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U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Bulletin
June 2008, NCJ 221945

Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007
William J. Sabol, Ph.D.
and Todd D. Minton
BJS Statisticians
On June 29, 2007, the number of inmates held in local jails
reached 780,581, an increase of 1.9% (or 14,571 inmates)
since June 30, 2006 (figure 1). Between 2000 and 2007 the
number of inmates confined in the nation's jails increased
at an average annual rate of 3.3%. With the exception of
2005, the rate of growth in the jail inmate population has
declined every year since 2002. Growth slowed from 2.5%
in 2006 to 1.9% in 2007. The rate of growth in the 12
months ending June 29, 2007 was the smallest annual
growth rate in the jail population since 2001 and the second
smallest since 1981.
The midyear count of inmates does not fully represent the
total jail population throughout the year. Jail populations
rise (admissions) and fall (releases) day-to-day. These
fluctuations are taken into account in the average daily
population. From midyear 2006 to midyear 2007, the average daily jail population increased 2.4%, from 755,896 to
773,800 (appendix table 4). From midyear 2006 to midyear
2007, the rate of growth slowed for both the average daily
jail population and the count of jail inmates.
Jail capacity and population increase at the same rate
during 2007
The total rated capacity of local jails at midyear 2007
reached 813,502 beds, up from an estimated 677,787 beds
at midyear 2000 (figure 2). This was an average increase
of 2.6% per year. Rated capacity is the maximum number
of beds or inmates allocated to each jail facility by a state or
local rating official.
Local jail officials added jail capacity at a rate about equal
to the growth in the number of inmates confined at midyear.
During the 12-month period ending June 29, 2007, the jail
inmate population and rated capacity of the nation's jails
both increased 1.9%. In absolute numbers, inmates
increased by 14,571 and beds by an estimated 15,502.
At midyear 2007, local jails operated at 96% of rated
capacity, up from 90% at midyear 2001.

Inmates confined in local jails at midyear, 2000-2007
Annual percent
change
6%

Number of inmates
800,000
J
700,000

5%

Annual
percent
change

J
4%

J
J

600,000

3%

J

J
J

2%

J

500,000

1%
400,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

0%

12 months ending June 30
Figure 1

Rated capacity of local jails and percent of capacity
occupied, 2000-2007
Rated capacity
825,000
J

J

J

J
J
Percent
occupied

Percent of capacity
occupied
100%
J
J
J
75%

725,000
50%
625,000
25%

525,000

0%

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Rate capacity was estimated using the Annual Survey
of Jails, except in 2005 when a census was conducted.
Figure 2

Detailed information is available in appendix tables in the online version
of this report on the BJS Website at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/
pdf/jim07.pdf>.

Local jails admitted about 13 million persons during
the 12 months ending June 29, 2007
The jail population at midyear 2007 represented a comparatively small percentage of all admissions reported over the
12-month period. Local jails admitted an estimated 13 million persons during the 12 months ending June 29, 2007,
or about 17 times the size of the inmate population
(780,581) at midyear.* In 1999, there were an estimated
11.4 million admissions during the 12 months ending June
30, about 19 times the size of the June 30 population of
605,943 inmates. An estimated 9.8 million inmates were
admitted to local jails during the 12 months ending June
30,1993, about 21 times the number of inmates held in the
nation's jails (459,804) at midyear.
Number of small jail jurisdictions declined; large jail
jurisdictions increased
Based on data from the 1999 Census of Jails and the 2005
Census of Jail Inmates, the number of jail jurisdictions
nationwide declined by 123, from 2,999 to 2,876 jurisdictions (table 1). Jurisdictions reporting an average daily jail
population of 50 or fewer inmates (small jails) decreased by
371, from 1,518 to 1,147. These jail jurisdictions accounted
for all of the decline in the number of jurisdictions during
this period. Over two-thirds (248) of the small jail jurisdictions grew into a larger size category, and the remaining
123 closed between 1999 and 2005. The number of jurisdictions in all other size categories (measured by the average daily population) increased during the period.
Based on the number of large jail jurisdictions in the 2005
Census of Jail Inmates, a comparison of the same 159 jail
jurisdictions was conducted for the 1999 Census of Jails.
A total of 120 of the 158 (one jurisdiction was not in the
1999 Census) jail jurisdictions met the definition of a large
jail jurisdiction in both 1999 and 2005 (table 2).
_______
*
See Methodology for methods used to estimate admissions. See 1999
Census of Jails (NCJ 186633) and Jail and Jail Inmates 1993-94, BJS
Bulletin (NCJ 151651) for data used to estimate admissions.

