - ' "',,

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.-

-

Nova Spirit

accompanied the Nova Spirit are
The Nova Spirit produces a mod- no longer valid numbers.

erate level
stimulation.

of neuromuscular

Nova Technologies, Inc., 2120-F
West Baker Lane, Austin, TX
78758. The telephone numbers
prOVided in the literature that

8

T'lPrina T~clmology 1994

•

m

Nova Spirit
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@ 1994 T'lPri... T ""bolo",

Compare the waveform of the Nova Spirit with that of the Myotron Venus on page 11.

•

•

T'lPrina Technology J 994

9

51!

Arianne International

While the manufacturer claims the
Myotron Venus is not a stun gun,
extensive testing was not able to
distinguish it from a stun gun.
Their argument is simply one of
semantics. They argue this is not
a stun 'gun' because it does not
shoot a projectile - only the TaserTM which actually shoots two
dart-like projectiles with wires attached does - however, the tenn
'stun gun' as it is commonly used
in the medical literature and popular press would clearly include
the Myotron Venus.
What makes their 'this is not a
stun gun' argument even more peculiar is that extensive electrical
and physiological testing was not
able to clearly distinguish the output of the Myotron Venus from
the Nova Spirit, a device which
Arianne recommends in their literature to those who intend to
purchase a stun gun. In comparison to the Nova Spirit the pearl
colored Myotron is a smaller,
more convenient to carry package, designed to appeal primarily
to women.

i n
h
Nova
Technologies has been making
stun guns for more than 10 years
and the Spirit model for at least 7
years. The differences that can be
seen in Table 1 are insignificant in
that they could be accounted for
by small variances in battery ca-

10

T'lPrina Technology 1994

MyotronTM Venus
pacity, spark gap condition, and Duracell Lithium (as does the
Nova Spirit) type DL2/3A batterproduction tolerances.
ies grouped into a single package
Wrist Strap
that is not intended to be reThe Myotron television commer- placed. The DL2/3A are "For
cial, videotape and brochure all pack assembly and memory use
make a strong argument for the only." This may at first thought
advantages of a wrist trap. How- seem like a mean-spirited way to
ever, the device arrived without prevent the user from replacing
the strap; an enclosed note stated the batteries. However, a ratiothat the strap would arrive later. nale might be that after the device
Three months from the order date has been used to the extent that a
the strap had not yet arrived.
set of lithium batteries has been
expended, other components,
such as the internal spark gap,
Batteries
The Myotron uses 3 each, 3-volt would also likely be nearing the

,

end of their useful life making it
necessary to replace the entire
unit..

Myotron TM Venus

Arianne International, Box 32112,
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 333410.
•

"

The only phone number provided,
1-800-348-2900 is a marketing
service for placing orders only
and is not a source ofproduct information. or access to Arianne
International.

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15

@ 1994 'f'IPr;,,,, 'f echolo&)'

Compare the waveform of the Myotron Venus with that of the
Nova Spirit on page 9.

T'jp>rina Technology 1994

11

:;;r;

King Hope Enterprises, Ltd.

The SIN-160 comes with a leath.
er sheath and a wrist strap.

A small amount of leakage curThe SIN-160 is a large - 16.5 in- rent could be felt at the edge of
ches long - baton which according the battery cap which is at the disto the manufacturer is designed tal end ofthe handle.
for police and night watchmen.
Although the two probes are at Batteries
the tip, the baton is 'hot' along its The SIN-160 uses 8 AA alkaline
full length above the handle as batteries stored in the handle.
well as at the tip.
King Hope Enterprises Ltd.,
The SIN-160 has the highest ef- Hong Kong. Made in China. No
fective voltage of those tested. It telephone number is given on the
is particularly effective at pene- packaging or in the enclosed intrating thick layers of clothing and structions.
causes moderate neuromuscular
stimulation.

STN-160

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iC> 1994 T'lPri... T eclm.l.

12

T'lP'.ina Technology 1994

STN-160
(length 16.5 inches)

T

I
,

S.K. Electronic Corp.

•

,

The SK1200 is a convenient size
that fits easily fits into pocket or
purse. It includes both a wrist
strap and a belt clip.
The electrical parameters as well
as the waveform at bottom right
are seen to be fairly typical with
no outstanding characteristics.
Neuromuscular stimulation with
this stun gun was weak.

Batteries
The SK1200 uses a single 9-volt
alkaline or rechargeable nickelcadmium battery.

