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U.S Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Bulletin
September 2005, NCJ 210344

HIV in Prisons, 2003
By Laura M. Maruschak
BJS Statistician
On December 31, 2003, 2.0% of State
prison inmates and 1.1% of Federal
prison inmates were known to be
infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Correctional authorities reported that 22,028 State inmates
and 1,631 Federal inmates were HIV
positive. The number known to be HIV
positive totaled 23,659, down from
23,864 at yearend 2002.
Of those known to be HIV positive in all
U.S. prisons at yearend 2003, an
estimated 5,944 were confirmed AIDS
cases, up from 5,643 in 2002. Among
State inmates, 0.5% had AIDS; among
Federal inmates, 0.4%.
During 2003, 268 State prisoners died
from AIDS-related causes, down from
283 in 2002. In 2003, 8% of State
inmate deaths were attributed to AIDS,
down from 32% in 1995. Among
Federal prisoners 14 died from AIDSrelated causes, down 3 deaths from
the total in 2002.
This report is based on the 2003
National Prisoners Statistics (NPS-1)
and the Deaths in Custody Reporting
Program (DCRP). Data from NPS-1
are reported on one form by the
departments of corrections in 50 States
and by the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
DCRP data are from individual records
for each death. A record includes information on the deceased’s characteristics such as gender, age, and race/
Hispanic origin.

Highlights
Number of HIV-infected inmates steadily decreasing since 1999

Yearend
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003

HIV-positive prison inmates
Percent of
custody
Number
population
25,680
25,807
25,333
24,147
23,864
23,659

2.2%
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9

• Between 2002 and 2003 the number
of HIV-positive prisoners decreased
less than 1%, while the overall prison
population grew 1.6% during the
same period.
• At yearend 2003, 2.8% of all female
State prison inmates were HIV
positive, compared to 1.9% of males.
• During 2003, 29 States reported
a decrease in the number of HIVpositive prisoners, and 14 States and
the Federal system reported an
increase.

Jurisdiction
New York
Florida
Texas
Federal system
California
Georgia

HIV-positive prison inmates
Percent of
custody
Number
population
5,000
3,112
2,460
1,631
1,196
1,095

7.6%
3.9
1.8
1.1
0.7
2.3

• New York held about a fifth of all
inmates (5,000 inmates) known to be
HIV positive at yearend 2003.
• Florida, with an increase of 264
HIV-positive inmates, reported the
largest increase, followed by the
Federal system (up 84). New Jersey,
with 99 fewer HIV-positive inmates,
reported the largest drop.
• The overall rate of confirmed AIDS
among the prison population (0.51%)
was more than 3 times the rate in the
U.S. general population (0.15%).

Rate of AIDS-related deaths in State prisons decreased in 2003

Year

AIDS-related deaths in State prisons
Number
Rate per
100,000
Reported
in NPS-1
Total*
inmates

1995
1,010
100
-1996
907
90
-1997
538
48
-1998
350
30
-1999
242
20
-2000
185
15
-2001
256
311
25
2002
215
283
22
2003
213
268
21
*Total deaths for 2001-03 are based on a
combination of NPS-1 and DCRP data.

• In 2003, 282 prisoners died from
AIDS-related causes — 268 State
inmates and 14 Federal inmates.
• The number of AIDS-related deaths
in State prisons decreased 73% from
1995 to 2003.
• Through a combination of death
data from both National Prisoner
Statistics and the Deaths in Custody
Reporting Program, 55 additional
AIDS-related deaths were identified
for 2003.

Table 1. Inmates in custody of State or Federal prison authorities and
known to be positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 2001-03

