Skip navigation

Doj Probation and Parole in the Us 2008 Report

Download original document:
Brief thumbnail
This text is machine-read, and may contain errors. Check the original document to verify accuracy.
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

Bureau of Justice Statistics

BULLETIN
December 2009, NCJ 228230

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008
Lauren E. Glaze
and Thomas P. Bonczar
BJS Statisticians

A

t yearend 2008, 5,095,200 offenders were
under community supervision—the
equivalent of about 1 in every 45 adults
in the United States (figure 1). The community
supervision population includes adults on probation and adults on parole. Probationers
(4,270,917) represented the majority (84%) of
offenders under community supervision. Parolees (828,169) accounted for a significantly
smaller share (16%) of this population.1
The data discussed in this report and additional
2008 data are available by jurisdiction in the
appendix tables, following Methodology.

Figure 1.
Total number of adults under community supervision and on probation
or parole, 2000-08
Number of adults under
community supervision
and on probation
6,000,000
5,500,000

H

Parole
H

H

Number of adults
on parole
850,000
H
H
800,000

B

B

J

J

H
750,000

H
5,000,000 H
4,500,000 B
4,000,000

J

H
B

J

B

B
B
B
Community supervision

J

J
J
J
Probation

J

600,000
550,000

3,500,000
3,000,000
2000

700,000
650,000

500,000

1Probation is a court-ordered period of correctional supervi-

sion in the community generally as an alternative to incarceration. In some cases probation can be a combined sentence of
incarceration followed by a period of community supervision. Parole is a period of conditional supervised release in
the community following a prison term.

B

2002

2004

2006

450,000
2008

Highlights
• Nearly 5.1 million adults were under community supervision at yearend 2008—the equivalent of about 1 in every 45
adults in the United States.
• Probationers (4,270,917) represented the majority (84%) of
the community supervision population in 2008; parolees
(828,169) accounted for a smaller share (16%).
• The probation (0.9%) and parole (0.9%) populations grew
at the same rate during 2008. The probation population
increased by 36,446 probationers while the parole population increased by 6,992 parolees during the year.
• Growth in the probation population has slowed in recent
years to an average of 0.7% annually between 2003 and
2008 from an average of 2.5% annually between 2000 and
2003.

• The probation exit rate increased from 53 per 100 probationers in 2006 to 55 per 100 in 2008.
• The increase in the probation exit rate was associated with
an increase in probationers discharged after completing the
terms of supervision (58% in 2006; 63% in 2008).
• During 2008 growth in the parole population slowed to
about a third of the average annual increase between 2005
and 2007 (2.6%), the fastest period of growth in the parole
population since 2000.
• The parole exit rate increased from 67 per 100 parolees in
2007 to 70 per 100 in 2008. This increase was associated
with an increase in parolees discharged after completing
the terms of supervision (46% in 2007; 49% in 2008).

This publication is one in a series. For a list of all publications in this series go to www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

During 2008 the community supervision population grew 0.9%, or by 43,100 offenders (appendix table 1). Between 2000 and 2003 this population experienced its fastest rate of growth (2.4%
annually), growing at a rate three times faster
than the average annual increase (0.8%) between
2003 and 2008.
The probation population increased 0.9% (or
36,446 probationers) during 2008 (appendix
table 2). The fastest period of growth (2.5%
annually) in the probation population occurred
between 2000 and 2003. Since 2003 the average
annual rate of growth in the probation population has slowed. Between 2003 and 2008 the probation population increased at an average annual
rate (0.7%) that was less than a third of its average annual increase between 2000 and 2003.
Similar to the increase in the probation population, the parole population rose 0.9% (or 6,992
parolees) during 2008 (appendix table 12).
Between 2000 and 2003 the parole population
increased an average of 2.1% annually before
slowing to an average increase of 0.7% per year
between 2003 and 2005. The fastest period of
growth in the parole population since 2000
occurred between 2005 and 2007 (2.6% annually). During 2008 (0.9%), growth in the parole
population slowed to about a third of the rate of
growth observed between 2005 and 2007.

Figure 2.
National estimates of probation entries and exits, 2000-08

During the past eight years the number of
offenders supervised in the community has
increased by more than half a million (545,100),
from an estimated 4.6 million in 2000 to nearly
5.1 million in 2008. The increase in the community supervision population largely reflected the
growth in the probation population during this
period. The number of probationers increased
from 3.8 million in 2000 to almost 4.3 million in
2008, representing approximately 82% (or
444,708) of the growth in the community supervision population between 2000 and 2008. During this period the parole population increased
from 723,898 parolees to 828,169, representing a
significantly smaller share (19% or 104,271) of
the growth in the community supervision population.2,3

Entries to probation declined in 2008 while
exits from probation continued to rise
In addition to supervising nearly 4.3 million probationers in 2008, probation agencies received
an estimated 2.4 million adults who were placed
on probation, up from nearly 2.2 million in 2000
(figure 2).4 These probation agencies discharged
an estimated 2.3 million probationers from
supervision in 2008, up from over 2.1 million in
2000.
2A small number (less than 1%) of the community supervi-

Number of entries and exits
2,500,000

sion population was known to be on both probation and
parole. For this reason the amount of growth represented by
probationers (82%) and parolees (19%) does not add to
100%.

2,400,000

3

Changes in the community supervision population, as well
as the probation and parole populations, are based on data
reported by the jurisdictions annually. While these data are
specific to the reporting year, the reporting methods for
some probation and parole agencies changed over time. See
Methodology.

2,300,000
2,200,000

Entries
Exits

2,100,000

4Entries and exits were estimated for nonreporting agencies,

2,000,000
1,900,000
2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Note: Estimates are not comparable to previously
published BJS reports. See Methodology.

2

Probation has accounted for about 82% of
the growth in community supervision
since 2000

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

and the estimation method for Pennsylvania changed in
2008. The national estimates of entries and exits are based on
estimation methods for Pennsylvania from 2000 to 2007 that
are comparable to 2008; therefore, the estimates are not comparable to previously published BJS reports. See Methodology.

Correctional population increased 0.5% in 2008; the smallest annual increase since 2000
Over 7.3 million men and women were under
some form of correctional supervision at
yearend 2008, including offenders supervised
in the community (5,095,200) on probation or
parole and those incarcerated (2,304,100) in
state or federal prisons and local jails (table 1).
About 3.2% of adults in the U.S. resident
population, or 1 in every 31 adults, were under
correctional supervision at yearend 2008. This
rate has remained fairly stable during the past
eight years. The 0.5% (or 33,900 offenders)
increase in the correctional population in 2008
was the smallest annual increase since 2000.

i n c re a s e s i n c e 2 0 0 0 . Ad d it i on a l l y, t h e
community supervision population grew less
than 1% for the second year (0.7% in 2007;
0.9% in 2008).
While the incarcerated population experienced
a faster average annual rate of growth (2.2%)
than the community supervision population
(1.4%) between 2000 and 2008, the community
super vision population represented the
majority of the growth in the correctional
population. The total correctional population
increased by 863,100 offenders between 2000
and 2 00 8. O f fe nde rs sup e r v i s e d i n t he
community represented 58% of the growth in
the correctional population, while inmates
incarcerated in prison or jail represented 42%.5

Offenders under community supervision
(70%) made up the majority of the correctional
population at yearend 2008, while inmates
incarcerated in prison or jail accounted for
30%. These p ercentages have remained
relatively unchanged since 2000. Similar to the
slower rate of growth in the correctional
population during 2008, the incarcerated
population (0.3%) experienced its smallest

5

Some offenders in prison or jail remained under the
jurisdiction of a probation or parole agency. Information
on calculating the growth of the total correctional population and accounting for offenders with dual correctional
statuses is available in the Methodology.

Table 1.
Number of persons under correctional supervision, 2000-08

Year

Total estimated
correctional
populationa

Incarcerationc

Community supervision
Totalb

Probation

Parole

Total

Jail

2000

6,445,100

4,550,100

3,826,209

723,898

1,937,500

621,149

1,316,333

Prison

2001

6,581,700

4,664,100

3,931,731

732,333

1,961,200

631,240

1,330,007

2002

6,758,800

4,775,000

4,024,067

750,934

2,033,000

665,475

1,367,547

2003

6,924,500

4,889,900

4,120,012

769,925

2,081,600

691,301

1,390,279

2004

6,995,000

4,915,600

4,143,792

771,852

2,135,300

713,990

1,421,345

2005

7,051,900

4,947,400

4,166,757

780,616

2,195,900

747,529

1,448,344

2006

7,182,100

5,015,200

4,215,361

799,875

2,258,800

765,819

1,492,973

2007d

7,274,300

5,052,100

4,234,471

821,177

2,298,000

780,174

1,517,867

2008

7,308,200

5,095,200

4,270,917

828,169

2,304,100

785,556

1,518,559

Percent change, 2007-08

0.5 %

0.9 %

0.9 %

0.9 %

0.3 %

0.7 %

0.0 %

Average annual percent
change, 2000-08

1.6 %

1.4 %

1.4 %

1.7 %

2.2 %

3.0 %

1.8 %

Note: Community supervision counts for 2008 are for December 31. Counts for 2000-07 are January 1 counts from the next reporting year
because some agencies update their counts. Jail counts are for June 30 and prison counts are for December 31. Jail and prison counts include
inmates held in private facilities. Estimates were rounded to the nearest 100. See Methodology.
aBecause some offenders have multiple statuses, totals for 2007-08 exclude probationers and parolees held in jail or prison and parolees who
were also under probation supervision. For 2008 data by jurisdiction, see appendix table 11 for probation and appendix table 22 for parole.
Totals in 2005-06 exclude probationers and parolees held in jail or prison. Totals in 2000-04 only exclude probationers held in jail or prison.
For these reasons, details do not sum to totals.
b

Totals in all years include some offenders held in a prison or jail but who remained under the jurisdiction of a probation or parole agency.
The 2007 and 2008 totals exclude parolees who were also on probation (3,562 in 2007; 3,905 in 2008). For 2008 data by jurisdiction, see
appendix table 11 for probation and appendix table 22 for parole.

cIncludes inmates held in the custody of state and federal prisons and local jails. The custody population is not comparable to the jurisdic-

tion population. See Prisoners in 2008, NCJ 228417 for definitions of both populations and the counts.
d

Some states were unable to provide data for 2007. See Methodology.

December 2009

3

In each year since 2000, the number of adults
entering probation has exceeded the number
exiting, and the probation population increased
annually.6 In 2008 the number of entries to probation exceeded the number of exits by about
28,500. However, the number and rate of growth
6
See Methodology for a discussion on entries and exits to probation and parole and changes in the number of offenders in
these populations.

Table 2.
Estimated average daily probation population, number of exits, and exit
rate per 100 probationers, 2000-08
Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

Estimated average daily
probation populationa
3,809,700
3,880,500
3,963,400
4,049,000
4,130,300
4,153,100
4,201,900
4,254,300
4,252,700

Exit rate per 100
Estimated probation exitsb probationersc
2,123,700
56
2,025,600
52
2,092,900
53
2,208,200
55
2,224,100
54
2,238,300
54
2,230,200
53
2,315,800
54
2,340,800
55

aBased on the average of the January 1 and December 31 probation populations.
bEstimates are not comparable to previously published BJS reports. Exits were estimated for nonre-

porting agencies. See Methodology for more details and appendix table 2 for 2008 reported totals by
jurisdiction.
c

The exit rate was calculated by dividing the number of estimated probation exits by the average
daily probation population and multiplying by 100.

Table 3.
Percent and estimated number of probationers who exited supervision,
by type of exit, 2006-08
Type of exit
Total
Completion
Incarcerationa
Absconder
Discharged to custody, detainer, or warrant
Other unsatisfactoryb
Transferred to another probation agency
Death
Otherc
Estimated numberd

2006
100%
58%
18
4
1
13
1
1
5
2,230,200

2007
100%
62%
16
3
1
11
1
1
5
2,315,800

2008
100%
63%
17
4
1
10
1
1
4
2,340,800

Note: Detail may not sum to total because of rounding. Includes probationers for which type of exit was
unknown. For 2008 data by jurisdiction, see appendix table 4.
aIncludes probationers who were incarcerated for a new offense and those who had their current proba-

tion sentence revoked (e.g. violating a condition of their sentence).
bIncludes probationers discharged from supervision who failed to meet all conditions of supervision,

including some with only financial conditions remaining, some who had their probation sentence
revoked but were not incarcerated because their sentence was immediately reinstated, and other types of
unsatisfactory exits; includes some early terminations and expirations of sentence.
c

Includes probationers discharged from supervision through a legislative mandate, because they were
deported or transferred to the jurisdiction of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), transferred
to another state through an interstate compact agreement, had their sentence dismissed or overturned
by the court through an appeal, had their sentence closed administratively, deferred, or terminated by
the court, were awaiting a hearing, were released on bond, and other types of exits.

dEstimates are not comparable to previously published BJS reports. Exits were estimated for nonreport-

ing agencies. See Methodology for more details and appendix table 2 for 2008 reported totals by jurisdiction.

4

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

in probation entries declined during the year
while exits continued to increase. Probation
entries decreased by 1.0% (down 23,000 probationers) while exits increased 1.1% (up 25,000).
From 2000 to 2006 the average annual increase
in probation entries (0.9%) was slightly larger
than exits (0.8%), and the probation population
increased by an average of 1.6% per year. Since
2006 the growth in exits has, on average, outpaced the growth in entries. From 2006 to 2008
probation exits increased an average of 2.4%
annually while entries increased 1.5%, and
growth in the probation population slowed to an
average annual rate of 0.7%.

Increase in probation exit rate since 2006
was associated with an increase in
probationers completing supervision
The probation exit rate is a measure of how
quickly the probation population turns over and
how long probationers remain under supervision. The exit rate for all probationers was 55 per
100 probationers in 2008 (table 2). This means
that more than half of the probation population
was discharged from supervision during the
year. Since 2006 (53 per 100) the exit rate for all
probationers has continued to increase, and the
average annual rate of growth in the probation
population has slowed.
The increase in the exit rate since 2006 was associated with an increase in the percentage of probationers discharged after either completing
their full-term probation sentence or receiving
an early discharge. Of the estimated 2,230,200
probationers discharged from supervision during 2006, 58% had either completed their fullterm probation sentence or received an early discharge (table 3). By 2008 the rate of completion
rose to 63% of the estimated 2,340,800 probationers discharged during the year.

The increase in the probation population during 2008 was partially offset by declines in five states with probation
populations over 100,000

Figure 3.

During 2008, 30 states and the District of
Columbia reported an increase in their pro- Change in the probation population, 2008
bation populations, accounting for a total
Jurisdiction
increase of 74,829 probationers during the
U.S. total
year (figure 3). Georgia (17,877) reported
Georgia
Colorado
the largest absolute increase in its probation
Pennsylvania
population, followed by Colorado (11,278),
Arizona
Pennsylvania (9,986), Arizona (5,402), and
Florida
Massachusetts
Florida (3,506). States that reported the
Ohio
smallest increases include Alaska (180),
Kentucky
Tennessee
Kansas (132), New Mexico (109), and WyoIllinois
ming (80).
Indiana
Growth in the probation population was
partially offset by a decrease of 38,383
probationers in 20 other states and the
federal system. Nearly three-quarters
(72%) of this decrease occurred in five
states, each of which had a probation
population of more than 100,000. Those
five states include California (-9,602)
which reported the largest absolute
decrease in its probation population,
followed by Texas (-7,226), Michigan
(-5,704), Washington (-2,757), and New
York (-2,209). States that reported the
smallest declines in their probation
populations during the year include
Nevada (-124), Vermont (-117), New
Hampshire (-101), and Montana
(-34).

Virginia
Alabama
Missouri
Louisiana
Idaho
Nebraska
Mississippi
Rhode Island
Delaware
District of Columbia
South Dakota
Minnesota
Oklahoma
West Virginia
Utah
Iowa
Alaska
Kansas
New Mexico
Wyoming
Montana
New Hampshire
Vermont
Nevada
North Dakota
Arkansas
Hawaii
Maine
South Carolina
Oregon
Federal
Connecticut
New Jersey
North Carolina
Wisconsin
Maryland
New York
Washington
Michigan
Texas
California

-20,000

-10,000

0

10,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

Change in probation population

Figure 3.

December 2009

5

Majority of probationers were under active
supervision at yearend 2008; 1 in 12 were
absconders
The majority (71%) of probationers were on
active supervision at yearend 2008 (appendix
table 5). Probationers on active supervision are
required to regularly report to a probation
authority in person, by telephone, or by mail.
Probationers on inactive supervision (8%) were
not required to report regularly and accounted
for a smaller share of the population. Absconders
who had failed to report and could not be
located also accounted for 8% of the probation
population. About 6% of probationers had a warrant issued for their arrest, and 7% were on other
statuses.

About 3 in 10 probationers were drug
offenders in 2008, up from about a quarter
in 2000
The most common type of offense for which
probationers were under supervision in 2008
was a drug offense. About 3 in 10 probationers
were under supervision for a drug offense in
2008, up from about a quarter (24%) of all probationers in 2000.
A quarter (25%) of probationers were under
supervision for a property offense in 2008, up
from 23% in 2004. The share of probationers
under supervision for a violent offense (19%)
remained unchanged between 2004 and 2008.
Data on probationers supervised for property
and violent offenses were not collected prior to
2002.

Figure 4.
National estimates of parole entries and exits, 2000-08
Number of entries and exits
600,000
550,000
500,000

Parole exits grew at a faster rate than
entries in 2008, and growth in the parole
population slowed
In 2008, 828,169 offenders were under parole
supervision, an increase of 6,992 parolees from
the previous year. The growth in the parole population during 2008 (0.9%) was a third of the rate
of growth during 2007 (2.7%).
From 2000 to 2008, parole entries grew from an
estimated 484,400 to 581,000; parole exits
increased from an estimated 473,900 to 574,000
(figure 4).7 Since 2000 the size of the parole population has grown each year as the number of
adults entering parole supervision has exceeded
the number exiting.8 In 2008 the parole population grew 0.9% as the numb er of entries
exceeded exits by 7,000. However, the rate of
growth in the population slowed during 2008 as
exits from parole grew 5.6%, more than two and
half times faster than the growth in entries to
parole (2.1%). The slower growth rate in entries
was consistent with the smaller increase in the
number of inmates conditionally released from
prison to community supervision during 2008.
(See Prisoners in 2008, available online at <http:/
/www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/p08.htm>.)
and the estimation method for Pennsylvania changed in
2008. See footnote 4 and Methodology.

Entries

8
See Methodology for a discussion on entries and exits to probation and parole and changes in the number of offenders in
these populations.

Exits

2002

2004

2006

2008

Note: Estimates are not comparable to previously
published BJS reports. See Methodology.

6

Other changes in the composition of the probation population during the last eight years
include a larger share of women in 2008 (24%),
compared to 2000 (22%). White probationers
also represented a larger share of the probation
population in 2008 (56%), compared to 2000
(54%). During this period the percentage of
black probationers declined from 31% in 2000 to
29% in 2008. The percentage of Hispanic probationers and probationers of other races have
remained fairly stable.

7Entries and exits were estimated for nonreporting agencies,

450,000
400,000
2000

Public-order offenders, including those supervised for a DWI or other traffic offense, represented a smaller share of the probation population in 2008 (17%) compared to 2000 (24%).

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Between 2000 and 2003, the growth in parole
entries (1.5% per year) outpaced exits (0.9% per
year), and the parole population grew by an average of 2.1% annually. Parole exits (3.2% annually) grew, on average, faster than entries (2.3%
annually) between 2003 and 2005, and the
growth in the parole population slowed (0.7%
annually). The average increase (2.6% annually)
in the parole population rose again between
2005 and 2007. During this period the average
annual rate of growth in parole entries (3.6%)
was faster than the growth in parole exits (2.5%).
In 2008 the growth in the parole population
slowed again as the number of exits from parole
increased at a faster rate than the number of
entries to parole.

