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FBI - Black Identity Extremists Likely Motivated to Target Law Enforcement Officers, 2017

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UNCLASSIFIED/ !LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE
Intelligence Assessment

(U//FOUO) Black Identity
Extremists Likely Motivated
to Target Law Enforcement
Officers
3 August 2017

(U) LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE: The infomiation tllarked (U//LES)
in this docwnent is the property of FBI and tllaY be distributed within the
Federal Govenunent (and its contractors), US intelligence, law enforcement,
public safety or protection officials and individuals with a need to know.
Distribution beyond these entities without FBI authorization is prohibited.
Precautions should be taken to ensme this infonnation is stored and/or
destroyed in a manner that precludes unauthorized access. Information
bearing the LES caveat may not be used in legal proceedings without. first
receiving authorization from the originating agency. Recipients are prohibited
from subsequently posting the information marked LES on a website or an
unclassified network without first obtaining FBI approval.

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IntelligenceA.ssessment_F\~ 7

UNCLASSIFIED//LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE
(U) Executive Summary
(U//FOUO) The FBI assesses it is very likely a Black Identity Extremist b (BIE) perceptions of
police brutality against African Americans spurred an increase in premeditated, retaliatory lethal
violence against law enforcement and will very likely serve as justification for such violence.
The FBI assess it is very likely this increase began following the 9 August 2014 shooting of
Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, and the subsequent Grand Jury November 2014
declination to indict the police officers involved. The FBI assesses it is very likely incidents of
alleged police abuse against African Americans since then have continued to feed the resurgence
in ideologically motivated, violent criminal activity within the BIE movement. The FBI assesses
it is very likely some BIEs are influenced by a mix of anti-authoritarian, Moorish sovereign
citizen c ideology, and BIE ideology. The FBI has high confidence d in these assessments, based
on a history of violent incidents attributed to individuals who acted on behalf of their ideological
beliefs, documented in FBI investigations and other law enforcement and open source reporting.
The FBI makes this judgment with the key assumption the recent incidents are ideologically
motivated.

a

(U) See Appendix A: Expressions of Likelihood (or Probability).
(U//FOUO) The FBI defines black identity extremists as individuals who seek, wholly or in part, through unlawful
acts of force or violence, in response to perceived racism and injustice in American society and some do so in
furtherance of establishing a separate black homeland or autonomous black social institutions, communities, or
governing organizations within the United States. This desire for physical or psychological separation is typically
based on either a religious or political belief system, which is sometimes formed around or includes a belief in racial
superiority or supremacy. The mere advocacy of political or social positions, political activism, use of strong
rhetoric, or generalized philosophic embrace of violent tactics may not constitute extremism, and may be
constitutionally protected.
c
(U//FOUO) The FBI defines sovereign citizen extremists as individuals who openly reject their US citizenship
status, believe that most forms of established government, authority, and institutions are illegitimate, and seek,
wholly or in part, through unlawful acts of force or violence, to further their claim to be immune from government
authority. The mere advocacy of political or social positions, political activism, use of strong rhetoric, or generalized
philosophic embrace of violent tactics may not constitute extremism, and may be constitutionally protected.
d
(U) See Appendix B: Confidence in Assessments and Judgments Based on a Body of Information.
b

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(U) Scope Note
(U) This intelligence assessment focuses on individuals with BIE ideological motivations who
have committed targeted, premeditated attacks against law enforcement officers since 2014. This
assessment does not address BIEs who have attacked law enforcement officers during the course
of officers’ routine duties, such as responding to calls and traffic stops, in which violent actions
were reactionary in nature.
(U//LES) This assessment addresses the following key intelligence questions:
•

(U//LES) To what extent are BIEs’ targeting interests retaliatory?

•

(U//LES) What cross-programmatic relationships influence the BIE movement?

(U//LES) This assessment is the first FBI analytic intelligence product to assess influences
between the sovereign citizen extremist movement and the black identity extremist movement.
The FBI has previously reported on BIE retaliatory violence against law enforcement in two
products, both of which had findings consistent with this assessment. The 23 March 2016 FBI
intelligence bulletin, titled “(U//FOUO) Black Separatist Extremists’ Call for Retaliation in
Response to Police-Involved Incidents Could Incite Acts of Violence against Law Enforcement,”
assessed incidents involving allegations of law enforcement abuse and related legal proceedings
would likely lead to BSE calls for violent retaliation and incite these domestic extremists to
commit violent acts against law enforcement. The 14 November 2014 FBI intelligence bulletin,
titled “(U//FOUO) Potential Criminal Reactions to Missouri Grand Jury Announcement,”
assessed the announcement of the grand jury’s decision in the shooting death of Michael Brown
in Ferguson would likely be exploited by some individuals to justify threats and attacks against
law enforcement and critical infrastructure.
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(U) Source Summary Statement
(U//LES) Reporting in this intelligence assessment was derived primarily from FBI and law enforcement
investigations and open source reporting—media interviews of subjects, subjects’ posting on social media
accounts, and online news articles—deemed credible and reliable. The review of FBI investigations occurred
between September 2014 and December 2016. The open source reporting was current as of 17 January 2017.
Statements made by the subjects to law enforcement during the course of investigations were particularly helpful
to identify motivations behind BIE attacks against law enforcement because ideological motivations are
infrequently identified or collected. Additional reporting on the ideological motivations behind BIE attacks
would improve the confidence levels in this assessment.