Jurisdictiona
U.S. total
Reportedd
Comparable reportinge

Total known to be HIV positiveb
2003
2002
2001

HIV/AIDS cases as a percent
of total custody populationc
2003 2002
2001

23,659
23,649

23,864
23,806

24,147
23,981

1.9%

1.9%

1.9%

1,631
22,028
7,394
572
10
230
21
657
5,000
775
120
9

1,547
22,317
7,620
666
-290
16
756
5,000
800
86
6

1,520
22,627
8,136
604
15
307
17
804
5,500
735
148
6

1.1%
2.0
4.5%
3.2
0.5
2.3
0.9
2.8
7.6
1.9
3.4
0.6

1.1%
2.0
4.6%
3.6
-2.9
0.6
3.2
7.5
2.0
2.5
0.4

1.2%
2.0
4.9%
3.5
0.9
3.0
0.7
3.4
8.1
2.0
4.4
0.4

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

2,087
551
-31
32
579
40
268
21
2
416
11
136

2,133
570
-33
48
591
37
262
24
4
417
6
141

2,135
593
-27
41
584
33
262
24
4
398
5
164

1.0%
1.3
-0.4
0.3
1.2
0.5
0.9
0.5
0.2
1.0
0.4
0.7

1.0%
1.3
-0.4
0.5
1.2
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.4
1.0
0.2
0.8

1.0%
1.3
-0.3
0.5
1.2
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.4
0.9
0.2
0.9

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

10,740
270
94
105
3,112
1,095
-511
988
200
640
162
520
208
2,460
361
14

10,656
276
100
128
2,848
1,123
-503
967
224
602
146
544
218
2,528
425
24

10,392
302
108
143
2,602
1,150
105
514
830
234
573
130
559
231
2,388
507
16

2.2%
1.0
0.7
1.6
3.9
2.3
-2.6
4.2
1.6
1.9
1.0
2.3
1.5
1.8
1.2
0.4

2.2%
1.1
0.8
1.9
3.8
2.4
-2.5
4.0
1.9
1.8
0.9
2.4
1.5
1.9
1.4
0.7

2.2%
1.2
0.9
2.1
3.6
2.5
1.1
2.6
3.5
2.0
1.8
0.9
2.6
1.7
1.8
1.7
0.5

1,807
-123
1,196
162
27
22
4
107
29
-37
93
7

1,908
16
130
1,181
182
22
18
8
113
30
42
58
101
7

1,964
16
122
1,305
173
13
14
11
127
27
30
34
88
4

0.7%
-0.4
0.7
1.0
0.7
0.5
0.2
1.0
0.5
-0.8
0.6
0.6

0.7%
0.5
0.4
0.7
1.1
0.6
0.4
0.4
1.2
0.5
0.4
1.4
0.6
0.6

0.8%
0.5
0.4
0.8
1.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
1.4
0.5
0.3
0.8
0.6
0.4

Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

West
Alaska
Arizona
Californiaf
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

--Not reported.
a
At yearend 2001 responsibility for housing District of Columbia sentenced felons was
transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
b
Counts published in previous reports have been revised.
c
Percentages are based on custody counts, except for New Mexico for which percentages
are based on its yearend jurisdiction count.
d
Excludes inmates in jurisdictions that did not report data.
e
Excludes Alaska, Kentucky, Oregon, and Maine all 3 years because of incomplete data.
f
The number of HIV-positive inmates in California was estimated by applying the percentage
of inmates known to be HIV positive in 2002 to the 2003 custody population.

2 HIV in Prisons, 2003

Number of HIV-infected prison
inmates at yearend 2003, down
from 2002
At yearend 2003, 23,659 inmates in
State and Federal prisons were known
to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), down from
23,864 in 2002 (table 1). Among State
prison inmates, 22,028 were known to
be HIV positive; among Federal
inmates, 1,631.
HIV-infected inmates were concentrated in a small number of States.
New York (5,000), Florida (3,112), and
Texas (2,460) held the largest number
of HIV-positive inmates. These three
States housed nearly half (48.0%)
of all HIV-infected inmates in State
prisons in 2003.
New York has estimated the number
of HIV-infected inmates using data
obtained through blinded seroprevalence studies conducted biennially by the New York Department of
Health.* The trend in HIV-infection
among prisoners is affected by these
estimated numbers in New York.
Excluding New York, the number of
HIV-infected inmates has been stable
among the other States. Between 1998
and 2003 the number has fluctuated
between 18,180 and 19,333.
Year
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003

Number of HIV-positive inmates
All jurisdictions Exclude New York
25,680
18,180
25,807
18,807
25,333
19,333
24,147
18,647
23,864
18,864
23,659
18,659

*New York draws blood from all entering
inmates. Every other year an extra sample
from 1,000 sequential receptions in each
of 4 reception centers is tested for various
diseases including HIV. The percentage
with HIV-infection is applied to the total
inmate population and then adjusted for
length of stay and findings from other
studies. Projections are made for the
interim years without the blinded studies.