S.K. Electronics Corp., made in
Korea. Distributed by PDI, 9608
Van Nuys Blvd. #104, Panorama
City, CA 91402. No phone num-

ber was prOVided in the accompanying literature.

SK1200/ThunderPower
SK1200 I Thunder Power
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15

@ 1994 T'lP.;"" T .cbolo,

T'Prina Technology 1994

13

I

Degen
Electro Shield'"
P.D.I. 7M
S.K. Electronics

---:
-------------------

The SK-6900 has a wrist strap
that when pulled out disables the
stun gun.
The SK-6900 produces only weak
neuromuscular stimulation.
There is some leakage current to
the hand of the user in the area of
the wrist strap pin.
Batteries

This stun device uses a single
9-volt alkaline or nickel cadmium
battery.

-

Degen, 1800 N. Highland Ave.,
#600, Los Angeles, CA 90028.
No phone number is prOVided on
the packaging or in the accompanying literature.

=-

LD

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C> 1994 T'P.;,,,, T eelu.olofY

SK-6900 I Thunder 945SP

•

SK-6900 I Thunder 945SP
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T'P,.;".. Technology 1994

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© 1994 T'P...... T eebolo&)'

Sigma·7 products, Inc.
S.K. Electronics

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The Sigma-7 includes a belt clip,
wrist strap, strobe light and siren.
A three position alarm control
switch allows the user to select
among: (1.) stun gun with alarm
when the activation switch is
pressed (2.) alarm off i.e. stun
gun only on pressing the activation switch (3.) the siren is activated immediately on selecting
this position and the stun gun is
becomes active on pressing the
activation switch

----=-C'0
---

The strobe light is always activated with the stun gun.

-

=-C\J

-

Operation of the Sigma-7 Model
C is excessively complex for a defensive device that may be operated in a surprise situation.

-

There is an external jack for recharging the battery and a jack for
an 'accessory alarm' the use of
which was not specified in the
owners manual.

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=--- 0-

Sigma-7 Model C I SK-7000

As shown in Table 1, the energy
per pulse is very low. Neuromuscular stimulation with the
Sigma-7 Model C was weak.

2 .5

2
1.5

Batteries
This stun device uses a single
9-volt alkaline or rechargeable
(Eveready or G.E.) battery.
Sigma-7 Products, Inc., 2888
Bluff Street #174, Boulder, CO
80301, (303) 444-9319. Made in
Korea.

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T'lP'rina Technology 1994

15

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U.S. Protector ,Inc.
Degen
POI

The Super Thunder is an unusually sturdy unit with a metal belt
clip and a wrist strap. Removing
the wrist strap disables the stun
gun.
The Super Thunder is excellent at
penetrating clothing but produces
only weak neuromuscular stimulation with its' 0.11 joules per pulse.
Batteries
The manufacturer specifies use of
only a 9 volt rechargeable or a 9
volt Eveready battery. The battery is easier and faster to change
than in most stun guns - it is simply slid into its compartment.

U.S. Protector, Inc.; Degen Panorama City CA 91402; POI 9608
Van Nuys Blvd. #104, Panorama
City, CA 91402. Made in U.S.A..
No telephone number is provided
on the packaging or in the accompanying literature.

Super Thunder
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T'lP'rina Technology 1994

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,

The Z-force-Ultra was difficult to
test due to excessive current
leakage from both switches on/off and activation - to the operators hand. Arcing was observed between the activation
switch and the operators finger
causing . significant pain. This
much leakage current and arcing
to the hand could be a serious
hazard in that it might startle the
user causing the stun gun to be
dropped. A rubber glove was
worn during the remaining tests.

-

The Ultra has both a belt clip and
a wrist strap.

-

Neuromuscular stimulation with
this product was weak.

---

Batteries

The Z-Force-Ultra uses two 9
volt batteries, e.g. Duracell
MN1604.
lM

Z-Force -"Ultra, Assembled in
USA. No address or phone rmmber is given on the packaging or
in the enclosed instructions.

;:'-'0C 19941"Pri.... T ed.n.l.

Z-Force™ Ultra
Z-Force TM -U Itra
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T'Pr;"" Technology 1994

17

-1.0

-

As with the Ultra model there
was excessive current leakage
from the stun gun to the user's
hand.
The leakage from the
switch as well as from the case
seams was not as strong as with
the Ultra model but could be
distracting.

--

Neuromuscular stimulation was
minimal.