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(U//FOUO) Suspects’ Grievances Very Likely Lead to Violent Targeting of Law
Enforcement
(U//FOUO) The FBI judges it is very likely BIE perceptions of police brutality against African
Americans have become organizing drivers for the BIE movement since 2014, resulting in a
spike of BIEs intentionally targeting law enforcement with violence. In all six targeted attacks
since 2014, the FBI assesses it is very likely the BIE suspects acted in retaliation for perceived
past police brutality incidents. Even though five of these attacks occurred following controversial
police shootings of African Americans by white police officers, BIE targeting of officers was
not, in every incident, based on their specific race.
•

(U) On 7 July 2016, Micah Johnson ambushed and shot 11 law enforcement officers, killing
five, in downtown Dallas, Texas, during a First Amendment protected protest, before being
ultimately killed by police. The five deceased officers were white. The planned public event
was protesting recent officer-involved shootings of African Americans in Louisiana and
Minnesota. Based on Johnson’s journal writings and statements to police, he appeared to
have been influenced by BIE ideology.
o (U//FOUO) During the standoff with police, Johnson told police negotiators he
was upset about recent police shootings and white people, and expressed a desire
to kill white people, especially white officers. 1 Johnson searched and liked social
media pages of BIE and black separatist groups, 2 and had been ousted from a
local BIE group for being too radical, according to an open source news article. 3, 4

•

(U//FOUO) On 23 October 2014, Zale H. Thompson attacked four white New York Police
Department (NYPD) officers in Queens with a hatchet. One officer received injuries to the
arm and a second officer received an injury to the side of his head. The two remaining NYPD
officers at the scene shot and killed Thompson according to open source reporting.
o (U//FOUO) According to open source reporting, Thompson was angered after “a
recent spate of deaths at the hands of the police.” 5 In his own writings, Thompson
advocated for armed struggle against “the oppressors” 6 and “mass revolt” against
the US social, economic, and political systems, which he perceived to be “white
dominated.” He also described the United States as a “beast” and called for
“chopping off” its head, hands, and feet. 7 NYPD observed tattoos on Thompson's
body that indicated he was affiliated with a black separatist extremist group and
pocket litter indicating he may have been associated with another black separatist
group according to law enforcement reporting. 8

(U//FOUO) Convergence of BIE and Moorish Sovereign Citizen Ideology Very Likely Leads to
Violence against Law Enforcement Officers
(U//FOUO) The FBI assesses it is very likely a few of the BIEs who have targeted law
enforcement since 2014 were influenced by more than one ideological perspective. The FBI
judges it is very likely in four of the six BIE attacks against law enforcement since 2014, the
perpetrators were motivated by a mix of BIE ideology and Moorish sovereign citizen extremist
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(SCE)e ideology, a category of SCE ideology. The FBI assesses it is very likely BIE adoption of
a Moorish SCE identity reinforced a sense of disenfranchisement from society and a perception
that the criminal justice system is unjust.
•

(U) On 4 October and 13 October 2016, an individual allegedly shot at two different police
stations in Indianapolis, Indiana. The subject left a hand-written note at the scene of one of
the shootings, in which he identified himself as a Moor and made anti-white statements. The
subject posted pictures on social media of African American men carrying assault rifles
behind text calling for social injustice and retribution.9 The subject was later involved in a
shootout with police during his arrest on related charges according to law enforcement
reporting.10, 11

•

(U//LES) On 17 July 2016, Gavin Eugene Long ambushed and shot six law enforcement
officers in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, before eventually being killed by police. 12 The deceased
victims included one African American officer and one white officer from the Baton Rouge
Police Department, and one white officer from the East Baton Rouge Parish Sheriff’s Office.
Long had expressed black separatist rhetoric both on social media and in his manifesto,
including rants against “crackers” and reference to an African American male killed by
police in Baton Rouge on 5 July 2016. 13, 14 In his manifesto, Long expressed his frustrations
with the police and criminal justice system in the United States and saw his actions “as a
necessary evil… in order to create substantial change.” 15 A law enforcement search of
Long’s laptop contained biographical information and residential addresses of two officersinvolved in the Alton Sterling shooting, and Google searched directions to one of the
officer’s home address. 16 Long had also declared himself to be a Moor, had changed his
“slave” name to the Moorish name Cosmo Ausar Setepenra, and was carrying a Moorish
identification card at the time of his death according to open source reporting. 17, 18

