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DOJ, Bureau of Justice Statistics - Mortality in Local Jails and States Prisons, 2000-2013, 2015

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U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

August 2015, NCJ 248756

Margaret Noonan, BJS Statistician
Harley Rohloff and Scott Ginder, RTI International

F

or the third consecutive year, the number
of inmates who died while in the custody of
local jails or state prisons increased. A total of
4,446 inmates died in 2013, an increase of 131 deaths
since 2012. The number of deaths in local jails and
prison decreased an annual average of 2% between
2008 and 2010.

The number of state prisoner deaths increased 4% in
2013, for a total of 3,479 deaths, or an additional
122 deaths since 2012 (figure 2). From 2001 to 2013,
the majority (9 in 10 deaths) of prisoner deaths were
due to illness-related causes. Between 2012 and 2013,
the overall mortality rate for state prisoners increased
3%, from 265 deaths per 100,000 in 2012 to 274 per
100,000 in 2013. This was the highest mortality rate
since the collection began in 2000. The mortality
rate for illness increased 4% between 2012 and 2013,
from 234 to 243 deaths per 100,000 inmates. In 2013,
the mortality rates increased for the leading causes
of illness—heart disease (up 11%), cancer (up 4%),
and liver disease (up 16%), while the rates decreased
for respiratory diseases (down 12%) or AIDS-related
deaths (down 30%). The rate of AIDS-related deaths
in state prisons has declined 82% since 2001.

In 2013, a total of 967 jail inmates died while in
the custody of local jails. The number of deaths
increased from 958 deaths in 2012 to 967 in 2013,
while the jail population decreased 4%. As a result,
the overall mortality rate in local jails increased
from 128 per 100,000 jail inmates in 2012 to
135 per 100,000 in 2013. Suicide and heart disease
have been the top two causes of death in local jails
since 2000 (figure 1). Suicide has been the leading
cause of death in jails every year since 2000. In
2013, a third (34%) of jail inmate deaths were due
to suicide. The suicide rate increased 14%, from
40 suicides per 100,000 jail inmates in 2012 to
46 per 100,000 in 2013.

Figure 1
Mortality rate per 100,000 jail inmates, by selected causes of death, 2000–2013
Overall mortality rate

Mortality rate
Heart disease

50

150
Overall

Suicide
40

120

30

90

20

60

10

30

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Year

2007

2008*

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Bureau of Justice Statistics · Statistical Tables

Mortality in Local Jails and State
Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables

0

*In 2008, a high number of illness cases were missing cause-of-death information and were classified as other or unknown. See Methodology.

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Celebrating
35 years

Figure 2
Number of prisoner deaths, by cause of death, 2001–2013
Number of deaths
4,000

Illness
All other deaths

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007
Year

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Data in this report were developed from the Bureau of
Justice Statistics’ (BJS) Deaths in Custody Reporting
Program (DCRP), an annual data collection about inmate
deaths in local jails and state prisons. The DCRP is the only
national statistical collection that obtains comprehensive
information about deaths in adult correctional facilities.
The program began collecting data from jails in 2000 and

from prisons in 2001. This report covers deaths occurring
in local jails from 2000 to 2013 and in state prisons from
2001 to 2013. Statistical tables provide information about
the causes and circumstances of local jail and state prison
inmate deaths and present trends by cause of death, selected
decedent characteristics, and mortality rates for jail and
prison inmates by state.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

2

Mortality in local jails
Cause of death
ƒƒLocal jail inmate deaths increased 1%, from 958 deaths in
2012 to 967 deaths in 2013 (table 1).
ƒƒSuicides in local jails increased 9%, from 300 suicides in
2012 to 327 in 2013.
ƒƒJail inmate deaths due to liver disease decreased 35%,
from 29 deaths in 2012 to 19 in 2013.
ƒƒDrug or alcohol intoxication deaths in local jails increased
23%, from 57 deaths in 2012 to 70 in 2013.
ƒƒIllness-related deaths accounted for 50% of all inmate
deaths in local jails in 2013. Heart disease continued to be
the leading cause of illness-related inmate deaths in local
jails in 2013 (table 2).
ƒƒSuicide was the leading cause of death in local jails in 2013
(34% of all jail deaths) and has been the leading cause of
death in local jails each year since 2000.
ƒƒThe suicide rate increased from 40 suicides per 100,000
local jail inmates in 2012 to 46 suicides per 100,000 local
jail inmates in 2013 (table 3).

ƒƒFrom 2000 to 2013, the average annual mortality rate for
male (137 per 100,000) and female (133 per 100,000) jail
inmates were nearly equal (table 8).
ƒƒThe mortality rate for suicide among male jail inmates
(43) was 1.5 times the rate for female inmates (28) from
2000 to 2013.
ƒƒThe mortality rate for drug or alcohol intoxication
for black non-Hispanic (5 per 100,000) and Hispanic
(6 per 100,000) jail inmates was nearly equal from 2000
to 2013, but was nearly three times higher for white
non-Hispanic jail inmates (16 per 100,000).
Facility characteristics
ƒƒMost jails (80%) reported no deaths in 2013. Twice
as many jails reported a single death (12%) as those
reporting multiple deaths (6%) (table 9).
ƒƒIn 2013, approximately a quarter (23%) of the average
daily jail population was a hold for another jurisdiction
(table 10).

Decedent characteristics

ƒƒThe mortality rate for jail inmates held for another
correctional authority (80 per 100,000) was lower than the
rate for other jail inmates (152 per 100,000).

ƒƒIn 2013, a total of 843 male and 124 female inmates died
in local jails (table 4).

ƒƒIn 2013, 23% of all jail inmate deaths occurred in
California and Texas (table 12).

ƒƒThe typical jail inmate who died in 2013 was male (87%),
white (54%), age 35 or older (70%), and in custody for
fewer than 7 days (40%) (table 5).

ƒƒThe median state-level jail death rate was 140 deaths per
100,000 local jail inmates in 2013 (table 13).

ƒƒThe mortality rate for Hispanics was 135 per 100,000 local
jail inmates in 2013. Due to changes in measurement, this
rate should not be compared to rates in previous years
(table 6). (See Methodology.)
Cause of death and demographics
ƒƒMore than half (60%) of all suicides in jails from
2000 to 2013 involved inmates who were age 25 to 44
(table 7).
ƒƒFrom 2000 to 2013, the number of male jail inmate deaths
(12,092) was nearly 8 times the number of female inmate
deaths (1,630).

Rates by cause and decedent characteristics
ƒƒThe mortality rates for illness among females were higher
than the rates for males from 2004 to 2012 (appendix
table 2).
ƒƒThe mortality rates for heart disease among males were
higher than the rates for females every year from 2010 to
2013 (appendix table 3).
ƒƒFrom 2009 to 2013, the suicide rate increased 23% from
35 per 100,000 jail inmates to 43 per 100,000 (appendix
table 4).

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

3

Mortality in state prisons
Cause of death
ƒƒDeaths in prison increased from 3,357 in 2012 to 3,479 in
2013, reaching the highest number since the prison data
collection began in 2001. The total number of deaths
increased 4% between 2012 and 2013 (table 16).
ƒƒIllness-related deaths accounted for 89% of all deaths in
prison in 2013.
ŒŒDeaths from liver disease increased 16%, from
304 deaths in 2012 to 354 deaths in 2013. This was the
largest percent change observed among illness deaths
in prison in 2013.
ŒŒCancer (31%) and heart disease (26%) accounted for
more than half of all prisoner deaths (table 17).
ƒƒThe mortality rate increased 3%, from 265 deaths per
100,000 state prisoners in 2012 to 274 per 100,000 in
2013. Although there were some fluctuations in the rates
for unnatural deaths (e.g., accidents increased while
suicides declined), the change in the rate for illness
(up 4%) accounted for the increase in the overall rate
(table 18).
Decedent characteristics
ƒƒThe 1,966 prisoners age 55 or older made up more than
half (57%) of all deaths in state prisons in 2013 (table 19).
ƒƒIn state prisons, the percentage of decedents age
55 or older increased by an average of 8% annually since
2001 (table 20).
ƒƒWhite inmates accounted for more than half (55%) of
deaths in state prisons, and nearly all (96%) were male
(table 21).
ƒƒIn 2013, an estimated 117,805 (9%) of state prisoners were
age 55 or older, up from 47,900 (4%) in 2001.
ƒƒCombined, deaths due to suicide, drug or alcohol
intoxication, accidents, and homicide accounted for fewer
than 200 female prisoner deaths between 2001 and 2013
(table 23).

ƒƒRegardless of race or Hispanic origin, there was
little variation in the average annual homicide rate
(4 to 6 homicides per 100,000 state prisoners) for state
prisoners between 2001 and 2013.
ƒƒFrom 2001 to 2013, prisoners age 55 or older were
3 to 9 times more likely to die of an accident than
younger prisoners.
Deaths by jurisdiction
ƒƒEvery state department of corrections reported at least
one prisoner death in 2013 (table 25).
ƒƒThe prisoner death rate by state varied from 115 deaths per
100,000 to 628 deaths per 100,000 prisoners. The median
state-level death rate among prisoners was 273 deaths per
100,000 state prisoners (table 26).
Cause of death by state
ƒƒCalifornia’s 4,790 prisoner deaths from 2001 to 2013
represent more than 11% of the total deaths (42,157).
During this period, almost a third of all state prisoner
deaths from drug or alcohol intoxication were in
California (174 of 546 deaths) (table 27).
ƒƒOverall mortality rates and mortality rates by state and
by cause of death may not be directly compared between
states due to differences in age, sex, race or Hispanic
origin, and other decedent characteristics (table 28).
Rates by cause and decedent characteristics
ƒƒThe illness mortality rate increased to 269 per 100,000
prisoners in 2013, up from 262 per 100,000 in 2012
(appendix table 6).
ƒƒThe prisoner cancer mortality rate has increased every
year between 2008 and 2013 (appendix table 7).
ƒƒThe prisoner heart disease mortality rate was relatively
stable between 2003 and 2013, fluctuating between
64 and 67 deaths per 100,000 prisoner deaths each year
(appendix table 8).

ƒƒA third of homicides in state prisons involved prisoners
age 45 or older between 2001 and 2013.
ƒƒFrom 2001 to 2013, male prisoners were twice as likely as
female prisoners to die of cancer, heart disease, and liver
disease, which were the leading causes of death in state
prisons (table 24).

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

4

List of tables
TABLE 1
Number of local jail inmate deaths, by cause of death,
2000–2013�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7
TABLE 2
Percent of local jail inmate deaths, by cause of death,
2000–2013�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7
TABLE 3
Mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by cause of
death, 2000–2013 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������8
TABLE 4
Number of local jail inmate deaths, by selected decedent
characteristics, 2000–2013�����������������������������������������������������������9
TABLE 5
Percent of local jail inmate deaths, by selected decedent
characteristics, 2000–2013�������������������������������������������������������� 10
TABLE 6
Mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by selected
decedent characteristics, 2000–2013 ������������������������������������ 11
TABLE 7
Number of local jail inmate deaths, by cause of death and
selected decedent characteristics, 2000–2013�������������������� 12
TABLE 8
Average annual mortality rate per 100,000 local jail
inmates, by cause of death and selected decedent
characteristics, 2000–2013�������������������������������������������������������� 13
TABLE 9
Number and percent of local jail jurisdictions reporting
to the Deaths in Custody Program, by number of deaths
reported each year, 2000–2013������������������������������������������������ 13
TABLE 10
Number, percent, average daily population, and mortality
rate per 100,000 local jail inmate deaths, by hold status,
2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14
TABLE 11
Number of local jail inmates held on an average day, by
state, 2000–2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15

TABLE 15
Number of local jail jurisdictions reporting one or more
deaths to the Deaths in Custody Program, by state, 2000–
2013������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19
TABLE 16
Number of state prisoner deaths, by cause of death,
2001–2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20
TABLE 17
Percent of state prisoner deaths, by cause of death,
2001–2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20
TABLE 18
Mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by cause of
death, 2001–2013 ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 21
TABLE 19
Number of state prisoner deaths, by selected decedent
characteristics, 2001–2013�������������������������������������������������������� 21
TABLE 20
Percent of state prisoner deaths, by selected decedent
characteristics, 2001–2013�������������������������������������������������������� 22
TABLE 21
Mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected
decedent characteristics, 2001–2013 ������������������������������������ 22
TABLE 22
Estimated number of state and federal prisoners in
custody, by selected inmate characteristics, 2001–2013�� 23
TABLE 23
Number of state prisoner deaths, by cause of death and
selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013�������������������� 23
TABLE 24
Average annual mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners,
by cause of death and selected decedent characteristics,
2001–2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24
TABLE 25
Number of state and federal prisoner deaths, by location,
2001–2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25

TABLE 12
Number of local jail deaths, by state, 2000–2013���������������� 16

TABLE 26
Mortality rate per 100,000 state and federal prisoners, by
location, 2001–2013�������������������������������������������������������������������� 26

TABLE 13
Mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by state,
2000–2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17

TABLE 27
Number of state and federal prisoner deaths, by cause of
death and location, 2001–2013������������������������������������������������ 27

TABLE 14
Number of local jail jurisdictions reporting to the Deaths in
Custody Reporting Program, by state, 2000–2013 ������������ 18

TABLE 28
Average annual mortality rate per 100,000 state and
federal prisoners, by cause of death and location, 2001–
2013�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

5

List of appendix tables
APPENDIX TABLE 1
Estimated number of local jail inmates in custody on an
average day, by selected inmate characteristics, 2000–2013
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������34
APPENDIX TABLE 2
Illness mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by
selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013���������������������35
APPENDIX TABLE 3
Heart disease mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates,
by selected decendent characteristics, 2001–2013�������������35

APPENDIX TABLE 7
Cancer mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by
selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013���������������������37
APPENDIX TABLE 8
Heart disease mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by
selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013���������������������38
APPENDIX TABLE 9
Liver disease mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by
selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013���������������������38

APPENDIX TABLE 4
Suicide mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by
selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013���������������������36

APPENDIX TABLE 10
Respiratory disease mortality rate per 100,000 state
prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39

APPENDIX TABLE 5
Mortality rate for all other unnatural deaths per 100,000
local jail inmates, by selected decedent characteristics,
2000–2013���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������36

APPENDIX TABLE 11
Mortality rate for all other illnesses per 100,000 state
prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39

APPENDIX TABLE 6
Illness mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by
selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013���������������������37

APPENDIX TABLE 12
Mortality rate for unnatural deaths per 100,000 state
prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

6

Table 1
Number of local jail inmate deaths, by cause of death, 2000–2013
Cause of death
Total
All causes
13,728
Illness
7,111
Heart disease
3,176
AIDS-related
552
Cancer
498
Liver disease
393
Respiratory disease
384
All otherb
2,108
Suicide
4,134
Drug/alcohol intoxication
925
Accident
371
Homicidec
302
Other/unknown
520
Missing
365

2000
904
516
198
57
31
24
31
175
289
37
25
17
17
3

2001
942
485
216
59
25
27
18
140
313
58
36
19
24
7

2002
970
508
221
53
39
25
22
148
314
54
34
18
35
7

2003
1,002
512
240
55
34
31
21
131
296
89
28
15
52
10

2004
1,021
529
227
52
29
32
35
154
299
76
33
25
50
9

2005
1,045
501
202
40
37
32
21
169
286
83
24
22
110
19

2006
1,094
604
246
54
39
25
27
213
278
87
33
36
52
4

2007
1,100
608
231
43
42
39
48
205
284
79
18
20
71
20

2008a
958
444
186
32
25
35
33
133
228
44
15
16
8
203

2009
960
491
202
27
47
32
31
152
304
64
26
23
24
28

2010
918
477
242
26
34
29
18
128
305
54
23
20
13
26

2011
889
425
234
13
32
14
20
112
311
73
27
21
22
10

2012
958
529
271
21
44
29
28
136
300
57
18
22
24
8

2013
967
482
260
20
40
19
31
112
327
70
31
28
18
11

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. See Methodology for details on cause of death, illnesses, and homicides.
aIn 2008, a high number of illness cases were missing cause-of-death information and were classified as other or unknown.
bIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
cIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Table 2
Percent of local jail inmate deaths, by cause of death, 2000–2013
Cause of death
All causes
Illness
Heart disease
AIDS-related
Cancer
Liver disease
Respiratory disease
All otherb
Suicide
Drug/alcohol intoxication
Accident
Homicidec
Other/unknown
Missing