-

Battery

The Z-Force m uses one 9 volt
battery, e.g. Duracell MN1604..

Z-Force™ , Assembled in USA.
No address or phone number is
given on the packaging or in the
enclosed instructions.

-

=---0-

Z-Force™ III

Z-Force™ III
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T'IP'.ina Technology 1994

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© 1994 T'lPri",. Tecbolo!y

Pi

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The Z-Force I showed a small
amount of leakage current from
the case seam opposite the switch
to the user's hand.

--

The Z-Force I comes with both a
belt clip and a wrist strap.

--

This device has a high repetition
rate - 28.6 cycles per second - but
low energy per pulse, 0.06
joules/pulse.

_

L{)

(Y)

---

Neuromuscular stimulation was
minimal.

--

Battery

---

The Z-Force I uses one 9 volt
battery, e.g. Duracell MNI604..

-

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Z-Force™ , Assembled in USA.
No address or phone number is
given on the packaging or in the
enclosed instructions.

~o··

Z-Force™ I
Z-Force™I
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@1994 T'lPriu T eelmololY

T'lP'rina Technology 1994
-- - -------.",-.

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19

Information Unlimited

:

.......

-

..CAUTION: 50,000 vOlt
. .... . $T\lN(IgI

. . •. . '-'. REAl) iNSTRUCTIONS;'.

The STG-1 was constructed from
a kit, the plans for which first appeared in Radio Electronics September, 1986. The kit is well
documented and simple to
construct.

CD

i.4~y cause 1I1lury duelo seco~c:!arr
. :":. ction:i Ae?'Ove rear. ca9.~d

.. tlIlI'1-10V N,CAO Batlllr)'·lIi'1Oi<l

'."hysical COflll3C1 ~ int!g::t~' ~

nttrpidate,p;ush memb'1Qe swirct:. :
te:audiblevisible spar!<l!.J

STGI.

The accompanying literature
states under a caution heading,
"WE MAKE NO CLAIMS AS
TO THE USER'S SAFETY OR
STOPPING POWER OF TIllS
DEVICE.".
This is a very low power (Ll
watt) device that produces only
minimal
neuromuscular
stimulation.

HIGH

VOLTAGE

Batteries
A single 9-volt nickel cadmium or

•

alkaline battery is recommended.
and a jack is provided for convenient recharging of the nicad. A
charger is not provided with the
unit but is available at extra
charge
Information Unlimited, Box 716,
Amherst, NH 03031,
1-800-221-1705, 603-673-4730.

STG-1 (case only)
0.75

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© 1994 T'P.inA T echnololY

T'Prina Technology 1994

..... . . . . . .. .. I

;;

Saftron

•

•

Although advertised as a "Micro
Stun Gun" and the "World's
smallest stun gun!", the Pro-007
is not a stun gun. Stun guns put
out a series of high voltage, narrow pulses of eneI)'. The PrQ-007
......u.ITu

I w

To operate the Pro-007 one must
first ensure that the rubber cap
(not shown in photo) is in position, remove the safety pin, then,
hold down the activation button
and wait while the unit charges
up. When the indicator light is
seen to be fully lit the device is
ready to be used. It is then applied to the assailant, delivering
energy for only a fraction of a second. The Pro-007 must then be
removed from the assailant and

Pro-007 Personal Protector

recharged before it will deliver
more energy. In other words if

•

the
two
points. The rigidity of the length and sharpness sufficient to
you keep the device in contact
with the assailant it cannot be re- rubber cap serves to somewhat penetrate skin to a depth to draw
limit
the
exposure
of
the
points.
blood.
charged and will not deliver more
energy. This unexpected operating anomaly is not described in To test this device the user re- The rubber cap ( held in place by
moves the rubber cap, charges the friction ) is not securely affixed to
the accompanying instructions.
device, touches the two needles the Pro-007; it could inadvertentStun guns typically have two met- to a piece of metal and observes a 1y be removed while being carried in a purse or by being jostled
al probes that are not sharpened "sparking action".
in a scuffle.
but rather are blunt and not capaThe
accompanying
instructions
ble of piercing the skin. The
"...
the
unit
functions
specify
that
When this device is applied to an
Pro-007 has two vel)' sharp
points protected by a removable, with the rubber cap in place to assailant no muscle spasms are
When
the
protect
the
user.".
seen. What you do see and smell
flexible rubber cap (not shown in
cap
is
removed
the
rubber
is a small plume of smoke from
the photo). The cap has two
holes that, on pressing against the Pro-007 will still deliver power to burning flesh. On removal a small
assailant, permits protrusion of the needles. The needles are of a area of burned tissue can be seen.
T'lPrina Technology 1994

21

I

PES;;

A typical stun gun would require
an application in excess of 5 seconds before a bum mark might be
seen.