Table 4.
Estimated average daily parole population, number of
exits, and exit rate per 100 parolees, 2000-08

Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
a

Estimated average
daily parole
Estimated
populationa
parole exitsb
720,000
473,900
727,500
479,200
742,700
462,500
762,200
486,100
772,900
515,700
778,100
517,900
789,400
532,200
813,000
543,600
824,700
574,000

Exit rate per
100 paroleesc
66
66
62
64
67
67
67
67
70

Based on the average of the January 1 and December 31 parole populations.

b

Rise in parole exit rate during 2008 was
associated with an increase in parolees
completing the terms of their supervision
The exit rate for all parolees was 70 per 100 in
2008 (table 4). This exit rate indicates that 70%
of the parole population was discharged from
supervision at some point during the year.
Between 2005 and 2007 (67 per 100 for both
years) the parole exit rate remained fairly stable.
During this period as the exit rate remained stable and entries continued to rise, the parole population experienced its fastest average rate of
growth (2.6% per year) since 2000.
As the exit rate for all parolees increased from
2007 to 2008, growth in the parole population
slowed (0.9%). Growth in the parole exit rate
during 2008 was associated with an increase in
the percentage of parolees who were either discharged from supervision either after completing their full-term sentence or receiving an early
discharge. Of the estimated 543,600 parolees discharged from supervision in 2007, 46% had met
the conditions of their supervision and served
their full-term sentence or received an early discharge (table 5). The rate of completion
increased to almost half (49%) of the estimated
574,000 parolees who were discharged during
2008.

Estimates are not comparable to previously published BJS reports. Exits were
estimated for nonreporting agencies. See Methodology for more details and
appendix table 12 for 2008 reported totals by jurisdiction.

c

The exit rate was calculated by dividing the number of estimated parole exits
by the average daily parole population and multiplying by 100.

Table 5.
Percent and estimated number of parolees who exited
supervision, by type of exit, 2006-08
Type of exit
Total
Completion
Incarceration
With new sentence
With revocation
Other/unknown
Absconder
Other unsatisfactorya
Transferred to another state
Death
Otherb
Estimated numberc

2006
100%
45%
38
11
26
2
11
2
1
1
3
532,200

2007
100%
46%
38
10
27
1
11
2
1
1
2
543,600

2008
100%
49%
36
9
25
1
11
2
1
1
1
574,000

Note: Detail may not sum to total because of rounding. Includes parolees for
which type of exit was unknown. For 2008 data by jurisdiction, see appendix
table 14.
a

Includes parolees discharged from supervision who failed to meet all conditions of supervision, including some who had their parole sentence revoked
but were not returned to incarceration because their sentence was immediately
reinstated, and other types of unsatisfactory exits; includes some early terminations and expirations of sentence.

b

Includes parolees discharged from supervision because they were deported or
transferred to the jurisdiction of Immigration and Customs Enforcement
(ICE), had their sentence terminated by the court through an appeal, were
transferred to another state through an interstate compact agreement or discharged to probation supervision, and other types of exits.

c
Estimates are not comparable to previously published BJS reports. Exits were
estimated for nonreporting agencies. See Methodology for more details and
appendix table 12 for 2008 reported totals by jurisdiction.

December 2009

7

Slowing rate of growth in parole population during 2008 was related to the overall decline in state parole
During 2008, 34 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal system reported an
Figure
Figure5.4.
increase in their parole populations, amounting to a total of 22,081 parolees (figure 5). The Change in the parole population, 2008
Jurisdiction
federal system (7,234) reported the largest
U.S. total*
absolute increase in the nation, followed by
Federal
Missouri
Missouri (2,027) and Michigan (1,392). The
Michigan
smallest increases occurred in Utah (29),
Arkansas
Wyoming (21), Delaware (16), and New
Texas
Hampshire (8).
Mississippi
The federal system accounted for a third of the
total increase in the parole population in 2008.
Growth in the federal parole population
exceeded the total change in the nation’s
parole population (6,992) during the year.
Contributing to the rise in the federal parole
population was the significantly faster growth
in entries (9%) to federal parole supervision,
compared to exits (0.4%) (not shown in
graph).
Fifteen states reported a decline in their parole
populations for a total decrease of 14,860
parolees during 2008.9 In absolute numbers
Pennsylvania (-5,516) and California (-3,011)
reported the largest declines among the states
that reported a decrease, accounting for more
than half (55%) of the decrease in the parole
population during 2008. The smallest declines
in the number of parolees occurred in Maine
(-1) and Oregon (-1).
Among the 50 states and the District of
Columbia, the total change in the parole population amounted to an estimated decline of
242, which was offset by the increase in the
federal parole population during the year.
Although the federal parole population grew
7.9% during 2008, the overall decline in state
parole contributed to slowing the growth in
the nation’s parole population to 0.9% during
the year (not shown in graph).
9Excludes Virginia because the state could not provide

data for January 1. See Methodology.

New Jersey
Arizona
Ohio
District of Columbia
Colorado
Wisconsin
Louisiana
Georgia
Minnesota
Indiana
Nevada
Alabama
Idaho
New Mexico
Alaska
West Virginia
Connecticut
Oklahoma
Vermont
Kansas
North Carolina
Tennessee
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Nebraska
North Dakota
Utah
Wyoming
Delaware
New Hampshire
Oregon
Maine
Montana
South Dakota
Hawaii
Florida
South Carolina
Iowa
Maryland
Kentucky
Washington
Illinois
New York
California
Pennsylvania

-6,000 -4,000 -2,000
0
2,000 4,000
Change in parole population

6,000

8,000

*Includes an estimated decrease for Virginia. Virginia was excluded
from the graph because the state could not provide data for the
January 1, 2008 population. See Methodology.

8

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

About 85% of all parolees were required to
regularly report to a parole authority in
2008; about 6% were absconders
In 2008, 85% of parolees were on active parole
supervision and were required to regularly
report to a parole authority in person, by mail, or
by telephone (appendix table 15). Another 6% of
the parole population were classified as absconders and could not be located, while 4% were on
inactive supervision and were not required to
regularly report to a parole authority. The
remaining 5% of parolees were on other statutes.

Most parolees were under supervision for a
drug offense; whites accounted for about 4
in 10 parolees in 2008
In 2008 parolees were more likely to have served
a sentence for a drug offense (37%) than any
other type of offense, down slightly from 38% in
2004. Property offenders represented a smaller
share of the parole population in 2008 (23%)
compared to 2004 (26%), while violent offenders
accounted for a slightly larger share of the parole
population in 2008 (26%) compared to 2004
(25%). Prior to 2002 no offense data on parolees
were collected; 2008 was the first year that
weapon offense data were collected separately.
The parole population was predominantly male
in 2008 (88%), and this percentage has remained
unchanged since 2000. White parolees represented 41% of the parole population at yearend
2008, up from 38% in 2000. Black and Hispanic
parolees represented smaller shares of the population during this period. Black parolees made
up 38% of the population in 2008, down from
40% in 2000. Hispanic parolees accounted for
19% of the population, down from 21% in 2000.

Methodology
Begun in 1980 the Annual Probation Survey and
the Annual Parole Survey collect data on the
total number of adults supervised in the community on January 1 and December 31 each year
and data on the number of adults who enter and
exit supervision during each year. Both surveys
cover all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and
the federal system. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) depends entirely upon the voluntary
participation of state central reporters and separate state, county, and court agencies for its
annual data on probation and parole.
In 2008 the U.S. Census Bureau served as the BJS
collection agent for the 50 states and the District
of Columbia. Data for the federal system were
provided directly to BJS through the BJS Federal
Justice Statistics Program (FJSP), which obtained
data directly from the Office of Probation and
Pretrial Services, Administrative Office of the
United States Courts.
Probation
The 2008 Annual Probation Survey was sent to
467 respondents—33 central state reporters, 432
separate state, county, or court agencies, the District of Columbia, and the federal system. States
with multiple reporters were Alabama (3), Arizona (2), Colorado (8), Florida (41), Georgia (2),
Idaho (2), Kentucky (3), Michigan (134), Missouri (2), Montana (4), New Mexico (2), Ohio
(187), Oklahoma (3), Pennsylvania (2), Tennessee (3), Washington (32), and West Virginia (2).
Parole
The 2008 Annual Parole Survey was sent to 55
respondents—51 central state reporters, the California Youth Authority, one municipal agency in
Alabama, the state agency in Pennsylvania which
also provided county data, and the federal system. States with multiple reporters were Alabama (2), California (2), and Pennsylvania (2).
Virginia was not able to provide data for January
1, 2008. Additional details for Virginia are provided under Estimating the January 1, 2008
parole population in Virginia.

December 2009

9

Federal parole (as defined here) includes a term
of supervised release from prison, mandatory
release, parole, military parole, and special
parole. Definitional differences exist between
parole reported here and in other BJS data series.
Additional information about the data collection
instruments is available online at <http://
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/correct.htm#pandp>
(last accessed October 20, 2009).
Updating probation and parole population counts
each year
Some states update their probation and parole
population counts for different reasons after submitting the data to BJS. Updated population
counts usually include data that were not entered
into the information system before the survey
was submitted or data that were not fully processed by yearend. For these reasons and with
the exception of the data reported for 2008, the
population counts on December 31 for years
ending 2000 to 2007 are based on the January 1
counts for the next reporting year. Population
counts for yearend 2008 are based on December
31, 2008 data.
Estimating the January 1, 2008 parole population
in Virginia
Virginia was unable to provide data for January
1, 2008. The respondent was able to provide an
estimate of the change (5% decrease) in Virginia’s
parole population during 2008. The estimated
decline was used to impute the January 1, 2008
parole population for Virginia (estimated at
4,700).
Changes in reporting methods among probation
agencies within certain jurisdictions from 2000 to
2008
Nine reporting agencies in separate jurisdictions
changed their methods of reporting probation
data between 2000 and 2008. These changes
included administrative changes, such as consolidating databases or implementing new information systems, resulting in data review and
cleanup, reclassifying offenders, including those
on probation to parole and offenders on dual
community supervision statuses, and including
certain probation populations that were not previously reported. This section discusses those
nine reporting agencies. It also discusses the year
the change occurred and the total change in the
jurisdiction’s probation population, as well as the
total change in the jurisdiction’s probation population between 2000 and 2008. Combined,
changes in population and changes due to new
10

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

reporting methods for these nine jurisdictions
accounted for 207,900 additional probationers
between 2000 and 2008, representing approximately 47% of the total change (444,708) in the
nation’s probation population during this period.
BJS was unable to precisely break out the amount
of change in the probation population attributable to a change in population versus a change in
reporting methods based on the information
provided.
Three Alabama agencies respond to the Annual
Probation Survey. The state agency changed its
method of reporting probation data beginning
with its January 1, 2006 population by including
certain probationers in the population whose
statuses had previously been classified as other
than a probationer in prior years. The reporting
change resulted in a difference of about 9,600
additional probationers in Alabama’s total population reported between December 31, 2005
(38,995) and January 1, 2006 (48,607). The total
change in Alabama’s probation population was
about 13,100 additional probationers between
2000 and 2008.
The District of Columbia changed its method of
reporting probationers beginning with its January 1, 2008 population because probationers
who were on active supervision and awaiting
approval for a transfer through an interstate
compact agreement were excluded from the
prior years’ data. The reporting change resulted
in a difference of nearly 1,600 additional probationers between the December 31, 2007 (6,485)
and Januar y 1, 2008 (8,073) p opu lations
reported by the District of Columbia. The total
change in the District of Columbia’s probation
population between 2000 and 2008 was a decline
of about 2,100 probationers.
Two Georgia state agencies respond to the
Annual Probation Survey. The state agency that
provides misdemeanant data of probationers
supervised by private agencies changed its
reporting methods beginning with its January 1,
2007 population when it expanded coverage. The
reporting change resulted in a difference of
about 9,600 additional probationers in Georgia’s
total population reported between December 31,
2006 (422,790) and January 1, 2007 (432,436).
The same agency experienced another reporting
change beginning with its January 1, 2008 population when it excluded probationers under
supervision for a minor traffic citation. This
reporting change resulted in a decline of nearly
56,200 probationers in Georgia’s total population
reported between December 31, 2007 (435,361)
and January 1, 2008 (379,204). The total change

in Georgia’s probation population was about
75,700 additional probationers between 2000
and 2008. Additionally, because the state agency
that experienced reporting changes has the
capacity to report probation cases and not the
number of individuals under supervision, the
counts may have overstated the total number of
individuals under probation supervision in
Georgia.
Maryland changed its method of reporting probationers beginning with its January 1, 2007
population when it expanded the scope of its
probation population to include certain DWI
offenders who had previously been excluded
from its population. The reporting change
resulted in a difference of about 18,400 additional probationers between the December 31,
2006 (75,698) and January 1, 2007 (94,100) populations reported by the state. The total change
in Maryland’s probation population was approximately 14,800 additional probationers between
2000 and 2008.
Massachusetts changed its method of reporting
probationers beginning with its January 1, 2003
population when it classified certain types of
offenders, who had been previously excluded
from the state’s probation data, as probationers
based on new guidelines. The reporting change
resulted in a difference of about 87,300 additional probationers between the December 31,
2002 (44,013) and January 1, 2003 (131,319)
populations reported by Massachusetts. The
state experienced a similar change in reporting
methods beginning with its January 1, 2004 population. This reporting change resulted in a difference of approximately 39,300 additional probationers between the December 31, 2003
(127,135) and January 1, 2004 (166,464) populations reported by the state. The total change in
Massachusetts’ probation population between
2000 and 2008 was an increase of about 139,100.
Two New Mexico agencies respond to the
Annual Probation Survey. The state agency
changed its method of reporting probation data
beginning with its January 1, 2003 population
when its information system was modified to
include certain probationers who had been previously excluded from its population. The
reporting change resulted in a difference of
approximately 4,700 additional probationers in
New Mexico’s total population reported between
December 31, 2002 (11,626) and January 1, 2003
(16,287). The state agency experienced another

reporting change beginning with its January 1,
2006 population because the agency’s information system did not have the capacity to report
probationers on statuses other than active supervision. This reporting change resulted in a
decline of about 3,700 in New Mexico’s total probation population reported between December
31, 2005 (18,706) and January 1, 2006 (14,982).
The state agency changed its method of reporting probationers again beginning with its January 1, 2007 population when its capacity to
report data, including probationers on different
types of supervision statuses, was enhanced. The
reporting change resulted in a difference of
nearly 1,400 additional probationers in New
Mexico’s total population reported between
December 31, 2006 (16,493) and January 1, 2007
(17,878). The total change in New Mexico’s probation population was an increase of about
10,400 between 2000 and 2008.
New York changed its method of reporting probation data for two different reasons beginning
with its January 1, 2003 population. First, the
state reconciled the status of certain probationers
in its information system based on new guidelines. Second, the probation data reported prior
to January 1, 2003 were case counts, and not
counts of individuals. The reporting change
resulted in a decrease of nearly 65,100 probat ioners b e t we en t he D e ce mb er 31 , 2 0 02
(198,042) and January 1, 2003 (132,966) populations reported by New York. The total change in
New York’s probation population was a decrease
of about 67,600 between 2000 and 2008.
Pennsylvania’s state agency provides both state
and county probation data. The agency changed
its method of reporting county probation data,
starting with the December 31, 2004 population,
by reconciling the status of certain offenders
who were previously classified as being on a dual
probation and parole status. The reporting
change resulted in a difference of nearly 30,000
additional probationers in Pennsylvania’s total
population reported between January 1, 2004
(137,206) and December 31, 2004 (167,180). The
total change in Pennsylvania’s probation population was an increase of approximately 65,800
probationers between 2000 and 2008.
Washington has 32 agencies that respond to the
Annual Probation Survey. The state agency
changed its method of reporting probation data
beginning with its January 1, 2004 population
when the agency reclassified certain offenders on

December 2009

11

supervised release following a prison term from
probationers to parolees. The change resulted in
a decrease of nearly 25,100 in Washington’s total
probation population reported between December 31, 2003 (172,814) and January 1, 2004
(147,741). The total change in Washington’s probation population was a decrease of about 41,300
probationers between 2000 and 2008.
Changes in reporting methods among parole
agencies within certain jurisdictions from 2000 to
2008
Six reporting agencies in separate jurisdictions
changed their methods of reporting parole data
between 2000 and 2008 for the same reasons as
those agencies that changed their methods of
reporting probation data—adminstrative
changes, reclassification of offenders, and the
addition of certain parole populations not previously reported. This section discusses those six
reporting agencies. It also discusses the year the
change occurred and the change in the state’s
total parole population, as well as the total
change in the state’s parole population between
2000 and 2008. Combined, changes in population and changes due to new reporting methods
in these six states accounted for 7,400 additional
parolees between 2000 and 2008, representing
approximately 7% of the total change (104,271)
in the nation’s parole population during this
period.
Two Alabama agencies respond to the Annual
Parole Survey. The state agency changed its
method of reporting parole data beginning with
the January 1, 2006 population by including certain offenders whose statuses had previously
been classified as other than a parolee in prior
years. The reporting change resulted in a difference of approximately 500 additional parolees in
Alabama’s total parole population reported
between December 31, 2005 (7,252) and January
1, 2006 (7,795). The state agency changed its
reporting method again beginning with the January 1, 2007 population when it consolidated
data sources. The change resulted in a decline of
about 1,200 parolees in Alabama’s total parole
population reported between December 31, 2006
(8,685) and January 1, 2007 (7,508). The total
change in Alabama’s parole population was an
increase of about 2,600 between 2000 and 2008.
Alaska made improvements to its method of
reporting parole data starting with its January 1,
2007 population. The reporting change resulted

12

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

in a difference of nearly 500 additional parolees
between the December 31, 2006 (1,044) and January 1, 2007 (1,527) populations reported by
Alaska. The total change in Alaska’s parole population was an increase of about 1,200 parolees
between 2000 and 2008.
New Mexico changed its method of reporting
parole data beginning with its January 1, 2007
population because its information system was
enhanced, which resulted in an increased capacity to report data, including parolees on different
types of supervision statuses. The reporting
change resulted in a difference of almost 600
additional parolees in New Mexico’s total parole
population reported between December 31, 2006
(2,922) and January 1, 2007 (3,517). The total
change in New Mexico’s parole population was
an increase of nearly 2,100 parolees between
2000 and 2008.
Pennsylvania’s state agency provides both state
and county parole data. The agency changed its
method of reporting county parole data, starting
with its December 31, 2004 population, by reconciling the status of certain offenders who were
previously classified as being on a dual probation
and parole status. The reporting change resulted
in a decline of approximately 25,100 parolees in
Pennsylvania’s total population rep orted
between January 1, 2004 (102,244) and December 31, 2004 (77,175). The total change in Pennsylvania’s parole population was a decrease of
nearly 9,400 parolees between 2000 and 2008.
Virginia changed its method of reporting parolees starting with its January 1, 2007 population
when it expanded the scope of its parole population based on new guidelines. The change
included post-release offenders who had been
previously excluded from the parole counts
reported by the state in prior years. The reporting change resulted in a difference of approximately 3,200 additional parolees between the
December 31, 2006 (3,978) and January 1, 2007
(7,201) populations reported by the state. In
2008 Virginia consolidated its databases, which
resulted in subsequent data review and cleanup.
This reporting change resulted in a decrease of
an estimated 2,200 parolees between the December 31, 2007 population (6,850) reported by the
state and the imputed January 1, 2008 population (estimated at 4,700). The total change in
Virginia’s parole population was a decline of
nearly 700 parolees between 2000 and 2008.