2000
100%
57.1%
21.9
6.3
3.4
2.7
3.4
19.4
32.0%
4.1%
2.8%
1.9%
1.9%
0.3%

2001
100%
51.5%
22.9
6.3
2.7
2.9
1.9
14.9
33.2%
6.2%
3.8%
2.0%
2.5%
0.7%

2002
100%
52.4%
22.8
5.5
4.0
2.6
2.3
15.3
32.4%
5.6%
3.5%
1.9%
3.6%
0.7%

2003
100%
51.1%
24.0
5.5
3.4
3.1
2.1
13.1
29.5%
8.9%
2.8%
1.5%
5.2%
1.0%

2004
100%
51.8%
22.2
5.1
2.8
3.1
3.4
15.1
29.3%
7.4%
3.2%
2.4%
4.9%
0.9%

2005
100%
47.9%
19.3
3.8
3.5
3.1
2.0
16.2
27.4%
7.9%
2.3%
2.1%
10.5%
1.8%

2006
100%
55.2%
22.5
4.9
3.6
2.3
2.5
19.5
25.4%
8.0%
3.0%
3.3%
4.8%
0.4%

2007
100%
55.3%
21.0
3.9
3.8
3.5
4.4
18.6
25.8%
7.2%
1.6%
1.8%
6.5%
1.8%

2008a
100%
46.3%
19.4
3.3
2.6
3.7
3.4
13.9
23.8%
4.6%
1.6%
1.7%
0.8%
21.2%

2009
100%
51.1%
21.0
2.8
4.9
3.3
3.2
15.8
31.7%
6.7%
2.7%
2.4%
2.5%
2.9%

2010
100%
52.0%
26.4
2.8
3.7
3.2
2.0
13.9
33.2%
5.9%
2.5%
2.2%
1.4%
2.8%

2011
100%
47.8%
26.3
1.5
3.6
1.6
2.2
12.6
35.0%
8.2%
3.0%
2.4%
2.5%
1.1%

2012
100%
55.2%
28.3
2.2
4.6
3.0
2.9
14.2
31.3%
5.9%
1.9%
2.3%
2.5%
0.8%

2013
100%
49.8%
26.9
2.1
4.1
2.0
3.2
11.6
33.8%
7.2%
3.2%
2.9%
1.9%
1.1%

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. See Methodology for details on cause of death, illnesses, and homicides.
aIn 2008, a high number of illness cases were missing cause-of-death information and were classified as other or unknown.
bIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
cIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

7

Table 3
Mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by cause of death, 2000–2013
Cause of death
All causes
Illness
Heart disease
AIDS-related
Cancer
Liver disease
Respiratory disease
All otherb
Suicide
Drug/alcohol intoxication
Accident
Homicidec
Other/unknown
Missing

2000
151
86
33
10
5
4
5
29
48
6
4
3
3
1!

2001
147
76
34
9
4
4
3
22
49
9
6
3
4
1!

2002
145
76
33
8
6
4
3
22
47
8
5
3
5
1!

2003
146
74
35
8
5
5
3
19
43
13
4
2
8
1!

2004
143
74
32
7
4
4
5
22
42
11
5
3
7
1!

2005
141
67
27
5
5
4
3
23
39
11
3
3
15
3

2006
142
78
32
7
5
3
3
28
36
11
4
5
7
1!

2007
141
78
30
5
5
5
6
26
36
10
2
3
9
3

2008a
123
57
24
4
3
4
4
17
29
6
2
2
1!
26

2009
128
66
27
4
6
4
4
20
41
9
3
3
3
4

2010
125
65
33
4
5
4
2
17
42
7
3
3
2
4

2011
123
59
32
2
4
2
3
15
43
10
4
3
3
1!

2012
128
71
36
3
6
4
4
18
40
8
2
3
3
1!

2013
135
67
36
3
6
3
4
16
46
10
4
4
3
2!

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Local jail mortality rates are per 100,000 inmates held in custody. Mortality rates are based on the
average daily population (ADP). In 2000 and 2001, ADP was estimated by taking the average of January 1 and December 31 inmate population counts. See Methodology
for details on cause of death, illnesses, and homicides.
! Interpret with caution; estimate based on too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aIn 2008, a high number of illness cases were missing cause-of-death information and were classified as other or unknown.
bIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
cIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

8

Table 4
Number of local jail inmate deaths, by selected decedent characteristics, 2000–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictedd
Unconvictede
Time served
7 or fewer days
8–30
31–60
61–120
121–180
180 or more

2000
904

2001
942

2002
970

2003
1,002

2004
1,021

2005
1,045

2006
1,094

2007
1,100

2008
958

2009
960

2010
918

2011
889

2012
958

2013
967

813
91

847
91

863
107

867
133

893
128

925
120

964
130

970
130

839
119

850
110

804
114

778
111

836
122

843
124

453
305
118
17

514
283
115
20

534
305
113
10

538
322
119
16

500
359
135
24

560
332
116
22

528
408
126
27

548
398
125
27

512
310
107
27

535
272
109
31

516
265
90
23

525
234
106
19

554
272
100
24

520
277
146
22

8
89
184
265
239
115

8
107
193
280
239
111

7
100
186
337
236
102

5
103
211
283
266
128

7
105
210
300
263
133

5
107
192
284
275
170

6
103
196
312
303
168

4
101
199
292
322
182

6
85
167
246
275
178

3
86
175
236
258
194

3
80
187
201
253
172

2
81
207
198
227
172

2
83
189
197
274
209

3
75
214
213
259
203

258
628

252
683

245
717

255
739

226
786

231
798

238
846

246
850

200
753

247
693

232
664

220
664

255
698

227
738

328
168
111
115
56
119

349
173
105
124
63
113

360
168
100
121
73
134

398
176
94
120
73
124

399
179
115
111
76
124

385
188
112
128
69
127

382
205
126
148
80
123

393
184
137
147
81
152

348
164
106
122
68
128

364
166
99
117
51
147

345
176
91
92
58
133

347
172
97
90
56
124

348
200
99
116
58
133

387
162
88
123
45
157

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. See Methodology for details on Hispanic origin
and probation or parole violations.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

9

Table 5
Percent of local jail inmate deaths, by selected decedent characteristics, 2000–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictedd
Unconvictede
Time served
7 or fewer days
8–30
31–60
61–120
121–180
180 or more

2000
100%

2001
100%

2002
100%

2003
100%

2004
100%

2005
100%

2006
100%

2007
100%

2008
100%

2009
100%

2010
100%

2011
100%

2012
100%

2013
100%

89.9%
10.1

90.3%
9.7

89.0%
11.0

86.7%
13.3

87.5%
12.5

88.5%
11.5

88.1%
11.9

88.2%
11.8

87.6%
12.4

88.5%
11.5

87.6%
12.4

87.5%
12.5

87.3%
12.7

87.2%
12.8

50.7%
34.2
13.2
1.9

55.2%
30.4
12.3
2.1

55.5%
31.7
11.7
1.0

54.1%
32.4
12.0
1.6

49.1%
35.3
13.3
2.4

54.4%
32.2
11.3
2.1

48.5%
37.5
11.6
2.5

49.9%
36.2
11.4
2.5

53.6%
32.4
11.2
2.8

56.5%
28.7
11.5
3.3

57.7%
29.6
10.1
2.6

59.4%
26.5
12.0
2.1

58.3%
28.6
10.5
2.5

53.8%
28.6
15.1
2.3

0.9%
9.9
20.4
29.4
26.6
12.8

0.9%
11.4
20.6
29.9
25.5
11.8

0.7%
10.3
19.2
34.8
24.4
10.5

0.5%
10.3
21.2
28.4
26.7
12.9

0.7%
10.3
20.6
29.5
25.8
13.1

0.5%
10.4
18.6
27.5
26.6
16.5

0.6%
9.5
18.0
28.7
27.8
15.4

0.4%
9.2
18.1
26.5
29.3
16.5

0.6%
8.9
17.5
25.7
28.7
18.6

0.6%
8.9
17.5
25.7
28.7
18.6

0.3%
8.9
20.9
22.4
28.2
19.2

0.2%
9.1
23.3
22.3
25.6
19.4

0.2%
8.7
19.8
20.6
28.7
21.9

0.3%
7.8
22.1
22.0
26.8
21.0

29.1%
70.9

27.0%
73.0

25.5%
74.5

25.7%
74.3

22.3%
77.7

22.4%
77.6

22.0%
78.0

22.4%
77.6

21.0%
79.0

26.3%
73.7

25.9%
74.1

24.9%
75.1

26.8%
73.2

23.5%
76.3

36.6%
18.7
12.4
12.8
6.2
13.3

37.6%
18.7
11.3
13.4
6.8
12.2

37.7%
17.6
10.5
12.7
7.6
14.0

40.4%
17.9
9.5
12.2
7.4
12.6

39.7%
17.8
11.5
11.1
7.6
12.4

38.2%
18.6
11.1
12.7
6.8
12.6

35.9%
19.3
11.8
13.9
7.5
11.6

35.9%
16.8
12.5
13.4
7.4
13.9

37.2%
17.5
11.3
13.0
7.3
13.7

38.6%
17.6
10.5
12.4
5.4
15.6

38.5%
19.7
10.2
10.3
6.5
14.9

39.2%
19.4
10.9
10.2
6.3
14.0

36.5%
21.0
10.4
12.2
6.1
13.9

40.0%
16.8
9.1
12.7
4.7
16.2

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. See Methodology for details on Hispanic origin
and probation or parole violations.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

10

Table 6
Mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by selected decedent characteristics, 2000–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictedd
Unconvictede

2000
151

2001
147

2002
145

2003
146

2004
143

2005
141

2006
142

2007
141

2008
123

2009
128

2010
125

2011
123

2012
128

2013
135

153
133

150
123

146
138

143
162

142
145

143
127

143
130

142
129

123
120

129
120

125
124

123
122

129
123

137
125

211
128
107
52

224
111
98
57

223
114
92
27 !

218
117
94
43

195
126
102
61

213
122
85
37

193
145
89
44

198
139
87
43

185
109
70
41

202
100
71
53

199
100
60
40

215
96
66
26

220
109
60
31

164
117
135
41

122 !
52
96
169
396
870

114 !
59
94
167
371
785

96 !
53
87
193
350
691

69 !
53
96
160
358
773

97 !
53
92
166
318
714

70 !
53
81
154
302
818

84 !
49
80
166
302
726

58 !
48
81
156
300
728

86 !
40
67
137
259
666

43 !
42
72
143
255
707

47 !
41
77
126
251
614

34 !
43
85
129
225
599

36 !
43
73
127
259
678

56 !
41
87
143
256
687

98
187

95
182

92
179

94
177

80
182

82
173

81
176

83
175

69
154

87
149

81
148

77
152

87
154

81
170

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Local jail mortality rates are per 100,000 inmates
held in custody. Mortality rates are based on the average daily population (ADP). In 2000 and 2001, ADP was estimated by taking the average of January 1 and
December 31 inmate population counts. See Methodology for details on rates, Hispanic origin, and probation or parole violations.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Survey of Jails, 2000–2013; Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013; National Inmate Survey, 2007, 2008–2009, and
2011–2012; and Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

11

Table 7
Number of local jail inmate deaths, by cause of death and selected decedent characteristics, 2000–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic originc
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latino
Otherd
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictede
Unconvictedf

All causes
13,728

Heart
disease
3,176

AIDSrelated
552

Illness
Liver
Respiratory
Cancer
disease disease
All othera
498
393
384
2,108

Drug/alcohol
Suicide intoxication Accident Homicideb
4,134
925
371
302

12,092
1,630

2,840
336

483
69

451
47

359
34

310
74

1,747
360

3,786
347

733
192

334
37

298
4

7,337
4,342
1,625
309

1,506
1,335
266
54

95
385
69
3

219
214
55
9

212
86
87
6

168
160
48
6

901
871
283
40

2,907
582
489
141

580
199
121
20

225
95
39
11

114
125
57
4

64
1,304
2,707
3,637
3,687
2,230

2
86
306
745
1,121
911

1
11
94
222
178
43

0
7
32
76
168
215

0
3
20
80
202
88

1
14
53
92
120
102

5
108
298
550
715
423

46
768
1,283
1,192
628
204

4
120
298
280
180
40

1
41
84
105
91
47

1
63
77
68
62
30

3,332
10,257

962
2,195

148
399

151
345

110
283

104
275

568
1,528

715
3,400

188
733

109
261

79
217

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to rounding or missing data. See Methodology for details on
illnesses, homicides, probation or parole violations.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
cExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
dIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
eIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
fIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

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Table 8
Average annual mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by cause of death and selected decedent characteristics, 2000–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic originc
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latino
Otherd
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictede
Unconvictedf

Heart
All causes disease
137
32

AIDSrelated
5

Illness
Liver
Cancer
disease
5
4

Respiratory
disease
All othera
4
21

Drug/alcohol
Suicide intoxication Accident Homicideb
41
9
4
3

137
133

32
27

5
6

5
4

4
3

4
6

20
29

43
28

8
16

4
3

3
-- !

203
117
84
41

42
36
14
7

3
10
4
-- !

6
6
3
1!

6
2
5
1!

5
4
2
1!

25
23
15
5

80
16
25
19

16
5
6
3

6
3
2
1!

3
3
3
1!

69
48
83
153
292
702

2!
3
9
31
89
287

1!
-- !
3
9
14
14

0
-- !
1
3
13
68

0
-- !
1
3
16
28

1!
1
2
4
9
32

5!
4
9
23
57
133

49
28
39
50
50
64

4!
4
9
12
14
13

1!
2
3
4
7
15

1!
2
2
3
5
9

55
260

16
56

2
10

2
9

2
7

2
7

9
39

12
86

3
19

2
7

1
6

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to rounding or missing data. See Methodology for details on rates,
illnesses, homicides, and probation or parole violations.
--Less than 0.5.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
cExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
dIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
eIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
fIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Survey of Jails, 2000–2013; Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013; National Inmate Survey, 2007, 2008–2009, and
2011–2012; and Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002.