Admissions to large jail jurisdictions fluctuated
throughout the year
In 2004 BJS conducted the Survey of Large Jails (SLJ), an
addendum to the Annual Survey of Jails. The survey gathered, among other items, monthly admissions in 146 jurisdictions with average daily populations of 1,000 or more
inmates in 2004. Based on 129 complete responses for
admission data, these large jurisdictions reported an average daily population of 285,452 inmates. They reported
nearly 4.5 million admissions to their facilities from January 2003 to January 2004 (figure 3). Monthly admissions
fluctuated from a low of 308,582 in February 2003 to a
high of 357,259 in August 2003. (See Methodology for
additional information on the Survey of Large Jails.)

Table 1. Number of jail jurisdictions, midyear 1999 and 2005

Jurisdiction size*
Total
Fewer than 50
inmates
50 to 99
100 to 249
250 to 499
500 to 999
1,000 or more

Percent of jail
jurisdictions
1999
2005

2,999

2,876

-123

100.0%

100.0%

1,518
547
471
212
128
123

1,147
559
564
286
161
159

-371
12
93
74
33
36

50.6%
18.2
15.7
7.1
4.3
4.1

39.9%
19.4
19.6
9.9
5.6
5.5

*Based on the average daily population.

Table 2. Change in number of jail jurisdictions reporting
an average daily population of 1,000 or more inmates,
1999 and 2005

Jurisdiction sizea
Jail jurisdictions with
1,000 or more
inmates in —
2005b
1999 and 2005
Differencec
aBased

Jail jurisdictions with 1,000 or more inmatesa
Change in inmate
Number of inmates population, 1999
and 2005
Number of on June 30
jurisdictions
1999
2005
Number Percent

158
120
38

325,322 375,854
299,618 331,822
25,704 44,032

50,532
32,204
18,328

15.5%
10.7
71.3

on the average daily population.

b

Excludes the Louisville Metro Department of Corrections in Kentucky
which opened after the 1999 Census of Jails.

cFacilities

that had less than 1,000 inmates in 1999.

These jurisdictions accounted for the largest change in the
number of inmates (32,204). In comparison, 38 jail jurisdictions that had less than 1,000 inmates in 1999 moved into
the large category at midyear 2005. These jurisdictions
experienced the largest percent change in the inmate
population (71.3%).

Number of admissions in large jail jurisdictions
370,000
360,000
350,000
340,000
330,000
320,000
310,000
300,000

January
2003
Figure 3

2 Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007

Number of jail jurisdictions
1999
2005 Difference

April

July

October

January
2004

Jail population growth concentrated in large jails
At midyear 2007, jail jurisdictions (173) with an average
daily jail population of 1,000 or more inmates accounted for
about 6% of all jail jurisdictions and about 52% of the jail
inmate population (figure 4). In comparison, jail jurisdictions
with an average daily population of fewer than 50 inmates
accounted for nearly 40% of all jail jurisdictions and less
than 3% of the nation's jail population.

Number of jail inmates and jurisdictions, by size of jail
jurisdiction, midyear 2007

At midyear 2007, 96% of jail capacity was occupied
Larger jail jurisdictions generally had a higher percent of
capacity occupied than small jail jurisdictions at midyear
2007. Jurisdictions with an average daily population of 500
or more inmates were operating at about 99% of rated
capacity, compared to 65% of rated capacity for jail jurisdictions with average daily populations of fewer than 50
inmates.
Jurisdiction size*
Total
Fewer than 50 inmates
50 to 99
100 to 249
250 to 499
500 to 999
1,000 or more

Population at midyear 2007,
as a percent of capacity
96.0%
64.5
84.6
92.4
97.8
99.3
99.5

*Based on the average daily population.

About 29% of the nation’s jail population was held in
the 50 largest local jail jurisdictions at midyear
At midyear 2007, the 50 largest jail jurisdictions held about
29% (or 227,901 inmates) of the nation’s jail population
(table 5). Collectively, these jurisdictions had an average
daily population of 227,626 inmates and were operating at
about 94% of rated capacity at midyear 2007, unchanged
from midyear 2006.

400,000

J
1,000

350,000

800

Between midyear 2000 and midyear 2007, the number of
inmates held in local jails increased by nearly 26% (or
159,433 inmates), from 621,148 to 780,581 (table 3). The
number of inmates confined in large jail jurisdictions grew
by nearly 33% between midyear 2000 and 2007 and
accounted for 62% of the total growth in the jail population.
Inmates confined in jurisdictions with an average daily
population between 500 to 999 grew by nearly 31%. The
number of inmates held in small jail jurisdictions declined
by 23%.
More than 4 in 10 (43%) admissions during the last week of
June 2007 were to large jail jurisdictions (table 4). Small jail
jurisdictions holding fewer than 50 inmates accounted for
5.3% of all jail admissions. They experienced a higher turnover rate (110.5%) than large jail jurisdictions. The turnover
rate takes into account all admissions into and releases
from jails. Higher turnover rates mean relatively larger
numbers of admissions and releases relative to the size of
the average daily population.