HIV-positive inmates comprised 2.0% of the State prison
population in 2003, unchanged since 2001. In Federal
prisons HIV-positive inmates comprised 1.1% in 2003.
Overall, the percentage of the total prison population with
HIV has remained constant at 1.9% since 2001.
Year
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003

Percent of custody population known to be HIV positive
State
Federal
2.3%
1.0%
2.3
0.9
2.2
1.0
2.0
1.2
2.0
1.1
2.0
1.1

Inmates in the Northeast had the highest rate
of HIV infection

Table 2. Inmates in custody of State or Federal prison
authorities known to be positive for the human
immunodeficiency virus, by gender, yearend 2003

Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Estimateda
Reported

Between 2002 and 2003, 29 States reported a decrease in
the number of HIV-positive inmates. The largest decrease
was reported in New Jersey (down 99), followed by
Connecticut (94), and Texas (68). Fourteen States and
the Federal system reported an increase. The largest
increases were reported in Florida (up 264), the Federal
system (84), North Carolina (38), and Rhode Island (34).
A greater percentage of females than males
with HIV infection
On December 31, 2003, 19,777 male inmates and 2,115
female inmates in State prisons were known to be HIV
positive (table 2). Overall, 1.9% of male inmates and 2.8%
of all female inmates were known to be HIV positive. New
York reported the largest numbers of male and female
HIV-positive inmates (4,570 and 430, respectively). The
second largest numbers of HIV-positive male and female
inmates were in Florida (2,744 and 368, respectively),
followed by Texas (2,205 and 255, respectively). Four
States (Vermont, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Montana)
reported having no HIV-positive female inmates. Every
reporting State had at least one HIV-positive male inmate.
Over 10% of all female inmates were known to be HIV
positive in two States — New York (14.6%), and Maryland
(11.1%). New York (with 7.3%) was the only State with
more than 5% of male inmates known to be HIV positive.

Female HIV cases
Percent of
Number
population

21,569
21,286

1.8%

2,253
2,237

2.6%

1,509
19,777

1.1%
1.9

122
2,115

1.2%
2.8

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

6,697
480
9
211
19
569
4,570
724
106
9

4.3%
2.9
0.5
2.3
0.8
2.6
7.3
1.9
3.2
0.7

697
92
1
19
2
88
430
51
14
0

8.1%
6.7
0.9
2.7
1.5
7.5
14.6
2.9
6.3
0

Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

1,793
488
-29
29
543
40
258
20
2
378
6
--

1.0%
1.2
-0.4
0.3
1.2
0.6
0.9
0.5
0.2
1.0
0.2
--

158
63
-2
3
36
0
10
1
0
38
5
--

1.3%
2.3
-0.3
0.5
1.6
0
0.5
0.3
0
1.3
1.9
--

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

9,628
246
82
103
2,744
991
-469
852
176
573
154
483
186
2,205
352
12

2.1%
1.0
0.7
1.7
3.7
2.2
-2.5
3.8
1.6
1.8
1.1
2.3
1.4
1.7
1.3
0.3

1,112
24
12
2
368
104
-42
136
24
67
8
37
22
255
9
2

3.2%
1.4
1.6
0.4
7.3
3.3
-4.1
11.1
1.5
3.1
0.4
2.4
1.9
2.6
0.4
0.6

West
Alaska
Arizona
Californiab
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

1,659
-119
1,121
141
24
19
4
82
28
-29
87
5

0.7%
-0.5
0.7
1.0
0.7
0.5
0.2
0.8
0.5
-0.7
0.6
0.5

148
-4
75
21
3
3
0
25
1
-8
6
2

0.8%
-0.2
0.7
1.3
0.6
0.6
0
3.3
0.2
-2.6
0.5
1.9

Federal
State

In the Northeast 4.5% of the prison population were known
to be HIV positive in 2003, followed by 2.2% in the South,
1.0% in the Midwest, and 0.7% in the West. New York had Midwest
Illinois
the highest percentage of inmates known to be HIV
Indiana
Iowa
positive (7.6%), followed by Maryland (4.2%) and Florida
Kansas
(3.9%)
Vermont, North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming reported
fewer than 10 HIV-positive inmates in their prisons.
In 2003 every reporting jurisdiction held at least one
HIV-positive inmate. Seven States reported that fewer
than 0.5% of their inmate population were HIV positive.