Table 9
Number and percent of local jail jurisdictions reporting to the Deaths in Custody Program, by number of deaths reported each
year, 2000–2013
Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Annual average, 2000–2013

Total
2,988
2,973
2,958
2,941
2,924
2,897
2,869
2,848
2,833
2,748
2,754
2,746
2,805
2,703
2,856

Number
2,553
2,489
2,473
2,430
2,406
2,375
2,330
2,314
2,332
2,247
2,253
2,223
2,267
2,161
2,347

0 deaths
Percent
85.4%
83.7
83.6
82.6
82.3
82.0
81.2
81.3
82.3
81.8
81.8
81.0
80.8
79.9
82.2%

Number
289
331
332
350
367
362
368
350
345
330
340
352
373
370
347

1 death
Percent
9.7%
11.1
11.2
11.9
12.6
12.5
12.8
12.3
12.2
12.0
12.3
12.8
13.3
13.7
12.2%

2 or more deaths
Number
Percent
146
4.9%
153
5.1
153
5.2
161
5.5
151
5.2
160
5.5
171
6.0
184
6.5
156
5.5
171
6.2
161
5.8
171
6.2
165
5.9
172
6.4
163
5.7%

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Includes all jails that reported population or death data. See Methodology.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

13

Table 10
Number, percent, average daily population, and mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmate deaths, by hold status, 2013
Hold status
Total
Hold status
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Marshals
Other*
No hold

Number of deaths
967
129
17
29
83
838

Percent of total jail population Average daily population
100%
714,976
23%
162,200
2
16,200
4
27,900
17
118,200
77%
552,700

Mortality rate per
100,000 local jail inmates
135
80
105
104
70
152

Note: Average daily population was calculated for Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. Marshals, and other authorities based on their proportion of the confined
population on December 31.
*Includes state or federal prison, Bureau of Indian Affairs, or any other jail jurisdiction.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

14

Table 11
Number of local jail inmates held on an average day, by state, 2000–2013
State
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Total
598,397 639,941 668,168 688,030 715,660 742,261 772,334 782,592 779,704 749,449 733,775 722,735 745,965 714,976
Alabama
12,951 11,857 13,380 12,613 13,454 14,653 14,921 15,858 16,156 13,868 15,054 15,333 14,944 13,285
Alaska*
60
81
97
79
105
80
70
64
52
70
64
73
104
82
Arizona
10,859 13,590 12,704 13,815 14,648 15,302 15,085 16,539 17,844 15,043 13,242 13,467 14,542 14,355
Arkansas
5,271
5,571
6,111
6,248
6,167
6,023
6,402
6,986
7,373
7,453
7,420
7,189
7,447
7,067
California
72,640 72,452 75,594 76,168 77,964 81,951 81,778 83,483 83,520 81,652 74,830 71,781 79,513 81,728
Colorado
9,179 10,394 11,107 11,713 11,555 13,243 13,871 13,540 13,111 13,207 12,703 11,779 12,561 12,479
Connecticut
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
Delaware
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
District of Columbia 1,656
1,618
3,161
2,268
3,477
2,318
3,473
3,142
2,987
3,089
3,037
3,011
2,455
2,288
Florida
49,358 50,056 54,638 53,556 60,056 63,386 64,721 66,956 66,823 61,606 58,958 57,959 57,040 52,365
Georgia
33,617 35,492 37,969 39,568 42,248 44,555 45,774 44,963 47,625 46,417 47,101 44,559 44,850 38,254
Hawaii
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
Idaho
2,668
2,964
3,280
3,402
2,946
3,939
3,929
4,062
3,938
3,750
3,529
3,718
3,728
3,535
Illinois
17,452 19,701 20,691 21,478 20,370 29,744 20,391 20,660 20,966 19,601 20,224 20,666 21,376 22,173
Indiana
12,760 16,958 14,752 15,398 16,447 17,415 18,716 17,246 17,811 18,302 17,703 17,342 17,533 16,146
Iowa
3,046
3,109
3,612
3,853
3,620
4,167
4,023
4,158
4,085
3,891
3,993
4,099
4,264
4,051
Kansas
5,093
5,657
6,163
7,437
6,864
7,412
7,721
7,383
7,668
6,992
7,692
7,236
6,961
7,100
Kentucky
11,492 19,129 13,954 14,429 16,382 16,380 16,906 18,129 18,070 17,803 17,460 18,252 19,537 17,995
Louisiana
22,744 26,967 27,229 27,824 28,640 29,863 25,979 29,801 29,060 29,572 32,199 31,022 32,651 27,151
Maine
1,297
1,411
1,508
1,572
1,484
1,567
1,767
1,630
1,598
1,571
1,062
1,322
1,299
1,073
Maryland
10,471 10,960 12,069 12,545 12,974 12,696 13,039 14,005 13,577 12,205 12,398 12,423 12,233 12,063
Massachusetts
9,427 11,040 11,745 12,342 13,114 12,485 13,873 13,527 13,309 13,184 10,724 10,326
9,616 10,471
Michigan
15,869 16,460 16,644 16,713 17,956 18,197 18,739 18,436 17,676 17,001 16,457 16,541 17,089 17,203
Minnesota
4,958
5,663
5,954
6,408
7,033
7,265
7,286
7,582
7,105
6,747
6,835
6,537
6,473
6,624
Mississippi
9,885
9,280 10,160 10,872 10,495 10,984 10,981 11,811 11,057
9,732 10,501 10,601 12,620 11,575
Missouri
7,596
8,194
8,997
9,400 10,027 10,277 11,245 10,660 11,658 11,402 10,664 11,520 12,393 11,769
Montana
1,291
1,884
1,804
1,921
2,011
2,084
1,981
1,721
1,781
1,741
1,952
1,035
1,972
2,799
Nebraska
2,140
2,365
2,494
2,485
2,855
2,962
2,741
2,940
3,135
3,427
3,391
3,406
3,442
3,530
Nevada
5,216
5,407
5,656
7,537
6,869
6,144
6,479
7,638
7,531
7,737
7,410
7,083
6,922
6,902
New Hampshire
887
1,376
1,550
1,561
1,658
1,841
2,048
2,039
2,024
2,108
2,103
2,063
2,143
2,012
New Jersey
15,102 15,683 16,295 16,858 17,384 18,035 19,096 18,403 17,824 16,426 15,955 15,280 16,193 16,398
New Mexico
5,918
6,426
6,611
7,387
8,091
8,585
9,031
8,753
9,089
8,273
8,886
8,297
8,408
8,474
New York
27,403 28,709 30,640 30,488 30,588 30,778 32,229 31,335 30,304 29,877 30,122 29,793 28,259 26,959
North Carolina
12,276 12,901 15,103 15,319 16,454 17,958 18,295 19,104 19,382 16,470 18,601 18,288 19,168 18,783
North Dakota
619
650
746
828
876
997
963
889
962
897
947
1,111
1,190
1,088
Ohio
16,118 16,948 18,626 19,592 19,701 19,594 20,664 20,539 19,254 19,944 17,454 17,788 18,704 17,911
Oklahoma
7,228
7,243
7,534
8,206
9,114 10,053 10,988 10,796 10,062 10,493
8,632
8,654
9,544
9,447
Oregon
6,685
7,593
6,354
6,583
6,510
6,812
6,684
8,296
6,304
5,803
5,890
5,872
7,844
5,678
Pennsylvania
28,248 30,296 33,240 32,227 32,934 34,264 36,168 38,221 37,350 38,010 35,444 36,290 37,519 37,334
Rhode Island
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
South Carolina
8,752 10,565 12,181 11,009 11,590 12,104 12,749 13,608 13,634 12,654 12,236 11,970 11,472 11,592
South Dakota
1,163
1,138
1,296
1,347
1,514
1,562
1,645
1,537
1,417
1,626
1,572
1,505
1,746
1,845
Tennessee
20,232 20,265 20,955 23,042 23,188 24,224 32,464 25,177 26,547 26,350 23,553 24,104 24,783 25,253
Texas
57,999 54,639 56,185 60,223 62,907 53,967 68,106 69,284 69,392 67,519 67,302 66,604 67,396 64,317
Utah
5,378
5,616
5,817
6,271
6,517
6,407
6,567
6,881
6,929
6,928
7,267
7,194
7,288
6,446
Vermont
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
Virginia
20,021 22,154 23,612 24,943 25,488 26,567 28,407 29,561 28,824 28,276 29,003 27,313 30,013 27,783
Washington
8,638 12,289 12,095 11,808 11,867 12,899 13,390 13,727 13,461 13,076 12,350 12,988 12,008 10,920
West Virginia
2,824
3,240
3,068
3,289
3,622
4,081
4,321
4,331
4,336
3,879
4,145
3,882
4,351
4,466
Wisconsin
12,986 12,865 13,557 14,063 14,397 14,908 15,098 15,641 15,401 12,157 14,143 13,965 12,835 12,625
Wyoming
924
1,085
1,230
1,342
1,499
1,534
1,532
1,553
1,694
1,620
1,567
1,494
1,536
1,582
Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics.
~Not applicable. Prisons and jails form one integrated system. See prison tables for mortality data.
*Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Includes data for 14 locally operated jails; excludes data for prisons and jails operated by the Alaska Department
of Corrections.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

15

Table 12
Number of local jail deaths, by state, 2000–2013
State
Total
Alabama
Alaska*
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

2000
904
24
0
15
9
109
13
~
~
4
82
38
~
3
31
21
2
9
16
10
2
22
5
23
6
9
16
3
5
15
3
31
15
57
15
1
23
15
10
38
~
17
4
29
97
6
~
34
8
2
7
0

2001
942
27
0
18
13
124
16
~
~
0
98
39
~
3
21
21
4
9
13
22
2
20
10
17
8
12
14
1
5
18
2
17
9
52
17
1
20
18
10
50
~
23
2
28
84
6
~
41
10
6
11
0

2002
970
21
0
24
14
131
14
~
~
10
79
50
~
1
22
14
3
12
12
22
7
20
16
18
6
17
8
5
6
6
5
17
9
51
32
2
30
9
7
51
~
17
1
29
96
13
~
36
11
2
12
2

2003
1,002
15
0
16
22
126
13
~
~
12
85
45
~
2
30
23
1
10
14
32
3
25
9
26
9
17
17
5
2
6
3
38
7
47
22
2
30
13
7
53
~
11
0
23
96
7
~
42
16
6
11
3

2004
1,021
23
0
12
13
120
11
~
~
13
86
54
~
1
41
18
4
15
16
41
2
15
8
20
9
17
6
3
4
8
3
34
17
43
21
1
18
14
15
66
~
16
1
39
99
11
~
33
11
5
10
4

2005
1,045
23
0
27
7
156
18
~
~
11
79
41
~
7
25
16
4
11
22
31
1
23
21
29
8
16
10
6
2
14
1
32
11
51
17
0
24
18
8
57
~
19
3
36
89
10
~
30
11
6
11
3

2006
1,094
34
0
19
11
126
13
~
~
12
99
46
~
5
37
26
3
10
21
26
5
27
14
21
11
18
13
1
6
9
4
36
21
52
21
2
26
21
11
56
~
21
1
30
98
7
~
36
19
6
11
2

2007
1,100
21
0
21
10
129
21
~
~
10
103
44
~
7
31
18
5
7
25
31
1
32
14
18
8
18
25
2
2
10
4
34
15
52
28
1
26
24
3
55
~
14
1
35
90
11
~
59
15
4
15
1

2008
958
19
0
12
15
106
21
~
~
7
77
55
~
1
29
11
2
12
22
34
1
25
17
12
4
14
17
2
5
8
2
27
11
32
19
1
23
17
15
44
~
19
2
37
86
6
~
49
16
6
17
1

2009
960
20
0
11
5
138
14
~
~
8
88
45
~
6
29
16
6
11
18
22
2
20
17
20
3
13
20
6
7
14
5
25
11
37
21
2
26
18
7
37
~
15
2
34
76
12
~
39
14
7
11
2

2010
918
28
0
16
7
121
20
~
~
4
57
48
~
3
23
22
3
10
21
26
3
24
16
18
10
14
21
3
6
8
1
29
17
37
24
2
23
18
9
31
~
19
0
20
84
8
~
29
16
5
13
1

2011
889
18
1
9
16
92
12
~
~
7
66
45
~
5
21
21
8
10
16
20
7
21
5
24
6
14
12
8
5
13
4
20
23
36
17
1
28
12
8
46
~
7
1
40
70
14
~
42
16
7
14
1

2012
958
18
1
10
10
112
9
~
~
2
69
47
~
4
23
19
4
11
21
42
0
17
14
17
7
9
27
3
4
12
3
25
16
40
25
3
33
13
3
58
~
22
0
35
72
11
~
40
20
10
13
4

2013
967
19
0
14
15
128
20
~
~
6
65
47
~
6
33
18
9
17
13
37
1
20
10
14
5
15
19
5
7
10
1
23
10
40
21
5
30
16
4
41
~
21
2
26
97
16
~
27
16
6
10
2

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics.
~Not applicable. Prisons and jails form one integrated system. See prison tables for mortality data.
*Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Includes data for 14 locally operated jails; excludes data for prisons and jails operated by the Alaska Department
of Corrections.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

16

Table 13
Mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by state, 2000–2013
State
Total
Alabama
Alaska*
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

2000
151
185
0
138
171 !
150
142
~
~
242 !
166
113
~
112 !
178
165
66 !
177 !
139
44 !
154 !
210
53 !
145
121 !
91 !
211
232 !
234 !
288
338 !
205
253
208
122
162 !
143
208
150 !
135
~
194
344 !
143
167
112 !
~
170
93 !
71 !
54 !
0

2001
147
228
0
132
233
171
154
~
~
0
196
110
~
101 !
107
124
129 !
159 !
68
82
142 !
182
91 !
103
141 !
129
171
53 !
211 !
333
145 !
108
140 !
181
132
154 !
118
249
132 !
165
~
218
176 !
138
154
107 !
~
185
81 !
185 !
86 !
0

2002
145
157
0
189
229
173
126
~
~
316 !
145
132
~
30 !
106
95
83 !
195
86
81
464 !
166
136
108
101 !
167
89 !
277 !
241 !
106 !
323 !
104
136 !
166
212
268 !
161
119 !
110 !
153
~
140
77 !
138
171
223
~
152
91 !
65 !
89
163 !

2003
146
119
0
116
352
165
111
~
~
529
159
114
~
59 !
140
149
26 !
134 !
97
115
191 !
199
73 !
156
140 !
156
181
260 !
80 !
80 !
192 !
225
95 !
154
144
242 !
153
158
106 !
164
~
100 !
0
100
159
112 !
~
168
136
182 !
78 !
224 !

2004
143
171
0
82
211
154
95 !
~
~
374
143
128
~
34 !
201
109
110 !
219
98
143
135 !
116
61 !
111
128 !
162
60 !
149 !
140 !
116 !
181 !
196
210
141
128
114 !
91
154
230
200
~
138
66 !
168
157
169 !
~
129
93 !
138 !
69 !
267 !

2005
141
157
0
176
116 !
190
136
~
~
475 !
125
92
~
178 !
84
92
96 !
148 !
134
104
64 !
181
168
159
110 !
146
97 !
288 !
68 !
228
54 !
177
128 !
166
95
0
122
179
117 !
166
~
157
192 !
149
165
156 !
~
113
85 !
147 !
74 !
196 !

2006
142
228
0
126
172 !
154
94
~
~
346
153
100
~
127 !
181
139
75 !
130 !
124
100
283 !
207
101
112
151 !
164
116
50 !
219 !
139 !
195 !
189
233
161
115
208 !
126
191
165 !
155
~
165
61 !
92
144
107 !
~
127
142
139 !
73 !
131 !

2007
141
132
0
127
143 !
155
155
~
~
318 !
154
98
~
172 !
150
104
120 !
95 !
138
104
61 !
228
103
98
106 !
152
235
116 !
68 !
131 !
196 !
185
171
166
147
113 !
127
222
36 !
144
~
103
65 !
139
130
160 !
~
200
109
92 !
96
64 !

2008
123
118
0
67
203
127
160
~
~
234 !
115
115
~
25 !
138
62 !
49 !
156
122
117
63 !
184
128
68
56 !
127
146
112 !
159 !
106 !
99 !
151
121 !
106
98
104 !
119
169
238
118
~
139
141 !
139
124
87 !
~
170
119
138 !
110
59 !

2009
128
144
0
73 !
67 !
169
106
~
~
259 !
143
97
~
160 !
148
87
154 !
157 !
101
74
127 !
164
129
118
44 !
134
175
345 !
204 !
181
237 !
152
133 !
124
128
223 !
130
172
121 !
97
~
119
123 !
129
113
173
~
138
107
180 !
90 !
123 !

2010
125
186
0
121
94 !
162
157
~
~
132 !
97
102
~
85 !
114
124
75 !
130 !
120
81
282 !
194
149
109
146 !
133
197
154 !
177 !
108 !
48 !
182
191
123
129
211 !
132
209
153 !
87
~
155
0
85
125
110 !
~
100
130
121 !
92
64 !

2011
123
117
1,370 !
67 !
223
128
102
~
~
232 !
114
101
~
134 !
102
121
195 !
138 !
88
64
530 !
169
48 !
145
92 !
132
104
773 !
147 !
184
194 !
131
277
121
93
90 !
157
139
136 !
127
~
58 !
66 !
166
105
195
~
154
123
180 !
100
67 !

2012
128
120
962 !
69 !
134 !
141
72 !
~
~
81 !
121
105
~
107 !
108
108
94 !
158 !
107
129
0
139
146
99
108 !
71 !
218
152 !
116 !
173
140 !
154
190
142
130
252 !
176
136
38 !
155
~
192
0
141
107
151 !
~
133
167
230 !
101
260 !

2013
135
143
0
98
212
157
160
~
~
262 !
124
123
~
170 !
149
111
222 !
239
72
136
93 !
166
96 !
81
75 !
130
161
179 !
198 !
145 !
50 !
140
118 !
148
112
460 !
167
169
70 !
110
~
181
108 !
103
151
248
~
97
147
134 !
79 !
126 !