Number of inmates,
midyear
450,000

Number of jurisdictions
1,200

300,000
250,000

600

Jail inmates

200,000

400

150,000

J
J

200

100,000

J

50,000

J
0

J

0
Fewer 50-99 100-249 250-499 500-999 1,000
or more
than 50
Size of jurisdiction by average daily population

Figure 4

Table 3. Number of inmates confined in local jails at midyear,
by size of jurisdiction, 2000 and 2007
Percent of all
inmates

Number of inmates
Jurisdiction
size*

2000

2007

Total
621,148 780,581
Fewer than 50
inmates
29,281 22,460
50 to 99
34,571 42,325
100 to 249
80,177 91,944
250 to 499
79,688 98,545
500 to 999
94,060 123,007
1,000 or more 303,371 402,300

Percent
Difference change

2000

2007

159,433

25.7%

100% 100%

-6,821
7,754
11,767
18,857
28,947
98,929

-23.3%
22.4
14.7
23.7
30.8
32.6

4.7% 2.9%
5.6
5.4
12.9 11.8
12.8 12.6
15.1 15.8
48.8 51.5

*Based on the average daily population.

Table 4. Admissions by size of jurisdiction for week ending
June 29, 2007

Jurisdiction size
Total
Fewer than 50
inmates
50 to 99
100 to 249
250 to 499
500 to 999
1,000 or more

a

Average daily
population

Estimated
number of
admissions

Turnover rateb

773,800

250,950

63.6%

22,065
42,001
91,537
97,172
120,715
400,310

13,291
19,400
37,421
35,888
35,873
109,077

110.5%
90.7
79.5
71.7
59.2
53.8

Note: See Methodology for details on estimation procedure.
a

Based on the average daily population.

b

The turnover rate was calculated by adding admissions and
releases, dividing by average daily population, and multiplying by
100.

Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007 3

Table 5. The 50 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of inmates held, average daily population,
and rated capacity, midyear 2005-07
Number of inmates helda
2005
2006
2007
Total
Los Angeles County, CA
New York City, NY
Cook County, IL
Harris County, TX

Average daily populationb
2005
2006
2007

Rated capacityc
2005
2006
2007

227,999 225,988 227,901 223,808 226,118 227,626 241,049 239,348 242,793
19,732
13,153
9,872
9,031

19,062 19,175
13,641 14,120
9,505
9,410
9,464
9,900

17,893
13,576
10,278
8,987

19,287
13,494
9,345
9,091

19,266
14,004
9,496
9,430

20,619
20,804
10,257
9,372

22,411 21,364
19,674 19,686
10,114 10,158
9,241 9,391

Percent of capacity at midyeard
2005
2006
2007
95%

94%

94%

96
63
96
96

85
69
94
102

90
72
93
105

Maricopa County, AZ
Philadelphia City, PA
Dade County, FL
Orange County, CA
Dallas County, TX
Broward County, FL
Shelby County, TN

9,584
7,769
6,558
6,493
7,392
5,618
5,273

9,243
8,725
6,502
6,455
7,354
6,121
5,413

9,466
8,607
6,835
6,841
6,261
5,782
5,741

9,054
7,701
6,736
6,067
7,250
5,497
5,071

9,733
8,772
6,765
6,513
7,140
5,949
5,300

8,941
8,448
6,844
6,571
6,389
6,051
5,570

7,270
7,118
8,052
5,782
7,665
6,254
6,641

7,270
7,269
7,821
7,019
7,145
6,254
6,839

7,270
8,685
7,821
7,019
7,145
6,452
6,811

132
109
81
112
96
90
79

127
120
83
92
103
98
79

130
99
87
97
88
90
84

San Bernardino County, CA
San Diego County, CA
Santa Clara County, CA
Sacramento County, CA
Alameda County, CA
Orange County, FL