Male HIV cases
Percent of
Number
population

--Not reported.
a
Includes estimates of the number of inmates with HIV/AIDS by gender
for Alaska, Kentucky, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Estimates were based on
the most recent data available by gender.
b
The number of male and female HIV cases in California was estimated
by applying the 2002 gender distribution to the 2003 estimated total
known to be HIV positive.

HIV in Prisons, 2003 3

Number of HIV-positive male and female inmates
in State prisons declined during 2003

Table 3. Inmates in custody of State or Federal prison
authorities and known to have confirmed AIDS, 2002-03

In States that did not provide a breakdown of the number of
HIV cases by gender, estimates were made using the data Jurisdiction
U.S. total
reported from the most recent year. Based on these
Estimatedb
yearend estimates, the number of HIV-infected females in
Reported
State prisons decreased from 2,164 to 2,131 in 2003. The
Federal
number of infected male inmates decreased from 20,273 to
Stateb
20,060 in 2003. The estimated number of both male and
Northeast
Connecticut
female HIV-positive inmates in State prisons declined after
Maine
1998. Between 1998 and 2003 the percentage of male
Massachusetts
HIV-positive inmates decreased from 2.2% to 1.8%, as the
New Hampshire
New Jersey
percentage of female inmates fell from 3.8% to 2.7%.

Year
Male inmates
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
Female inmates
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003

State prison inmates
Estimated number
of HIV-positive
Percent HIV/AIDS in
inmates*
custody population
22,045
22,175
21,894
20,415
20,273
20,060

2.2%
2.2
2.1
1.9
1.9
1.8

2,552
2,402
2,472
2,212
2,164
2,131

3.8%
3.5
3.4
3.1
2.9
2.7

*To provide year-to-year comparisons, estimates were made for
States not reporting a gender breakdown. For each State,
estimates were made by applying the same percent breakdown
by gender from the most recent year when data were provided.

Confirmed AIDS cases in U.S. prisons increased
during 2003
At the end of 2003, a reported 5,227 inmates in U.S.
prisons had confirmed AIDS, up from 4,898 in 2002.
Among those with confirmed AIDS, 4,601 were in State
prisons, and 626 were in Federal prisons (table 3).
Because some States each year did not provide a breakdown of the number of HIV cases by type of HIV infection,
estimates of the number of confirmed AIDS cases were
made for those States to provide comparable year-to-year
data. Based on yearly estimates, the number of confirmed
AIDS cases increased from 5,643 in 2002 to 5,944 in 2003.
Between 1998 and 2003, 33 States and the Federal system
consistently reported the number of inmates with confirmed
AIDS. As with the reported and estimated numbers, the
comparable number of inmates with confirmed AIDS
declined between 1998 and 2003, from 5,864 to 4,956.

4 HIV in Prisons, 2003

Confirmed AIDS cases
Percent of custody populationa
Number
2003
2002
2003
2002
5,944
5,227
626
4,601

5,643
4,898
544
4,354

0.5%
0.4%
0.5

0.5%
0.4%
0.5

New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

1,555
211
0
78
2
168
800
240
52
4

1,666
271
-113
4
167
860
212
36
3

0.9%
1.2
0
0.8
0.1
0.7
1.2
0.6
1.5
0.3

1.0%
1.4
-1.1
0.2
0.7
1.3
0.5
1.0
0.2

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

237
76
-2
4
-11
-10
0
123
11
--

303
149
-15
6
-4
-5
0
124
0
--

0.2%
0.2
-‡
‡
-0.1
-0.2
0
0.3
0.4
--

0.3%
0.3
-0.2
0.1
-0.1
-0.1
0
0.3
0
--

2,452
133
23
31
711
---253
-246
-220
55
778
-2

2,016
81
20
39
520
---252
-207
-261
60
559
-17

0.7%
0.5
0.2
0.5
0.9
---1.1
-0.7
-1.0
0.4
0.6
-0.1

0.6%
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.7
---1.1
-0.6
-1.1
0.4
0.4
-0.5