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Local jail mortality rates are per 100,000 inmates held in custody. Mortality rates are based on the
average daily population (ADP). In 2000 and 2001, ADP was estimated by taking the average of January 1 and December 31 inmate population counts. Mortality rates
between states are not directly comparable because rates are not adjusted.
~Not applicable. Prisons and jails form one integrated system. See prison tables for mortality data.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
*Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Includes data for 14 locally operated jails; excludes data for prisons and jails operated by the Alaska Department
of Corrections.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

17

Table 14
Number of local jail jurisdictions reporting to the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, by state, 2000–2013
State
Total
Alabama
Alaska*
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

2000
2,988
151
15
16
85
68
55
~
~
1
68
176
~
39
90
90
94
95
80
87
15
24
13
83
71
91
125
41
64
20
10
21
34
58
96
23
97
100
33
63
~
46
28
97
248
26
~
73
58
28
70
22

2001
2,973
149
15
15
84
67
55
~
~
1
68
174
~
38
89
91
93
95
78
86
15
24
13
83
71
90
125
41
63
20
10
21
35
58
96
23
96
100
33
63
~
46
29
97
247
26
~
72
58
28
70
22

2002
2,958
147
15
15
84
67
55
~
~
1
68
174
~
38
90
90
93
95
80
85
15
24
13
82
71
89
125
40
63
20
10
21
35
58
96
23
96
100
33
63
~
46
29
96
246
26
~
72
58
19
70
22

2003
2,941
146
14
15
83
67
55
~
~
1
68
172
~
38
90
90
93
95
79
85
15
24
13
82
71
88
124
40
63
20
10
21
34
58
96
23
93
99
33
63
~
45
29
96
245
26
~
72
57
18
70
22

2004
2,924
145
14
15
82
67
55
~
~
1
67
170
~
38
89
90
93
95
79
85
15
24
13
82
71
88
120
41
63
20
10
21
34
58
94
23
93
98
33
63
~
45
29
96
242
26
~
72
57
16
70
22

2005
2,897
142
15
15
83
66
55
~
~
1
67
167
~
38
90
90
93
95
76
83
15
24
13
82
71
85
119
40
63
20
10
21
32
58
94
23
93
96
32
63
~
45
28
96
242
26
~
69
56
13
70
22

2006
2,869
136
15
15
81
65
53
~
~
1
67
164
~
38
90
90
93
94
74
83
15
24
13
81
71
84
120
40
62
20
10
21
32
58
94
22
92
94
32
63
~
45
28
95
242
26
~
66
56
12
70
22

2007
2,848
132
15
15
81
64
53
~
~
1
67
162
~
37
90
90
93
94
74
83
14
24
13
81
71
84
119
40
62
20
10
21
32
58
94
21
91
93
32
63
~
45
28
94
237
26
~
64
56
12
70
22

2008
2,833
125
15
15
81
64
53
~
~
1
67
159
~
37
90
90
93
93
74
83
14
24
13
81
70
83
119
40
62
20
10
21
32
58
93
21
91
93
32
63
~
45
28
94
236
26
~
64
56
12
70
22

2009
2,748
115
14
15
76
63
53
~
~
1
65
152
~
35
90
89
92
90
70
79
14
23
13
81
68
80
111
37
61
20
10
20
29
57
89
22
91
88
31
63
~
45
26
90
232
26
~
64
56
11
69
22

2010
2,754
117
15
15
71
63
52
~
~
1
66
153
~
34
90
89
90
92
72
82
11
24
13
81
70
77
115
39
61
20
10
21
29
57
92
22
90
90
31
63
~
42
27
89
229
26
~
65
55
11
70
22

2011
2,746
115
15
15
73
62
50
~
~
1
66
154
~
34
88
90
93
90
73
75
12
24
13
80
69
77
115
39
60
20
10
21
31
58
93
22
93
88
30
63
~
44
25
89
228
25
~
65
55
10
70
23

2012
2,805
122
15
15
77
63
52
~
~
1
67
158
~
35
90
90
93
93
75
83
12
24
13
81
70
83
116
39
61
20
10
21
31
56
93
22
93
89
31
63
~
45
27
95
234
26
~
62
55
11
70
23

2013
2,703
116
15
15
67
63
54
~
~
1
63
145
~
36
89
88
92
95
74
76
11
24
11
79
76
67
109
37
60
18
10
21
31
55
90
22
98
79
32
60
~
44
27
90
224
24
~
58
55
11
68
23

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics.
~Not applicable. Prisons and jails form one integrated system. See prison tables for mortality data.
*Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Includes data for 14 locally operated jails; excludes data for prisons and jails operated by the Alaska Department
of Corrections.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

18

Table 15
Number of local jail jurisdictions reporting one or more deaths to the Deaths in Custody Program, by state, 2000–2013
State
Total
Alabama
Alaska*
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

2000
435
15
0
5
7
30
6
~
~
1
23
24
~
3
7
11
2
8
11
5
2
7
3
12
5
8
10
3
5
7
3
12
9
12
13
1
13
10
4
15
~
11
4
17
50
3
~
21
8
2
7
0

2001
484
22
0
5
10
32
7
~
~
0
30
28
~
2
6
17
4
9
10
15
2
9
6
8
8
11
10
1
5
8
2
10
7
10
17
1
14
11
7
21
~
14
2
13
40
5
~
24
7
6
8
0

2002
485
20
0
7
10
29
11
~
~
1
27
34
~
1
11
11
3
10
9
15
5
3
7
13
6
12
7
4
6
3
5
7
6
17
18
2
16
7
4
23
~
14
1
15
40
4
~
22
7
2
8
2

2003
511
14
0
4
16
36
6
~
~
1
27
31
~
2
20
15
1
9
13
16
3
10
5
18
8
15
14
5
2
4
2
12
5
15
15
2
19
7
4
19
~
7
0
13
42
5
~
20
10
6
10
3

2004
518
16
0
4
11
32
9
~
~
1
31
29
~
1
14
15
3
10
14
24
1
6
5
15
7
15
6
3
4
5
2
12
8
12
17
1
15
6
7
28
~
14
1
24
47
8
~
17
6
5
4
3

2005
522
22
0
7
4
34
12
~
~
1
29
33
~
7
11
14
4
11
12
15
1
9
8
17
6
13
9
4
2
6
1
11
4
12
16
0
17
13
6
18
~
15
3
19
49
4
~
19
11
2
8
3

2006
539
25
0
5
10
27
10
~
~
1
30
29
~
5
13
19
3
7
15
17
5
11
8
15
9
15
10
1
5
4
3
12
8
12
17
2
17
12
7
20
~
14
1
15
49
3
~
22
11
5
8
2

2007
534
16
0
5
7
32
11
~
~
1
33
33
~
7
15
12
5
6
17
16
1
6
7
14
6
13
17
2
2
5
3
15
10
13
17
1
19
13
3
25
~
10
1
19
38
8
~
26
8
3
12
1

2008
501
15
0
5
11
30
13
~
~
1
25
29
~
1
13
10
2
11
15
24
1
7
8
12
4
13
12
2
5
6
2
12
6
9
14
1
16
9
9
16
~
15
2
22
37
2
~
27
9
5
12
1

2009
501
17
0
5
4
33
6
~
~
1
31
27
~
6
9
11
5
7
16
16
2
10
8
10
2
11
16
6
3
6
4
11
4
18
17
2
16
12
5
19
~
10
2
19
43
6
~
20
9
5
9
2

2010
501
24
0
6
6
28
11
~
~
1
23
30
~
2
12
15
3
6
19
16
3
9
8
12
8
11
19
2
5
5
1
12
10
11
19
2
15
13
5
15
~
12
0
14
41
5
~
17
10
4
10
1

2011
523
16
1
4
13
28
7
~
~
1
28
30
~
4
14
16
7
9
15
13
5
11
3
13
6
12
10
6
4
5
4
10
12
18
12
1
18
9
5
21
~
6
1
22
44
8
~
22
12
5
11
1

2012
538
17
1
3
8
29
7
~
~
1
27
35
~
4
15
15
4
8
15
25
0
9
5
12
5
8
20
2
2
6
2
13
9
14
23
1
22
12
3
23
~
17
0
21
40
4
~
20
9
8
12
2

2013
542
18
0
4
11
36
11
~
~
1
31
30
~
6
12
14
7
11
10
23
1
9
7
12
5
10
15
4
6
7
1
10
8
15
19
5
21
10
4
21
~
14
2
11
51
6
~
19
10
4
8
2

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics.
~Not applicable. Prisons and jails form one integrated system. See prison tables for mortality data.
*Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Includes data for 14 locally operated jails; excludes data for prisons and jails operated by the Alaska Department
of Corrections.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

19

Table 16
Number of state prisoner deaths, by cause of death, 2001–2013
Cause of death
All causes
Illness
Cancer
Heart disease
Liver disease
Respiratory disease
AIDS-related
All othera
Suicide
Drug/alcohol intoxication
Accident
Homicideb
Other/unknown
Missing

Total
42,157
37,374
11,223
10,795
4,063
2,558
1,733
7,002
2,577
546
411
762
293
194

2001
2,869
2,567
691
743
307
139
275
412
168
35
22
39
0
38

2002
2,933
2,614
681
802
297
154
241
439
168
37
29
48
0
37

2003
3,152
2,830
811
801
306
194
209
509
199
23
26
49
25
0

2004
3,123
2,783
733
842
283
198
147
580
199
22
34
49
36
0

2005
3,168
2,817
805
835
318
212
156
491
213
37
28
56
17
0

2006
3,233
2,830
806
854
303
193
132
542
219
56
32
55
41
0

2007
3,389
2,980
772
840
316
205
120
727
215
41
28
57
16
52

2008
3,450
3,034
905
846
317
252
99
615
197
58
26
40
95
0

2009
3,417
3,028
974
844
333
196
98
583
202
50
32
54
16
35

2010
3,234
2,868
927
831
286
206
73
545
215
40
32
70
4
5

2011
3,353
2,982
1,028
856
339
198
57
504
185
58
38
70
11
9

2012
3,357
2,959
1,024
804
304
218
74
535
205
33
50
85
14
11

2013
3,479
3,082
1,066
897
354
193
52
520
192
56
34
90
18
7

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Excludes executions; for execution data, see Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables
(NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014). See Methodology for details on illnesses and homicides.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Table 17
Percent of state prisoner deaths, by cause of death, 2001–2013
Cause of death
All causes
Illness
Cancer
Heart disease
Liver disease
Respiratory disease
AIDS-related
All othera
Suicide
Drug/alcohol intoxication
Accident
Homicideb
Other/unknown
Missing

2001
100%
89.5%
24.1
25.9
10.7
4.8
9.6
14.4
5.9%
1.2%
0.8%
1.4%
0.0%
1.3%

2002
100%
89.1%
23.2
27.3
10.1
5.3
8.2
15.0
5.7%
1.3%
1.0%
1.6%
0.0%
1.3%

2003
100%
89.8%
25.7
25.4
9.7
6.2
6.6
16.1
6.3%
0.7%
0.8%
1.6%
0.8%
0.0%

2004
100%
89.1%
23.5
27.0
9.1
6.3
4.7
18.6
6.4%
0.7%
1.1%
1.6%
1.2%
0.0%

2005
100%
88.9%
25.4
26.4
10.0
6.7
4.9
15.5
6.7%
1.2%
0.9%
1.8%
0.5%
0.0%

2006
100%
87.5%
24.9
26.4
9.4
6.0
4.1
16.8
6.8%
1.7%
1.0%
1.7%
1.3%
0.0%

2007
100%
87.9%
22.8
24.8
9.3
6.0
3.5
21.5
6.3%
1.2%
0.8%
1.7%
0.5%
1.5%

2008
100%
87.9%
26.2
24.5
9.2
7.3
2.9
17.8
5.7%
1.7%
0.8%
1.2%
2.8%
0.0%

2009
100%
88.6%
28.5
24.7
9.7
5.7
2.9
17.1
5.9%
1.5%
0.9%
1.6%
0.5%
1.0%

2010
100%
88.7%
28.7
25.7
8.8
6.4
2.3
16.9
6.6%
1.2%
1.0%
2.2%
0.1%
0.2%

2011
100%
88.9%
30.7
25.5
10.1
5.9
1.7
15.0
5.5%
1.7%
1.1%
2.1%
0.3%
0.3%

2012
100%
88.1%
30.5
23.9
9.1
6.5
2.2
15.9
6.1%
1.0%
1.5%
2.5%
0.4%
0.3%

2013
100%
88.6%
30.6
25.8
10.2
5.5
1.5
14.9
5.5%
1.6%
1.0%
2.6%
0.5%
0.2%

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Excludes executions; for execution data, see Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables
(NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014). See Methodology for details on illnesses and homicides.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

20

Table 18
Mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by cause of death, 2001–2013
Cause of death
All causes
Illness
Cancer
Heart disease
Liver disease
Respiratory disease
AIDS-related
All othera
Suicide
Drug/alcohol intoxication
Accident
Homicideb
Other/unknown
Missing

2001
242
216
58
63
26
12
23
35
14
3
2
3
0
3

2002
244
218
57
67
25
13
20
37
14
3
2
4
0
3

2003
257
231
66
65
25
16
17
42
16
2
2
4
2
0

2004
252
224
59
68
23
16
12
47
16
2
3
4
3
0

2005
253
225
64
67
25
17
12
39
17
3
2
4
1
0

2006
249
218
62
66
23
15
10
42
17
4
2
4
3
0

2007
256
225
58
64
24
16
9
55
16
3
2
4
1
4

2008
260
229
68
64
24
19
7
46
15
4
2
3
7
0

2009
258
228
73
64
25
15
7
44
15
4
2
4
1
3

2010
245
217
70
63
22
16
6
41
16
3
2
5
-- !
-- !

2011
260
231
80
66
26
15
4
39
14
4
3
5
1!
1!

2012
265
234
81
63
24
17
6
42
16
3
4
7
1
1!

2013
274
243
84
71
28
15
4
41
15
4
3
7
1
1!

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Excludes executions; for execution data, see Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables
(NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014). See Methodology for details on rates, illnesses, and homicides.
--Less than 0.5.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; and National Prisoner Statistics, 2001–2013.