5,753
5,186
4,789
3,985
4,083
3,735

5,533
5,117
4,421
4,197
3,993
4,051

5,647
5,133
4,748
4,361
3,978
4,180

5,618
5,244
4,472
4,190
4,028
3,803

5,735
5,333
4,750
4,049
3,982
3,835

5,457
5,172
4,852
4,592
4,282
4,146

5,258
4,768
4,129
4,751
4,185
4,352

5,914
4,768
4,169
4,991
4,469
4,352

5,914
4,778
4,169
4,775
4,505
4,721

109
109
116
84
98
86

94
107
106
84
89
93

95
107
114
91
88
89

Baltimore City, MD
Bexar County, TX
Hillsborough County, FL
Jacksonville City, FL
Pinellas County, FL
Clark County, NVe
Tarrant County, TX
Davidson County, TN
Riverside County, CA

3,490
4,109
4,729
3,580
3,600
3,173
3,393
3,246
3,188

4,038
4,084
3,929
3,613
3,695
3,354
3,475
3,450
3,264

4,182
4,088
3,894
3,581
3,510
3,237
3,341
3,641
3,492

3,999
3,862
4,637
3,447
3,600
3,205
3,345
3,122
3,237

4,156
4,015
4,384
3,493
3,502
3,384
3,500
3,202
3,258

4,126
4,067
3,955
3,725
3,644
3,583
3,500
3,445
3,433

4,522
4,294
4,190
3,137
3,119
2,857
4,044
3,679
2,882

4,522
4,294
4,190
3,137
3,363
2,859
4,564
3,679
2,884

4,522
4,294
4,190
3,137
3,353
2,860
4,564
3,679
3,129

77
96
113
114
115
111
84
88
111

89
95
94
115
110
117
76
94
113

92
95
93
114
105
113
73
99
112

District of Columbiaf
Fresno County, CA
Allegheny County, PA
Gwinnett County, GA
Fulton County, GA
Milwaukee County, WI
Palm Beach County, FL

3,552
2,836
2,856
3,016
3,202
2,738
2,771

3,214
3,467
3,026
2,998
2,816
2,917
2,766

3,103
3,294
3,113
3,142
2,899
3,139
2,854

3,540
3,006
2,815
2,709
3,126
2,809
2,782

3,584
3,538
3,370
2,716
2,970
2,892
2,630

3,325
3,094
3,076
3,033
2,936
2,905
2,882

3,825
3,820
3,307
2,076
2,725
3,000
3,365

3,825
3,778
3,342
2,076
3,115
3,000
3,365

3,825
3,778
3,341
3,538
3,115
3,000
3,345

93
74
86
145
118
91
82

84
92
91
144
90
97
82

81
87
93
89
93
105
85

Travis County, TX
Wayne County, MI
Orleans Parish, LA
Oklahoma County, OK
King County, WA
Mecklenburg County, NC

2,869
2,472
6,295
2,761
2,536
2,225

2,548
2,902
1,898
2,876
2,499
2,466

2,954
2,818
2,526
2,506
2,638
2,778

2,750
2,599
5,919
2,337
2,525
2,047

2,595
2,867
1,569
2,752
2,560
2,335

2,813
2,805
2,722
2,719
2,715
2,647

2,847
2,725
7,673
2,850
3,154
2,668

3,056
2,725
1,845
2,890
3,154
2,668

3,176
2,721
2,721
2,635
3,154
2,668

101
91
82
97
80
83

83
106
103
100
79
92

93
104
93
95
84
104

De Kalb County, GA
Franklin County, OH
Cobb County, GA
Bernalillo County, NM
Polk County, FL
Suffolk County, MA

3,030
2,726
2,422
2,169
2,877
2,160

2,779
2,553
2,540
2,410
2,565
2,531

2,772
2,408
2,591
2,635
2,454
2,407

2,810
2,701
2,431
2,157
2,871
2,576

3,117
2,561
2,510
2,292
2,605
2,387

2,619
2,592
2,561
2,497
2,464
2,426

3,636
2,659
2,559
2,048
1,808
2,932

3,636
2,531
2,559
2,048
1,808
2,932

3,636
2,541
2,559
2,236
1,808
2,858

83
103
95
106
159
74

76
101
99
118
142
86

76
95
101
118
136
84

Marion County, IN
2,717
3,114
2,501
2,407
3,064
2,425
2,463
2,463 2,412
110
126
104
Denver County, CO
2,368
2,429
2,371
2,256
2,469
2,417
1,672
1,710 1,710
142
142
139
Hamilton County, OH
2,333
2,393
2,244
2,319
2,347
2,351
2,472
2,472 2,486
94
97
90
Kern County, CA
2,263
2,279
2,279
2,212
2,279
2,338
2,324
2,698 2,698
97
84
84
El Paso County, TX
2,291
2,303
2,324
2,185
2,142
2,275
2,440
2,440 2,440
94
94
95
Note: Jurisdictions are ordered by average daily population in 2007.
a
Number of inmates held in jail facilities.
b
Based on the average daily population for the year ending June 30. The average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates
in jail each day for a year, divided by the number of days in the year.
c
Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction.
d
The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity multiplied by 100.
e
The confined population total for Clark County, NV, excludes inmates held in contract facilities.
fIncludes offenders held in the D.C. Detention Facility, community corrections center, and contract housing under the Department of Corrections.