357
--188
35
4
0
0
20
29
-11
70
0

369
1
-186
46
1
4
0
14
15
1
20
81
0

0.2%
--0.1
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.2
0.5
-0.2
0.4
0

0.2%
‡
-0.1
0.3
‡
0.1
0
0.1
0
‡
0.5
0.5
0

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
Californiac
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

--Not reported.
‡Less than .05%.
a
Percents exclude jurisdictions that did not report type of HIV infection.
b
Includes estimates of the number of inmates with confirmed AIDS for
Arizona, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi,
Missouri, Oklahoma, Virginia, and Wisconsin in 2002 and 2003, for
Maine in 2002, and for Alaska and Oregon in 2003. Estimates were
based on the most recent data.
c
The number of confirmed AIDS cases in California was estimated by
applying the 2002 percentage to the 2003 estimate of HIV positives.

Number of confirmed AIDS cases
Year
Estimateda
Reportedb
Comparablec
1998
6,809
6,282
5,864
1999
7,039
6,642
5,788
2000
6,295
5,696
5,093
2001
6,286
5,754
5,214
2002
5,643
4,898
4,571
2003
5,944
5,227
4,956
a
In States not reporting confirmed AIDS, estimates were made by
applying the percent breakdown by type of HIV infection from the
most recent year when data were provided.
b
Excludes 7 States in 1998, 5 in 1999, 8 in 2000, 6 in 2001, 12 in
2002, and 13 in 2003.
c
The Federal system and 33 States reported data in all 6 years.

Confirmed AIDS cases made up 0.5% of inmates in State
prisons and 0.4% of those in Federal prisons. Of those
known to be HIV-positive inmates, more than a fifth had
confirmed AIDS.

AIDS-related deaths in State prisons dropped
from 1995 to 2003
The number of State inmates who died of Pneumocystis
carinii pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma, or other AIDS-related
diseases peaked in 1995 and steadily decreased until
2001 (figure 2). According to data reported in the NPS-1,
the number of AIDS-related deaths (213) was slightly less
than that in 2002 (215). Overall, after 1995 the number
Rate of confirmed AIDS cases, comparing the general
population to State and Federal prisoners, 1991-2003
Number of cases
per 10,000
60

The States with the largest number of confirmed AIDS
cases were New York (800), Texas (778), and Florida
(711). Combined, these States held nearly half of all
confirmed AIDS cases in State prisons. The Federal system
held 626 inmates with confirmed AIDS. Eleven States
reported having fewer than 10 confirmed AIDS cases in
their prisons; 5 reported having none.
Rhode Island (1.5%) had the highest percentage of
confirmed AIDS, followed by Connecticut and New
York1
Figure
(both 1.2%). In 12 States confirmed AIDS cases comprised
0.1% or less of State inmates.
During 2003, 16 States reported a decrease in the number
of confirmed AIDS cases. Illinois, with a decrease of 73,
had the largest drop in the number of confirmed AIDS
cases, followed by New York and Connecticut (both down
60). Seventeen States and the Federal system reported an
increase in the number of confirmed AIDS cases, led by
Texas (up 219) and Florida (191).
Rate of confirmed AIDS 3 times higher among prison
inmates than in the U.S. general population
In every year since 1991, the rate of confirmed AIDS has
been higher among prison inmates than in the general
population (figure 1). At yearend 2003 the rate of confirmed AIDS in State and Federal prisons was more than
3 times higher than in the total U.S. population. About 51
in every 10,000 prison inmates had confirmed AIDS,
compared to 15 in 10,000 persons in the U.S. general
population.
Percent of population with confirmed AIDS
Year
U.S. general population
State and Federal prisoners
1998
0.11%
0.53%
1999
0.12
0.60
2000
0.13
0.53
2001
0.14
0.52
2002
0.14
0.48
2003
0.15
0.51
Note: The percent of the general population with confirmed AIDS in
each year may be over-estimated due to delays in death reports.
See Methodology for source of data.