Saftron Personal Protector Pro-007
12.5

The ability of this 'bum' gun to
penetrate clothing is virtually limited to mechanical penetration by
the needle points as opposed to
electrical arcing such as would
occur with a stun gun.
The values shown in Table 2 for
the Pro-007 assume a total
recharge-plus-reapplication time
of 1.5 second; that is, the maximum power shown is what would
be delivered if the user could
charge-apply-discharge-removerecharge in rapid succession with
a cycle time of 1. 5 second. This is
obviously a very optimistic estimate so that the actual power
and rms values that you might expect are somewhat less than that
shown in Table 1.

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50

T'lPrina T ecbnology 1994

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e 1994 'fllPrina. 1"ecbololY
charged and applied to an assailThe Pro-007 uses two 1.5-volt ant. Note that the pulse length is
batteries; it came with 2 Magicell considerably longer than that
employed by stun guns which deHigh Duty size N, UM-5.
liver a train of pulses.
Batteries

Waveform

The pulse shown at the upper
The safety pin comes with a key right is the single pulse of maximal power delivery that might
ring and attachment device.
occur each time the Pro-007 is

22

T 7J

Pro-007, Saftron. Made in Taiwan. No address or phone number is given on the packaging or
in the enclosed instructions.

fe,:,

Exotic Electronics
PDI

-=--L()
----

r

•

•

The Defender II failed at the beginning of the test procequre. After only a few seconds of use the
power output was zero.

--

PD!, 9608 Van Nuys Blvd,
#104,Panorama, City, CA 91402.
Made in Korea.
No telephone

-

:--C')

-

number was provided on the
packaging or in the enclosed
literature.

-

-

=-0·

Defender II

•

TIP.in" Technology 1994

23

rz

.

);>

Keep all stun guns, electro-immobilization devices, and electronic self-defense devices out of
the reach of children.

);>

Do not exceed the manufacturers recommendations for duration of application. Excessive
application times may result in serious harm such as bums or suppression of respiration.

);>

This report does not endorse any manufacturer or product and makes no claims as to the
effectiveness of these devices in stoppmg an assailant. Further, this report makes no claims
as to the safety ofthese devices as regards the user or the person on whom the device may be
used.
.

);>

The results presented in this report are based on testing only one sample of each model
evaluated.

);>

Check local laws before acquiring a stun gun. Most, but not all, states permit the sale and
carrying of stun guns.

);>

The authors of this report have given their best efforts in making this report as complete and
accurate as possible. However, typographical errors as well as errors in content may have
occurred. Therefore, this report should be used only as a general guide and not as the
ultimate source ofinformation on stun guns, electro-immobilization devices, or electronic
self-defense devices.
T'Prina Technology and the authors of this report shall have neither liability nor responsibility
to any entity or person with respect to any loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused,
directly or indirectly by the information contained in this report.

•

24

T'iP'ri"" Technology 1994

<nr

2

About

T'Prina T ecb.nology
A consulting firm that has provided services in medical electronics since 1989.
•

Our experience includes:
• the design and testing of high voltage instruments used in clinical applications
• delivering seminars to surgeons and corporate executives on medical instrument technology.
• measuring the effects of medical instruments in terms of electrical energy spread and depth of
penetration into tissue.
• expert witness testimony and technical advice in litigation both in U.S. and foreign courts.
• evaluation of stun guns.
• invention of now patented medical instruments

Considering a stun gun for your Security Service Of Police Department?
If your organization is considering the purchase of a stun gun T'Prina Technology can help you
make the right decision by performing unbiased tests of the models that you are reviewing. Many
new models of stun guns are introduced on the market every year. Without extensive electrical
and physiological testing by an independent expert you have no solid information on which to
base your purchase.

To obtain further information please write to the following address:

T'Prina T eclb.nology
Gateway Station
Aurora, CO 80044-1126

T'PrinA T echllology 1994 25
.

--

,-

- -...

--

t'

7-:; ;

I

Order Form
for 'Stun GUIIS An Independent Report'.
•

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copies @ $14.50 ea.

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