4 Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007

Characteristics of jail inmates at midyear 2007
• Since midyear 2000, the percentages of men and women
in local jails has remained relatively unchanged (table 6).
• The number of women in local jails reached 100,047 in
2007, up from 70,414 in 2000 (appendix table 4).
• Nearly 6 in 10 offenders in local jails were racial or ethnic
minorities at midyear 2007. An estimated 301,900 were
black and 125,600 were Hispanic or Latino.
• The percentages of whites and blacks confined in jail
remained relatively unchanged since midyear 2006; the
Hispanic or Latino population grew from 15.6% at midyear
2006 to 16.1% of all inmates midyear 2007.
• At midyear 2007, 62% of inmates had not been convicted
or were awaiting trial, up from 56% in 2000.

Jail inmates who were non-U.S. citizens or held for U.S.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
• Most jail jurisdictions (84%) reported whether the jail population included non-U.S. citizens (table 7).
• Based on jurisdictions that reported housing non-U.S.
citizens, non-U.S. citizens accounted for nearly 8% of the
jail population at midyear 2007, up from 7% in 2006 and
5.4% in 1999.
• The majority of jail jurisdictions were able to report
whether inmates were being held for U.S Immigration and
Customs Enforcement (table 8).
• The percentage (2.2%) of inmates held for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement at midyear 2007 has
remained relatively unchanged since 2002.

• At midyear 2007, the jail incarceration rate was 259
inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents, up from 226 per
100,000 residents in 2000 (appendix table 4).
Table 6. Characteristics of inmates in local jails at midyear
2000 and 2005-2007
Characteristic

2000

Percent of jail inmates
2005
2006

Year

Number of
reporting
jurisdictions

Total number
of inmates

1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

2,804
2,775
2,693
2,747
2,718
2,737
2,513
2,393
2,416

450,693
455,590
444,430
453,641
511,957
536,862
516,199
477,253
504,360

2007

Gender
Male
Female

88.6%
11.4

87.3%
12.7

87.1%
12.9

87.1%
12.9

Age
Adult
Male
Female
Juvenilea
Held as adultsb
Held as juveniles

98.8%
87.4
11.3
1.2
1.0
0.2

99.1%
86.5
12.6
0.9
0.8
0.1

99.2%
86.3
12.9
0.8
0.6
0.2

99.1%
86.3
12.8
0.9
0.7
0.2

Race/Hispanic originc
Whited
Black/African Americand
Hispanic/Latino
Otherd,e
Two or more racesd

41.9%
41.3
15.2
1.6
...

44.3%
38.9
15.0
1.7
0.1

43.9%
38.6
15.6
1.8
0.1

43.3%
38.7
16.1
1.8
0.1

Conviction status
Convicted
Male
Female
Unconvicted
Male
Female

Table 7. Inmate population in jurisdictions reporting on the
number of confined non-U.S. citizens, midyear 1999-2007

38.0%
33.2
4.9
62.0%
54.2
7.7

37.9%
32.8
5.0
62.1%
54.3
7.8

38.0%
32.9
5.2
62.0%
54.3
7.7

24,122
27,680
27,147
32,067
33,392
35,984
30,082
33,428
38,842

5.4%
6.1
6.1
7.1
6.5
6.7
5.8
7.0
7.7

Table 8. Inmate population in jurisdictions reporting on
confined person being held for U.S. Immigration and
Customs Enforcement, midyear 2002-2007

Year
44.0%
38.2
6.7
56.0%
48.9
8.1

Non-U.S.citizens
Number
Percent

2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

Number of
reporting
Total number Confined persons held for ICE
jurisdictions of inmates
Number
Percent
2,961
2,940
2,961
2,824
2,784
2,713

626,870
637,631
668,543
703,084
698,299
686,189

12,501
13,337
14,034
11,919
13,598
15,063

2.0%
2.1
2.1
1.7
1.9
2.2

Note: See appendix table 4 for estimated number of jail inmates.
...Not collected.
a

Persons under age 18 at midyear.

b

Includes juveniles who were tried or awaiting trial as adults.

c

Estimates based on reported data and adjusted for nonresponses.

dExcludes

persons of Hispanic or Latino origin.