Prisoners

40

20

General population
0
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03

Note: The shaded area covers the period prior to the 1993 expansion of the classification system for HIV infection and the case
definition for AIDS. This expansion improved estimates of the
number and the characteristics of persons with HIV disease, but
complicated interpretation of AIDS trends. The increase in
reported AIDS cases in 1993 was largely the consequence of the
added surveillance criteria. See Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Vol. 43, No.
45, November 18,1994.

Figure 1

Rate of State prison inmate death, by cause, 1991-2003
Number of deaths per
100,000 State prison inmates
400

All causes
300

200

Illness

100

Other causes

AIDS

0
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03

Figure 2

HIV in Prisons, 2003 5

Table 4. Inmate deaths in State prisons,
by cause, 1995 and 2003

Table 5. Inmate deaths in Federal prisons,
by cause, 2002 and 2003

Deaths of State inmates
Rate per 100,000
Number
inmates*
Cause of death
2003
1995
2003
1995
Total
3,230
3,133
250
311
Natural causes other than AIDS 2,417
1,569
187
156
AIDS
213
1,010
16
100
Suicide
195
160
15
16
Accident
28
48
2
5
Execution
64
56
5
6
By another person
42
86
3
9
271
204
21
20
Other/unspecified

Deaths of Federal inmates
Rate per 100,000
Number
inmates*
Cause of death
2003
2002
2003
2002
Total
347
335
204 207
Natural causes other than AIDS
315
289
185 179
AIDS
14
17
8
11
Suicide
6
17
4
11
Accident
4
5
2
3
Execution
1
0
1
0
By another person
5
3
3
2
Other/unspecified
2
4
1
2

*Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

*Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

of AIDS-related deaths was down 797
from 1,010 in 1995 to 213 in 2003
(table 4).
Among Federal inmates 14 died from
AIDS-related causes, down from 17 in
2002 (table 5). In 2003 for every
100,000 inmates, 8 died from AIDSrelated causes. These AIDS-related
deaths accounted for 4% of all deaths
in Federal prison.
The introduction of protease inhibitors
and combination antiretroviral therapies
produced a substantial improvement in
the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS care.
See Hammett and Harmon, “Medical
Treatment and a Continuum of Care” in
1996-1997 Update: HIV/AIDS, STDs
and TB in Correctional Facilities (July
1999, NCJ 176344).
DCRP identifies more States with
AIDS-related deaths in State prisons
Pursuant to the Death in Custody
Reporting Act of 2000, BJS began in
2001 to collect individual-level information about deaths in State prisons
(DCRP). Overall, 12 States underreported AIDS-related deaths in the
NPS-1 collection, while 11 States
under-reported AIDS-related deaths
in DCRP.
For a total of AIDS-related deaths in
prisons, DCRP and NPS-1 data were
combined (table 6). The most complete
data for each State’s number of deaths
were used to calculate the totals for
2001, 2002, and 2003. An additional 55
AIDS-related deaths were identified in
2003, 68 in 2002, and 55 in 2001.
Adjusted for under-reporting, the
6 HIV in Prisons, 2003

number of AIDS-related deaths in 2003
was 21 per 100,000 State prison
inmates, down from 22 in 2002.
AIDS-related deaths in State prisons
Number
Rate per
Reported
100,000
Year
in NPS-1 Total*
inmates
1995
1,010
-100
1996
907
-90
1997
538
-48
1998
350
-30
1999
242
-20
2000
185
-15
2001
256
311
25
2002
215
283
22
2003
213
268
21
*Total number of deaths for 2001-2003 are
based on a combination of NPS-1 and DCRP
data.

For the general population the percentage of deaths due to AIDS increased in
2001 but declined in 2002. In 2002 the
percentage of deaths due to AIDS was
more than 2 times higher in the prison
population than in the U.S. general
population ages 15-54. About 1 in
every 11 prisoner deaths were attributable to AIDS-related causes compared
to 1 in 23 deaths in the general
population.
AIDS-related deaths as
a percent of all deaths
U.S. general
population age
State
15-54b
prisonersa
Yearend
1995
34.2%
13.1%
1996
30.8
10.1
1997
18.9
5.8
1998
13.3
5.4
1999
11.2
4.3
2000
8.4
3.9
2001
10.3
4.5
2002
9.1
4.4
2003
8.0
--- Not available.
a
Percents are based on the number of inmate
deaths, excluding those in jurisdictions not
reporting AIDS-related deaths.
b
See Methodology for source of data.