Table 19
Number of state prisoner deaths, by selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2001
2,869

2002
2,933

2003
3,152

2004
3,123

2005
3,168

2006
3,233

2007
3,389

2008
3,450

2009
3,417

2010
3,234

2011
3,353

2012
3,357

2013
3,479

2,769
100

2,814
119

3,024
126

2,987
136

3,025
143

3,103
130

3,252
137

3,287
163

3,267
150

3,117
117

3,210
143

3,244
113

3,338
141

1,340
1,161
322
46

1,400
1,151
332
44

1,591
1,200
308
44

1,546
1,179
332
65

1,623
1,162
324
54

1,627
1,148
404
50

1,718
1,225
383
54

1,821
1,157
399
73

1,774
1,199
372
58

1,680
1,122
359
61

1,912
1,039
329
61

1,789
1,113
379
70

1,902
1,104
402
70

2
86
256
656
893
971

1
62
248
661
908
1,053

3
57
277
666
980
1,164

1
81
255
619
963
1,202

1
78
243
599
1,009
1,238

1
60
250
561
1,061
1,300

1
68
226
513
1,031
1,550

3
67
222
468
1,063
1,627

0
69
210
467
1,039
1,631

3
69
217
382
957
1,606

2
50
201
397
930
1,770

0
69
190
360
876
1,862

0
68
219
334
857
1,966

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Excludes executions; for execution data, see
Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014).
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made. See Methodology.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

21

Table 20
Percent of state prisoner deaths, by selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2001
100%

2002
100%

2003
100%

2004
100%

2005
100%

2006
100%

2007
100%

2008
100%

2009
100%

2010
100%

2011
100%

2012
100%

2013
100%

96.5%
3.5

95.9%
4.1

96.0%
4.0

95.6%
4.4

95.5%
4.5

96.0%
4.0

96.0%
4.0

95.3%
4.7

95.6%
4.4

96.4%
3.6

95.7%
4.3

96.6%
3.4

95.9%
4.1

46.7%
40.5
11.2
1.6

47.8%
39.3
11.3
1.5

50.6%
38.2
9.8
1.4

49.5%
37.8
10.6
2.1

51.3%
36.7
10.2
1.7

50.4%
35.6
12.5
1.5

50.8%
36.2
11.3
1.6

52.8%
33.5
11.6
2.1

52.1%
35.2
10.9
1.7

52.1%
34.8
11.1
1.9

57.2%
31.1
9.8
1.8

53.4%
33.2
11.3
2.1

54.7%
31.7
11.6
2.0

0.1%
3.0
8.9
22.9
31.2
33.9

-2.1%
8.5
22.5
31.0
35.9

0.1%
1.8
8.8
21.2
31.1
37.0

-2.6%
8.2
19.8
30.9
38.5

-2.5%
7.7
18.9
31.8
39.1

-1.9%
7.7
17.4
32.8
40.2

-2.0%
6.7
15.1
30.4
45.7

0.1%
1.9
6.4
13.6
30.8
47.2

0.0%
2.0
6.1
13.7
30.4
47.7

0.1%
2.1
6.7
11.8
29.6
49.7

0.1%
1.5
6.0
11.9
27.8
52.8

0.0%
2.1
5.7
10.7
26.1
55.6

0.0%
2.0
6.3
9.6
24.6
56.5

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Excludes executions; for executions data, see
Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014).
--Less than 0.05%.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made. See Methodology.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Table 21
Mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2001
242

2002
244

2003
257

2004
252

2005
253

2006
249

2007
256

2008
260

2009
258

2010
245

2011
260

2012
265

2013
274

249
129

251
151

265
153

259
162

260
164

257
141

265
145

267
172

265
160

254
127

267
160

275
131

282
159

315
219
201
168

323
219
200
151

347
229
181
147

341
227
184
211

351
225
177
171

343
219
213
148

358
231
195
156

375
216
213
211

367
225
195
161

350
213
184
171

431
211
120
75

407
231
142
89

425
229
153
89

70 !
39
63
181
583
2,029

33 !
29
62
182
554
2,004

122 !
26
68
183
555
2,021

40 !
37
62
168
539
2,063

40 !
35
58
161
559
2,103

36 !
26
58
146
572
2,154

38 !
29
51
131
543
2,500

122 !
35
51
120
458
2,091

0
36
48
119
448
2,097

127 !
36
51
112
374
1,528

87 !
26
47
121
383
1,770

0
37
46
113
364
1,711

0
39
53
104
353
1,669

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Excludes executions; for execution data, see
Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014).
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; National Prisoner Statistics, 2001–2013; and Survey of Inmates in State
Correctional Facilities, 2004.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

22

Table 22
Estimated number of state and federal prisoners in custody, by selected inmate characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
1,187,800 1,199,900 1,225,700 1,239,700 1,252,400 1,297,200 1,321,700 1,327,000 1,326,500 1,320,600 1,290,200 1,267,000 1,270,807
1,110,400 1,121,300 1,143,100 1,155,500 1,165,300 1,205,100 1,227,200 1,232,100 1,232,500 1,228,400 1,201,100 1,180,600 1,181,931
77,400 78,700 82,600 84,200 87,100 92,200 94,500 94,900 94,000 92,200 89,100 86,400 88,876
425,100 433,800 458,900 453,500 462,800 475,000 479,700 485,800 482,900 480,400 443,800 439,700 447,446
530,900 524,500 523,400 519,000 517,500 523,300 531,100 536,900 532,600 528,000 491,400 481,700 481,761
160,600 165,900 169,900 180,000 183,200 189,900 196,100 187,000 191,200 195,000 274,200 266,900 262,787
27,400 29,000 30,000 30,900 31,600 33,700 34,600 34,600 36,100 35,600 80,800 78,800 78,814
2,900
217,800
403,200
362,900
153,100
47,900

3,000
216,800
400,900
362,900
163,800
52,600

2,500
215,700
408,100
364,000
176,500
57,600

2,500
218,200
412,800
368,200
178,500
58,300

2,500
220,400
418,300
372,000
180,400
58,900

2,800
227,500
429,500
384,500
185,600
60,400

2,600
232,200
440,600
391,800
190,000
62,000

2,500
189,100
434,000
391,500
232,100
77,800

2,500
189,100
433,800
391,400
232,000
77,800

2,400
189,500
427,800
339,900
255,900
105,100

2,300
193,100
424,200
327,800
242,800
100,000

2,400
185,200
412,400
317,300
240,900
108,900

2,866
172,330
413,996
321,092
242,718
117,805

Note: Data rounded to the nearest 100. Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Data are from the Prisoners at Midyear series for 2001 to 2010
and from the Prisoners at Yearend series for 2011 to 2013.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made. See Methodology.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; and National Prisoner Statistics, 2001–2013.

Table 23
Number of state prisoner deaths, by cause of death and selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic originc
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinod
Othere
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

Illness
Liver
Respiratory AIDSdisease disease
related
4,063
2,558
1,733

All causes
42,157

Cancer
11,223

Heart
disease
10,795

40,437
1,718

10,816
407

10,434
361

3,926
137

2,420
138

21,723
14,960
4,645
750

6,161
3,943
921
175

5,690
4,074
871
147

2,217
941
796
100

18
884
3,014
6,683
12,565
18,938

2
57
272
1,106
3,377
6,396

1
110
510
1,564
2,935
5,662

1
8
70
549
1,946
1,481

Drug/alcohol
intoxication
546

All othera
7,002

Suicide
2,577

Accident Homicideb
411
762

1,645
88

6,614
388

2,446
130

519
27

396
15

758
4

1,436
855
232
31

372
1,154
191
15

3,223
2,773
882
110

1,512
525
423
107

310
97
116
23

232
117
49
12

345
265
130
20

1
56
166
313
588
1,430

0
17
222
706
592
196

1
116
431
1,109
2,159
3,176

10
343
838
738
461
184

0
36
149
193
129
39

1
32
75
100
96
107

1
92
215
205
153
95

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Mortality rates are based on the average daily
population. See Methodology for details on rates, illnesses, Hispanic origin, homicides, and probation or parole violations.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
cExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
dIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
eIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

23

Table 24
Average annual mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by cause of death and selected decedent characteristics,
2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic originc
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinod
Othere
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

Illness
Liver
Respiratory AIDSdisease disease
related
25
15
10

All causes
255

Cancer
68

Heart
disease
65

263
150

70
36

68
32

26
12

16
12

11
8

43
34

16
11

3
2

3
1

5
-- !

364
223
177
134

103
59
35
31

95
61
33
26

37
14
30
18

24
13
9
6

6
17
7
3

54
41
34
20

25
8
16
19

5
1
4
4

4
2
2
2

6
4
5
4

53
33
55
142
470
1,922

6!
2
5
24
126
649

3!
4
9
33
110
575

3!
-- !
1
12
73
150

3!
2
3
7
22
145

0
1
4
15
22
20

3!
4
8
24
81
322

30 !
13
15
16
17
19

0
1
3
4
5
4

3!
1
1
2
4
11

3!
3
4
4
6
10

All othera
42

Drug/alcohol
Suicide intoxication Accident
16
3
2

Homicideb
5

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Mortality rates are based on the average daily
population. See Methodology for details on rates, illnesses, homicides, and Hispanic origin.
--Less than 0.5.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
cExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
dIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
eIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; National Inmate Survey, 2007, 2008–2009, and 2011–2012; and National Prisoner
Statistics, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

24

Table 25
Number of state and federal prisoner deaths, by location, 2001–2013
Location
Federal
Statea
Alabama
Alaskab
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticutb
Delawareb
Florida
Georgia
Hawaiib
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandb
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermontb
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

2001
301
2,869
87
8
64
42
287
42
30
16
182
93
7
17
86
46
9
21
36
71
6
70
29
114
13
36
57
6
7
27
2
69
11
175
66
3
115
51
24
122
3
69
4
51
408
5
3
71
29
17
48
5

2002
335
2,933
85
14
72
31
337
51
30
15
183
102
13
9
72
49
11
22
41
78
7
71
20
113
15
33
65
5
8
25
9
60
15
185
59
1
113
64
33
126
8
45
11
61
396
9
2
69
30
8
49
3

2003
346
3,152
92
4
84
39
333
47
36
19
221
126
8
12
80
56
13
32
45
70
2
67
30
127
13
58
65
12
7
24
6
47
11
198
74
1
91
71
25
147
8
63
11
97
383
10
5
93
31
15
41
2

2004
333
3,123
65
8
66
34
348
39
33
13
226
90
8
12
97
56
15
30
42
94
4
78
25
138
6
51
77
12
7
31
6
57
16
153
94
1
126
53
34
161
7
50
5
71
395
11
1
86
36
13
40
2

2005
388
3,168
66
4
78
38
366
54
40
19
244
122
8
13
72
45
19
19
43
89
0
57
37
140
13
61
68
12
8
28
8
60
18
170
69
1
121
74
37
149
2
75
4
76
351
8
6
84
45
10
29
8

2006
328
3,233
61
6
72
37
424
31
25
13
261
103
5
18
94
70
12
16
46
72
6
61
39
138
9
58
66
5
8
23
6
70
13
131
90
1
106
80
40
124
8
65
4
84
443
7
7
78
36
13
45
3

2007
368
3,389
54
10
61
46
395
42
27
15
249
143
13
14
104
54
17
20
46
82
1
57
39
117
13
77
78
5
12
39
6
60
22
148
99
0
123
98
36
150
9
72
8
73
435
7
1
103
39
19
43
8

2008
399
3,450
75
14
77
41
369
38
32
15
291
128
14
18
71
70
21
24
68
117
2
69
29
99
17
54
87
9
6
35
5
66
29
133
117
0
101
88
31
145
6
83
6
74
469
11
3
86
35
19
44
9

2009
376
3,417
80
7
85
50
395
49
29
12
278
125
11
13
75
91
14
20
57
108
4
56
29
148
12
52
81
3
11
35
9
58
21
142
86
0
120
79
34
165
7
49
4
69
426
17
3
87
44
18
42
7

2010
387
3,234
66
13
85
54
414
48
21
23
275
112
12
13
94
69
13
22
42
100
3
40
39
93
16
52
88
2
12
41
4
56
16
124
87
1
116
60
39
141
7
70
8
74
375
13
5
94
35
20
25
2

2011
387
3,353
104
12
86
50
388
37
19
15
297
123
6
13
97
74
12
25
60
108
5
41
33
119
19
47
74
6
17
34
10
66
16
117
71
1
111
85
40
157
10
55
11
59
417
12
0
99
21
23
48
3

2012
350
3,357
86
11
87
43
368
48
24
10
324
103
12
9
85
59
20
17
55
116
2
46
42
124
14
41
71
11
11
37
5
48
14
115
79
3
126
79
26
157
6
58
9
84
462
15
2
86
33
24
46
4

2013
400
3,479
107
8
95
56
366
40
20
14
305
122
14
10
78
66
16
28
40
118
3
58
39
124
20
68
92
7
16
35
8
46
17
142
81
1
124
87
30
157
4
66
6
82
438
23
8
82
39
26
43
4

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Excludes executions; for execution data, see Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables
(NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014).
aIncludes 9 prisoner deaths reported by the District of Columbia in 2001. As of December 30, 2001, sentenced felons from the District of Columbia were the responsibility
of the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
bPrisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; National Prisoner Statistics, 2001–2006; and Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2007–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

25

Table 26
Mortality rate per 100,000 state and federal prisoners, by location, 2001–2013
Location
Federal
Statea
Alabama
Alaskab
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticutb
Delawareb
Florida
Georgia
Hawaiib
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandb
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermontb
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

2001
221
243
352
175 !
231
366
183
243
171
234
251
202
137 !
323
194
234
113 !
245
336
361
358 !
295
284
233
203
238
199
215 !
179 !
274
83 !
265
194 !
259
205
276 !
256
235
219
324
89 !
318
143 !
292
275
121 !
214 !
226
190
500
231
336 !

2002
232
243
339
322
245
262
211
274
160
226
243
215
256
165 !
169
241
131 !
245
354
390
377 !
294
202
223
219
215
218
174 !
198 !
248
364 !
228
250
276
179
90 !
250
291
283
317
230 !
197
374 !
333
260
210 !
147 !
223
184
224 !
226
183 !

2003
227
257
333
89 !
270
323
206
242
200
287
278
267
145 !
216
184
262
152
349
386
359
101 !
282
305
257
172
366
218
393
172 !
227
247 !
183
177 !
303
218
91 !
205
313
205
360
224 !
275
364 !
507
250
216 !
335 !
301
191
396
185
123 !

2004
208
251
254
176 !
204
270
212
198
183
193
272
176
144 !
208
220
255
176
334
315
483
199 !
335
254
283
75 !
312
251
444
169 !
281
246 !
224
250
239
264
88 !
285
234
269
397
221 !
221
164 !
367
252
233 !
51 !
277
218
326
181
113 !

2005
244
251
271
83 !
234
305
218
256
223
280
282
250
139 !
208
160
198
217
209
289
459
0
253
358
283
149
379
224
425
182 !
240
330 !
234
274
270
188
76 !
268
323
287
355
59 !
334
120 !
394
223
158 !
289 !
273
268
248 !
132
382 !

2006
201
249
253
119 !
201
288
246
141
132
185
289
195
91 !
270
208
281
136
181
295
346
288 !
269
362
268
102 !
354
219
170 !
182 !
180
224 !
274
196
206
239
75 !
219
350
303
282
215 !
283
121 !
435
279
139 !
316 !
253
214
298
199
147 !

2007
222
258
214
194 !
162
347
230
185
139
211
262
264
238
198
230
215
196
229
299
401
47 !
246
352
233
141
441
262
172 !
273
293
217 !
237
342
236
259
0
247
412
269
329
240 !
305
244 !
379
274
136 !
47 !
312
231
387
188
415 !

2008
241
260
296
280
195
312
216
164
161
216
291
243
257
256
156
265
241
281
446
561
98 !
298
260
203
188
302
289
309 !
134 !
272
175 !
266
459
221
293
0
198
372
229
298
160 !
350
179 !
382
295
214 !
142 !
264
204
388
197
528 !

2009
220
259
294
128 !
210
375
234
216
153
182
274
233
227 !
181
166
340
157
231
380
543
193 !
254
260
325
126
302
265
97 !
245 !
278
309 !
241
319
243
214
0
236
328
248
327
205 !
207
118 !
346
269
324
135 !
281
255
356
189
402 !

2010
224
246
241
242
212
380
254
211
113
361
269
212
227
180
194
253
137
243
290
526
154 !
175
349
211
170
316
288
64 !
260
336
153 !
229
240
220
215
71 !
224
248
281
293
222 !
304
236 !
369
234
239
241 !
295
206
394
113
96 !

2011
220
260
388
193
215
355
263
169
106
229
294
233
110 !
174
200
270
132
268
429
573
253 !
178
288
277
204
305
239
192 !
365
280
413 !
279
239
212
179
72 !
218
358
291
316
330 !
246
309 !
298
261
227
0
324
123
447
214
139 !

2012
198
265
321
174 !
217
306
277
236
140
149 !
325
187
227
117 !
172
210
229
179
423
624
101 !
211
377
284
149
260
228
355 !
233 !
294
195 !
208
211
213
211
212 !
248
324
184
313
197 !
265
250 !
424
298
283
98 !
289
195
450
205
183 !

2013
230
274
399
157 !
232
392
272
198
115
206
302
227
271
139 !
160
232
184
291
329
628
145 !
267
367
284
213
436
292
224 !
319
274
281 !
207
251
266
218
64 !
240
343
205
312
126 !
306
166 !
395
282
427
385 !
273
220
456
192
175 !