e

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007 5

Methodology
Annual Survey of Jails
In each year between the years that BJS conducts a complete census of local jails, BJS conducts the Annual Survey
of Jails (ASJ). ASJ is a sample survey of local jails used to
estimate the number and characteristics of local inmates
nationwide. For the 2007 ASJ, the U.S. Census Bureau, as
the collection agent, drew a sample of 874 jurisdictions and
936 jail facilities. Local jail jurisdictions included counties
(parishes in Louisiana) or municipal governments that
administer one or more local jails.
The 2007 ASJ sample included all jails with certainty (63)
that were operated jointly by two or more jurisdictions, or
multi-jurisdictional jails. Other jail jurisdictions included with
certainty (269) were those that—
• held juvenile inmates at the time of the 2005 Census of
Jail Inmates and had an average daily population of 500
or more inmates during the 12 months ending June 30,
2005
• held only adult inmates and had an average daily population of 750 or more.
The remaining jurisdictions were stratified into two groups:
jurisdictions with jails holding at least one juvenile on June
30, 2005, and jails holding only adults on that date. Using
stratified random sampling, 542 jurisdictions were selected
from 8 strata based on the two conditions enumerated
above and 4 strata based on the average daily jail inmate
population during 2005. The average daily jail inmate population was derived from the 2005 Census of Jail Inmates.
Data were obtained from sampled jurisdictions by mail-out
and web-based survey questionnaires. After follow-up
phone calls to respondents, the response rate for the survey was 100% for critical items, such as the number of
inmates confined, average daily population, and rated
capacity. (See appendix tables 6, 7 and 8 for standard
errors associated with reported estimates from the ASJ
2007 at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/jim07.pdf>.)
Survey of Large Jails
In 2003 BJS worked with the National Institute of Correction’s Large Jail Network to identify the areas where additional data were needed to guide decision-making on jail
policies and programs. As a result of this collaboration, BJS
developed the 2004 Survey of Large Jails (SLJ), an addendum to the Annual Survey of Jails that gathered information
from jail jurisdictions with an average daily population of
1,000 or more inmates or a rated capacity of 1,000 or more
beds.

6 Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007

The survey focused on critical issues related to jail operations and inmate management, information on offender
flows through local jails, corresponding workloads, and jail
programs and treatment. Specifically, the survey measured
the number of jail admissions, including conviction status,
most serious offenses, and screening at intake for mental
health disorders, risk of suicide, and drug use. It also
included questions on the number of inmates participating in
counseling and special programs, number of inmates discharged, types of releases, and lengths of stay.
Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires. Through
follow-up phone calls and facsimiles, 131 of the 146 jail
jurisdictions (90%) responded.
Weekly admission and release estimation procedures
Based on the 2007 ASJ, 830 of the 936 jail facilities (89%)
provided valid data on weekly admissions and releases.
Because there were nonresponse and incomplete data on
admissions and releases, data on offender flows through
local jails were estimated for 106 jail facilities to calculate a
weekly estimate. Estimates were based on two criteria:
• Data for 73 jail facilities included admission and release
data based on the response to the 2006 Annual Survey
of Jails.
• Data for 33 jail facilities were based on the average
number of admissions and releases for the average daily
population category in which the facility was grouped.
Calculating annual admissions
Based on findings from the 2004 Survey of Large Jails
(SLJ), BJS determined that the June admission data were
a reliable source to calculate a nationwide annual admission estimate. Although the number of admissions to jails
fluctuated throughout the year, the SLJ tracked monthly
movements from January 2003 to January 2004 and determined that the June 2003 count (339,500) closely matched
the annual average number of admissions (342,956).
The number of annual admissions was calculated by multiplying the weekly admissions by the sum of 365 days
divided by 7 days.
Calculating weekly turnover rates
Weekly jail turnover rates were modeled after the Bureau of
Labor Statistics’ Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.
Additional information on turnover rates is available at
<http://www.bls.gov/jlt/>. Jail turnover rates were calculated
by adding admissions and releases and dividing by the
average daily population. The turnover rate takes into
account admissions into and releases from jails and gives
an indication of the volatility of the jail population. Higher
turnover rates mean relatively larger numbers of admissions and releases relative to the size of the average daily
population.