About 1 in 12 deaths in State
prisons due to AIDS-related
illnesses
In 2003 for every 100,000 State
inmates, 21 died from AIDS-related
causes. The most AIDS deaths were
reported in the South (157), followed by
the Northeast (63). Together, these two
regions accounted for more than 8 out
of 10 AIDS-related deaths in State
prisons.
Florida reported the largest number of
AIDS-related deaths (42), followed by
New York and Texas (27). Eighteen
States reported having no AIDS-related
deaths.
Relative to the number of inmates,
Delaware had the highest rate of AIDSrelated deaths (87 per 100,000
inmates), followed by Maryland (54 per
100,000), Florida (52 per 100,000), and
Vermont (50 per 100,000).
AIDS-related deaths reported
in DCRP show variations by gender,
race/Hispanic origin, and age
Of the 210 reported inmate deaths due
to AIDS-related causes in 2003, 202
were deaths of males, and 8 were
deaths of females (table 7). Inmates
between ages 35 and 44 accounted for
almost half of all AIDS-related deaths
(97). AIDS-related deaths among black
inmates (146) accounted for more than
two-thirds of all AIDS-related deaths.
Relative to the total number of inmates
under State jurisdiction at midyear
2003, males (18 deaths per 100,000)
were nearly twice as likely as females

Table 6. Deaths of State prisoners, 2003
Prisoner deaths reported
In the DCRPa
In NPS-1
Jurisdiction
Total

AIDSTotal related

Total

AIDSrelated

b

Total deaths
All causes
AIDS-related
Rate per
Rate per
100,000
100,000
Number inmates Number inmates

3,230

213

3,168

210

3,344

258

268

21

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

500
36
3
30
6
63
200
147
9
6

50
8
0
0
0
10
15
17
0
0

492
36
2
30
6
60
198
147
8
5

36
0
0
0
0
7
27
1
0
1

500
36
3
30
6
63
200
147
9
6

284
175
149
285
242
223
303
363
252
302

63
8
0
0
0
10
27
17
0
1

36
39
0
0
0
35
41
42
0
50

Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

567
81
60
13
32
132
14
68
7
1
106
12
41

24
12
1
-1
1
0
1
0
0
8
-0

538
80
56
13
32
127
13
66
7
1
91
11
41

20
11
2
0
1
3
0
1
1
0
0
0
1

567
81
60
13
32
132
14
68
7
1
106
12
41

229
188
266
155
355
267
184
222
171
86
231
392
183

29
12
2
0
1
3
0
1
1
0
8
0
1

12
28
9
0
11
6
0
3
24
0
17
0
4

1,591
100
39
7
224
139
77
87
67
2
76
96
61
98
407
96
15

120
8
1
0
42
18
4
-7
-3
2
3
6
23
3
0

1,533
92
39
19
221
126
45
70
67
58
74
71
63
97
383
93
15

139
4
3
6
38
11
1
12
13
4
4
2
3
6
27
5
0

1,661
100
39
19
224
139
77
87
67
58
76
96
63
98
407
96
15

284
352
315
276
279
296
470
241
277
282
228
417
260
386
243
276
319

157
8
3
6
42
18
4
12
13
4
4
2
3
6
27
5
0

27
28
24
87
52
38
24
33
54
19
12
9
12
24
16
14
0

572
5
86
313
51
8
13
13
-11
25
11
34
2

19
0
3
13
2
0
-0
-0
0
0
1
0

605
4
84
333
47
8
12
12
24
11
25
10
33
2

15
0
1
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

616
5
86
333
51
8
13
13
24
11
25
11
34
2

216
113
280
204
267
142
223
378
228
179
201
196
209
111

19
0
3
13
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

7
0
10
8
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

--Not reported.
a
The 2003 AIDS-related death counts are based on individual reports submitted to the DCRP.
b
Data from the NPS-1 and DCRP were combined to provide the number of total deaths in each
State. The most complete data for each State were used to calculate a total for each State.