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Mortality rates are not directly comparable between states because rates are not adjusted. Excludes
executions; for execution data, see Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014).
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate. See Methodology.
aIncludes 9 prisoner deaths reported by the District of Columbia in 2001. As of December 31, 2001, sentenced felons from the District of Columbia were the responsibility
of the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
bPrisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; National Prisoner Statistics, 2001–2006; and Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2007–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

26

Table 27
Number of state and federal prisoner deaths, by cause of death and location, 2001–2013
Location
All causesa
Federal
4,701
Stated
42,157
Alabama
1,028
Alaskae
119
Arizona
1,012
Arkansas
561
California
4,790
Colorado
566
Connecticute
366
Delawaree
199
Florida
3,336
Georgia
1,492
Hawaiie
131
Idaho
171
Illinois
1,105
Indiana
805
Iowa
192
Kansas
296
Kentucky
621
Louisiana
1,223
Maine
45
Maryland
771
Massachusetts
430
Michigan
1,594
Minnesota
180
Mississippi
688
Missouri
969
Montana
95
Nebraska
130
Nevada
414
New Hampshire
84
New Jersey
763
New Mexico
219
New York
1,933
North Carolina
1,072
North Dakota
14
Ohio
1,493
Oklahoma
969
Oregon
429
Pennsylvania
1,901
Rhode Islande
85
South Carolina
820
South Dakota
91
Tennessee
955
Texas
5,398
Utah
148
Vermonte
46
Virginia
1,118
Washington
453
West Virginia
225
Wisconsin
543
Wyoming
60

Cancer
…
11,223
267
19
266
155
1,131
110
49
44
1,001
395
36
47
332
209
66
91
192
394
12
160
113
532
52
173
275
25
26
81
31
175
58
527
342
3
489
235
122
521
18
172
17
241
1,226
31
10
375
131
64
172
10

Heart
disease
…
10,795
246
25
227
191
811
109
88
45
697
498
21
49
316
213
39
76
200
330
12
174
107
499
33
269
276
17
33
102
17
227
40
491
281
4
429
247
92
546
20
315
27
279
1,384
30
10
298
108
85
141
19

Illness
Liver
Respiratory
disease disease
…
…
4,063
2,558
104
62
15
2
141
59
43
28
523
344
106
40
58
20
18
11
267
213
92
110
17
4
11
10
59
55
68
50
10
18
35
15
49
24
100
47
5
2
64
30
48
24
140
75
29
7
38
35
114
54
14
4
19
6
31
11
10
3
52
48
41
16
171
85
94
73
2
0
88
108
112
57
75
15
196
102
1
2
46
42
14
7
107
53
581
429
14
6
8
1
113
58
56
29
18
10
36
48
9
5

AIDSrelated
159
1,733
34
1
27
22
114
1
9
19
272
76
4
1
63
19
5
1
25
95
1
99
9
38
1
20
19
0
3
9
2
81
3
209
57
0
31
25
4
32
4
33
1
36
147
0
3
52
9
5
10
1

All otherb
4,139
7,002
205
16
137
69
1,009
103
76
27
664
177
20
24
149
131
24
50
106
163
6
87
61
156
31
88
157
17
15
105
6
104
31
194
158
3
223
136
63
371
8
150
8
143
1,164
30
5
147
74
34
65
10

Suicide
198
2,577
18
20
83
29
425
45
55
22
91
66
21
21
92
51
25
16
14
24
3
60
41
92
22
30
47
12
10
26
11
40
18
165
33
1
81
56
30
92
18
35
11
39
326
27
6
37
25
4
57
4

Drug/alcohol
intoxication Accident
…
49
546
411
3
12
8
8
36
5
1
10
174
35
20
13
2
5
4
0
10
32
1
13
2
1
1
2
8
12
26
12
1
0
2
6
2
4
1
8
1
0
48
6
10
7
14
21
3
1
3
9
6
5
3
1
4
2
2
2
4
0
9
6
4
1
24
23
3
18
1
0
7
7
19
21
11
6
6
9
4
3
1
2
1
3
17
9
16
50
3
1
3
0
3
4
3
8
1
2
7
5
1
1

Homicidec
116
762
16
2
26
10
182
19
4
2
60
47
4
2
14
20
1
3
2
5
3
36
2
14
1
10
13
2
1
7
0
10
7
20
11
0
24
40
6
13
1
22
2
22
54
3
0
10
7
2
0
0

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Excludes executions; for execution data, see
Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014). See Methodology for details on illnesses and homicides.
… Not available.
aIncludes other, unknown, and missing causes of death.
bIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
cIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
dIncludes 9 prisoner deaths reported by the District of Columbia in 2001. As of December 30, 2001, sentenced felons from the District of Columbia were the responsibility
of the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
ePrisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; National Prisoner Statistics, 2001–2006; and Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2007–2013.

Table 28

Average annual mortality rate per 100,000 state and federal prisoners, by cause of death and location, 2001–2013
Location
Federal
Statec
Alabama
Alaskad
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticutd
Delawared
Florida
Georgia
Hawaiid
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandd
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermontd
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

All causes
222
255
305
179
216
331
231
208
154
227
281
223
189
199
186
251
169
253
351
479
174
259
310
258
161
326
246
246
227
268
248
237
262
244
222
82
237
319
252
323
193
278
213
379
265
228
182
276
208
379
189
242

Cancer
…
68
79
29
57
91
55
40
21
50
84
59
52
55
56
65
58
78
108
154
46
54
82
86
47
82
70
65
45
52
92
54
69
67
71
18 !
78
77
72
89
41
58
40
96
60
48
40 !
93
60
108
60
40 !

Heart
disease
…
65
73
38
48
113
39
40
37
51
59
75
30
57
53
66
34
65
113
129
46
58
77
81
30
127
70
44
58
66
50
70
48
62
58
23 !
68
81
54
93
45
107
63
111
68
46
40 !
74
50
143
49
77

Illness
Liver
Respiratory
disease disease
…
…
25
15
31
18
23
3!
30
13
25
17
25
17
39
15
24
8
21
13 !
22
18
14
16
24
6!
13 !
12 !
10
9
21
16
9!
16
30
13
28
14
39
18
19 !
8!
21
10
35
17
23
12
26
6!
18
17
29
14
36
10 !
33
10 !
20
7!
30 !
9!
16
15
49
19
22
11
20
15
12 !
0
14
17
37
19
44
9
33
17
2!
5!
16
14
33
16 !
42
21
29
21
22
9!
32 !
4!
28
14
26
13
30
17 !
13
17
36 !
20 !

AIDSrelated
8
10
10
2!
6
13
6
-- !
4!
22
23
11
6!
1!
11
6
4!
1!
14
37
4!
33
6!
6
1!
9
5
0
5!
6!
6!
25
4!
26
12
0
5
8
2!
5
9!
11
2!
14
7
0
12 !
13
4!
8!
3!
4!

All othera
195
42
61
24
29
41
49
38
32
31
56
26
29
28
25
41
21
43
60
64
23 !
29
44
25
28
42
40
44
26
68
18 !
32
37
25
33
18 !
35
45
37
63
18 !
51
19 !
57
57
46
20 !
36
34
57
23
40 !

Suicide
9
16
5
30
18
17
21
17
23
25
8
10
30
24
15
16
22
14
8
9
12 !
20
30
15
20
14
12
31
17 !
17
32 !
12
22
21
7
6!
13
18
18
16
41
12
26 !
15
16
42
24 !
9
11
7!
20
16 !

Drug/alcohol
intoxication Accident
…
2
3
2
1!
4
12 !
12 !
8
1!
1!
6!
8
2
7
5
1!
2!
5!
0
1!
3
-- !
2
3!
1!
1!
2!
1!
2
8
4
1!
0
2!
5!
1!
2!
-- !
3!
4!
0
16
2!
7!
5!
2
3
3!
1!
1!
4!
2!
1!
8!
3!
7!
3!
1!
1!
12 !
0
3!
2!
5!
1!
3
3
1!
4
6!
0
1!
1!
6
7
6!
4!
1!
2!
9!
7!
-- !
1!
2!
7!
7
4!
1
2
5!
2!
12 !
0
1!
1!
1!
4!
2!
3!
2!
2!
4!
4!

Homicideb
5
5
5
3!
6
6!
9
7
2!
2!
5
7
6!
2!
2
6
1!
3!
1!
2!
12 !
12
1!
2
1!
5!
3
5!
2!
5!
0
3!
8!
3
2!
0
4
13
4!
2
2!
7
5!
9
3
5!
0
2!
3!
3!
0
0

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Mortality rates presented are not adjusted. Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Excludes
executions; for execution data, see Capital Punishment, 2013 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 248448, BJS web, December 2014). See Methodology for details on rates, illnesses,
and homicides.
--Less than 0.5.
...Not available.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aIncludes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of death, as well as unspecified illnesses.
bIncludes homicides committed by other inmates, incidental to the staff use of force, and resulting from assaults sustained prior to incarceration.
cIncludes 9 prisoner deaths reported by the District of Columbia in 2001. As of December 30, 2001, sentenced felons from the District of Columbia were the responsibility of
the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
dPrisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013; National Prisoner Statistics, 2001–2006; and Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2007–2013.

Methodology
Data collection coverage
The Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) is an
annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) data collection.
The DCRP collects national, state, and incident-level data
on persons who died while in the physical custody of the
50 state departments of corrections or the approximately
2,800 local adult jail jurisdictions nationwide. The DCRP
began in 2000 under the Death in Custody Reporting Act
of 2000 (P.L. 106-297), and it is the only national statistical
collection to obtain comprehensive information about
deaths in adult correctional facilities. BJS uses DCRP data to
track national trends in the number and causes (or manners)
of deaths occurring in state prison or local jail custody.
Mortality data measured by the DCRP include decedent
characteristics, such as age, sex, race or Hispanic origin, date
of admission, conviction status, admission offense, and the
location and type of facility (prison or jail) where the inmate
died. The DCRP also collects data about circumstances
surrounding the death, including the cause, time and
location where the death occurred, and information on
whether an autopsy was conducted and the availability of
results to the respondent. Data on executions are excluded
from this report but are accessible on the BJS website along
with the DCRP mortality data. Statistics presented in this
report are current as of March 1, 2015. For more information
on mortality in correctional settings, see Mortality in Local
Jails, 2000–2007 (NCJ 222988, BJS web, July 2010); Medical
Causes of Death in State Prisons, 2001–2004 (NCJ 216340,
BJS web, January 2007); and Suicide and Homicide in State
Prisons and Local Jails (NCJ 210036, BJS web, August 2005).
The DCRP data collection instruments are administered
annually to both state prisons and local jails. Respondents
provide an aggregate count of the number of deaths that
occurred during the referenced calendar year. The jail (CJ-9)
and prison (NPS-4A) survey instruments used to obtain data
on each prison and jail death are available on the BJS website
at www.bjs.gov.
In addition to the death count, BJS requests that jails provide
summary statistics about their population and admissions.
All jails, including those with no deaths to report (which
includes about 80% of jails in any given year) are asked to
complete the annual summary survey form. The 2013 DCRP
jail annual summary form was combined with the Census
of Jails data collection, which gathered facility-level data on
the jail reporting units. Items such as each facility’s count of
inmates confined at yearend by race, operating expenditures,
rated capacity, and number of employed staff were new for
respondents this year. The instrument used for the Census of
Jails included 18 questions, which was a significant increase
compared to the 5-question instrument used in the past.

BJS obtains a separate report describing the decedent’s
characteristics and the circumstances surrounding the death
for each death that occurred in a state prison or local jail.
State prison and local jail respondents can submit individual
records on decedents at any time during a collection cycle
through a BJS web-based collection system.
BJS has modified the survey instruments slightly over time,
including changes to clarify questions and ease the burden
on respondents. Several questions were added to capture
information on any medical treatment that the inmate
received prior to death. Changes also allowed respondents
to elaborate on cause of death by adding text boxes to the
intoxication, suicide, and inmate-involved homicide death
questions. Previously, these fields had only been available
for deaths due to illness, accident, homicides not caused by
other inmates, and other unspecified causes. In addition,
BJS clarified respondent instructions on the prison forms
and removed a question collecting the conviction status of
an inmate after an analysis showed that more than 99% of
prison inmates were convicted at the time of death. BJS also
streamlined the survey layout to simplify the progression
through questions related to autopsies. Rather than initially
submitting an incomplete instrument that indicated
pending autopsy results, respondents were only permitted
to complete the entire survey after autopsy results were
available. This change reduced follow-up contact and the
burden on respondents.
Starting in 2001 and annually thereafter, BJS has collected
DCRP data directly from state prison systems, maintaining a
100% response rate.
Nonresponse
The jail universe includes all jails currently operating and
jails that have been contacted for the DCRP but have closed,
consolidated, or otherwise eliminated operations. This
universe allows BJS to determine jail participation in the
DCRP. The most recent jail universe, constructed in January
2015, identified 2,870 jurisdictions representing 3,170 jail
facilities. Of these, 2,703 jurisdictions (94.2%) participated
in the DCRP.
A jail jurisdiction is a legal entity that has responsibility
for managing jail facilities. Jail jurisdictions typically
operate at the county level, in which a sheriff ’s office or
jail administrator manages the local facilities. The DCRP
data identify the jail facility in which a jail inmate dies,
but the data are arrayed at the jail jurisdiction level. BJS
defines a jail as a locally operated correctional facility that
confines persons before or after adjudication for more than
72 hours, excluding temporary lockups. Typically, there
is one facility per jail jurisdiction, but the 2013 Census

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

29

of Jails found that 6.7% of jail jurisdictions had multiple
facilities under a central authority.1 (See the BJS website for
more information.)
Determining eligibility for reporting to the DCRP
In the DCRP, custody refers to the holding of an inmate
in a facility or to the period during which a correctional
authority maintains a chain of custody over an inmate. For
instance, if a jail transports an ill inmate to a hospital for
medical services and that inmate dies while in the chain of
custody of the jail, then that death is counted as a death in
custody. A death that occurs when an inmate is not in the
custody of a correctional authority is considered beyond the
scope of the DCRP. Out-of-scope deaths include inmates
on escape status or under the supervision of community
corrections on probation, parole, or home-electronic
monitoring. BJS instructs both state prison and local jail
officials to determine whether the inmate was in the physical
custody of the jurisdiction at the time of death, regardless
of the reason an inmate was being held. For state prisons
responding to the survey, inmates in physical custody
include those held in any private prison facility under
contract to the responding state’s department of corrections
or in any of their state-operated facilities, including halfway
houses, prison camps or farms, training or treatment centers,
and prison hospitals.
BJS instructs state prison officials to exclude deaths of
inmates who were transferred to local jails while still serving
a prison term because the DCRP obtains information about
such deaths through the jail reports. Jail inmate custody
includes inmates who are temporarily out of the jail facility
but are within the chain of custody of the jail. For example, a
death in custody would include a jail inmate who died after
being transferred to an offsite facility that cares for critically
ill persons. From 2000 to 2013, the DCRP data have shown
that about 84% of jail deaths occurring in medical facilities
have occurred outside of the jail facility.
Custody is further complicated by the dual law enforcement
and jail administration functions of some sheriffs’ offices.
As a result, some deaths reported as jail deaths actually
occurred before the jail had custody of the decedent. BJS
identifies and excludes from the DCRP these deaths that
occurred in the process of arrest by using information about
the circumstances surrounding the death.
1 Approximately

Identifying and excluding duplicate records
Duplicate death records may occur in the DCRP due to
overlapping correctional populations and overlapping duties
within correctional facilities. For example, a jail jurisdiction
may have more than one unit responsible for reporting data
to BJS, a jail may be holding a state prison inmate, or state
prison systems may report the death of an inmate who was
transferred to a local jail but was serving a prison sentence at
the time.
To identify duplicate death records, BJS reconciles the
aggregate summary counts of deaths occurring during a
calendar year with the number of individual death records
obtained from a reporting jurisdiction. When discrepancies
are identified, BJS contacts reporting jurisdictions to clarify
matters. However, even if summary counts and individual
reports are reconciled, duplicate death records may exist
if multiple reporting units within a jurisdiction provide
reconciled data.
Duplicate records occur primarily in reports from jail
jurisdictions that have multiple reporting entities. To identify
duplicate records, BJS performs record-matching based on
inmate name and date of birth, date of death, and date of
admission into a correctional facility. After the aggregate
count review, BJS searches for deaths reported to both the
jail and prison DCRP collections, which most commonly
occur when a local jail is housing an inmate for the state
department of corrections. The death is considered part of
the count of the facility that had custody of the inmate at the
time of death, and the duplicate record is deleted.
Duplicate and out-of-scope records are excluded from
the analyses.
Cause-of-death information
The instructions for completing the DCRP tell respondents
to report death information as determined by an autopsy
or other official medical death investigation. For this
collection, intoxication deaths, accidents, suicides, and
homicides are considered discrete causes of death. Although
there is a distinction between manner and cause of death
from a medico-legal standpoint, no such distinction is
made in the DCRP. When reporting a death due to illness,
accident, suicide, intoxication, or homicide, BJS requests that
respondents describe the events surrounding these deaths.