The state of Washington changed its method of
reporting parole data starting with its January 1,
2004 population when it reclassified certain
offenders on supervised release following a
prison term from a probation status to a parole
status. The change in the state’s parole population was a difference of 24,800 additional parolees between the December 31, 2003 (105) and
January 1, 2004 (24,905) populations reported by
the state. The total change in Washington’s
parole population was an increase of about
11,600 parolees between 2000 and 2008.
Imputing probation entries and exits for
nonreporting agencies in 2008
BJS used one of four methods to impute probation entries for nonreporting agencies and a single method to impute exits. The method used to
impute entries was dependent on the data available. The first method was used to estimate
entries and exits for nonreporting county and
district agencies in Arizona, Florida, Michigan,
Ohio, and Washington. BJS estimated probation
entries in 2008 by using the ratio of entries in
2007 to the agency’s probation population on
January 1, 2007 and applying that ratio to the
agency’s January 1, 2008 population. BJS estimated exits from supervision by adding the
agency’s estimated probation entries in 2008 to
the agency’s probation population on January 1,
2008, and subtracting that estimate from the
probation population on December 31, 2008.
Estimating probation entries in 2008 for one
agency in Arizona required BJS to use data from
2004 because the growth obser ved in the
agency’s probation population during that year
was similar to the growth observed in 2008. The
agency provided probation entries and exits for
2007; however, growth in the agency’s probation
population in 2007 was significantly larger than
the growth observed during 2008.
The second method was used to estimate probation entries for nonreporting county and district
agencies in Colorado, Florida, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Washington. These agencies were
also unable to report probation entries and exits
in 2007. The ratio of 2008 entries to the January
1, 2008 population among reporting agencies in
the same state was used to estimate the number
of entries for nonreporting agencies with similar
numbers of probationers. To estimate probation
exits for these agencies, BJS used the first estimation method.

BJS used a third method to estimate probation
entries for one state agency in West Virginia.
This agency reported interstate compact data
only. BJS estimated the number of entries for this
agency by using the ratio of 2008 entries to the
January 1, 2008 probation population among
reporting agencies within the same region. To
estimate probation exits for this agency, BJS used
the first estimation method.
BJS used a fourth method to estimate entries to
and exits from probation and parole supervision
in Pennsylvania counties. This method is discussed in Changes in estimating probation and
parole entries and exits in Pennsylvania counties.
Changes in estimating probation and parole
entries and exits in Pennsylvania counties
From 1999 to 2007 probation and parole entries
and exits were estimated in Pennsylvania counties based on the last year (1998) the state was
able to provide the data. In 2008 the method
changed because the Pennsylvania respondent
was able to provide additional information,
including the number of combined probation
and parole entries to county supervision, by
county, and the number of combined probation
and parole exits from county supervision, by
county. The 2008 data were estimated in two
steps and the methodology was provided to the
Pennsylvania respondent for review.
Sixty-two of the 65 counties in Pennsylvania
were able to provide combined probation and
parole entries and exits to the Pennsylvania
county respondent in 2008. In the first step of
estimation, data for the three nonreporting
counties were estimated. To estimate the 2008
data for two of those nonreporting counties, the
first method (See Imputing probation entries and
exits for nonreporting agencies in 2008) was
applied to the 2007 data provided by those counties. The third county was also unable to provide
probation and parole entries and exits in 2007.
For the third county, entries and exits were estimated based on data provided by other counties
in Pennsylvania with a similar number of probationers and parolees and that had a similar
increase in their combined probation and parole
population during 2008. The estimates of probation and parole entries and probation and parole
exits for these three counties were added to the
combined probation and parole entries and the
combined probation and parole exits for the
other 62 counties, yielding a total number of
probation and parole entries and exit for all 65
counties.

December 2009

13

In the second step of estimation, the total number of probation entries and exits for all 65 counties and the total number of parole entries and
exits for all 65 counties were estimated separately. The Pennsylvania respondent was able to
provide separate January 1, 2008 and December
31, 2008 counts of county probationers and
county parolees. The percentage of the total
combined probation and parole population on
January 1, 2008 attributable to probation only
was applied to the total number of combined
probation and parole entries in the 65 counties
to estimate the number of entries to probation.
The residual was used as an estimate of the number of entries to parole during 2008. Probation
exits were estimated by adding the estimated
2008 county probation entries to the January 1,
2008 county probation population and subtracting the December 31, 2008 county probation
population. County parole exits were estimated
using the same method.
National estimates of probation and parole entries
and exits from 2000 to 2008
Probation and parole entries and exits are estimated for nonreporting agencies and the estimation method for Pennsylvania counties changed
in 2008 because the Pennsylvania respondent
was able to provide additional information. The
national estimates of entries and exits are based
on estimation methods for Pennsylvania counties from 2000 to 2007 that are comparable to
2008. The 2007 estimates of entries and exits
nationwide were re-estimated using the same
method as 2008 because the Pennsylvania was
able to provide the same additional information
for 2007. For years 2000 to 2006, the national
totals of probation entries were re-estimated by
adding the difference (28,400) of probation
entries in Pennsylvania counties in 2007 between
the old and new methods of estimation. The
national totals of probation exits (difference of
28,400) and parole entries (difference of 14,400)
and exits (difference of 14,500) from 2000 to
2006 were re-estimated using the same method.
Estimating national change in entries and exits
and the nation’s probation and parole populations
Technically, the change in the probation and
parole populations from the beginning of the
year to the end of the year should equal the difference between entries and exits during the

14

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

year. However, the differences may not be equal.
Some probation and parole information systems
track the number of cases that enter and exit
community supervision versus the number of
offenders. This means that entries and exits may
include case counts as opposed to counts of
offenders, while the beginning and end of year
population counts represent individuals. Additionally, all the data on entries and exits may not
have been logged into the information systems
or the information systems may not have fully
processed all of the data before the data were
submitted to BJS.
Calculating growth in the total correctional
population and accounting for offenders on
dual correctional statuses
Some offenders in prison or jail remained under
the jurisdiction of a probation or parole agency.
In order to calculate the contributions of both
the community supervision and incarcerated
populations to the growth in the total correctional population, offenders with dual correctional statuses were excluded from the community supervision population. If offenders with
dual correctional statuses had been excluded
from the incarcerated population, the community sup er vision p opu lation would have
accounted for 63% of the total growth in the correctional population between 2000 and 2008; the
incarcerated population would have accounted
for 37%.
Estimating 2007 community supervision and
prison data for nonreporting jurisdictions
In 2007 Oklahoma did not provide community
supervision data. Community supervision data
for Oklahoma were estimated by BJS. See Probation and Parole in the United States, 2007 – Statist i c a l Tab l e s , a v a i l a b l e o n l i n e at ht t p : / /
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/ppus07st.htm>.
Maine and Nevada did not provide prison data
for 2007. Prison data for Maine and Nevada were
estimated by BJS. See Prisoners in 2007, available
online at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
abstract/p07.htm> (last accessed October 20,
2009).
Estimating the adult resident population
The U.S. Census Bureau provided BJS with provisional estimates of the adult resident population in each state on January 1, 2009.

Other available information
Detailed information for 2008 is available in
appendix tables 1 to 22. Explanatory notes for
probation and parole are also available.

• Appendix Table 16. Adults on parole, by gender, 2008
• Appendix Table 17. Adults on parole, by race
and Hispanic origin, 2008

Appendix tables include—

• Appendix Table 18. Adults on parole, by status
of supervision, 2008

Community supervision

• Appendix Table 19. Adults on parole, by maximum sentence to incarceration, 2008

• Appendix Table 1. Adults under community
supervision, 2008
Probation
• Appendix Table 2. Adults on probation, 2008
• Appendix Table 3. Adults entering probation,
by type of sentence, 2008
• Appendix Table 4. Adults exiting probation, by
type of exit, 2008
• Appendix Table 5. Characteristics of adults on
probation, 2000, 2004, 2008
• Appendix Table 6. Adults on probation, by gender, 2008

• Appendix Table 20. Adults on parole, by most
serious offense, 2008
• Appendix Table 21. Adults on parole, by type of
release from prison, 2008
• Appendix Table 22. Adults on parole tracked by
a Global Positioning System (GPS), also on
probation, or incarcerated, 2008

Explanatory notes include—
Probation—Explanatory notes, 2008
Parole—Explanatory notes, 2008

• Appendix Table 7. Adults on probation, by race
and Hispanic origin, 2008
• Appendix Table 8. Adults on probation, by status of supervision, 2008
• Appendix Table 9. Adults on probation, by type
of offense, 2008
• Appendix Table 10. Adults on probation, by
most serious offense, 2008
• Appendix Table 11. Adults on probation
tracked by a Global Positioning System (GPS),
also on parole, or incarcerated, 2008
Parole
• Appendix Table 12. Adults on parole, 2008
• Appendix Table 13. Adults entering parole, by
type of sentence, 2008
• Appendix Table 14. Adults exiting parole, by
type of exit, 2008
• Appendix Table 15. Characteristics of adults on
parole, 2000, 2004, 2008

December 2009

15

Appendix Table 1.
Adults under community supervision, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. totalc
Federal
Statec
Northeast
Connecticutd
Maine
Massachusettse
New Hampshiree
New Jerseye
New York
Pennsylvaniaf
Rhode Islandd,e
Vermontd,e
Midwest
Illinois
Indianad,e
Iowad,e
Kansase
Michigand,e,f
Minnesota
Missourid
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohiod,e,f
South Dakotad,e
Wisconsin
Southc
Alabamad
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbiag
Floridad,e,f
Georgiad,g,h
Kentuckyd,f
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolinad
Oklahomad
South Carolina
Tennesseed,e
Texasd
Virginiad,e,i
West Virginiad,f

16

Community
supervision
population,
1/1/2008a
5,052,086
114,817
4,937,269
867,605
59,675
7,886
183,987
6,303
144,805
175,283
255,094
26,579
7,993
1,151,529
177,876
139,983
26,322
20,973
202,426
131,908
74,907
19,710
4,836
276,199
8,453
67,936
1,941,628
59,535
50,057
17,231
13,490
280,908
402,315
61,639
62,956
112,326
23,638
114,330
30,456
43,974
66,345
536,054
**
9,720

2008
Entries
Reported Imputedb
2,737,166
2,950,300
58,129
58,129
2,679,037
2,892,200
280,232
413,600
30,946
30,946
3,634
3,634
98,712
98,712
4,100
4,100
55,130
55,130
61,754
61,754
13,943
147,300
7,109
7,109
4,904
4,904
723,092
751,100
91,771
91,771
111,399
111,399
17,844
17,844
25,368
25,368
135,836
150,900
83,306
83,306
39,424
39,424
15,731
15,731
3,759
3,759
161,073
174,000
5,872
5,872
31,709
31,709
1,031,700
1,054,100
23,033
23,033
18,782
18,782
15,880
15,880
9,424
9,424
234,107
245,900
238,705
238,705
18,119
27,500
28,761
28,761
59,486
59,486
12,926
12,926
72,120
72,120
14,755
14,755
15,223
15,223
27,372
27,372
210,640
210,640
**
30,900
2,686
2,800

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Exits
Reported
Imputedb
2,701,561
2,914,800
51,569
51,569
2,649,992
2,863,300
280,137
409,200
31,288
31,288
3,985
3,985
95,206
95,206
4,193
4,193
55,349
55,349
65,407
65,407
13,413
142,500
6,419
6,419
4,877
4,877
713,798
744,300
91,060
91,060
109,454
109,454
18,049
18,049
25,120
25,120
137,002
154,300
82,506
82,506
36,288
36,288
14,989
14,989
3,978
3,978
156,967
170,100
5,459
5,459
32,926
32,926
1,016,523
1,038,500
21,274
21,274
17,762
17,762
15,344
15,344
8,198
8,198
232,249
243,400
225,151
225,151
16,653
26,000
27,191
27,191
62,232
62,232
11,375
11,375
73,790
73,790
14,198
14,198
15,996
15,996
28,272
28,272
216,693
216,693
**
29,400
2,124
2,200

Community
supervision
population,
12/31/2008a
5,095,181
121,377
4,973,804
871,545
58,878
7,535
187,493
6,210
144,586
171,630
259,924
27,269
8,020
1,157,518
178,587
141,928
26,117
21,221
198,114
132,708
78,043
20,452
4,617
280,081
8,866
66,784
1,965,619
61,294
51,077
17,767
14,405
284,288
420,529
63,004
64,589
109,580
25,189
112,676
31,013
43,201
68,633
530,001
58,085
10,288

Number under community
Percent
supervision per 100,000
change, 2008 adult residents, 12/31/2008
0.9%
2,201
5.7%
52
0.7
2,149
0.5%
2,041
-1.3
2,181
-4.5
721
1.9
3,683
-1.5
604
-0.2
2,170
-2.1
1,134
1.9
2,676
2.6
3,313
0.3
1,624
0.5%
2,284
0.4
1,828
1.4
2,948
-0.8
1,136
1.2
1,004
-2.1
2,600
0.6
3,329
4.2
1,730
3.8
1,523
-4.5
922
1.4
3,191
4.9
1,453
-1.7
1,541
1.2%
2,319
3.0
1,723
2.0
2,361
3.1
2,645
6.8
2,990
1.2
1,976
4.5
5,846
2.2
1,924
2.6
1,945
-2.4
2,543
6.6
1,154
-1.4
1,599
1.8
1,127
-1.8
1,254
3.4
1,440
-1.1
2,979
:
971
5.8
719

Appendix Table 1. (cont.)
Adults under community supervision, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaskae
Arizonae,f
Californiad,e
Coloradod,e,f
Hawaiid
Idahoj
Montanae
Nevada
New Mexicod,f
Oregon
Utah
Washingtond,e,f
Wyoming

Community
supervision
population,
1/1/2008a
976,507
8,067
83,585
458,435
88,648
21,441
51,777
10,072
17,114
23,356
64,667
14,373
128,908
6,064

2008
Entries
Reported
Imputedb
644,013
673,300
2,264
2,264
35,992
37,200
370,947
370,947
60,457
60,800
6,796
6,796
41,801
41,801
4,527
4,527
11,812
11,812
5,609
7,700
24,611
24,611
8,039
8,039
68,056
93,800
3,102
3,102

Exits
Reported Imputedb
639,534
671,200
1,891
1,891
30,185
31,000
384,020
384,020
49,388
49,600
7,236
7,236
40,704
40,704
4,642
4,642
11,681
11,681
4,474
7,400
25,195
25,195
7,708
7,708
69,409
97,200
3,001
3,001

Community
supervision
Number under community
population, Percent change, supervision per 100,000
12/31/2008a 2008
adult residents, 12/31/2008
979,122
0.3 %
1,835
8,440
4.6
1,653
89,766
7.4
1,856
445,822
-2.8
1,616
100,566
13.4
2,667
21,001
-2.1
2,078
52,874
2.1
4,714
9,957
-1.1
1,323
17,245
0.8
884
23,609
1.1
1,580
64,083
-0.9
2,177
14,704
2.3
770
124,902
-3.1
2,473
6,153
1.5
1,508

Note: Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the community supervision population for some jurisdictions on December 31, 2008, does not
equal the population on January 1, plus entries, minus exits. Rates were computed using the estimated adult resident population in each jurisdiction on
January 1, 2009.
**Not known.
: Not calculated.
a

The January 1 (3,562) and December 31 (3,905) populations exclude a small number of offenders under community supervision who were on both
probation and parole. The December 31, 2007 total (3,562) was used as an estimate of the January 1, 2008 total. See appendix table 22 for December 31, 2008 totals
by jurisdiction.

b

Reflects reported data except for jurisdictions in which data were not available. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.

cIncludes an estimated 56,654 offenders under community supervision in Virginia on January 1, 2008. See

Methodology and parole Explanatory notes for more

detail.
dSome or all detailed data are estimated.
e

Population excludes probationers or parolees in one of the following categories: absconder, warrant, inactive, supervised out of state, only have financial conditions
remaining, in a residential/other treatment program, or had their location tracked by GPS. See probation or parole Explanatory notes for more detail.

fData for entries and exits were estimated for nonreporting agencies. See Methodology for more detail.
gDue to a change in reporting methods in 2008, data may not be comparable to data reported in prior years. See Methodology and Explanatory notes for more detail.
hProbation counts include private agency cases and may overstate the number of persons under supervision. See Explanatory notes for more detail.
i

Virginia's parole agency could not provide parole data for January 1, entries to parole, or exits from parole during 2008. Additionally, due to a change in reporting
methods in 2008, data may not be comparable to data reported in prior years. See Methodology and parole Explanatory notes for more detail.

j

Probation counts include estimates for misdemeanors based on entries. See Explanatory notes for more detail.

December 2009

17

Appendix Table 2.
Adults on probation, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticutb,c
Mainec
Massachusettsd
New Hampshired
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvaniac,e
Rhode Islandb
Vermontb,d
Midwest
Illinoisc
Indianab
Iowab,d
Kansasd
Michiganb,d,e
Minnesotac
Missourib
Nebraskac
North Dakota
Ohiob,d,e
South Dakotab,d
Wisconsin
South
Alabamab,c
Arkansas
Delawarec
District of Columbiaf
Floridab,d,e
Georgiab,f,g
Kentuckyb,c,e
Louisianac
Marylandc
Mississippi
North Carolinab
Oklahomab
South Carolina
Tennesseeb,d
Texasb,c
Virginiab,c
West Virginiab,e

18

Probation
population,
1/1/2008
4,234,471
23,422
4,211,049
712,413
57,498
7,854
180,866
4,650
129,750
121,614
176,987
26,137
7,057
1,015,046
142,790
129,608
22,776
16,131
181,295
127,152
56,251
18,910
4,496
257,809
5,641
52,187
1,701,976
51,745
31,440
16,696
8,073
276,254
379,204
48,749
39,006
98,470
21,623
111,446
27,527
41,685
55,908
434,306
51,954
7,890

2008
Entries
Exits
Reported
Imputeda
Reported
Imputeda
2,188,591
2,369,300 2,165,083
2,340,800
11,333
11,333
12,007
12,007
2,177,258
2,358,000 2,153,076
2,328,800
224,380
326,600
223,905
316,800
28,580
28,580
29,073
29,073
3,634
3,634
3,984
3,984
94,028
94,028
90,586
90,586
3,155
3,155
3,256
3,256
44,881
44,881
45,894
45,894
36,247
36,247
38,456
38,456
3,139
105,400
2,440
95,400
6,484
6,484
5,867
5,867
4,232
4,232
4,349
4,349
617,726
645,700
612,043
642,500
59,114
59,114
57,000
57,000
100,199
100,199
98,516
98,516
15,689
15,689
15,507
15,507
20,448
20,448
20,316
20,316
124,279
139,400
126,837
144,200
77,479
77,479
77,004
77,004
23,917
23,917
22,808
22,808
14,719
14,719
14,023
14,023
2,922
2,922
3,185
3,185
150,977
163,900
147,600
160,700
4,022
4,022
3,517
3,517
23,961
23,961
25,730
25,730
923,125
944,300
912,132
932,700
20,073
20,073
18,566
18,566
9,097
9,097
9,368
9,368
15,463
15,463
14,943
14,943
7,007
7,007
6,499
6,499
226,888
238,700
224,904
236,100
227,084
227,084
213,867
213,867
11,953
21,300
9,667
19,000
14,949
14,949
13,930
13,930
52,138
52,138
54,248
54,248
11,107
11,107
10,463
10,463
68,467
68,467
70,235
70,235
13,342
13,342
12,929
12,929
14,788
14,788
15,219
15,219
23,287
23,287
24,633
24,633
176,648
176,648
183,874
183,874
29,681
29,681
28,021
28,021
1,153
1,300
766
900

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
4,270,917
22,748
4,248,169
721,720
56,550
7,504
184,308
4,549
128,737
119,405
186,973
26,754
6,940
1,017,359
144,904
131,291
22,958
16,263
175,591
127,627
57,360
19,606
4,233
260,962
6,146
50,418
1,722,704
53,252
31,169
17,216
8,581
279,760
397,081
51,035
40,025
96,360
22,267
109,678
27,940
41,254
58,109
427,080
53,614
8,283

Percent Number on probation
change, per 100,000 adult
2008
residents, 12/31/2008
0.9%
1,845
-2.9%
10
0.9
1,835
1.3%
1,690
-1.6
2,094
-4.5
718
1.9
3,620
-2.2
443
-0.8
1,932
-1.8
789
5.6
1,925
2.4
3,251
-1.7
1,405
0.2%
2,008
1.5
1,483
1.3
2,727
0.8
998
0.8
770
-3.1
2,304
0.4
3,202
2.0
1,272
3.7
1,460
-5.8
845
1.2
2,973
9.0
1,007
-3.4
1,164
1.2%
2,033
2.9
1,497
-0.9
1,441
3.1
2,563
6.3
1,781
1.3
1,944
4.7
5,520
4.7
1,558
2.6
1,205
-2.1
2,236
3.0
1,020
-1.6
1,557
1.5
1,016
-1.0
1,198
3.9
1,219
-1.7
2,401
3.2
896
5.0
579

Appendix Table 2. (cont.)
Adults on probation, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaskad
Arizonac,e
Californiab
Coloradob,d,e
Hawaiib,c
Idahoh
Montanad
Nevada
New Mexicob,c,e
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonb,d,e
Wyomingc

Probation
population,
1/1/2008
781,614
6,528
76,830
334,671
77,634
19,426
48,663
9,106
13,461
20,774
42,471
10,801
115,891
5,358

2008
Probation
Entries
Exits
population,
Reported
Imputeda 12/31/2008
Reported
Imputeda
412,027
441,300
404,996
436,700
786,386
1,401
1,401
1,221
1,221
6,708
22,559
23,700
17,531
18,300
82,232
189,926
189,926
199,528
199,528
325,069
50,783
51,100
40,354
40,500
88,912
6,151
6,151
6,480
6,480
19,097
40,030
40,030
39,180
39,180
49,513
3,864
3,864
3,898
3,898
9,072
7,326
7,326
7,450
7,450
13,337
3,590
5,700
2,652
5,600
20,883
15,779
15,779
16,362
16,362
41,888
5,615
5,615
5,313
5,313
11,103
62,240
88,000
62,344
90,100
113,134
2,763
2,763
2,683
2,683
5,438

Percent
change,
2008
0.6 %
2.8
7.0
-2.9
14.5
-1.7
1.7
-0.4
-0.9
0.5
-1.4
2.8
-2.4
1.5

Number on probation
per 100,000 adult
residents, 12/31/2008
1,474
1,314
1,700
1,178
2,358
1,890
4,415
1,206
684
1,398
1,423
582
2,240
1,333

Note: Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the probation population for some jurisdictions on December 31, 2008, does not equal the
population on January 1, plus entries, minus exits. Rates were computed using the estimated adult resident population in each jurisdiction on
January 1, 2009.
aReflects reported data except for jurisdictions in which data were not available. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
b
c

Some or all detailed data are estimated.