(10 per 100,000) to die from AIDSrelated causes. Black inmates (27 per
100,000) were about 3½ times more
likely than whites (8 per 100,000) and
almost 2½ times more likely than

Hispanics (12 per 100,000) to die from
AIDS-related causes. Inmates age 45
or older had the highest rates of AIDSrelated death (36 per 100,000), 4 times

Table 7. Profile of inmates who died
in State prisons, 2002 and 2003

Characteristic
State total
In DCRP

AIDS-related deaths
Per 100,000
Number
inmates
2003 2002
2003 2002
268 283
21 22
210 245
17 20

Gender
Male
Female

202
8

236
9

18
10

21
11

Age
24 or younger
25-34
35-44
45 or older

1
38
97
74

0
28
119
98

0
9
26
36

0
6
34
64

Race/Hispanic
origin
White
Black
Hispanic

36
146
25

50
163
30

8
27
12

12
30
15

Note: The AIDS-related death counts by
gender, age, race, and Hispanic origin are
based on individual reports submitted to the
DCRP. See Methodology.

the rate among those age 25 to 34 (9
per 100,000).
Methodology

National Prisoner Statistics
The National Prisoner Statistics series
(NPS-1) includes yearend counts of
prisoners by jurisdiction, gender, race,
Hispanic origin, and admissions and
releases during the year. The series
consists of reports from the departments of corrections of the 50 States
and the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
Since 1991 respondents have indicated
the circumstances under which
inmates are tested for HIV and have
provided the number of HIV-infected
inmates in their custody.

AIDS in the U.S. resident population
The number of persons with confirmed
AIDS in the U.S. general population
(age 13 and over) was derived from the
Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, yearend editions 19952001. For each year the number of
active AIDS cases in the United States
was calculated by subtracting the
number of cumulative AIDS deaths for
people age 15 or older at yearend from
the cumulative number of total AIDS
cases for people age 13 or older at

HIV in Prisons, 2003 7

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is
the statistical agency of the U.S.
Department of Justice. Lawrence
A. Greenfeld is director.

This report and others from the
Bureau of Justice Statistics are available through the Internet:
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

Laura M. Maruschak wrote this
report, under the supervision of Allen
J. Beck. Todd D. Minton provided
statistical review. Tom Hester and
Tina Dorsey edited the report. Jayne
Robinson prepared the report for
publication.

Get immediate e-mail notification of
BJS releases from JUSTSTATS.
Subscribe at <http://www.ojp.
usdoj.gov/bjs/juststats.htm>.

AIDS-related deaths in the
United States

September 2005, NCJ 210344
yearend as listed in the HIV/AIDS
Surveillance Report.
The rate of confirmed AIDS cases in
the U.S. resident population was calculated by dividing the annual totals for
individuals with AIDS by the population
estimates for the U.S. resident population of individuals 13 or older prior to
2000 and 15 or older for 2000 and
beyond.

8 HIV in Prisons, 2003

The number of AIDS-related deaths for
persons age 15-54 was derived from
the CDC, HIV/AIDS Surveillance
Report, yearend editions. Deaths in
the U.S. population for persons age
15-54 were taken from the CDC,
Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 42,
No. 2(S); Vol. 43, No. 12; Vol. 43, No.
6(S); Vol. 45, No. 3(S); and Vol. 45,
No. 11(S); and from CDC, National
Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 47, No. 9;
Vol. 47, No. 25; Vol. 48, No. 11; Vol.
49, No. 8; and Vol. 50, No. 15.

AIDS-related deaths as a percentage
of all deaths in the U.S. population
were calculated by dividing the national
estimate of AIDS deaths of persons
age 15-54 by the national mortality
estimates of persons age 15-54 in a
given year.

BJS Deaths in Custody Reporting
Program
To implement the Death in Custody
Reporting Act of 2000 (PL 106-297),
BJS developed four quarterly data
collections of death records: local jails
(begun in 2000), State prisons (2001),
State juvenile correctional agencies
(2002), and State and local law
enforcement agencies (2003). Records
include data on the deceased’s characteristics (such as age, gender, and
race/ Hispanic origin), criminal
background (such as legal status,
offenses, and time in custody), and the
death itself (such as cause, time,
location, and medical conditions and
treatment).

 

 

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