BJS

For electronic versions of this report,
visit the BJS website
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs
To order paper copies of this or other BJS reports —
• Visit
http://www.ncjrs.gov/app/publications/bjspubs.aspx
• Call 1-800-851-3420
Download datasets and documentation from
the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data —
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/index.html

Keep current on criminal justice issues
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Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007 7

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

*NCJ~221945*

PRESORTED STANDARD
POSTAGE & FEES PAID
DOJ/BJS
Permit No. G-91

Washington, DC 20531

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

This report in portable document format
(includes 8 appendix tables) and in ASCII and its
related statistical data are available at the BJS
World Wide Web Internet site: <http://www.
ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/jim07.htm>

Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical
agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Jeffrey L.
Sedgwick is the director.
BJS Bulletins present the first release of findings from
permanent data collection programs.
This Bulletin was written by William J. Sabol, Ph.D.,
and Todd D. Minton. Heather Couture verified the
report.
Lisa A. McNelis carried out the data collection and
processing with assistance provided by Elizabeth
Aguilar, Nicole Adolph, Andrea Arroyo, Adam Bacon,
Greta Clark, Shannon Clerkin-James, and Garry
Smith under the supervision of Charlene M. Sebold,
Governments Division, Census Bureau,
U.S. Department of Commerce. Duane H. Cavanaugh
and Diron J. Gaskins provided technical assistance.
Georgette Walsh edited the report, Tina Dorsey
produced the report, and Jayne Robinson prepared
the report for final printing under the supervision of
Doris J. James.
June 2008, NCJ 221945

8 Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007

Appendix table 1. Number of jail jurisdictions, midyear 1999-2007
Jurisdiction size*

1999

2000

Number of jail jurisdictions, midyear
2001
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Total
2,999 3,001 3,002
Fewer than 50
inmates
1,518 1,512 1,479
50 to 99
547
499
509
100 to 249
471
512
523
250 to 499
212
224
231
500 to 999
128
131
137
1,000 or more
123
123
123
*Based on the average daily population.

2007

3,001

3,003 3,003 2,876 2,861 2,860

1,387
535
554
255
141
129

1,369 1,331 1,147 1,130 1,097
546
526
559 548
583
547
566
564 561
558
259
294
286 281
272
144
135
161 180
177
138
151
159 161
173

Appendix table 2. Number of inmates confined in local jails,
by size of jurisdiction, midyear 1999-2007
Jurisdiction size*
Total
Fewer than 50
inmates
50 to 99
100 to 249
250 to 499
500 to 999
1,000 or more

1999

Number of inmates, midyear
2002
2003
2004

2000

2001

2005

2006

2007

605,943 621,149

631,240

665,475

691,301 713,990 747,529 766,010 780,581

29,965 29,281
38,838 34,571
73,120 80,177
72,928 79,688
87,386 94,060
303,706 303,371

30,166
37,179
81,453
82,228
97,716
302,499

26,510
38,042
87,334
92,532
104,784
316,274

26,730
25,162 22,688
22,414 22,460
39,947
37,239 40,835
40,208 42,325
88,229
90,727 90,369
93,520 91,944
93,595 106,911 102,249 100,599 98,545
106,436
98,362 113,633 126,092 123,007
336,364 355,590 377,755 383,177 402,300

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
*Based on the average daily population.

Appendix table 3. Rated capacity of local jails and percent
of capacity occupied, 1995-2007
Year

Rated
capacitya

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006d
2007

545,763
562,971
586,564
612,780
652,321
677,787
699,309
713,899
736,471
755,603
789,001
798,000
813,502

Average annual
increase,
1995-2007
2000-2007

3.4%
2.6

Amount of
Percent of capacity
capacity addedb occupiedc
17,208
23,593
26,216
39,541
25,466
21,522
14,590
22,572
19,132
33,398
8,999
15,502

93%
92
97
97
93
92
90
93
94
94
95
96
96

22,312
19,388

Note: Capacity data for 1995-1998, 2000-2004, and 2006-2007 were
survey estimates subject to sampling error.
a

Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating
official to facilities within each jurisdiction.

b

The number of beds added during the 12 months ending midyear of
each year.

c

The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity and multiplied
by 100.

d

Based on revised data for 2006.

Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007 9

Appendix table 4. Characteristics of inmates in local jails,
midyear 2000 and 2005-2007
Characteristic

2000
a

Number of inmates
2005
2006

2007

Average daily population
Number of inmates at midyear
Jail incarceration rateb

618,319 733,442 755,896 773,800
621,149 747,529 766,010 780,581
226
252
256
259

Gender
Male
Female

550,162 652,958 666,985 680,009
70,987
94,571
99,025 100,572

Age
Adults
Males
Female

613,534 740,770 759,906 773,744
543,120 646,807 661,329 673,697
70,414
93,963
98,577 100,047

Juvenilesc
Held as adultsd
Held as juveniles

7,615
6,126
1,489

6,759
5,750
1,009

6,104
4,836
1,268

6,837
5,652
1,185

Race/Hispanic
Whitef
Black/African Americanf
Hispanic/Latino
Otherf,g
Two or more racesf

260,500 331,000 336,600 338,400
256,300 290,500 296,000 301,900
94,100 111,900 119,200 125,600
10,200
13,000
13,500
13,900
...
1,000
700
800

Conviction statuse
Convicted
Male
Female
Unconvicted
Male
Female

270,000
234,200
41,300
343,600
300,300
49,600

284,400
248,100
36,300
463,100
405,300
57,900

290,100
251,600
38,500
475,900
415,900
60,000

296,900
256,500
40,400
483,700
423,800
59,900

...Not collected.
aAverage

daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in jail
each on each day for a year divided by the total number of days in a
year.

c

of inmates per 100,000 U.S. resident population.