See Explanatory notes for more detail.

dPopulation excludes probationers in one of the following categories: absconder, inactive, warrant, supervised out of jurisdiction, in a residential/ other

treatment program, only have financial conditions remaining, or probationers who had their location tracked by GPS. See Explanatory notes for more
detail.
e

Data for entries and exits were estimated for nonreporting agencies. See Methodology for more detail.

fDue to a change in reporting, data may not be comparable to data reported in prior years. See Methodology and Explanatory notes for more detail.
g
Counts include private agency cases and may overstate the number of persons under supervision. See Methodology and Explanatory notes for more
detail.
hCounts include estimates for misdemeanors based on entries during the year. See Explanatory notes for more detail.

December 2009

19

Appendix Table 3.
Adults entering probation, by type of sentence, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticutb
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshireb
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvaniac
Rhode Island
Vermontb
Midwest
Illinois
Indianab
Iowab
Kansas
Michiganb
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohiob
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabamab
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Floridab
Georgiab
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomab
South Carolina
Tennesseeb
Texasb
Virginiab
West Virginiab

20

Total
reported
2,188,591
11,333
2,177,258
224,380
28,580
3,634
94,028
3,155
44,881
36,247
3,139
6,484
4,232
617,726
59,114
100,199
15,689
20,448
124,279
77,479
23,917
14,719
2,922
150,977
4,022
23,961
923,125
20,073
9,097
15,463
7,007
226,888
227,084
11,953
14,949
52,138
11,107
68,467
13,342
14,788
23,287
176,648
29,681
1,153

Number of adults entering probation, 2008
Probation without Probation with
incarceration
incarceration
Othera
666,719
203,014
65,110
11,333
0
0
655,386
203,014
65,110
66,007
12,611
350
22,487
6,093
**
2,576
903
136
**
**
**
2,731
424
0
**
**
**
31,422
4,825
0
3,139
0
0
**
**
**
3,652
366
214
110,899
105,100
22,116
**
**
**
3,886
82,434
13,879
**
**
**
**
**
**
22,180
3,904
710
**
**
**
21,546
0
2,371
10,329
4,390
0
2,922
0
0
50,036
14,372
5,156
**
**
**
**
**
**
418,255
58,986
15,471
9,283
9,415
**
8,333
0
764
**
**
**
6,016
991
0
163,879
7,655
1,782
31,689
14,330
881
10,915
269
769
13,638
812
499
43,120
9,018
0
7,581
3,526
0
68,413
54
0
9,441
1,883
**
12,763
2,025
0
15,007
8,190
90
**
**
**
18,177
818
10,686
**
**
**

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Unknown or
not reported
1,253,748
0
1,253,748
145,412
0
19
94,028
0
44,881
0
0
6,484
0
379,611
59,114
0
15,689
20,448
97,485
77,479
0
0
0
81,413
4,022
23,961
430,413
1,375
0
15,463
0
53,572
180,184
0
0
0
0
0
2,018
0
0
176,648
0
1,153

Appendix Table 3. (cont.)
Adults entering probation, by type of sentence, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonab
Californiab
Coloradob
Hawaiib
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexicob
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonb
Wyoming

Total
reported
412,027
1,401
22,559
189,926
50,783
6,151
40,030
3,864
7,326
3,590
15,779
5,615
62,240
2,763

Number of adults entering probation, 2008
Probation without Probation with
incarceration
incarceration
Othera
60,225
26,317
27,173
**
**
**
14,212
8,347
0
**
**
**
27,546
3,131
14,660
**
**
**
2,584
1,553
32
1,591
1,640
300
**
**
**
**
**
**
7,567
7,348
0
2,735
2,880
0
1,431
1,214
12,181
2,559
204
0

Unknown or
not reported
298,312
1,401
0
189,926
5,446
6,151
35,861
333
7,326
3,590
864
0
47,414
0

Note: Based on reported data only. For imputed entries to probation, see appendix table 2.
**Not known.
aIncludes probationers who entered supervision through a deferred sentence, pretrial supervision, after a bench

warrant was served, a reinstatement of their original sentence, placement in a drug court program, a transfer from
another agency or state, and other types of sentences.
b
c

Some or all detailed data are estimated for type of sentence.

Data represent state probationers only. Data are not available for county probationers.

December 2009

21

Appendix Table 4.
Adults exiting probation, by type of exit, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticutc
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshirec
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvaniad
Rhode Islandc
Vermontc
Midwest
Illinois
Indianac
Iowa
Kansas
Michiganc
Minnesota
Missouric
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohioc
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabamac
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Floridac
Georgiac
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomac
South Carolina
Tennesseec
Texasc
Virginiac
West Virginiac

22

Total
With new
reported Completion sentence
2,165,083 1,041,695
57,985
12,007
9,801
87
2,153,076 1,031,894
57,898
223,905
61,734
4,541
29,073
29,073
**
3,984
3,378
0
90,586
**
**
3,256
**
**
45,894
**
**
38,456
24,831
3,985
2,440
1,292
256
5,867
**
**
4,349
3,160
300
612,043
245,669
18,726
57,000
**
**
98,516
64,858
8,350
15,507
11,904
**
20,316
17,403
**
126,837
50,537
2,079
77,004
**
**
22,808
9,713
1,331
14,023
12,190
836
3,185
1,700
571
147,600
57,282
4,827
3,517
3,192
**
25,730
16,890
732
912,132
554,637
32,398
18,566
6,982
1,692
9,368
5,946
982
14,943
4,091
**
6,499
3,874
**
224,904
121,188
12,618
213,867
153,733
2,793
9,667
4,014
590
13,930
8,783
880
54,248
33,302
4,679
10,463
5,313
**
70,235
33,938
4,334
12,929
9,485
1,120
15,219
9,807
462
24,633
16,236
2,248
183,874
121,907
**
28,021
16,038
0
766
**
**

Number of adults exiting probation, 2008
Incarcerated
Under
Discharged Other
current
To receive Other/
to warrant unsatissentence treatment unknown Absconder or detainer factorya
135,994
7,682
82,055
59,481
11,205
166,343
1,057
**
0
157
**
350
134,937
7,682
82,055
59,324
11,205
165,993
536
0
1,265
0
65
9,561
**
**
**
**
**
**
0
0
606
0
0
0
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
530
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
~
~
~
**
~
9,169
318
0
0
0
65
0
**
**
129
**
**
**
218
~
0
**
~
392
40,664
372
1,829
24,438
3,522
6,788
**
**
**
**
**
**
10,875
~
0
7,262
~
0
2,572
**
0
43
**
3
**
**
107
**
**
2,806
6,579
88
509
502
2,534
1,701
**
**
**
**
**
**
4,564
**
**
6,743
**
**
806
0
0
58
12
64
664
0
74
147
0
0
7,168
284
1,139
9,669
976
1,390
325
**
**
**
**
**
7,111
~
0
14
0
824
78,632
6,926
75,026
28,242
7,098
56,891
1,680
**
5,475
200
**
**
1,367
**
0
353
**
0
**
21
3,534
**
**
6,256
**
**
1,375
0
0
831
34,144
6,905
836
460
7,050
3,451
6,173
**
**
14,300
**
31,473
3,454
0
0
316
48
141
3,721
0
0
0
0
18
5,919
**
0
0
0
6,824
**
0
619
1,766
**
22
12,179
~
0
10,847
**
6,637
596
**
**
**
**
142
4,684
0
0
0
0
0
4,715
**
**
**
**
1,096
**
**
53,463
**
**
0
0
0
9,408
0
0
0
**
**
316
**
**
**

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Death
9,851
123
9,728
507
**
0
**
19
**
432
38
**
18
1,383
**
0
91
**
305
**
366
50
29
385
**
157
6,879
286
187
92
50
1,302
397
186
183
511
27
632
200
190
338
1,885
413
**

Otherb
71,094
432
70,662
771
**
0
**
**
**
39
471
**
261
13,561
**
7,171
894
**
1109
**
0
7
0
4,378
**
2
22,231
946
533
949
369
854
4,998
918
345
3,012
**
0
0
76
0
6,619
2,162
450

Unknown
or not
reported
521,698
0
521,698
144,925
0
0
90,586
2,707
45,894
0
0
5,738
0
255,091
57,000
0
0
0
60,894
77,004
91
0
0
60,102
0
0
43,172
1,305
0
0
0
36,096
0
0
0
1
2,716
1,668
1,386
0
0
0
0
0

Appendix Table 4. (cont.)
Adults exiting probation, by type of exit, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonac
Californiac
Coloradoc
Hawaiic
Idaho
Montana
Nevadac
New Mexicoc
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonc
Wyoming

Total
reported
404,996
1,221
17,531
199,528
40,354
6,480
39,180
3,898
7,450
2,652
16,362
5,313
62,344
2,683

With new
Completion sentence
169,854
2,233
654
38
11,055
**
87,246
**
25,736
29
5,607
181
2,313
636
1,746
90
4,420
**
**
**
10,296
625
2,364
366
16,654
171
1,763
97

Number of adults exiting probation, 2008
Incarcerated
Under
Discharged Other
current
To receive Other/
to warrant unsatissentence treatment unknown Absconder or detainer factorya
15,105
384
3,935
6,644
520
92,753
138
0
186
21
65
0
6,012
**
0
**
**
221
**
**
**
**
**
82,771
1,596
**
3,747
5,265
64
486
335
**
**
**
**
**
**
~
0
0
0
824
1,192
**
**
37
43
**
**
**
0
211
**
2,758
**
**
**
**
**
**
4,238
0
0
327
0
156
363
0
0
55
1
1,383
716
384
2
586
347
4,154
515
0
0
142
0
0

Death
959
8
243
**
225
36
31
75
61
**
174
58
36
12

Otherb
34,099
49
**
29,511
3044
82
0
335
**
**
24
723
177
154

Unknown
or not
reported
78,510
62
0
0
162
239
35,376
380
0
2,652
522
0
39,117
0

Note: Based on reported data only. For imputed exits from probation, see appendix table 2.
**Not known.
~Not applicable.
a

Includes probationers discharged from supervision who failed to meet all conditions of supervision, including some with only financial conditions remaining, some who
had their probation sentence revoked but were not incarcerated because their sentence was immediately reinstated, and other types of unsatisfactory exits; includes some
early terminations and expirations of sentence.

bIncludes 9,644 probationers transferred to another jurisdiction and 61,450 probationers who exited supervision for other reasons. Other reasons include probationers

discharged through a legislative mandate, because they were deported or transferred to the jurisdiction of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), transferred
to another state through an interstate compact agreement, had their sentence dismissed or overturned by the court through an appeal, had their sentence closed
administratively, deferred, or terminated by the court, were awaiting a hearing, were released on bond, and other types of exits.
cSome or all detailed data are estimated for type of exit.
dData represent state probationers only. Data are not available for county probationers.

December 2009

23

Appendix Table 5.
Characteristics of adults on probation, 2000, 2004, and
2008
Characteristics
Total
Gender
Male
Female
Race and Hispanic origin
Whitea
Blacka
Hispanic or Latino
American Indian/Alaska Nativea
Asian/Native Hawaiian/other
Pacific Islandera
Two or more racesa
Status of supervision
Active
Residential/other treatment program
Financial conditions remaining
Inactive
Absconder
Supervised out of jurisdiction
Warrant status
Other
Type of offense
Felony
Misdemeanor
Other infractions
Most serious offense
Violent
Property
Drug
Public-orderb
Otherc

Percent of adults on probation
2000
2004
2008
100%
100%
100%
78%
22

77%
23

76%
24

54%
31
13
1

56%
30
12
1

56%
29
13
1

1
...

1
...

1
1

76%

74%

71%

...
...
9
9
3
...
3

1
...
9
9
2
5
--

1
1
8
8
3
6
2

52%
46
2

49%
50
1

49%
48
2

...
...
24
24
52

19%
23
26
22
10

19%
25
29
17
10

Note: Each characteristic includes persons of unknown type. Detail may not
sum to total because of rounding. See appendix tables 6 to 10 for 2008 data by
jurisdiction.
--Less than 0.5%.
...Not available.
a

Excludes persons of Hispanic origin.

bIncludes driving while intoxicated and minor traffic offenses only.
c

Includes violent and property offenses in 2000 because those data were not
collected separately.

24

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 6.
Adults on probation, by gender, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticut*
Maine
Massachusetts*
New Hampshire
New Jersey*
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont*
Midwest
Illinois
Indiana*
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan*
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio*
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama*
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida*
Georgia*
Kentucky*
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma*
South Carolina
Tennessee*
Texas*
Virginia*
West Virginia

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
4,270,917
22,748
4,248,169
721,720
56,550
7,504
184,308
4,549
128,737
119,405
186,973
26,754
6,940
1,017,359
144,904
131,291
22,958
16,263
175,591
127,627
57,360
19,606
4,233
260,962
6,146
50,418
1,722,704
53,252
31,169
17,216
8,581
279,760
397,081
51,035
40,025
96,360
22,267
109,678
27,940
41,254
58,109
427,080
53,614
8,283

Number of adults on probation, 2008
Unknown or
Male
Female
not reported
2,374,129
737,814
1,158,974
14,209
8,159
380
2,359,920
729,655
1,158,594
575,967
144,868
885
44,830
11,715
5
6,161
1,343
0
152,976
31,332
0
3,492
1,057
0
102,732
26,005
0
95,143
23,487
775
142,913
44,060
0
22,355
4,294
105
5,365
1,575
0
417,485
142,593
457,281
**
**
144,904
**
**
131,291
16,560
6,308
90
**
**
16,263
92,781
32,084
50,726
97,588
30,039
0
42,255
14,438
667
14,523
5,083
0
3,107
1,126
0
111,262
42,506
107,194
**
**
6,146
39,409
11,009
0
1,078,771
355,283
288,650
34,753
9,305
9,194
21,645
9,519
5
13,391
3,824
1
6,878
1,674
29
192,755
63,310
23,695
116,688
34,928
245,465
34,411
16,624
0
30,155
9,870
0
78,276
18,084
0
17,235
5,032
0
82,949
26,728
1
19,613
6,350
1,977
32,894
8,360
0
43,733
14,376
0
311,769
115,311
0
41,626
11,988
0
**
**
8,283

December 2009

25

Appendix Table 6. (cont.)
Adults on probation, by gender, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona*
California*
Colorado*
Hawaii*
Idaho
Montana
Nevada*
New Mexico*
Oregon
Utah
Washington*
Wyoming

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
786,386
6,708
82,232
325,069
88,912
19,097
49,513
9,072
13,337
20,883
41,888
11,103
113,134
5,438

Number of adults on probation, 2008
Unknown or
Male
Female
not reported
287,697
86,911
411,778
5,418
1,288
2
65,618
16,614
0
**
**
325,069
64,829
22,052
2,031
14,484
4,613
0
10,047
3,605
35,861
6,773
2,117
182
9,885
3,452
0
11,866
4,010
5,007
32,367
9,521
0
8,294
2,809
0
54,066
15,442
43,626
4,050
1,388
0

**Not known.
*Some or all detailed data are estimated for gender.

26

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 7.
Adults on probation, by race and Hispanic origin, 2008
Probation
Region and
population,
jurisdiction
12/31/2008
U.S. total
4,270,917
Federala
22,748
State
4,248,169
Northeast
721,720
Connecticutb
56,550
Maine
7,504
Massachusetts
184,308
New Hampshire
4,549
New Jerseyb
128,737
New York
119,405
Pennsylvania
186,973
Rhode Islanda,c
26,754
6,940
Vermontb,d
Midwest
1,017,359
Illinois
144,904
131,291
Indianab
Iowa
22,958
Kansas
16,263
Michiganb
175,591
Minnesotae
127,627
Missouri
57,360
Nebraska
19,606
North Dakota
4,233
Ohiob
260,962
South Dakota
6,146
Wisconsina
50,418
South
1,722,704
Alabamab
53,252
Arkansas
31,169
Delaware
17,216
District of Columbia
8,581
Floridab
279,760
397,081
Georgiab
Kentuckyb
51,035
Louisiana
40,025
Maryland
96,360
Mississippi
22,267
North Carolina
109,678
Oklahomab
27,940
South Carolina
41,254
Tennesseeb
58,109
427,080
Texasb
Virginiab
53,614
West Virginia
8,283

White
1,528,485
11,010
1,517,475
271,307
27,070
6,788
**
4,119
46,345
55,239
110,398
15,114
6,234
326,636
**
**
18,216
**
48,444
89,174
40,715
13,955
3,175
78,671
**
34,286
707,505
20,671
19,552
9,087
697
137,486
70,954
33,120
19,456
46,114
9,262
50,780
15,105
18,998
33,463
196,457
26,303
**

Number of adults on probation, 2008
American
Native Hawaiian/
Black/Afri- Hispanic or Indian/Alaska
Other Pacific
Two or
can American Latino
Native
Asian
Islander
more races
786,499
371,015
26,833
20,431
5,870
13,976
6,007
3,628
566
893
**
0
780,492
367,387
26,267
19,538
5,870
13,976
166,288
68,401
1,017
3,872
14
222
15,304
12,321
107
414
0
20
271
0
90
23
2
0
**
**
**
**
**
**
148
~
8
8
0
0
51,495
15,449
0
1,287
0
0
34,812
23,739
482
1,097
~
~
58,878
11,864
157
729
12
202
5,142
5,028
135
275
**
**
238
**
38
39
**
**
117,445
11,942
8,919
4,534
90
13,045
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
2,856
1,169
252
260
**
~
**
**
**
**
**
**
30,155
1,237
597
402
73
109
18,110
/
4,926
2,720
**
12,697
14,854
806
121
153
**
**
2,280
2,718
522
131
0
0
162
147
730
19
0
0
38,369
2,951
54
260
17
239
**
**
**
**
**
**
10,659
2,914
1,717
589
**
**
468,947
222,157
4,895
3,494
275
283
22,601
648
53
53
**
**
9,974
1,369
85
70
**
**
7,177
862
12
54
**
**
7,097
594
3
67
6
0
67,047
35,949
410
1,112
140
190
70,693
7,202
277
286
**
**
11,913
5,821
28
60
**
93
20,297
101
23
69
62
~
48,781
**
111
637
**
**
12,461
166
24
50
0
0
48,453
6,325
1,869
329
59
**
5,296
1,937
1,858
104
8
**
21,388
668
46
46
0
~
21,521
2,495
67
555
**
**
68,332
158,020
**
**
**
**
25,916
0
29
2
0
0
**
**
**
**
**
**