15% of all facilities were part of a multifacility jurisdiction.

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30

Clinical data specialists convert illness-related death text
entries into standard medical codes according to the World
Health Organization’s International Statistical Classification
of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision
(ICD-10).
Homicides include all types of intentional homicide and
involuntary manslaughter as ruled by a medical examiner
or pathologist at autopsy. For example, an inmate may die
of positional asphyxia (suffocation caused by the position
of the inmate’s body) while the inmate is being removed
from a cell. A legal-intervention homicide committed while
the inmate is trying to escape would also be included. In
addition, homicides include cases that are ruled a homicide
at autopsy when events that led to the death occurred prior
to incarceration. For example, an inmate who was shot
in the community years prior to incarceration died from
complications of the gunshot wound while incarcerated.
Other BJS sources of correctional mortality data
BJS collects other data reported to the DCRP on correctional
mortality. These other collections include—
ƒƒCapital Punishment, which provides data on legal
executions. Further discussion on executions is available
on the BJS website.
ƒƒThe National Prisoner Statistics (NPS), which annually
collected aggregate counts of deaths in state and federal
prisons prior to the establishment of the DCRP. Prior to
2007, the NPS also collected counts of deaths by cause of
death, including deaths due to execution, illness, AIDS,
suicide, accident, homicide, and other causes. After 2006,
the Federal Bureau of Prisons continued to submit the
counts of deaths by cause of death using the DCRP, but no
longer provided counts of deaths using the NPS. Further
discussion of the NPS is available on the BJS website.
ƒƒThe Census of Jails, conducted every 5 to 6 years, provides
counts of inmate deaths in local jails. Further discussion
of the Census of Jails is available on the BJS website.
ƒƒThe Survey of Jails in Indian Country (SJIC), which
provides aggregate counts of the number of deaths
occurring in all known Indian country correctional
facilities operated by tribal authorities or the U.S.
Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Further discussion of the SJIC is available on the
BJS website.
Reported statistics
Mortality data are shown in statistical tables by type of
correctional institution (state prisons and local jails) and
include the number of deaths and mortality rates by year,
cause of death, selected decedent characteristics, and state.

Mortality rates are calculated per 100,000 inmates, with the
denominators providing estimates of the number of personyears of exposure in custody in institutional corrections. Until
2010, the mortality rate for state prisons was calculated as the
number of deaths per year divided by the midyear state prison
population in custody multiplied by 100,000. Starting in 2011,
the rate was calculated using yearend custody counts because
midyear populations were no longer available. Custody
counts for state prisons provide estimates of person-years for
prison populations. BJS uses data from the NPS to provide
midyear and yearend custody counts of prisoners. For more
information on the NPS, see the BJS website.
The mortality rate in local jails is calculated as the number
of deaths per year divided by the jail inmate average daily
population (ADP) multiplied by 100,000. The ADP for local
jails is defined as the average daily number of jail inmates
held in a jail jurisdiction during a calendar year, from
January 1 through December 31.
The ADP is used as the denominator for jail mortality rates
to accommodate the high turnover and daily fluctuation
in local jail populations. Also, the ADP better reflects the
number of inmate days per year than a 1-day count. Jail
populations have a higher turnover than prison populations;
mean length of stay in local jails is about 21 days, compared
to 2 years in state prisons.
The jail ADP also reflects the annual number of admissions
and mean length of stay, and can be expressed as the product
of these two values. When mean length of stay is expressed
in years, the ADP is equivalent to the number of personyears spent by jail inmates during a given year. BJS obtains
the jail ADP data directly from jails through the DCRP
using the summary form CJ-9A. Starting in 2002, BJS
collected the ADP directly from respondents. Prior to 2002,
BJS calculated the jail ADP by taking the average of the
January 1 count from the prior year and the December 31
count from the reference year, which is an appropriate proxy
measure for the ADP.
Both denominators provide for annualizing mortality rates,
which are calculated separately by group or by characteristic.
The annualized mortality rates in state prisons and local jails
are comparable to annual crude mortality rates reported by
the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
The NCHS calculates crude mortality rates as the number of
events for a period (e.g., a year) divided by the population
estimate at the midpoint of the period. For general
population mortality statistics, the NCHS employs the
midyear population as an approximation to the average
population exposed to risk of death during any given year.2
2 See

Siegal, J. & Swanson, D. (2004). The Methods and Materials of
Demography, Second Edition. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press, 269.

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31

The crude mortality rates reported in the DCRP annual
statistical tables are not directly comparable to the crude
mortality rates within the (nonincarcerated) general
population, and the crude mortality rates in state prisons
are not directly comparable to those of local jails. The
composition of the general population (i.e., age, sex, and
race or Hispanic origin) differs from the population in state
prisons and local jails. Because mortality is correlated with
age, sex, and race or Hispanic origin, the crude mortality
rates in state prisons, local jails, and the general population
should not be compared.
Individual inmate death records collected annually in
the death file are included in the national death count.
Independent jail-specific summary death counts are
collected in the annual summary form (CJ-9A or CJ-10A)
and serve as control death totals. If the death count in the
summary form file is greater than the count in the individual
inmate death file, the summary file count is used as the
total in calculating a jail mortality rate. For 2013, individual
records for jail inmate deaths were adjusted to match
independent counts of deaths occurring in each jail, and the
mortality rates were adjusted accordingly.
Estimating inmate population characteristics to
calculate mortality rates by demographic subgroups
BJS does not obtain annual data for all demographic
characteristics of prison and jail inmates in all jurisdictions.
BJS uses data from sources other than the DCRP to
estimate the nationwide composition of state prison and
local jail inmate populations by age, sex, and race or
Hispanic origin. These data sources consist primarily of
periodic surveys of inmates in custody in prisons and jails.
The inmate characteristic distributions obtained from
these surveys are applied to denominators (i.e., counts of
inmates or ADP) to estimate the number of inmates in each
demographic subgroup.
BJS estimated the demographic distribution of the state
prison population data from the NPS and National
Corrections Reporting Program (NCRP) collections.
For a discussion on the methodology for obtaining state
prisoner distribution estimates by age, sex, and race or
Hispanic origin, see Prisoners in 2012 (NCJ 243920, BJS web,
December 2013).
Prior to using the NPS and NCRP to estimate demographic
distributions, reports of mortality rates for state prison
inmates used demographic distributions derived from BJS’s
2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional
Facilities (SISFCF). As a result, the state prison mortality
rates shown in these tables may differ from previously
published rates. A rate comparison between the two sources
showed very little difference in the resultant mortality
rates. In most instances, the rates either matched or
nearly matched. The rates differed in only three instances:
Hispanics in 2001, and females and inmates age 55 or

older in 2002. In each instance, the rates calculated using
population data from the NCRP and NPS were slightly
higher (less than a 1% increase) than rates calculated using
population data from the SISFCF.
To estimate inmate demographic characteristic distributions
of the ADP, BJS used data from several surveys to generate
distributions of age, sex, and race or Hispanic origin and
applied these distributions to the ADP. BJS’s Annual Survey
of Jails (ASJ) provided estimates of the sex distribution of
inmates for each year of the DCRP collection and applied
these to each year’s ADP from the DCRP to estimate the
ADP of male and female jail inmates. Jail Inmates at Midyear
2010 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 233431, BJS web, April 2011)
documents that the distributions of inmate characteristics
have changed slowly over time. For the most recent
information on the ASJ, see the BJS website.
To estimate the distribution of race and Hispanic origin of
adult jail inmates, BJS used data from the Survey of Inmates
in Local Jails (SILJ), the National Inmate Survey (NIS), and
the Census of Jails to estimate the relative distribution of
adults by race and Hispanic origin for different periods.
Because the SILJ (2002), the NIS (2007 to 2009), and
the Census of Jails (2013) are not fielded annually, the
population estimates were smoothed before being applied to
DCRP data. BJS used the SILJ estimates to cover the period
from 2000 to 2004, the NIS estimates to cover the period
from 2005 to 2012, and the Census of Jails to cover 2013. In
all cases, the percentages associated with the distribution of
race and Hispanic origin were applied to the adult jail ADP.
For more information about jail inmates in 2002, see Profile
of Jail Inmates, 2002 (NCJ 201932, BJS web, July 2004).
To estimate the age distribution of the jail inmate
population, BJS first obtained an estimate of the number of
jail inmates age 17 or younger from the 2013 Census of Jails
data collection. By applying the annual percentage of jail
inmates age 17 or younger to the annual ADP, BJS obtained
an estimate of the ADP of jail inmates age 17 or younger.
To estimate the age distribution of adult jail inmates, BJS
used data from the SILJ for 2000 to 2006 and the NIS for
2007 to 2013 to estimate the relative distribution of adults
by age category for different periods. The age estimates were
smoothed to account for gaps in reference years when age
estimates were available, specifically for 2003, 2006, 2010,
and 2011.
Moving averages
Moving averages were used to smooth short-term
irregularities and to estimate long-term trends. For instance,
moving averages were computed to examine data trends for
certain causes of death in jails and prisons while smoothing
short-term fluctuations. The data were cut into several 3-year
overlapping periods spanning 13 years of prison data and
14 years of jail data.

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32

The moving averages in this report describe some changes
in cause-specific mortality rates over time (e.g., whether the
overall decline in the AIDS-related mortality rate was steady,
or whether the increase of suicides in jails was recent).
Moving averages were not computed for all causes of death
in custody because the resultant rates would have been
unstable and therefore statistically meaningless due to small
cell sizes.
Random error and suppression
The DCRP data on deaths in state prisons and local jails are
not subject to sampling error. However, mortality data from
a complete or near-complete enumeration may be subject to
random error. Following the methodology of Brillinger3 and
NCHS, “the number of deaths that actually occurred may
be considered as one of a large series of possible results that
could have arisen under the same set of circumstances.4 The
random variation can be large when the number of deaths
is small. Therefore, caution is warranted when interpreting
statistics based on small numbers of deaths. According
to NCHS standards, mortality rates based on fewer than
100 deaths per year should be interpreted with caution.
Continuing to use the NCHS and Brillinger methods,
BJS quantified random variation by assuming that the
appropriate underlying probability distribution for the
number of deaths is a Poisson distribution. This provides
a computationally simple and reasonable approach for
estimating variances in mortality statistics when the
probability of dying is low. BJS calculated variances based on
the assumption of a Poisson process. From these variances,
BJS calculated relative random error estimates, which are
comparable to relative standard error in that the relative
random error is the ratio of random error derived from the
Poisson variance to the number of deaths. Following NCHS,
when the relative random error exceeded 30%, BJS flagged
estimated mortality rates due to the instability of the rate
with a “!” symbol (Interpret with caution; too few sample
cases to provide a reliable rate).
3 See

Brillinger, D.R. (1986). The Natural Variability of Vital Rates and
Associated Statistics. Biometrics, 42, 693–734.
4 See

Xu, J. et al. (2010). Deaths: Final Data for 2007. National Vital Statistics
Report, 58(19). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/
nvsr58_19.pdf.

Survey performance issues
Survey administration and modifications to the survey form
generated data from 2007 to 2009 that may not be wholly
compatible with prior DCRP data. In 2012, BJS identified
a previously undetected data error that mischaracterized
more than 600 illness-related deaths as illness-related deaths
missing detailed cause-of-death information. The data error
led to an inflated frequency of prison deaths in reference
year 2007 being characterized as all other illnesses while
simultaneously depressing frequencies of known illnesses
(e.g., heart disease, cancer, and liver disease). The error
was identified and resolved, correcting the distributions.
In 2008, local jail officials were unable to provide causes
of death for 21.4% of jail inmate deaths. During 2009, BJS
made modifications to the collection instruments to improve
reporting and reduce burden.
ƒƒItem nonresponse in 2008 jail data and unknown cause of
death: An abnormally large number of cases were missing
a response for cause of death in the 2008 jail file (n = 203;
21.4% of all jail deaths in 2008). This coincided with
the final year the U.S. Census Bureau acted as the data
collection agent for the DCRP. In prior years of the DCRP
jail data collection, an average of 6% of all causes of death
were classified as other or unknown. For this report, BJS
categorized all 203 jail deaths from 2008 as missing data
about cause of death.
ƒƒ2009 data collection: Prior to fielding the 2009 DCRP
collection, BJS reviewed the data collection instrument
and data submission procedures and assessed the
communications with DCRP respondents to reduce the
burden on respondents. The survey was modified to
facilitate navigation and to encourage online response.
The modifications led to delays in implementing data
collection. As a result, death reports were not collected
in the year the deaths occurred, but were instead
collected retrospectively during 2010 for the first time.
Data collection for subsequent years resumed on a
normal schedule.
ƒƒHispanic origin: In 2013, the death record form was altered
to collect a two-question format regarding ethnicity and
race. If Hispanic was selected, the decedent was classified
as Hispanic regardless of what was selected for race.

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Appendix table 1
Estimated number of local jail inmates in custody on an average day, by selected inmate characteristics, 2000–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic
origina
White
Black/African
American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictedd
Unconvictede
Jail sizef
49 or fewer
inmates
50–99
100–249
250–499
500–999
1,000 or more

Total
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
10,054,000 598,000 640,000 668,000 688,000 716,000 742,000 772,000 783,000 780,000 749,000 734,000 723,000 746,000 715,000
8,801,000 530,000 566,000 591,000 608,000 628,000 648,000 673,000 682,000 681,000 658,000 642,000 632,000 646,000 616,000
1,226,000 68,000 68,000 74,000 78,000 82,000 88,000 94,000 100,000 101,000 99,000 91,000 92,000 91,000 100,000
3,613,000 214,000 229,000 239,000 247,000 256,000 263,000 274,000 277,000 277,000 265,000 259,000 244,000 252,000 317,000
3,715,000 239,000 256,000 267,000 275,000 286,000 271,000 282,000 286,000 285,000 272,000 266,000 243,000 251,000 236,000
1,924,000 110,000 118,000 123,000 127,000 132,000 136,000 141,000 143,000 152,000 154,000 151,000 162,000 167,000 108,000
751,000 33,000 35,000 36,000 38,000 39,000 59,000 62,000 63,000 66,000 59,000 57,000 74,000 77,000 53,000
93,000
7,000
7,000
7,000
7,000
7,000
7,000
7,000
2,728,000 170,000 181,000 189,000 193,000 198,000 204,000 209,000
3,275,000 192,000 205,000 215,000 220,000 228,000 236,000 244,000
2,377,000 157,000 167,000 175,000 177,000 181,000 184,000 188,000
1,263,000 60,000 64,000 67,000 74,000 83,000 91,000 100,000
319,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 17,000 19,000 21,000 23,000

7,000
210,000
247,000
187,000
108,000
25,000

7,000
211,000
250,000
179,000
106,000
27,000

7,000
204,000
244,000
166,000
101,000
27,000

6,000
196,000
244,000
159,000
101,000
28,000

6,000
189,000
245,000
153,000
101,000
29,000

6,000
191,000
258,000
155,000
106,000
31,000

5,000
183,000
247,000
149,000
101,000
30,000

3,941,000 263,000 266,000 267,000 271,000 284,000 282,000 293,000 297,000 289,000 283,000 285,000 285,000 294,000 282,000
6,110,000 335,000 374,000 400,000 417,000 432,000 460,000 480,000 485,000 490,000 466,000 448,000 438,000 452,000 433,000
324,000 28,000 27,000 25,000 25,000 24,000 23,000 23,000 22,000 22,000 21,000 21,000 21,000 22,000 20,000
548,000 40,000 40,000 42,000 42,000 43,000 40,000 40,000 38,000 39,000 38,000 37,000 36,000 37,000 36,000
1,336,000 83,000 90,000 92,000 95,000 96,000 98,000 100,000 97,000 97,000 96,000 99,000 98,000 98,000 97,000
1,416,000 76,000 88,000 93,000 100,000 102,000 103,000 100,000 110,000 107,000 108,000 102,000 106,000 116,000 105,000
1,720,000 100,000 107,000 107,000 110,000 113,000 127,000 135,000 128,000 132,000 125,000 136,000 133,000 134,000 133,000
4,707,000 270,000 288,000 308,000 317,000 338,000 351,000 375,000 388,000 382,000 361,000 339,000 328,000 339,000 323,000

Note: Data may have been revised from previously published statistics. Subpopulation estimates, such as sex, race or Hispanic origin, and age, were based on the reported
proportion of the subpopulation in comparison to the total average daily population (ADP). Subpopulations for legal status were estimated using data from the Annual Survey
of Jails. Subpopulations for sex and jail size were based on total counts as reported to the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program. Prior to 2003, age and race or Hispanic origin
were estimated using data from the Survey of Local Jail Inmates. After 2007, race and Hispanic origin were estimated using data from the National Inmate Survey. Bridge data
years, 2003 and 2006, were estimated by smoothing the 2002 and 2007 estimates. See Methodology for details on Hispanic origin and probation or parole violations.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
fJail size based on ADP.
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Survey of Jails, 2000–2013; Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013; National Inmate Survey, 2007, 2008–2009, and
2011–2012; and Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

34

Appendix table 2
Illness mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictedd
Unconvictede

2001
81

2002
76

2003
75

2004
74

2005
71

2006
73

2007
78

2008
67

2009
61

2010
65

2011
62

2012
65

2013
69

82
78

76
79

75
81

73
85

70
83

72
83

77
86

66
74

60
65

65
66

61
66

64
74

70
70

91
89
57
22

86
85
53
11 !