Juveniles are persons under the age of 18 at midyear.

dIncludes

juveniles who were tried or awaiting trial as adults.

eEstimates
fExcludes

Confinement status
and type of program
Total
Held in jail
Supervised outside
of a jail facilitya
Weekender programs
Electronic monitoring
Home detentionb
Day reporting
Community service
Other pretrial supervision
Other work programsc
Treatment programsd
Other
aExcludes
b

origine

bNumber

Appendix table 5. Persons under jail supervision,
by confinement status and type of program,
midyear 2000, 2006, and 2007

based on reported data adjusted for nonresponse.

persons of Hispanic or Latino origin.

g

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians,
and other Pacific Islanders

10 Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007

Number of persons under jail supervision
2000
2006
2007
687,033
621,149

826,232
766,010

848,826
780,581

65,884
14,523
10,782
332
3,969
13,592
6,279
8,011
5,714
2,682

60,222
11,421
10,999
807
4,841
14,667
6,409
8,319
1,486
1,273

68,245
10,473
13,121
512
6,163
15,327
11,148
7,369
2,276
1,857

persons supervised by a probation or parole agency.

Includes only those without electronic monitoring.

c
Includes persons in work release programs, work gangs, and other
work alternative programs.
dIncludes

persons under drug, alcohol, mental health, and other
medical treatment.

Appendix table 6. Estimated standard errors by
confinement status, Annual Survey of Jails, 2007

Characteristics
Total
Held in jail
Supervised outside
a jail facility
Excluding weekenders
Weekender programs
Average daily population
Admissions
Rated capacity

Relative
standard error
(percent)*

Survey
estimates

Standard
error

848,826
780,581

4,330
3,993

0.51%
0.51

68,245
57,771
10,473
773,800
250,950
813,502

1,270
1,200
347
3,829
3,244
5,329

1.86
2.08
3.31
0.49
1.29
0.66

*Calculated by dividing the standard error by the survey estimates
and multiplying by 100.

Appendix table 7. Estimated standard errors by selected characteristics,
Annual Survey of Jails, 2007
Totala

Survey
estimates

Standard
error

Relative standard
error (percent)b

Gender
Male
Female

680,009
100,572

680,009
100,572

3,527
978

0.52%
0.97

Adults

773,744

773,744

3,967

0.51%

6,837
5,652
1,185

6,837
5,652
1,185

167
157
147

2.44%
2.78
12.39

Race/Hispanic origin
Whitec
Black/African Americanc
Hispanic/Latino
Otherc,d
Two or more racesc

338,400
301,900
125,600
13,900
800

327,864
292,457
121,660
13,528
754

3,328
2,754
1,758
710
115

1.01%
0.94
1.44
5.25
15.28

Conviction status (adults)
Awaiting trial or in other
unconvicted category
Convicted

479,400
294,300

470,960
289,098

3,532
3,936

0.75%
1.36

Characteristics

Juveniles
Held as adults
Held as juveniles

Note: Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.
aTotal

estimates were based on reported data adjusted for nonresponse.

bCalculated

by dividing the standard error by the survey estimates and multiplying by

100.
cExcludes

persons of Hispanic or Latino origin.

d

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other
Pacific Islanders.

Appendix table 8. Estimated percentages of local jail
inmates by selected characteristics and ratio estimates,
2007
Characteristics

Estimate

Standard error

Gender
Male
Female

87.1%
12.9

0.10%
0.10

Race/Hispanic origin
Whitea
Black/African Americana
Hispanic/Latino
Othera,b
Two or more racesa

43.4%
38.7
16.1
1.8
0.1

0.33%
0.33
0.22
0.09
0.02

Conviction status
Convicted
Male
Female
Unconvicted
Male
Female

38.0%
32.9
5.2
62.0%
54.3
7.7

0.33%
0.30
0.09
0.33%
0.29
0.07

Note: Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.
a

Excludes Hispanic or Latino origin.

b

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007

11

 

 

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