Unknown or
not reported
1,517,808
644
1,517,164
210,599
1,314
330
184,308
266
14,161
4,036
4,733
1,060
391
534,748
144,904
131,291
205
16,263
94,574
0
711
0
0
140,401
6,146
253
315,148
9,226
119
24
117
37,426
247,669
0
17
717
304
1,863
3,632
108
8
4,271
1,364
8,283

December 2009

27

Appendix Table 7. (cont.)
Adults on probation, by race and Hispanic origin, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonab
Californiab
Coloradob
Hawaiib
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexicob
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonb
Wyoming

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
786,386
6,708
82,232
325,069
88,912
19,097
49,513
9,072
13,337
20,883
41,888
11,103
113,134
5,438

White
212,027
3,961
36,934
**
61,676
4,402
10,607
7,034
**
4,819
33,338
8,228
36,526
4,502

Number of adults on probation, 2008
American
Native Hawaiian/
Black/Afri- Hispanic or Indian/
Other Pacific
Two or
Unknown or
can American Latino
Alaska Native
Asian
Islander
more races not reported
27,812
64,887
11,436
7,638
5,491
426
456,669
621
202
1,556
272
0
0
96
7,087
29,822
3,916
407
**
**
4,066
**
**
**
**
**
**
325,069
8,470
13,961
832
887
**
**
3,086
755
**
**
3,767
5,275
**
4,898
213
1,981
350
82
**
**
36,280
112
240
1,119
21
**
51
495
**
**
**
**
**
**
13,337
822
8,438
1,136
39
22
**
5,607
2,423
4,856
597
494
0
0
180
507
1,118
308
87
174
0
681
6,684
3,785
1,399
1,574
10
370
62,786
118
484
223
8
10
5
88

**Not known.
~Not applicable.
/Not reported.
aAsian includes an unspecified number of probationers who are Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander because Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
could not be reported separately.
bSome or all detailed data are estimated for race and Hispanic origin.
cClassifies Hispanic or Latino as a race rather than an ethnicity; therefore, probationers reported as Hispanic or Latino may also be of another race. Additionally, probationers reported among other racial categories may also be Hispanic or Latino. The state's information system does not track Native Hawaiian/
Other Pacific Islander or two or more races; therefore, these probationers, if any, were reported among the other racial categories.
d
Does not collect ethnicity data; therefore, the number of Hispanic or Latino probationers was unknown. Hispanic or Latino probationers were reported
among the other racial categories.
eClassifies Hispanic or Latino as an ethnicity rather than a race. There were 5,968 Hispanic or Latino probationers under supervision on December 31, 2008,
but they were reported among the other racial categories.

28

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 8.
Adults on probation, by status of supervision, 2008
Number of adults on probation, 2008
Probation
Region and
population,
jurisdiction
12/31/2008
U.S. total
4,270,917
Federal
22,748
State
4,248,169
Northeast
721,720
Connecticuta
56,550
Maine
7,504
Massachusettsb
184,308
4,549
New Hampshireb
128,737
New Jerseya
New York
119,405
Pennsylvania
186,973
Rhode Islandc
26,754
Vermonta,b
6,940
Midwest
1,017,359
Illinoisa
144,904
Indianaa
131,291
22,958
Iowab
16,263
Kansasb
Michigana,b
175,591
Minnesota
127,627
Missouri
57,360
Nebraska
19,606
North Dakota
4,233
Ohioa,b,d
260,962
South Dakotab
6,146
Wisconsin
50,418
South
1,722,704
Alabamaa
53,252
Arkansas
31,169
Delaware
17,216
District of Columbia
8,581
Floridaa,b
279,760
Georgiaa
397,081
51,035
Kentuckya
Louisiana
40,025
Maryland
96,360
Mississippi
22,267
North Carolina
109,678
Oklahomaa
27,940
South Carolina
41,254
58,109
Tennesseea
Texasa
427,080
53,614
Virginiaa
West Virginia
8,283

Active
2,161,699
22,748
2,138,951
372,906
42,628
6,124
**
4,549
67,976
102,703
131,287
11,839
5,800
443,840
99,817
**
22,958
16,263
88,967
**
52,174
17,090
3,770
95,529
6,146
41,126
1,038,660
40,022
19,736
12,278
4,492
162,564
126,488
43,031
35,918
57,222
21,091
88,537
21,142
25,553
44,086
288,753
47,747
**

Residential/
Financial
other treatment conditions
program
remaining
23,030
45,515
0
0
23,030
45,515
**
38,855
**
**
0
0
**
**
0
0
**
38,814
**
**
**
**
**
**
~
41
1,281
1,899
0
0
**
**
**
**
0
0
152
423
**
**
270
**
0
0
0
0
759
1,476
**
**
100
0
11,380
4,738
174
2,019
**
**
**
1,152
201
0
175
94
3,855
114
**
307
184
0
**
**
245
0
6,012
**
**
1,052
47
0
487
**
**
**
0
0
**
**

Inactive
234,398
0
234,398
25,258
0
0
**
0
**
0
16,963
8,222
73
67,103
42,487
**
~
0
1,050
**
**
0
0
23,566
**
0
93,461
**
4,242
**
75
38,561
1,467
4,365
0
31,376
0
~
**
7,989
**
5,386
0
**

Warrant Supervised out
Absconder status
of jurisdiction
249,320
188,403
91,892
0
0
0
249,320
188,403
91,892
43,345
32,636
23,746
2,158
9,172
2,592
0
910
226
**
**
/
0
0
0
19,647
~
2,300
**
16,488
214
21,540
0
17,183
**
5,315
956
0
751
275
11,124
19,560
13,129
0
0
2,600
**
**
**
**
**
/
0
0
/
438
5,070
15
**
**
**
280
271
3,698
58
2,031
427
0
0
463
4,170
11,125
3,975
**
**
/
6,178
1,063
1,951
157,647
129,132
43,565
8,150
300
1,131
5,821
**
1,370
**
3,180
606
121
1,726
410
28,153
11,630
5,645
6,802
107,196
8,000
1,240
**
1,669
1,858
0
2,065
5,577
883
1,302
0
0
931
14,045
**
1,084
2,549
**
1,220
5,736
939
990
7,560
3,278
2,698
70,035
**
8,134
0
0
5,867
**
**
443

Unknown or
Other not reported
61,096
1,215,564
0
0
61,096
1,215,564
655
184,319
0
0
233
11
**
184,308
0
0
**
0
0
0
**
0
422
0
0
0
1,852
457,571
0
0
**
131,291
**
0
0
0
193
79,283
**
127,627
**
667
0
0
0
0
1,659
118,703
**
0
0
0
57,417
186,704
**
1,456
0
0
**
0
1,554
2
668
32,270
**
143,159
423
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
**
1,977
0
0
0
0
54,772
0
0
0
**
7,840

December 2009

29

Appendix Table 8. (cont.)
Adults on probation, by status of supervision, 2008
Number of adults on probation, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaskab
Arizonaa
Californiaa
Coloradoa,b
Hawaiia
Idahoa,e
Montanab
Nevada
New Mexicoa
Oregon
Utah
Washingtona,b
Wyoming

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
786,386
6,708
82,232
325,069
88,912
19,097
49,513
9,072
13,337
20,883
41,888
11,103
113,134
5,438

Active
283,545
5,823
42,806
**
82,282
16,051
27,566
8,021
9,895
14,219
26,716
9,869
35,570
4,727

Residential/
Financial
other treatment conditions
program
remaining
10,369
23
0
0
**
**
**
**
702
**
218
**
0
**
553
**
**
**
**
**
4
**
0
0
8,712
23
180
0

Inactive
48,576
0
16,402
**
663
**
20,017
**
56
2,940
52
0
8,446
0

Warrant Supervised out
Absconder status
of jurisdiction
37,204
7,075
11,452
885
0
/
10,413
**
2,226
**
**
**
84
1,838
3,120
**
2,450
378
3
999
920
68
**
1
2,566
**
820
1,764
**
1,960
14,115
**
997
811
87
325
6,455
1,637
278
40
64
427

Other
1,172
0
**
**
**
**
8
**
0
0
0
0
1,164
0

Unknown or
not reported
386,970
0
10,385
325,069
223
0
0
429
0
0
4
11
50,849
0

**Not known.
~Not applicable
/Not reported.
aSome or all detailed data are estimated for status of supervision.
b

December 31, 2008, population excludes probationers in one or more statuses. See Explanatory notes for more detail.

c

Active includes an unknown number of probationers in a residential/other treatment program and inactive includes an unknown number of probationers who were
an absconder.
d

Absconder includes a small, unknown number of probationers who were on warrant status.

eSee Explanatory notes for more detail.

30

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 9.
Adults on probation, by type of offense, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticutb
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jerseyb
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermontb
Midwest
Illinois
Indianab
Iowa
Kansas
Michiganb
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohiob
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabamab
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Floridab
Georgiab
Kentuckyb
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomab
South Carolina
Tennesseeb
Texasb
Virginiab
West Virginia

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
4,270,917
22,748
4,248,169
721,720
56,550
7,504
184,308
4,549
128,737
119,405
186,973
26,754
6,940
1,017,359
144,904
131,291
22,958
16,263
175,591
127,627
57,360
19,606
4,233
260,962
6,146
50,418
1,722,704
53,252
31,169
17,216
8,581
279,760
397,081
51,035
40,025
96,360
22,267
109,678
27,940
41,254
58,109
427,080
53,614
8,283

Number of adults on probation, 2008
Unknown or
Felony
Misdemeanor Othera not reported
1,678,625
1,632,959
83,313
876,020
16,688
3,822
2,209
29
1,661,937
1,629,137
81,104
875,991
239,269
268,182
22,936
191,333
30,537
25,447
452
114
5,356
2,148
0
0
**
**
**
184,308
**
**
**
4,549
62,952
51,641
14,144
0
60,347
56,796
172
2,090
59,201
120,410
7,189
173
18,425
7,349
979
1
2,451
4,391
0
98
322,391
471,775
836
222,357
**
**
**
144,904
55,600
75,691
0
0
8,965
13,970
23
0
3,635
12,628
0
0
60,090
88,988
479
26,034
44,537
83,090
0
0
55,378
1,315
**
667
5,055
14,551
0
0
3,061
1,076
96
0
57,214
152,900
238
50,610
4,330
1,816
0
0
24,526
25,750
0
142
923,581
697,571
32,692
68,860
**
5,102
**
48,150
29,084
1,783
0
302
4,690
11,237
26
1,263
2,337
2,234
2,761
1,249
178,068
90,351
2,711
8,630
150,949
246,132
0
0
21,895
29,140
0
0
39,095
930
0
0
27,745
48,798
19,817
0
22,267
0
0
0
38,272
70,901
0
505
23,752
3,710
0
478
24,920
8,957
7,377
0
47,973
10,136
0
0
258,920
168,160
0
0
53,614
0
0
0
**
**
**
8,283

December 2009

31

Appendix Table 9. (cont.)
Adults on probation, by type of offense, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonab
Californiab
Coloradob
Hawaiib
Idahob
Montana
Nevadab
New Mexicob
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonb
Wyoming

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
786,386
6,708
82,232
325,069
88,912
19,097
49,513
9,072
13,337
20,883
41,888
11,103
113,134
5,438

Number of adults on probation, 2008
Unknown or
Felony
Misdemeanor Othera not reported
176,696
191,609
24,640
393,441
6,708
0
0
0
49,389
8,473
20,576
3,794
**
**
**
325,069
16,344
69,423
1,209
1,936
11,125
5,234
2,738
0
13,652
35,861
0
0
8,483
407
**
182
8,865
4,472
0
0
**
5,007
**
15,876
27,365
12,745
0
1,778
8,384
2,602
117
0
23,241
45,087
**
44,806
3,140
2,298
0
0

**Not known.
aIncludes probationers under supervision for: a petty, traffic, DWI, or domestic violence offense, a city

ordinance violation, a civil protection order, due to a deferred sentence or placed on supervision after
being released on bail, and other types of offenses.
bSome or all detailed data are estimated for type of offense.

32

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 10.
Adults on probation, by most serious offense, 2008

Probation
Region and
population,
jurisdiction
12/31/2008
U.S. total
4,270,917
Federal
22,748
State
4,248,169
Northeast
721,720
Connecticutb
56,550
Maine
7,504
Massachusetts
184,308
New Hampshire
4,549
New Jerseyb
128,737
New York
119,405
Pennsylvaniac
186,973
Rhode Island
26,754
6,940
Vermontb
Midwest
1,017,359
Illinois
144,904
131,291
Indianab
Iowa
22,958
Kansas
16,263
Michiganb
175,591
Minnesota
127,627
Missouri
57,360
Nebraska
19,606
North Dakota
4,233
Ohiob,d
260,962
South Dakota
6,146
Wisconsin
50,418
South
1,722,704
Alabamab
53,252
Arkansas
31,169
Delaware
17,216
District of Columbia
8,581
Floridab
279,760
397,081
Georgiab
51,035
Kentuckyb
Louisiana
40,025
Maryland
96,360
Mississippi
22,267
North Carolina
109,678
Oklahomab
27,940
South Carolina
41,254
Tennesseeb
58,109
427,080
Texasb
53,614
Virginiab
West Virginia
8,283

Number of adults on probation, 2008
Driving while
intoxicated or
Domestic
Other violent Property Drug law under the
Other trafviolence Sex offense offense
offense
violation influence
fic offense
85,758
69,035
275,031
576,467
646,493
308,258
81,878
2
192
372
10,692
3,336
1,660
417
85,756
68,843
274,659
565,775
643,157
306,598
81,461
11,842
8,982
45,768
100,540
105,197
35,831
9,768
4,115
**
8,236
12,790
11,454
4,301
4,592
1,687
663
287
2,260
1,253
655
388
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
2,799
1,574
11,648
48,234
60,364
3,293
825
**
4,747
20,190
31,138
22,565
25,637
2,644
**
309
698
1,250
1,137
250
**
2,639
1,150
3,732
3,074
7,811
381
843
602
539
977
1,794
613
1,314
476
24,590
16,974
29,621
57,568
97,980
43,110
27,890
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
5,537
1,080
1,378
4,178
6,183
10,322
2,548
5,584
13,083
16,819
14,758
53,582
9,448
14,334
4,951
358
4,651
17,221
21,116
3,820
1,069
984
173
981
2,533
1,352
7,836
2,418
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
7,534
2,280
5,792
18,878
15,747
11,684
7,521
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
38,080
32,675
166,985
356,805
379,598
189,465
40,487
300
**
**
375
1,100
100
600
1,767
1,481
1,091
6,759
10,658
29
75
285
366
2,891
2,910
2,018
3,915
**
77
136
1,831
934
2,769
869
199
4,098
2,989
35,808
75,626
56,378
21,644
20,320
453
6,926
25,428
52,856
54,552
1,364
**
9,107
521
4,182
10,751
16,469
5,836
2
158
900
2,538
11,729
19,011
1,976
83
**
**
14,237
15,781
25,757
19,817
3,936
217
828
2,006
9,141
9,016
965
49
3,026
2,156
10,945
20,052
24,541
18,095
12,206
399
1,482
2,953
6,163
10,132
2,812
116
1,191
1,075
5,356
14,404
10,134
1,276
1,777
2,225
914
4,516
10,008
11,751
3,445
145
14,777
12,428
45,697
95,197
108,692
106,300
**
0
473
7,506
24,119
16,620
1,022
979
**
**
**
**
**
**
**

Othera
220,694
6,005
214,689
30,291
11,062
0
**
**
0
10,166
1,412
7,124
527
26,088
**
**
**
**
10,317
0
3,507
3,329
**
8,935
**
**
148,318
1,171
9,309
4,831
1,390
20,324
10,037
4,167
2,710
16,832
45
0
1,906
6,041
23,207
43,989
2,359
**

Unknown or
not reported
2,007,303
72
2,007,231
373,501
0
311
184,308
4,549
0
2,318
181,917
0
98
693,538
144,904
131,291
22,958
16,263
134,048
19
667
0
4,233
182,591
6,146
50,418
370,291
49,606
0
0
376
42,573
245,465
0
920
0
0
18,657
1,977
0
1,898
0
536
8,283

December 2009

33

Appendix Table 10. (cont.)
Adults on probation, by most serious offense, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonab
Californiab
Coloradob
Hawaiib
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexicob
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonb
Wyoming

Probation
population,
12/31/2008
786,386
6,708
82,232
325,069
88,912
19,097
49,513
9,072
13,337
20,883
41,888
11,103
113,134
5,438

Number of adults on probation, 2008
Driving while
Domesintoxicated or
tic vioOther violent Property Drug law under the
Other traffic
lence
Sex offense offense
offense
violation influence
offense
11,244
10,212
32,285
50,862
60,382
38,192
3,316
44
263
1,187
751
388
404
93
1,096
4,669
10,955
23,531
24,547
6,748
824
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
2,835
65
446
826
585
15,217
718
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
440
913
1,671
4,249
4,769
1,520
90
315
550
1,367
3,256
1,564
702
21
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
957
**
8,236
8,405
11,426
4,161
0
301
786
1,205
3,217
3,569
815
365
4,969
2,692
6,666
5,180
11,874
7,745
1,121
287
274
552
1,447
1,660
880
84

Othera
9,992
770
5,049
**
428
**
**
495
**
**
0
682
2,314
254

Unknown or
not reported
569,901
2,808
4,813
325,069
67,792
19,097
35,861
802
13,337
20,883
8,703
163
70,573
0

**Not known.
aIncludes probationers under supervision for a public-order offense, such as a weapon, immigration, obstruction of justice, drunkenness, vagrancy, and

commercialized vice offense, and other offenses.
b
c

Some or all detailed data are estimated for most serious offense.

Detailed data represent state probationers only. Detailed data are not available for county probationers.

dOther includes an unknown number of probationers who were supervised for a property offense.