87
85
50
9!

85
83
49
20

85
81
42
20

88
89
41
18

90
99
45
19

79
83
38
19

78
69
35
17

86
73
34
15

87
72
26
9

96
75
27
10

84
80
45
15

15 !
9
31
93
284
683

14 !
7
30
94
254
626

14 !
8
28
92
241
619

7!
10
28
83
233
588

7!
9
25
76
210
581

7!
9
22
79
206
608

7!
10
25
85
208
604

0
7
24
69
179
520

7!
7
20
57
162
504

15 !
10
20
59
168
534

16 !
9
22
53
153
497

9!
7
23
51
166
524

0
7
22
60
177
540

60
95

57
88

58
86

56
85

51
83

49
87

51
94

45
80

44
70

52
73

46
72

49
75

55
79

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates, Hispanic origin, and probation or parole violations.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Appendix table 3
Heart disease mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by selected decendent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
2001
Total
33
Sex
Male
35
Female
26
Race/Hispanic origina
White
44
Black/African American 35
Hispanic/Latinob
13
Otherc
13 !
Age
17 or younger
15!
18–24
4
25–34
9
35–44
38
45–54
115
55 or older
343
Legal status
Convictedd
24
Unconvictede
40

2002
33

2003
34

2004
33

2005
29

2006
30

2007
31

2008
27

2009
25

2010
30

2011
33

2012
34

2013
36

34
34

35
31

34
27

30
24

31
24

32
23

27
24

25
25

30
26

33
30

35
34

37
33

44
35
16
6!

42
38
17
4!

39
37
20
8!

40
31
17
6!

41
33
12
9!

39
38
13
11

32
34
13
7!

34
29
13
5!

43
31
15
5!

48
38
10
5!

53
41
8
7!

45
45
15
8!

0
2!
11
37
121
329

0
2!
12
36
116
342

0
3!
12
34
110
301

0
3
10
28
90
271

0
3
9
30
80
289

0
3
8
35
78
276

0
2!
7
28
68
244

0
2!
7
22
67
238

0
4
8
27
77
265

0
3
10
28
85
277

0
3!
10
28
86
299

0
4
10
32
89
305

28
37

29
36

26
37

22
34

22
34

23
35

19
31

20
28

25
33

25
37

26
40

28
42

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates, Hispanic origin, and probation or parole violations.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

35

Appendix table 4
Suicide mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates, by selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictedd
Unconvictede

2001
49

2002
48

2003
45

2004
42

2005
40

2006
37

2007
36

2008
33

2009
35

2010
41

2011
42

2012
42

2013
43

51
32

50
35

46
38

44
33

42
26

40
21

39
20

35
19

36
24

42
33

44
31

44
26

45
30

96
18
30
27

99
14
29
24

93
13
28
19

80
17
31
26

74
17
31
22

70
17
25
16

69
17
21
18

65
13
19
19

71
12
18
20

85
14
20
22

89
14
24
14

90
16
21
11

77
18
28
15

96
36
49
52
57
88

84
37
41
60
58
73

62 !
33
43
54
54
51

62 !
32
43
48
47
54

56 !
30
38
49
44
63

42 !
25
36
46
42
57

43 !
24
32
47
47
48

36 !
23
26
43
44
58

22 !
24
31
45
45
55

23 !
24
41
51
56
54

25 !
25
42
51
58
60

26 !
29
38
54
49
64

37 !
26
42
54
47
86

24
66

21
66

20
61

18
58

15
56

15
50

15
49

13
44

17
45

20
54

19
57

19
56

18
59

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates, Hispanic origin, and probation or parole violations.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Appendix table 5
Mortality rate for all other unnatural deaths per 100,000 local jail inmates, by selected decedent characteristics, 2001–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African
American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older
Legal status
Convictedd
Unconvictede

2001
16

2002
17

2003
18

2004
19

2005
18

2006
19

2007
18

2008
12

2009
12

2010
14

2011
15

2012
15

2013
15

15
19

17
20

16
30

18
31

18
19

19
21

17
19

13
10

13
10

14
14

14
19

14
19

15
20

26

30

30

31

29

28

25

20

20

23

26

27

24

9
11
6 !

10
8
7 !

12
9
7 !

13
12
5 !

13
13
2 !

16
16
4 !

16
15
3 !

9
9
0

8
8
5 !

10
9
7 !

10
9
8 !

9
10
6 !

11
12
3 !

0
8
12
19
35
33 !

0
8
15
21
37
17 !

7 !
9
15
20
38
26 !

14 !
9
18
21
36
45

14 !
10
17
21
28
38

7 !
12
18
22
29
30

7 !
11
18
20
25
27

7 !
7
12
15
16
25

7 !
5
10
16
20
41

8 !
6
10
18
24
49

0
7
13
19
21
42

0
7
14
18
21
39

9 !
7
13
18
25
43

10
19

11
20

9
23

8
26

8
24

11
23

11
22

6
16

6
16

9
17

13
16

12
17

9
19

Note: All other unnatural deaths includes deaths caused by accident, homicide, and drug or alcohol intoxication. Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most
recent year. See Methodology for details on rates, Hispanic origin, and probation or parole violations.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
dIncludes inmates who returned on a probation or parole violation.
eIncludes inmates whose status was marked as other or was unspecified.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2000–2013.

Appendix table 6
Illness mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
Characteristic
2002
Total
243
Sex
Male
223
Female
124
Race/Hispanic origina
White
282
Black/African American 201
Hispanic/Latinob
173
Otherc
119
Age
17 or younger
0
18–24
14
25–34
38
35–44
155
45–54
540
55 or older
1,968

2003
251

2004
255

2005
252

2006
251

2007
253

2008
258

2009
259

2010
251

2011
252

2012
262

2013
269

231
135

234
139

231
145

228
135

229
124

234
142

235
149

230
126

231
125

240
128

246
127

295
208
165
110

303
213
153
136

305
210
149
147

302
206
158
118

304
205
169
119

320
201
175
148

324
202
173
147

315
202
158
127

344
195
123
76

370
202
110
63

368
209
122
72

18 !
11
39
156
525
1,963

20 !
13
39
150
515
1,990

0
14
36
135
514
2,038

19 !
11
34
121
526
2,071

18
11
30
109
509
2,238

20 !
14
27
99
450
2,177

20 !
16
26
92
413
2,015

42 !
16
26
90
372
1,715

64 !
14
25
87
344
1,599

21 !
13
24
84
339
1,680

0
16
24
78
324
1,627

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates and Hispanic origin.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Appendix table 7
Cancer mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2002
57

2003
62

2004
63

2005
62

2006
63

2007
60

2008
63

2009
71

2010
72

2011
75

2012
80

2013
82

60
22

64
32

65
35

64
33

65
33

62
32

66
31

73
38

74
41

77
50

83
45

86
38

82
49
40
35

90
52
36
32

90
56
34
33

88
56
36
42

91
56
37
44

90
54
32
34

98
55
30
41

108
60
39
47

108
62
43
45

120
64
35
27

133
70
31
19

133
72
34
22

0
1!
5
28
141
676

0
1!
5
31
141
671

0
2!
5
30
131
696

0
2!
5
26
132
696

0
1!
6
25
147
700

0
1!
4
20
138
707

20 !
2!
4
18
121
699

20 !
1!
4
20
125
706

0
4
4
20
120
612

21 !
5
5
20
111
586

21 !
3
6
21
112
629

0
2!
6
23
114
585

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates and Hispanic origin.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

37

Appendix table 8
Heart disease mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2002
65

2003
66

2004
67

2005
67

2006
66

2007
65

2008
64

2009
64

2010
63

2011
65

2012
65

2013
67

67
35

68
35

69
33

70
33

69
31

67
30

66
35

66
37

66
25

68
25

67
34

70
28

94
57
38
21

93
61
37
22

94
62
33
41

97
62
32
42

96
62
36
23

92
60
41
31

89
59
44
43

92
58
42
33

90
61
36
27

98
61
29
16

103
62
21
16

103
65
23
23

0
3
11
40
140
710

0
2!
11
40
138
672

0
3
12
42
136
635

0
5
13
40
133
662

0
5
11
35
135
682

0
3
9
30
133
711

0
4
8
27
113
653

0
5
8
28
99
594

21 !
4
8
30
92
502

21 !
3!
8
32
87
467

0
3!
7
29
83
480

0
6
8
25
78
471

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates and Hispanic origin.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Appendix table 9
Liver disease mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
Characteristic
2002
Total
25
Sex
Male
26
Female
15
Race/Hispanic origina
White
36
Black/African American
14
Hispanic/Latinob
40
Otherc
30
Age
17 or younger
0
18–24
0
25–34
2
35–44
20
45–54
100
55 or older
118

2003
25

2004
24

2005
24

2006
24

2007
24

2008
24

2009
24

2010
23

2011
24

2012
25

2013
26

26
12

25
11

25
16

25
13

25
9

25
11

26
10

24
9

25
9

26
10

27
15

34
15
38
24

34
15
32
23

36
14
29
29

36
14
33
23

32
14
36
26

36
12
36
23

38
14
32
20

36
14
28
20

40
14
21
10

43
13
21
9

41
14
25
11

0
0
2
19
86
141

0
0
1
17
84
135

0
0
1
12
94
139

0
0!
1!
10
95
156

0
1!
1!
11
82
173

0
0!
1!
9
75
167

0
1!
1!
9
71
154

21 !
1!
2
9
59
136

21 !
1!
1!
8
53
144

0
0
1!
8
54
157

0
0!
1!
5
50
162

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates and Hispanic origin.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

38

Appendix table 10
Respiratory disease mortality rate per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2002
12

2003
14

2004
16

2005
16

2006
16

2007
15

2008
17

2009
17

2010
15

2011
15

2012
16

2013
16

13
8

15
9

16
13

17
15

16
17

15
15

17
15

17
15

16
10

16
9

17
8

17
10

17
11
8
14 !

22
12
9
8!

23
14
8
7!

23
16
8
6!

23
15
9
5!

24
13
9
1!

28
14
11
4!

25
14
13
4!

23
13
12
1!

27
11
7
3!

30
11
7
5!

28
12
8
6!

0
2!
4
8
25
152

0
2!
4
8
28
165

0
2!
4
9
26
178

19 !
2!
3
8
28
169

18 !
2!
3
7
27
167

0
1!
2
6
19
131

0
2!
3
4
19
123

0
2!
3
4
19
129

0
2!
3
4
15
125

0
3
3
7
21
133

0
3
4
7
24
186

0
3
3
7
23
161

Note: Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. See Methodology for details on rates and Hispanic origin.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Appendix table 11
Mortality rate for all other illnesses per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2002
36

2003
39

2004
44

2005
43

2006
41

2007
48

2008
51

2009
45

2010
43

2011
40

2012
41

2013
42

36
29

39
35

45
37

43
38

41
33

50
31

52
40

46
40

43
36

41
30

41
29

42
34

41
38
26
14!

47
40
29
15 !

54
43
36
23

53
42
36
22

51
39
36
21

61
47
45
26

64
48
47
35

56
44
42
40

54
42
35
31

55
38
27
19

56
39
27
13

58
38
30
10

0
5
9
25
87
299

18 !
5
8
29
92
302

20 !
5
10
30
106
338

0
3
8
29
104
344

0
2!
8
26
95
342

0
3
10
29
104
455

0
5
8
28
95
448

0
5
8
22
76
375

0
4
7
18
69
314

0
3
6
17
65
267

0
5
7
17
60
270

0
5
6
16
57
267

Note: Detail may not sum to total due to missing data. Data may have been revised from previously published statistics to reflect updated information. Based on 2-year
rolling averages centered on the most recent year. Includes other specified illnesses, such as cerebrovascular disease, influenza, and other nonleading natural causes of
death, as well as unspecified illnesses. See Methodology for details on illnesses, rates, and Hispanic origin.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

39

Appendix table 12
Mortality rate for unnatural deaths per 100,000 state prisoners, by selected decedent characteristics, 2002–2013
Characteristic
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Race/Hispanic origina
White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Otherc
Age
17 or younger
18–24
25–34
35–44
45–54
55 or older

2002
23

2003
24

2004
24

2005
26

2006
27

2007
27

2008
25

2009
25

2010
26

2011
27

2012
28

2013
29

24
13

25
14

25
16

26
15

28
15

28
16

26
14

26
15

27
17

28
18

29
17

30
17

34
14
27
35

37
14
25
37

37
13
28
39

38
15
31
38

41
15
36
40

41
15
33
32

40
15
26
33

40
13
28
34

40
15
30
36

43
16
23
28

47
16
21
19

46
18
25
17

51 !
20
22
24
26
25

55 !
16
25
25
27
33

61 !
18
24
24
28
42

40 !
22
22
27
31
34

19 !
19
23
31
35
42

18 !
15
24
27
39
56

59 !
17
23
23
34
44

41 !
19
22
24
30
39

21 !
20
23
25
32
43

43 !
17
24
29
32
41

21 !
18
22
32
32
49

0
22
24
29
32
53

Note: Unnatural deaths include suicides, homicides, accidents, and those due to drug or alcohol intoxication. Based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most
recent year. See Methodology for details on rates and Hispanic origin.
! Interpret with caution; too few cases to provide a reliable rate.
aExcludes persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, unless specified.
bIn 2013, the survey separated Hispanic origin from race. Comparisons with previous years should not be made.
cIncludes American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, or other Pacific Islanders, and persons identifying two or more races.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, 2001–2013.

Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables | August 2015	

40

The Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice is the principal
federal agency responsible for measuring crime, criminal victimization, criminal
offenders, victims of crime, correlates of crime, and the operation of criminal and
civil justice systems at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels. BJS collects, analyzes,
and disseminates reliable and valid statistics on crime and justice systems in the
United States; supports improvements to state and local criminal justice information
systems; and participates with national and international organizations to develop and
recommend national standards for justice statistics. William J. Sabol is director.
This report was written by Margaret Noonan, Harley Rohloff, and Scott Ginder. Danielle
Kaeble, Tracy Snell, and Margaret Noonan verified the report. Kim Aspinwall carried
out data collection and processing with assistance from Alissa Chambers, under the
supervision of Chris Ellis, RTI International. Scott Ginder provided statistical assistance,
and Elizabeth Robbins provided technical assistance.
Irene Cooperman and Jill Thomas edited the report. Tina Dorsey and Barbara Quinn
produced the report.
August 2015, NCJ 248756

Celebrating
35 years

NCJ248756

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