34

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 11.
Adults on probation tracked by a Global Positioning System (GPS), also on parole, or incarcerated,
2008
Location tracked by GPS
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federala,b
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusettsa
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermonta
Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigana
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohioa
South Dakota
Wisconsinc
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delawarea
District of Columbia
Floridaa
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomaa
South Carolina
Tennesseea,d
Texasa
Virginia
West Virginia

Total
12,096
82
12,014
910
**
**
908
~
~
**
**
~
2
7,513
**
~
379
**
203
**
23
~
35
2,087
~
4,786
3,164
**
~
113
327
2,159
47
**
~
~
~
135
35
14
211
**
123
**

Sex offenders
7,946
11
7,935
681
**
**
680
~
~
**
**
~
1
5,165
**
~
307
**
19
**
8
~
35
10
~
4,786
1,897
**
~
**
19
1,477
47
**
~
~
~
135
**
12
207
**
0
**

Number of adults on probation, 2008
Incarcerated
Community-based
On parole
Jail
Prison
correctional facility ICE holding facility
3,233
23,799
32,443
12,853
2,474
~
~
~
~
~
3,233
23,799
32,443
12,853
2,474
9
899
3,709
10
2
**
**
**
**
**
9
109
11
0
0
**
**
**
**
**
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
**
790
**
10
2
0
~
3,291
~
~
**
**
407
**
**
688
2,569
1,769
1,497
18
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
~
~
~
591
~
**
**
**
**
**
249
183
404
40
13
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
379
2,386
110
866
5
~
~
~
~
~
60
**
1,255
**
**
1,279
14,758
17,593
7,432
1,046
**
2,126
**
**
**
**
791
122
115
**
**
**
26
9
**
311
0
543
0
6
**
1,352
1,357
6
1,003
**
**
**
3,855
**
327
226
57
1
**
176
3,293
4
37
19
0
0
10,736
0
0
**
**
**
**
**
411
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
54
1,901
262
**
18
**
4,230
4,486
3,409
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
839
**
**
**

December 2009

35

Appendix Table 11. (cont.)
Adults on probation tracked by a Global Positioning System (GPS), also on parole, or incarcerated,
2008
Number of adults on probation, 2008
Incarcerated
Community-based
Sex offenders On parole
Jail
Prison
correctional facility ICE holding facility
192
1,257
5,573
9,372
3,914
1,408
~
~
~
~
~
~
145
**
1,597
9,106
**
345
**
**
**
**
**
**
35
20
52
7
3,609
62
~
**
**
**
**
**
10
**
7
1
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
2
**
**
**
**
**
**
998
**
**
**
**
~
0
78
0
0
885
**
0
1,780
34
90
6
**
227
2,059
189
131
110
~
12
**
35
84
0

Location tracked by GPS
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonaa
California
Coloradoa
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexicoa
Oregon
Utah
Washingtona
Wyoming

Total
427
~
148
**
35
~
24
3
204
**
~
**
13
~

**Not known.
~Not applicable
a

Some or all detailed data are estimated.

bA sex offender is defined as any offender convicted of a sex offense, ordered to a special condition for sex offender treatment, or fulfilling

other sex offender treatment requirements.
c

The total number of probationers tracked by GPS was unknown but there were at least 4,786 tracked by GPS because 4,786 sex offenders on
probation were monitored by GPS. Prison only includes probationers incarcerated in a state prison in Wisconsin; the count does not include
probationers, if any, incarcerated in a federal prison.

dSee Explanatory notes for more detail.

36

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 12.
Adults on parole, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. totalb
Federal
Stateb
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusettsc
New Hampshirec
New Jerseyd
New York
Pennsylvaniac,e
Rhode Islandd
Vermontd,f
Midwest
Illinois
Indianad
Iowad,f
Kansasd
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
Southb
Alabamac,f
Arkansas
Delawarec
District of Columbia
Floridac,f
Georgia
Kentuckyc
Louisianac
Marylandc
Mississippi
North Carolinac
Oklahomaf
South Carolina
Tennesseec
Texas
Virginiad,g
West Virginia

Parole
population,
1/1/2008
821,177
91,395
729,782
155,192
2,177
32
3,121
1,653
15,055
53,669
78,107
442
936
138,287
35,086
10,375
3,546
4,842
21,131
4,756
18,656
800
340
18,390
2,812
17,553
240,465
7,790
18,617
535
5,417
4,654
23,111
13,097
24,085
13,856
2,015
3,311
2,929
2,289
10,481
101,748
/
1,830

2008
Entries
Reported Imputeda
548,575
581,000
46,796
46,796
501,779
534,200
55,852
87,000
2,366
2,366
0
0
4,684
4,684
945
945
10,249
10,249
25,507
25,507
10,804
42,000
625
625
672
672
105,366
105,366
32,657
32,657
11,200
11,200
2,155
2,155
4,920
4,920
11,557
11,557
5,827
5,827
15,507
15,507
1,012
1,012
837
837
10,096
10,096
1,850
1,850
7,748
7,748
108,575
109,800
2,960
9,685
417
2,417
7,219
11,621
6,166
13,812
7,348
1,819
3,653
1,413
435
4,085
33,992
/
1,533

2,960
9,685
417
2,417
7,219
11,621
6,166
13,812
7,348
1,819
3,653
1,413
435
4,085
33,992
1,200
1,533

Parole
Percent Number on parole
Exits
population, change, per 100,000 adults
Reported
Imputeda 12/31/2008 2008
residents, 12/31/2008
536,478
574,000
828,169
0.9%
358
39,562
39,562
98,629
7.9
43
496,916
534,500
729,540
0.0
315
56,232
92,400
149,825
-3.5%
351
2,215
2,215
2,328
6.9
86
1
1
31
-3.1
3
4,620
4,620
3,185
2.1
63
937
937
1,661
0.5
162
9,455
9,455
15,849
5.3
238
26,951
26,951
52,225
-2.7
345
10,973
47,100
72,951
-6.6
751
552
552
515
16.5
63
528
528
1,080
15.4
219
101,755
101,755
141,898
2.6%
280
34,060
34,060
33,683
-4.0
345
10,938
10,938
10,637
2.5
221
2,542
2,542
3,159
-10.9
137
4,804
4,804
4,958
2.4
235
10,165
10,165
22,523
6.6
296
5,502
5,502
5,081
6.8
127
13,480
13,480
20,683
10.9
459
966
966
846
5.8
63
793
793
384
12.9
77
9,367
9,367
19,119
4.0
218
1,942
1,942
2,720
-3.3
446
7,196
7,196
18,105
3.1
418
104,391
105,800
244,071
1.5%
288
2,708
8,394
401
1,699
7,345
11,284
6,986
13,261
7,984
912
3,555
1,269
777
3,639
32,819
/
1,358

2,708
8,394
401
1,699
7,345
11,284
6,986
13,261
7,984
912
3,555
1,269
777
3,639
32,819
1,400
1,358

8,042
19,908
551
6,135
4,528
23,448
12,277
24,636
13,220
2,922
3,409
3,073
1,947
10,578
102,921
4,471
2,005

3.2
6.9
3.0
13.3
-2.7
1.5
-6.3
2.3
-4.6
45.0
3.0
4.9
-14.9
0.9
1.2
:
9.6

226
920
82
1,274
31
326
375
742
307
134
48
112
57
222
579
75
140

December 2009

37

Appendix Table 12. (cont.)
Adults on parole, 2008
2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonad
Californiad
Coloradoc,f
Hawaiic
Idahoc
Montanad
Nevada
New Mexicoc,f
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyomingc

Parole
population,
1/1/2008
195,838
1,539
6,755
123,764
11,014
2,015
3,114
966
3,653
3,527
22,196
3,572
13,017
706

Entries
Reported
231,986
863
13,433
181,021
9,674
645
1,771
663
4,486
2,019
8,832
2,424
5,816
339

Imputeda
231,986
863
13,433
181,021
9,674
645
1,771
663
4,486
2,019
8,832
2,424
5,816
339

Exits
Reported
234,538
670
12,654
184,492
9,034
756
1,524
744
4,231
1,822
8,833
2,395
7,065
318

Imputeda
234,538
670
12,654
184,492
9,034
756
1,524
744
4,231
1,822
8,833
2,395
7,065
318

Parole
Percent
population, change,
12/31/2008 2008
193,746
-1.1 %
1,732
12.5
7,534
11.5
120,753
-2.4
11,654
5.8
1,904
-5.5
3,361
7.9
885
-8.4
3,908
7.0
3,724
5.6
22,195
0.0
3,601
0.8
11,768
-9.6
727
3.0

Number on parole
per 100,000 adults
residents, 12/31/
2008
363
339
156
438
309
188
300
118
200
249
754
189
233
178

Note: Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the parole population for some jurisdictions on December 31, 2008, does not equal the population
on January 1, plus entries, minus exits. Rates were computed using the estimated adult resident population in each jurisdiction on January 1, 2009.
/Not reported.
:Not calculated.
aReflects reported data except for jurisdictions in which data were not available. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
b
c

Includes an estimated 4,700 parolees under supervision in Virginia on January 1. See Methodology for more detail.

See Explanatory notes for more detail.

d

Population excludes parolees in one of the following categories: absconder or supervised out of state. See Explanatory notes for more detail.

eData for entries and exits were estimated for nonreporting county agencies. See Methodology. The December 31, 2008, population includes 25,306

parolees under state parole supervision. Reported entries reflect parolees who entered state parole supervision through a discretionary release from
prison.
f

Some or all data were estimated.

g

Virginia was unable to provide data for January 1, entries, and exits. In addition due to a change in reporting methods, data may not be comparable
to data reported in prior years. See Methodology and Explanatory notes for more detail.

38

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 13.
Adults entering parole, by type of sentence, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticutf
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Yorkf
Pennsylvaniag
Rhode Island
Vermonth
Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowah
Kansasf
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabamah
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolinah
Oklahomah
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginiai
West Virginia

Total
reported
548,575
46,796
501,779
55,852
2,366
0
4,684
945
10,249
25,507
10,804
625
672
105,366
32,657
11,200
2,155
4,920
11,557
5,827
15,507
1,012
837
10,096
1,850
7,748
108,575
2,960
9,685
417
2,417
7,219
11,621
6,166
13,812
7,348
1,819
3,653
1,413
435
4,085
33,992
/
1,533

Discretionarya
146,370
731
145,639
36,216
1,644
0
4,463
945
7,800
9,454
10,804
625
481
28,195
19
0
**
182
10,515
0
13,259
1,012
837
1,250
726
395
66,215
75
9,063
**
762
47
8,273
5,778
836
2,390
1,693
357
1,413
435
3,759
29,801
/
1,533

Number of adults entering parole, 2008
Term of superMandatoryb Reinstatementc vised released
270,301
43,749
68,305
507
329
45,229
269,794
43,420
23,076
8,635
355
9,252
0
0
0
0
2,449
6,186
0
**
~
61,074
31,351
11,200
**
10
628
5,827
1,228
~
0
8,430
1,085
1,315
28,054
**
**
**
0
6,715
0
91
12,666
4,958
126
966
0
0
10
2,522
/
0

**
0
221
0
0
~
0
**
134
1,989
379
0
**
112
414
0
666
0
0
416
2
0
4,102
**
**
**
0
7
3,348
8
310
0
0
~
0
0
298
131
/
0

722
0
0
0
0
8,530
0
**
0
9,112
~
0
**
3,148
0
0
0
~
0
0
0
5,964
4,706
**
281
**
1,655
440
0
~
**
**
0
2,330
0
0
0
~
/
0

Othere
11,927
0
11,927
1,394
0
0
0
0
0
1,337
0
**
57
2,457
673
0
**
1,319
0
0
354
0
0
0
37
74
2,196
**
341
**
0
10
0
289
0
0
0
0
0
0
18
1,538
/
0

Unknown or
not reported
7,923
0
7,923
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,539
235
0
2,155
149
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,302
2,885
0
417
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
/
0

December 2009

39

Appendix Table 13. (cont.)
Adults entering parole, by type of sentence, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevadah
New Mexicoh
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total
reported
231,986
863
13,433
181,021
9,674
645
1,771
663
4,486
2,019
8,832
2,424
5,816
339

Discretionarya
15,013
60
44
6
5,304
645
1,476
575
3,016
**
1,152
2,388
30
317

Number of adults entering parole, 2008
Term of superMandatoryb Reinstatementc vised released
172,031
36,974
6
801
2
0
13,389
0
0
139,368
36,513
**
3,702
0
0
0
0
0
~
295
~
0
10
0
1,382
88
~
**
**
**
7,603
8
6
0
36
0
5,786
0
0
0
22
0

Othere
5,880
0
0
5,134
668
0
0
78
0
**
0
0
0
0

Unknown or
not reported
2,082
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,019
63
0
0
0

Note: Based on reported data only. For imputed entries to parole, see appendix table 12.
**Not known.
/Not reported.
~Not applicable.
aDiscretionary parole entries are persons entering because of a parole board decision.
bMandatory parole entries are persons whose releases from prison were not decided by a parole board. Includes those entering because of

determinate sentencing statutes, good-time provisions, or emergency releases.
cReinstatement entries are persons returned to parole after serving time in a prison because of a parole violation.
d

Term of supervised release entries are persons sentenced by a judge to a fixed period of incarceration based on a determinate statute
immediately followed by a period of supervised released in the community.

eIncludes parolees who were: transferred from another state, released temporarily to parole, released from a boot camp operated by the
Department of Corrections, released from prison through a conditional medical or mental health release to parole, absconders that were
returned to parole supervision, on pretrial supervision, sentenced to community supervision for life because of a sex offense and others,
under supervision due to a suspended sentence, and others.
f

See Explanatory notes for more detail.

gData represent state parolees only. Data are not available for county parolees.
h

Some or all detailed data are estimated for type of sentence.

i

Virginia was unable to provide data. An estimated 1,200 adults entered parole supervision in Virginia. See Methodology for more detail.

40

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 14.
Adults exiting parole, by type of exit, 2008
Number of adults exiting parole, 2008
Returned to incarceration
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticutc
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Yorkb
Pennsylvaniad
Rhode Island
Vermonte
Midwest
Illinoise
Indiana
Iowa
Kansasc
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delawaree
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomae
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginiaf
West Virginia

Total
reported
536,478
39,562
496,916
56,232
2,215
1
4,620
937
9,455
26,951
10,973
552
528
101,755
34,060
10,938
2,542
4,804
10,165
5,502
13,480
966
793
9,367
1,942
7,196
104,391
2,708
8,394
401
1,699
7,345
11,284
6,986
13,261
7,984
912
3,555
1,269
777
3,639
32,819
/
1,358

With new With
To receive Other/
Completion sentence revocation treatment unknown Absconder
259,372
48,872
133,947
155
4,801
56,209
22,157
1,330
8,212
1
52
1,670
237,215
47,542
125,735
154
4,749
54,539
32,468
4,011
14,631
**
2,665
140
1,159
0
0
0
1,001
55
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,701
216
664
0
20
0
**
**
**
**
**
**
7,469
168
1,680
0
0
85
14,280
1,709
9,032
~
1,617
~
5,094
1,873
3,029
0
0
0
428
27
97
**
0
0
337
18
129
~
27
0
60,880
9,684
22,878
**
0
4,203
20,354
3,607
8,182
~
~
870
6,728
268
585
0
0
1,227
1,755
**
765
**
0
0
2,037
153
1,188
~
0
1,285
6,093
2,023
1,905
0
0
0
2,964
281
1,835
0
0
421
9,616
553
3,171
**
0
0
705
32
223
~
0
0
598
11
176
0
0
6
5,760
2,057
995
0
0
237
851
120
768
0
0
157
3,419
579
3,085
0
0
0
66,888
11,452
13,861
154
2,077
985
1,517
532
345
0
5
0
4,033
1,060
2,224
**
118
292
230
**
**
**
10
**
464
**
**
**
658
0
5,066
381
985
154
0
0
7,263
439
2,680
0
818
18
3,765
522
2,062
0
0
408
7,223
1,156
1,290
~
295
~
4,822
868
773
**
~
~
668
0
0
0
172
66
2,844
96
159
~
0
180
964
119
146
0
0
0
577
23
153
0
0
0
1,951
785
818
0
1
0
24,726
5,456
1,691
0
0
0
/
775

/
15

/
535

/
0

/
0

/
21

Other
unsatisfactorya
9,229
2,292
6,937
**
0
0
0
**
0
0
0
0
0
38
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
37
4,684
0
0
74
77
0
0
0
3,096
1,398
0
39
0
0
0
0
/
0

Death
5,033
500
4,533
598
**
1
19
**
53
313
210
0
2
640
71
47
16
29
144
1
140
6
2
97
12
75
1,863
72
152
6
77
40
66
92
109
119
6
29
40
14
83
946

Otherb
11,149
630
10,519
782
0
0
0
**
0
0
767
**
15
3,032
588
2,082
5
112
0
0
0
0
0
221
23
1
1,508
237
515
81
422
9
0
137
92
4
0
0
0
10
1
0

/
12

/
0

Unknown or
not reported
7,711
2,718
4,993
937
0
0
0
937
0
0
0
0
0
400
388
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
0
919
0
0
0
1
710
0
0
0
0
0
208
0
0
0
0
/
0

December 2009

41

Appendix Table 14. (cont.)
Adults exiting parole, by type of exit, 2008
Number of adults exiting parole, 2008
Returned to incarceration
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevadae
New Mexicoe
Oregon
Utah
Washingtonc
Wyoming

Total
reported
234,538
670
12,654
184,492
9,034
756
1,524
744
4,231
1,822
8,833
2,395
7,065
318

With new
Completion sentence
76,979
22,395
**
**
7,918
228
48,324
19,372
3,954
1,200
368
4
459
121
389
8
3,613
375
**
**
5,209
813
543
259
6,034
**
168
15

Other
With
To receive Other/
unsatisrevocation treatment unknown Absconder factorya
74,365
**
7
49,211
2,215
**
**
**
**
**
1,945
0
0
2,530
0
64,612
**
**
46,584
**
3,572
0
0
1
0
230
0
0
0
0
446
~
0
~
480
245
0
0
17
0
144
~
0
75
0
**
**
**
**
**
1,728
0
0
1
811
1,353
0
7
0
114
**
**
0
0
810
90
**
0
3
0

Death
1,432
**
33
858
71
24
18
7
24
**
147
27
221
2

Unknown or
Otherb not reported
5,197
2,737
**
670
0
0
4,742
0
236
0
0
130
0
0
78
0
0
0
**
1,822
9
115
92
0
0
0
40
0

Note: Based on reported data only. For imputed exits from parole, see appendix table 12.
**Not known.
~Not applicable.
/Not reported.
aIncludes parolees discharged from supervision who failed to meet all conditions of supervision, including some who had their parole sentence revoked but were

not returned to incarceration because their sentence was immediately reinstated, and other types of unsatisfactory exits; includes some early terminations and
expirations of sentence.
b

Includes 5,052 parolees who were transferred to another state and 6,097 parolees who exited for other reasons. Other reasons include parolees who were deported
or transferred to the jurisdiction of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), had their sentence terminated by the court through an appeal, were transferred
to another state through an interstate compact agreement or discharged to probation supervision, and other types of exits.

cSee Explanatory notes for more detail.
dData represent state parolees only. Data are not available for county parolees.
eSome or all detailed data are estimated type of exit.
f

Virginia was unable to provide data. An estimated 1,400 adults exited parole supervision in Virginia. See Methodology for more detail.

42

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 15.
Characteristics of adults on parole, 2000, 2004, and 2008
Characteristics
Total
Gender
Male
Female
Race and Hispanic origin
Whitea
Blacka
Hispanic or Latino
American Indian/Alaska Nativea
Asian/Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islandera
Two or more racesa
Status of supervision
Active
Inactive
Absconder
Supervised out of state
Financial conditions remaining
Other
Maximum sentence to incarceration
Less than 1 year
1 year or more
Most serious offense
Violent
Property
Drug
Weapon
Otherb

Percent of adults on parole
2000
2004
2008
100%
100%
100%
88%
12

88%
12

88%
12

38%
40
21
1
-...

40%
40
18
1
1
...

41%
38
19
1
1
--

83%
4
7
5
...
1

84%
3
7
4
...
1

85%
4
6
4
-1

3%
97

5%
95

6%
94

...
...
...
...
...

25%
26
38
...
12

26%
23
37
3
11

Note: Each characteristic includes persons of unknown type. Detail may not sum to total because of
rounding. See appendix tables 16 to 20 for 2008 data by jurisdiction.
--Less than 0.5%.
...Not available.
a

Excludes persons of Hispanic origin.

bIncludes public-order offenses.

December 2009

43

Appendix Table 16.
Adults on parole, by gender, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont*
Midwest
Illinois*
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama*
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma*
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia*
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada*
New Mexico*
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
828,169
98,629
729,540
149,825
2,328
31
3,185
1,661
15,849
52,225
72,951
515
1,080
141,898
33,683
10,637
3,159
4,958
22,523
5,081
20,683
846
384
19,119
2,720
18,105
244,071
8,042
19,908
551
6,135
4,528
23,448
12,277
24,636
13,220
2,922
3,409
3,073
1,947
10,578
102,921
4,471
2,005
193,746
1,732
7,534
120,753
11,654
1,904
3,361
885
3,908
3,724
22,195
3,601
11,768
727

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Unknown or
Male
Female not reported
728,394
99,149
626
83,494
15,105
30
644,900
84,044
596
130,509
19,112
204
1,971
153
204
30
1
0
2,928
257
0
1,462
199
0
14,703
1,146
0
48,562
3,663
0
59,481
13,470
0
481
34
0
891
189
0
126,529
15,369
0
30,236
3,447
0
9,410
1,227
0
2,587
572
0
4,527
431
0
20,449
2,074
0
4,638
443
0
17,632
3,051
0
724
122
0
307
77
0
17,475
1,644
0
2,235
485
0
16,309
1,796
0
216,926
27,145
0
7,190
852
0
17,181
2,727
0
507
44
0
5,642
493
0
4,242
286
0
20,808
2,640
0
10,104
2,173
0
21,977
2,659
0
12,190
1,030
0
2,405
517
0
3,227
182
0
2,529
544
0
1,753
194
0
9,270
1,308
0
92,099
10,822
0
4,198
273
0
1,604
401
0
170,936
22,418
392
1,631
101
0
6,446
1,088
0
107,983
12,770
0
9,926
1,728
0
1,615
289
0
2,862
499
0
762
123
0
3,499
409
0
2,795
537
392
19,324
2,871
0
3,085
516
0
10,410
1,358
0
598
129
0

*Some or all detailed data are estimated for gender.

44

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 17.
Adults on parole, by race and Hispanic origin, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islanda
Vermontb,c
Midwest
Illinoisb
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsind
South
Alabamab
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomab
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginiab
West Virginia

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
828,169
98,629
729,540
149,825
2,328
31
3,185
1,661
15,849
52,225
72,951
515
1,080
141,898
33,683
10,637
3,159
4,958
22,523
5,081
20,683
846
384
19,119
2,720
18,105
244,071
8,042
19,908
551
6,135
4,528
23,448
12,277
24,636
13,220
2,922
3,409
3,073
1,947
10,578
102,921
4,471
2,005

White
326,730
35,474
291,256
52,900
535
31
1,670
1,403
**
9,607
38,366
295
993
69,506
9,597
6,189
2,464
2,854
10,225
3,090
13,464
522
287
10,477
1,870
8,467
92,698
2,856
11,256
220
77
1,597
8,638
8,937
8,292
3,484
1,228
1,163
1,687
656
5,254
33,896
1,693
1,764

Number of adults on parole, 2008
American
Native Hawaiian/
Black/African Hispanic or Indian/AlasOther Pacific
Two or
Unknown or
American
Latino
kan Native
Asian
Islander
more races not reported
304,866
151,602
8,306
5,383
2,245
120
28,917
37,275
21,138
1,958
2,382
217
0
185
267,591
130,464
6,348
3,001
2,028
120
28,732
52,216
24,547
359
700
1,400
53
17,650
934
640
2
13
~
~
204
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
769
639
8
43
0
0
56
96
0
4
7
1
0
150
**
**
**
**
**
**
15,849
23,376
17,255
273
318
1,396
~
0
26,872
5,922
62
312
3
53
1,361
122
91
1
5
**
**
1
47
**
9
2
**
**
29
61,099
8,451
2,013
533
6
10
280
19,444
4,484
42
95
**
**
21
3,941
443
25
8
6
10
15
501
122
50
22
~
**
0
1,405
533
69
42
**
**
55
11,826
225
157
45
0
0
45
1,170
396
323
101
**
**
1
6,695
406
66
34
0
0
18
187
102
23
11
0
**
1
18
19
60
0
0
0
0
8,412
153
38
20
0
0
19
140
71
603
**
**
**
36
7,360
1,497
557
155
**
**
69
116,997
33,004
368
432
31
20
521
5,135
41
2
8
0
0
0
8,020
526
26
55
0
**
25
316
14
0
0
0
0
1
5,943
96
2
3
1
~
13
2,466
441
6
7
4
5
2
13,702
999
12
11
0
0
86
3,229
69
6
21
**
15
0
16,256
33
6
18
23
~
8
9,689
**
10
19
**
**
18
1,675
10
8
1
0
0
0
1,977
151
76
13
3
**
26
973
248
146
10
0
**
9
1,261
16
4
2
0
~
8
5,024
266
9
25
0
0
0
38,397
30,044
50
222
0
~
312
2,713
42
3
17
0
0
3
221
8
2
0
0
0
10

December 2009

45

Appendix Table 17. (cont.)
Adults on parole, by race and Hispanic origin, 2008

Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona
Californiae
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexicob
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
193,746
1,732
7,534
120,753
11,654
1,904
3,361
885
3,908
3,724
22,195
3,601
11,768
727

White
76,152
1,032
3,470
34,763
5,639
**
2,520
715
**
969
17,077
2,408
6,979
580

Number of adults on parole, 2008
American
Native Hawaiian/
Black/AfriHispanic or Indian/AlasOther Pacific
Two or
Unknown or
can American Latino
kan Native
Asian
Islander
more races not reported
37,279
64,462
3,608
1,336
591
37
10,281
178
45
430
40
0
0
7
971
2,576
412
20
0
0
85
29,385
50,690
967
536
529
**
3,883
1,853
3,847
211
104
~
~
0
**
**
**
**
**
**
1,904
60
645
73
17
~
~
46
12
30
123
4
0
0
1
**
**
**
**
**
**
3,908
226
1,847
253
7
1
0
421
1,964
2,460
471
208
0
0
15
175
778
137
38
57
0
8
2,428
1,451
506
361
3
37
3
27
93
25
1
1
0
0

~Not applicable.
**Not known.
a
Classifies Hispanic or Latino as a race rather than an ethnicity; therefore, parolees reported as Hispanic or Latino may also be of another race. In addition parolees
reported among other racial categories may also be Hispanic or Latino.
b

Some or all detailed data are estimated for race and Hispanic origin.

cDoes not collect ethnicity data; therefore, the number of Hispanic or Latino parolees could not be reported and whether or not

other racial categories include

Hispanic or Latino parolees could not be determined.
dAsian includes an unspecified number of parolees who are Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander because Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander could not be

reported separately.
eAsian excludes an unspecified number of Filipino parolees because they were reported in Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander.

46

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 18.
Adults on parole, by status of supervision, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jerseyb
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandb
Vermontb,c
Midwest
Illinois
Indianab
Iowab
Kansasb
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabamac
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomac
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginiab
West Virginia

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
828,169
98,629
729,540
149,825
2,328
31
3,185
1,661
15,849
52,225
72,951
515
1,080
141,898
33,683
10,637
3,159
4,958
22,523
5,081
20,683
846
384
19,119
2,720
18,105
244,071
8,042
19,908
551
6,135
4,528
23,448
12,277
24,636
13,220
2,922
3,409
3,073
1,947
10,578
102,921
4,471
2,005

Active
701,611
98,629
602,982
114,774
2,124
25
2,908
1,297
12,097
37,261
58,056
**
1,006
125,415
30,431
9,957
3,159
3,996
18,810
4,818
18,014
709
305
18,137
2,161
14,918
188,351
5,836
12,317
474
4,120
2,871
19,971
10,342
22,878
8,419
2,690
3,159
1,881
1,324
9,646
76,827
4,094
1,502

Only financial
conditions
132
0
132
**
0
0
0
0
0
~
0
**
**
**
0
0
**
0
~
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
97
97
**
0
0
**
0
~
0
**
0
**
0
0
~
0
0
0

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Supervised
Inactive
Absconder out of state
29,700
47,692
33,325
0
0
0
29,700
47,692
33,325
4,751
11,286
6,271
0
0
204
0
0
6
0
154
123
0
0
299
0
75
687
6
4,326
1,459
4,740
6,718
3,437
**
**
/
5
13
56
0
5,580
10,213
~
~
3,252
0
654
26
~
0
/
0
/
962
~
2,790
923
0
0
263
0
668
2,001
0
40
97
0
0
79
0
0
982
0
154
405
0
1,274
1,223
20,143
20,958
12,690
75
480
1,554
4,300
2,163
1,128
0
10
67
306
488
21
944
474
239
0
724
2,753
877
413
150
0
722
1,036
1,337
2,794
533
0
0
232
~
133
117
988
74
130
185
217
221
~
463
469
10,989
11,803
3,302
0
0
377
142
0
361

Othera
12,134
0
12,134
9,173
0
0
0
0
0
9,173
0
**
0
690
~
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
690
1,832
0
0
0
1,200
0
0
495
0
137
0
0
0
0
~
0
0
0

Unknown or
not reported
3,575
0
3,575
3,570
0
0
0
65
2,990
0
0
515
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

December 2009

47

Appendix Table 18. (cont.)
Adults on parole, by status of supervision, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizonab
Californiab
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montanab
Nevada
New Mexicoc
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
193,746
1,732
7,534
120,753
11,654
1,904
3,361
885
3,908
3,724
22,195
3,601
11,768
727

Active
174,442
1,410
6,957
120,753
8,844
1,671
2,625
885
2,178
3,136
13,975
2,829
8,568
611

Only financial
conditions
35
0
0
0
~
0
**
0
**
0
**
0
35
0

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Supervised
Inactive
Absconder out of state
4,806
9,868
4,151
0
249
73
368
209
/
0
/
/
~
867
1,943
0
113
120
353
0
382
0
0
0
1,204
261
265
196
**
392
1,228
6,441
548
0
171
161
1,457
1,544
164
0
13
103

Othera
439
0
0
0
~
0
0
0
0
0
0
439
0
0

Unknown or
not reported
5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
3
1
0
0

**Not known.
~Not applicable.
/Not reported.
aIncludes parolees who were deported, confined, including those who were held on a detainer, in a residential treatment facility, and others.
b
c

48

December 31, 2008, population excludes parolees in one or more statuses. See Explanatory notes for more detail.

Some or all data are estimated for status of supervision.

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 19.
Adults on parole, by maximum sentence to incarceration,
2008
Parole
Region and
population,
jurisdiction
12/31/2008
U.S. total
828,169
Federal
98,629
State
729,540
Northeast
149,825
Connecticut
2,328
Maine
31
Massachusetts
3,185
New Hampshire
1,661
New Jersey
15,849
New York
52,225
Pennsylvaniaa
72,951
Rhode Island
515
Vermontb
1,080
Midwest
141,898
Illinoisb
33,683
Indiana
10,637
Iowa
3,159
Kansasc
4,958
Michigan
22,523
Minnesota
5,081
Missouri
20,683
Nebraska
846
North Dakota
384
Ohioc
19,119
South Dakota
2,720
Wisconsin
18,105
South
244,071
Alabamab
8,042
Arkansas
19,908
Delaware
551
District of Columbia
6,135
Florida
4,528
Georgiab
23,448
Kentucky
12,277
Louisiana
24,636
Maryland
13,220
Mississippi
2,922
North Carolinab
3,409
3,073
Oklahomab
South Carolina
1,947
Tennessee
10,578
Texas
102,921
Virginiab
4,471
West Virginia
2,005

Number of adults on parole, 2008
One year More than Unknown or
or less
one year
not reported
40,855
649,683
137,631
12,281
86,313
35
28,574
563,370
137,596
8,954
74,094
66,777
0
2,328
0
0
31
0
**
**
3,185
0
1,661
0
**
**
15,849
0
52,225
0
8,910
16,396
47,645
24
491
0
20
962
98
13,266
122,372
6,260
3,365
30,296
22
9,698
939
0
**
**
3,159
**
4,958
0
13
22,151
359
0
5,081
0
0
20,683
0
0
846
0
190
194
0
**
19,119
0
**
**
2,720
0
18,105
0
4,943
216,050
23,078
1,901
6,141
0
**
**
19,908
**
**
551
0
6,135
0
243
4,285
0
0
23,448
0
674
11,603
0
140
23,891
605
104
13,116
0
0
2,922
0
273
3,136
0
87
2,919
67
**
**
1,947
1,521
9,057
0
0
102,921
0
0
4,471
0
0
2,005
0

December 2009

49

Appendix Table 19. (cont.)
Adults on parole, by maximum sentence to incarceration,
2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
193,746
1,732
7,534
120,753
11,654
1,904
3,361
885
3,908
3,724
22,195
3,601
11,768
727

Number of adults on parole, 2008
One year More than Unknown or
or less
one year
not reported
1,411
150,854
41,481
95
1,637
0
1,312
6,222
0
0
120,753
0
**
**
11,654
0
1,904
0
0
3,361
0
0
885
0
**
**
3,908
**
**
3,724
**
**
22,195
4
3,597
0
0
11,768
0
0
727
0

**Not known.
a

Detailed data represent state parolees only. Detailed data are not
available for county parolees.

bSome or all detailed data are estimated for maximum sentence to

incarceration.
cSee Explanatory notes for more detail.

50

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 20.
Adults on parole, by most serious offense, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Yorkb
Pennsylvaniac
Rhode Island
Vermontd
Midwest
Illinoisd
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michiganb
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabamad
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahomad
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginiad
West Virginia

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
828,169
98,629
729,540
149,825
2,328
31
3,185
1,661
15,849
52,225
72,951
515
1,080
141,898
33,683
10,637
3,159
4,958
22,523
5,081
20,683
846
384
19,119
2,720
18,105
244,071
8,042
19,908
551
6,135
4,528
23,448
12,277
24,636
13,220
2,922
3,409
3,073
1,947
10,578
102,921
4,471
2,005

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Violent
185,022
6,333
178,689
33,812
154
31
**
**
**
22,148
10,921
291
267
33,925
7,272
313
279
2,484
5,879
2,112
4,350
193
**
10,802
241
**
54,337
**
3,475
162
1,978
2,236
4,863
2,183
3,335
5,775
559
2,311
379
620
2,926
20,248
2,851
436

Property
168,502
17,551
150,951
7,203
229
0
**
**
**
4,815
1,841
55
263
38,363
9,611
2,927
666
319
12,635
490
6,558
266
**
4,321
570
**
56,044
**
4,619
68
599
1,035
6,472
3,765
6,829
2,243
900
240
589
530
2,012
25,022
538
583

Drug
265,634
52,550
213,084
30,648
625
0
**
**
**
21,700
8,061
136
126
38,301
14,133
2,561
1,481
1,122
4,009
2,039
8,289
258
**
2,524
1,885
**
91,748
**
6,848
90
2,531
743
10,245
5,052
11,860
4,135
1,460
84
1,891
485
2,778
42,537
456
553

Weapon
21,206
12,411
8,795
1,110
69
0
**
**
**
406
622
13
**
2,828
1,850
297
**
**
**
171
310
9
**
191
0
**
3,930
**
257
38
333
244
1,020
~
~
**
3
5
66
10
42
1,895
17
0

Othera
76,691
9,631
67,060
7,532
234
0
**
**
**
3,156
3,726
20
396
9,476
817
4,539
733
558
0
266
1,163
119
**
1,281
0
**
26,868
75
4,709
193
387
270
609
1,277
2,363
1,067
0
769
148
302
823
13,219
224
433

Unknown or
not reported
111,114
153
110,961
69,520
1,017
0
3,185
1,661
15,849
0
47,780
0
28
19,005
0
0
0
475
0
3
13
1
384
0
24
18,105
11,144
7,967
0
0
307
0
239
0
249
0
0
0
0
0
1,997
0
385
0

December 2009

51

Appendix Table 20. (cont.)
Adults on parole, by most serious offense, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona
Californiae
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregone
Utah
Washington
Wyoming
**Not known.
~Not applicable.

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
193,746
1,732
7,534
120,753
11,654
1,904
3,361
885
3,908
3,724
22,195
3,601
11,768
727

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Violent
56,615
276
1,693
33,704
2,718
**
1,229
392
**
**
8,371
1,336
6,672
224

Property
49,341
60
2,177
35,670
3,455
**
854
253
**
**
4,525
919
1,174
254

Drug
52,387
41
2,079
35,885
3,511
**
1,108
160
**
**
4,846
927
3,588
242

Weapon
927
11
271
**
584
**
0
0
**
**
**
56
**
5

Othera
23,184
384
839
15,494
1,386
**
170
35
**
**
4,453
359
62
2

Unknown or
not reported
11,292
960
475
0
0
1,904
0
45
3,908
3,724
0
4
272
0

aIncludes parolees under supervision for a public-order offense (other than a weapon offense unless otherwise specified), such as

obstruction of justice, DWI/DUI, traffic, violation of probation/parole/conditional release and other offenses.
b

Violent includes an unspecified number of parolees who were under supervision for a weapon offense because they could not be
reported separately.

c

Detailed data represent state parolees only. Detailed data are not available for county parolees.

d

Some or all data are estimated for most serious offense.

eOther includes an unspecified number of parolees who were under supervision for a weapon offense.

52

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 21.
Adults on parole, by type of release from prison, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
State
Northeast
Connecticutf
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Yorkf,g
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermontg
Midwest
Illinoisg
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabamag
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolinaf,g
Oklahomag
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginiag
West Virginia

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
828,169
98,629
729,540
149,825
2,328
31
3,185
1,661
15,849
52,225
72,951
515
1,080
141,898
33,683
10,637
3,159
4,958
22,523
5,081
20,683
846
384
19,119
2,720
18,105
244,071
8,042
19,908
551
6,135
4,528
23,448
12,277
24,636
13,220
2,922
3,409
3,073
1,947
10,578
102,921
4,471
2,005

Discretionarya
356,292
2,320
353,972
113,412
1,515
31
3,185
1,661
8,159
24,315
72,951
515
1,080
51,782
96
0
**
816
21,895
0
19,520
846
384
4,692
1,196
2,337
164,680
75
19,908
**
2,939
824
23,448
12,275
4,745
5,708
2,886
309
3,073
1,947
10,133
73,216
1,189
2,005

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Special
Term of superMandatoryb conditionalc vised released
301,721
52
141,657
119
**
96,190
301,602
52
45,467
8,524
6
19,636
0
0
0
0
0
8,524
0
**
~
63,336
33,566
10,637
**
0
628
1,177
1,163
0
0
13,445
0
2,720
64,675
**
**
**
0
3,582
0
0
19,891
7,512
0
837
0
0
22
29,549
3,282
0

0
0
0
0
1
5
0
**
~
**
~
0
**
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
**
46
**
**
**
0
8
0
2
0
**
36
**
0
0
~
0
0
0

813
0
0
0
2,551
16,272
0
**
~
20,258
~
0
**
4,137
0
3,664
0
0
0
0
0
12,457
5,573
**
**
**
3,196
114
0
0
**
**
0
2,263
0
0
0
0
0
0

Othere
7,036
0
7,036
3,109
0
0
0
0
0
3,109
0
**
0
3,041
21
0
**
0
0
240
0
0
0
982
1,524
274
579
**
**
**
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
423
156
0
0

Unknown or
not reported
21,411
0
21,411
5,138
0
0
0
0
5,138
0
0
0
0
3,481
0
0
3,159
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
317
8,518
7,967
0
551
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

December 2009

53

Appendix Table 21. (cont.)
Adults on parole, by type of release from prison, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona
Californiaf
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevadag
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Parole
population,
12/31/2008
193,746
1,732
7,534
120,753
11,654
1,904
3,361
885
3,908
3,724
22,195
3,601
11,768
727

Discretionarya
24,098
79
152
23
7,282
1,904
3,361
885
3,323
**
2,665
3,601
96
727

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Special
Term of superMandatoryb conditionalc vised released
165,067
**
**
1,653
0
0
7,382
0
0
120,730
0
0
4,065
~
~
0
0
0
~
~
~
0
0
0
585
~
~
**
**
**
18,980
0
0
0
0
0
11,672
0
0
0
0
0

Othere
307
0
0
0
307
0
0
0
0
**
0
0
0
0

Unknown or
not reported
4,274
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,724
550
0
0
0

**Not known.
~Not applicable.
a

Discretionary parole includes persons who entered parole as the result of a parole board decision.

bMandatory parole includes persons whose release from prison was not decided by a parole board. Includes those who entered parole because

of determinate sentencing statutes, good-time provisions, or emergency releases.
c

Special conditional releases include medical releases, early releases for the terminally ill, and other special releases.

dTerm of supervised release includes persons sentenced by a judge to a fixed period of incarceration based on a determinate statute

immediately followed by a period of supervised released in the community.
e

Includes parolees who were: transferred from another state, had their original parole sentence reinstated, released from a boot camp operated by the Department of Corrections, released from prison through a conditional medical or mental health release to parole, and others.
f

See Explanatory notes for more detail.

gSome or all detailed data are estimated for type of release from prison.

54

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Appendix Table 22.
Adults on parole tracked by a Global Positioning System (GPS), also on probation, or
incarcerated, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federala,b
State
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusettsa
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvaniac
Rhode Island
Vermonta
Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansasa
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakotaa
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsina,d
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delawarea
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolinae
Oklahomaa
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginiaa
West Virginia

Location tracked by GPS
Total
Sex offenders
18,117
12,629
357
72
17,760
12,557
861
537
193
60
~
~
85
84
~
~
210
210
373
183
**
**
~
~
0
0
5,490
3,269
122
122
~
~
23
14
307
285
2,099
**
12
12
19
3
31
**
5
5
76
32
4
4
2,792
2,792
3,044
1,568
~
~
~
~
12
**
389
60
260
203
273
214
~
~
174
79
~
~
~
~
16
16
33
0
~
~
157
154
1,599
834
123
**
8
8

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Incarcerated
Probation
Jail
Prison
ICE holding facility
3,905
19,273
15,585
24,527
~
~
~
~
3,905
19,273
15,585
24,527
**
4,959
5,222
579
**
**
19
74
~
~
~
~
~
149
216
59
~
~
~
~
**
841
192
0
0
3,857
309
404
0
112
4,459
42
~
~
~
~
**
**
27
**
1,739
**
539
1
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
**
**
**
**
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
**
**
**
**
**
0
0
**
**
**
**
**
~
~
~
~
0
0
5
1
1,739
**
534
**
1,156
12,098
8,327
5,880
~
192
~
~
**
662
183
2
**
**
**
**
311
0
632
72
0
17
267
71
0
2,332
0
0
308
138
147
**
72
754
163
47
0
0
137
0
~
~
~
~
411
**
**
**
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
54
607
0
0
~
7,396
6,798
5,688
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~

December 2009

55

Appendix Table 22. (cont.)
Adults on parole tracked by a Global Positioning System (GPS), also on probation, or
incarcerated, 2008
Region and
jurisdiction
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexicoa
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Location tracked by GPS
Total
Sex offenders
8,365
7,183
~
~
114
110
6,779
6,629
1,395
382
~
~
14
9
~
~
11
1
**
**
~
~
**
**
52
52
~
~

Number of adults on parole, 2008
Incarcerated
Probation
Jail
Prison
ICE holding facility
1,010
2,216
1,497
18,067
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
0
279
1
17,577
~
945
~
1
0
13
93
152
0
3
23
0
**
0
0
0
**
**
1,204
**
998
0
0
0
~
~
~
~
0
94
165
22
**
882
1
307
12
0
10
8

**Not known.
~Not applicable.
aSome or all data are estimated.
b

A sex offender is defined as any offender convicted of a sex offense, ordered to a special condition for sex offender treatment, or fulfilling other sex offender treatment requirements.

c

Detailed data represent state parolees only. Detailed data are not available for county parolees.

dThe total number of parolees tracked by GPS was unknown but there were at least 2,792 tracked by GPS for a sex offense.

Prison only includes parolees incarcerated in a state prison in Wisconsin; the count does not include parolees, if any, incarcerated in a federal prison.
eSee Explanatory notes for more detail.

56

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Probation: Explanatory notes, 2008
Federal—data for the federal system were provided to BJS through the BJS Federal Justice
Statistics Program (FJPS), which obtained data
directly from the Office of Probation and Pretrial Services, Administrative Office of the
United States Courts.
Alabama—has three reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 79% of Alabama’s
total probation population, and two local agencies. Alabama’s total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional
2,695 probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Alaska—total probation population on December 31, 2008 excludes 175 probationers supervised by another state through an interstate
compact agreement (appendix tables 2, 8).
Arizona—has two reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 97% of Arizona’s total
probation population, and one local agency.
Arizona’s total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional estimated 1,313 probationers super vised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 2).
Colorado—has eight reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 88% of Colorado’s
total probation population, and seven local
agencies. Colorado’s total probation population
on December 31, 2008 excludes 25 probationers supervised by another state through an
interstate compact agreement (appendix tables
2, 8). The population includes an additional
estimated 607 probationers supervised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 2).
Connecticut—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an unknown number of probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Delaware—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional 165
probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
District of Columbia—in 2008 the District of
Columbia changed its method of reporting probation data to BJS. Prior to 2008 probationers
who were on active supervision and awaiting
approval for a transfer through an interstate
compact agreement were excluded from the
data. For this reason probation data reported by

the District of Columbia in 2008 may not be
comparable to prior years (appendix table 2).
See Methodology for more detail.
Florida—has 41 reporting agencies—one state
agency, representing 66% of Florida’s total probation population, and 40 local agencies. Florida’s total probation population on December
31, 2008 excludes 2,899 probationers on inactive status (appendix tables 2, 8). The population includes an additional 371 probationers
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 2).
Georgia—has two state reporting agencies.
One agency reported probationers under the
jurisdiction of the state, representing 38% of
Georgia’s total probation population. The second agency reported probationers under the
jurisdiction of the counties, including county
probationers who were under supervision for a
misdemeanor and supervised by private probation agencies. The county probation population
represented 62% of Georgia’s total probation
population. Because the agency that reports the
county data has the capacity to report probation cases and not the number of individuals
under supervision, the counts may have overstated the number of individuals under probation supervision in Georgia. Additionally, this
agency changed its method of reporting probation data, excluding probationers under supervision for a minor traffic citation from the population count. For this reason, data are not
comparable to the data reported by Georgia in
prior years (appendix table 2). See Methodology
for more detail.
Georgia’s total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes at least an additional 3,395 probationers super vised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement. In addition to the 3,395, an additional unknown number of probationers were
under supervised for another state through an
interstate compact agreement (appendix table
2).
Hawaii—total probation p opulation on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional 191
probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Idaho—has two state reporting agencies. One
agency reported probationers under the jurisdiction of the state, representing 28% of Idaho’s
total probation population. The second agency
reported probationers under the jurisdiction of
the counties and under supervision for a misdemeanor. The county probation population

represented 72% of Idaho’s total probation population. Additionally, this Idaho agency only
has the capacity to report the number of probationers who entered county supervision for a
misdemeanor during 2008. The respondent was
able to provide an estimate of time served on
misdemeanor probation within the counties,
which was estimated at one year or less. With
this additional information and through a discussion with the Idaho respondent for this
agency, the December 31, 2008 population was
estimated based on the total number of probationers who entered county supervision for a
misdemeanor during 2008. Exits from county
misdemeanant probation during 2008 were
based on the January 1, 2008 population or the
number of probationers who entered county
supervision for a misdemeanor during 2007
(appendix table 2).
Idaho’s total probation population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 451 probationers supervised for another state through an
interstate compact agreement (appendix table
2). About 55% of the probationers who were
under county supervision for a misdemeanor
were on inactive supervision and were not
required to regularly report to a probation
authority in person, by mail, or by telephone
(appendix table 8).
Illinois—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional estimated 2,232 probationers super vised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 2).
Iowa—total probation population on December 31, 2008 excludes 727 probationers supervised by another state through an interstate
compact agreement (appendix tables 2, 8).
Kansas—tota l probation population on
December 31, 2008 excludes an unknown number of probationers supervised by another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix tables 2, 8). The population includes
an unknown number of probationers supervised for another state through an interstate
compact agreement (appendix table 2).
Kentucky—has three reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 55% of Kentucky’s
total probation population, and two local agencies. Kentucky’s total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional
1,653 probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).

December 2009

57

Probation: Explanatory notes, 2008 (cont.)
Louisiana—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional
1,804 probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Maine—total probation population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 185 probationers supervised for another state through an
interstate compact agreement (appendix table
2).
Maryland—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional
2,398 probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Massachusetts—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 excludes 1,039 probationers
supervised by another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix tables 2, 8).
Michigan—has 134 reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 33% of Michigan’s
total probation population, and 133 local agencies. Michigan’s total probation population on
December 31, 2008 excludes 1,108 probationers
supervised by another state through an interstate compact agreement and an estimated 200
probationers on warrant status (appendix tables
2, 8). The population includes an additional
1,551 probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Minnesota—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional
1,425 probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Missouri—has two reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 99% of Missouri’s
total probation population, and one local
agency.
Montana—has four reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 94% of Montana’s
total probation population, and three local
agencies. Montana’s total probation population
on December 31, 2008 excludes 846 probationers supervised by another state through an
interstate compact agreement (appendix tables
2, 8). The population includes an additional 297
probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Nebraska—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional 434
probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).

58

New Hampshire—total probation population
on December 31, 2008 excludes 535 probationers supervised by another state through an
interstate compact agreement (appendix tables
2, 8). The population includes an additional 532
probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
Ne w Mex i c o — ha s t wo re p or t i ng age n cies—one state agency, representing 76% of
New Mexico’s total probation population, and
one local agency. New Mexico’s total probation
population on December 31, 2008 includes an
additional unknown number of probationers
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 2).
Ohio—has 187 reporting agencies—one state
agency, representing 6% of Ohio’s total probation population, and 186 local agencies. Ohio’s
total probation population on December 31,
2008 excludes 1,289 probationers with only
financial conditions remaining, 82 probationers
on warrant status, 80 probationers in a residential/other treatment program, 5 absconders,
and an unknown number of probationers
supervised by another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix tables 2, 8).
Ohio’s total probation population on December
31, 2008 includes an estimate of at least 97 probationers supervised for another state through
an interstate compact agreement (appendix
table 2).
Oklahoma—has three reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 89% of Oklahoma’s
total probation population, and two local agencies.
Pennsylvania—technically, Pennsylvania has
one reporting agency, which is the state agency.
The state agency reports both state and county
data. However, the county data are reported
separately from the state data. The state probation population represented 3% of Pennsylvania’s total probation population on December
31, 2008, while the county probation population represented 97% (appendix table 2). See
Methodology for a discussion of how entries
and exits in Pennsylvania counties were estimated for 2008, and how the method used in
2008 was different from the method used from
2000 to 2007.
South Dakota—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 excludes 281 probationers
supervised by another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix tables 2, 8).

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

Tennessee—has three reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 84% of Tennessee’s
total probation population, and two local agencies. Tennessee’s total probation population on
December 31, 2008 excludes 43 probationers
who had their location tracked by GPS (appendix tables 2, 11). The population includes an
additional 2,698 probationers supervised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 2).
Texas—total probation population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 4,059 probationers supervised for another state through
an interstate compact agreement (appendix
table 2).
Vermont—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 excludes an estimated 16
probationers super vised by another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix tables 2, 8). The population includes
an estimated 214 probationers supervised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 2).
Virginia—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional estimated 1,486 probationers super vised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 2).
Washington—has 32 reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 25% of Washington’s
total probation population, and 31 local agencies. Washington’s total probation population
on December 31, 2008 excludes 370 probationers on warrant status and an estimated 63 probationers supervised by another state through
an interstate compact agreement (appendix
tables 2, 8). The population includes an additional 11 probationers supervised for another
state through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).
West Virginia—has two state reporting agencies. One state agency represented 97% of West
Virginia’s total probation population and
reported all probationers under the jurisdiction
of the state except some probationers supervised by another state through an interstate
compact agreement. This agency does not have
jurisdiction over those probationers. The second state agency has jurisdiction over probationers supervised out of state through an interstate compact agreement, and this agency only
reported those probationers.
Wyoming—total probation population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional 413
probationers supervised for another state
through an interstate compact agreement
(appendix table 2).

Parole: Explanatory notes, 2008
Federal—data for the federal system were provided to BJS through the BJS Federal Justice
Statistics Program (FJPS), which obtained data
directly from the Office of Probation and Pretrial Services, Administrative Office of the
United States Courts. Federal parole (as defined
here) includes a term of supervised release
from prison, mandatory release, parole, military parole, and special parole. Definitional differences exist between parole reported here and
in other BJS data series.

supervised release from prison (appendix tables
13, 21).

Alabama—has two reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 99% of Alabama’s
total parole population, and one local agency.
Alabama’s total parole population on December
31, 2008 includes an additional 600 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).

Hawaii—total parole population on December
31, 2008 includes an additional 46 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).

Arizona—total parole population on December 31, 2008 excludes 333 parolees supervised
by another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix tables 12, 18). The population includes an additional 572 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
California—has two reporting agencies—one
state agency, representing 99.9% of California’s
total parole population, and the California
Youth Authority (CYA). California’s total parole
population on December 31, 2008 excludes
1,093 parolees supervised out of state through
an interstate compact agreement and 17,382
absconders (appendix tables 12, 18). The population includes an additional 1,404 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
Mandatory includes a small, unknown number
of parolees who received a discretionary release
from prison (appendix table 21).
Colorado—total parole population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 1,943 parolees supervised by another state through an
interstate compact agreement (appendix table
12). Some of these parolees had been released
to a detainer for other charges and some were
detained by the U.S. Immigration and Customs
Enforcement (ICE) agency for deportation.
Colorado’s total parole population also includes
an additional 307 parolees supervised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 12).
Connecticut—changed its reporting methods
for types of entry to parole supervision. In previous years Connecticut had reported entries to
special parole, a parole category in Connecticut,
in the Mandatory category. In 2008 parolees
classified as special parole in Connecticut were
reported in the new BJS category of Term of

Delaware—total parole population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 165 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
Florida—total parole population on December
31, 2008 includes an additional 30 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).

Idaho—total parole population on December
31, 2008 includes an additional 176 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
Indiana—total parole population on December
31, 2008 excludes 376 parolees supervised by
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix tables 12, 18).
Iowa—total parole population on December
31, 2008 excludes 284 parolees supervised by
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix tables 12, 18).
Kansas—total parole population on December
31, 2008 excludes 220 absconders (appendix
tables 12, 18). Other entries include 1,319 parolees who entered supervision from absconder
status after a warrant was cleared and 149 other
parolees (appendix table 13). Absconded
includes parolees who could not be located and
had a warrant issued for their arrest. Other exits
include parolees who exited super vision
because a warrant had been issued for other
reasons (appendix table 14). More than one year
includes a relatively small but unknown number of parolees who were sentenced for a felony,
but the incarceration portion of their sentence
was one year or less (appendix table 19).
Kentucky—total parole population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 470 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
Louisiana—total parole population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 540 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).

Maryland—parole population on December
31, 2008 includes an additional 471 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
Massachusetts—total parole population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional 260
parolees supervised for another state through
an interstate compact agreement (appendix
table 12).
Montana—total parole population on December 31, 2008 excludes 150 parolees supervised
by another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix tables 12, 18). The population includes an additional 88 parolees supervised for another state through an interstate
compact agreement (appendix table 12).
New Hampshire—total parole population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional 65
parolees supervised for another state through
an interstate compact agreement (appendix
table 12).
New Jersey—total parole population on
December 31, 2008 excludes 700 parolees
supervised by another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix tables 12,
18). The population includes an additional 550
parolees supervised for another state through
an interstate compact agreement (appendix
table 12).
New Mexico—total parole population on
December 31, 2008 includes an additional
unknown number of parolees supervised for
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix table 12).
New York—Other entries include parolees
released from prison at the time of their eligibility without an appearance before a parole
board. New York refers to this type of release as
a presumptive release. Inmates who served sentences for non-violent offenses and who had no
history of violence were eligible for a presumptive release. New York’s presumptive release law
was enacted in 2003, implemented at the end of
2003, and became fully operational during
2004. Other entries also include parolees who
were sentenced directly to parole supervision
with the requirement that they complete a 90day drug and alcohol treatment program. New
York refers to this type of entry as judicially
sanctioned and it falls under the Sentencing
Reform Act of 1995. Certain drug and property
offenders were eligible for a judicially sanctioned entry to parole supervision.Parolees
released from local jails were also included in
other entries. In 2006 the New York Division of

December 2009

59

Parole: Explanatory notes, 2008 (cont.)
Parole resumed the responsibility for supervising selected inmates released from local jails
after serving a sentence of less than one year.
These parolees remain under parole supervision for one year (appendix table 13). Other
type of release from prison includes the same
classifications of parolees who had been
reported in the other entries category (appendix
table 21).
North Carolina—total parole population on
December 31, 2008 includes offenders under
post-release supervision. Post-release supervision is defined under North Carolina’s Structured Sentencing Act of 1993 as a reintegration
program for serious offenders who served
extensive prison terms. The state’s total parole
population on December 31, 2008 excludes an
unspecified number of parolees and postrelease offenders who were also on probation
(appendix table 12). Post-release offenders were
reported in term of supervised release (appendix
table 21).
Ohio—more than a year includes an unknown
number of parolees who were sentenced for a
felony but the incarceration portion of their
sentence was for one year or less (appendix
table 19).
Pennsylvania—technically, Pennsylvania has
one reporting agency, which is the state agency.
The state agency reports both state and county
parole data. However, these data are reported
separately. The state parole population represented 35% of Pennsylvania’s total parole population on December 31, 2008, while the county
parole population represented 65% (appendix
table 12). See Methodology for a discussion on
how entries and exits in Pennsylvania counties
were estimated for 2008, and how the estimation method used in 2008 was different from
the method used from 2000 to 2007.

60

Rhode Island—total parole population on
December 31, 2008 excludes 49 parolees supervised by another state through an interstate
compact agreement (appendix tables 12, 18).
Tennessee—total parole population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 867 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
Vermont—total parole population on December 31, 2008 excludes 13 parolees supervised by
another state through an interstate compact
agreement (appendix tables 12, 18). The population includes an additional estimated 54
parolees supervised for another state through
an interstate compact agreement (appendix
table 12).
Virginia—see Methodology for a discussion of
how Virginia’s parole population on January 1,
2008 was estimated, as well as the method used
to estimate parole entries and exits during 2008.
Reporting methods in Virginia changed in 2008
when the state consolidated its databases,
resulting in data review and cleanup. Because of
this change, data may not be comparable to
data reported by Virginia in prior years. Virginia’s total parole population on December 31,
2008 excludes an unspecified number of
absconders (appendix tables 12, 18). The population includes an additional 629 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).
Washington—in previous years some parolees
exiting supervision through a completion were
included in the other category. Therefore, exit
data for these two categories may not be comparable to data reported in prior years (appendix table 14).
Wyoming—total parole population on December 31, 2008 includes an additional 150 parolees
supervised for another state through an interstate compact agreement (appendix table 12).

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

*NCJ~228230*

PRESORTED STANDARD
POSTAGE & FEES PAID
DOJ/BJS
Permit No. G-91

Washington, DC 20531

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

This report in portable document format and in ASCII and
its related statistical data and tables are available at the BJS
World Wide Web Internet site: <http://www. ojp.usdoj.gov/
bjs/abstract/ppus08.htm>

Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistics agency of the
U.S. Department of Justice. Michael D. Sinclair is the acting
director.
Lauren E. Glaze and Thomas P. Bonczar wrote this report.
Lauren E. Glaze, Thomas P. Bonczar, and Matthew S. Cooper
analyzed the data and prepared the tables. William J. Sabol
and Matthew S. Cooper provided statistical verification.
Sheri R. Simmons and Todd Minton provided statistical
review. Georgette Walsh and Jill Duncan edited the report.
Tina Dorsey produced the report and Jayne Robinson
prepared it for final printing under the supervision of Doris
J. James.
Nicole S. Adolph and Jorgelina A. Arroyo carried out the
data collection and processing under the supervision of
Latrice M. Brogsdale-Davis, Governments Division, Census
Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. Ryan D. Driscoll
provided technical assistance under the supervision of
Duane H. Cavanaugh.
December 2009, NCJ 228230

December 2009

61

 

 

Prison Profiteers - Side
Advertise Here 4th Ad
The Habeas Citebook: Prosecutorial Misconduct Side