•

(U//LES) On 13 September 2016, an individual reportedly intentionally drove his vehicle
toward three white officers with the Police Department in Phoenix, Arizona, outside a gas
station, striking two of them before he was arrested. 19 The subject’s social media accounts
indicated that he was tied to a BIE group and a Moorish group, 20, 21 and that he was angry
over police shootings since at least the killing of Brown in 2014.22 Consistent with BIE
statements on social media, the subject stated, “The Caucasian needs to be slaughtered like
the pigs that they are right along with the niggas who serve and protect them” according to
law enforcement reporting. 23, 24

•

(U//FOUO) On 21 November 2014, a BIE was arrested and eventually convicted for
purchasing explosives the subject intended to use in the Ferguson area upon release of the

e

(U//FOUO) Moorish sovereign citizens are a loose network of mostly African Americans who believe they are
sovereign entities who do not recognize the authority of the US Government. Moorish sovereign citizen ideology
derives from the Moorish Science Temple of America, a non-violent religious and cultural movement founded in
1913 by Nobel Drew Ali, who taught his followers they were not “negroes” but Moors, people of North African
Berber and Arab descent. Some Moorish adherents adopt sovereign citizen strategies to assert diplomatic immunity
by claiming membership in fictitious Native American tribes, claiming descent from settlers who arrived in North
America during the pre-Columbian era, or identifying as foreign nationals or ambassadors. (Source: FBI; Primer;
January 2014; “(U) Black Separatist Extremists: An Introduction for Law Enforcement”; UNCLASSIFIED;
UNCLASSIFIED; Multiple sources.)

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grand jury verdict for the police officer involved in the shooting death of Brown. 25 He
previously discussed a desire to kill the white St. Louis County prosecutor and the white
Ferguson police chief who were involved in Brown’s case, according to FBI information.
Additionally, the subject had ties to a BIE group 26 that had discussed ambushing police. 27
Furthermore, the subject had ties to the sovereign citizen movement 28, 29 filed paperwork
declaring himself an “aboriginal/indigenous free sovereign moor,” 30, 31 and possessed a
Moorish identification card according to open source reporting. 32
(U) Perspective
(U//FOUO) BIEs have historically justified and perpetrated violence against law enforcement,
which they perceived as representative of the institutionalized oppression of African Americans,
but had not targeted law enforcement with premeditated violence for the nearly two decades
leading up to the lethal incidents observed beginning in 2014. BIE violence peaked in the 1960s
and 1970s in response to changing socioeconomic attitudes and treatment of blacks during the
Civil Rights Movement. BIE groups, such as the Black Liberation Army (BLA), which was
created in the early 1970s to “take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black
people in the United States,” engaged in murders, bank robberies, kidnappings, racketeering,
possession of explosives, and weapons smuggling.
•

(U) From 1970 to 1984, the BLA was involved in at least 38 criminal incidents, including
26 armed assaults, 3 assassinations, 4 bombings, and 4 hijackings and hostage takings.
Almost half of these attacks took place in predominantly African American
neighborhoods and targeted law enforcement officers without regard to their race
according to an open source database. 33

(U//FOUO) BIE violence has been rare over the past 20 years and there is sparse evidence of any
convergence with SCEs who adhere to Moorish beliefs, who have historically engaged in
nonviolent fraudulent schemes—including production of fraudulent personal identification
documents such as International Motorist Certifications, passports, vehicle titles and
registrations, and birth certificates—in support of their claims of sovereignty. In addition,
although non-Moorish SCEs have committed lethal violence against law enforcement in the past,
this violence has typically occurred in response to encounters with law enforcement—for
example, during traffic stops or the issuing of warrants—rather than through premeditated,
targeted aggression. In addition, not all self-identified Moors are sovereign citizens, and not all
sovereign citizen Moors engage in violence against law enforcement or other illegal activity.
(U//FOUO) The FBI has previously reported on BIE retaliatory violence against law
enforcement in two products. This intelligence assessment addresses actual incidents of lethal
retaliatory violence. The previous black identity extremism intelligence products discussed calls
for potential retaliatory violence, not actual violent incidents. Recent lethal violent incidents may
be indicative of a resurgence of targeted violence within the BIE movement.

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(U) Analysis of Alternatives
(U//FOUO) The FBI considered the alternative hypothesis that retaliatory violence against law
enforcement is not ideologically motivated, but rather a result that some individuals may simply
harbor animosity toward police and exploit racial tensions as an excuse to commit acts of
violence. The FBI, however, assesses this alternative is very unlikely in the cases analyzed in this
assessment because strictly criminal subjects typically commit spontaneous, “defensive” acts of
violence against police rather than proactive targeting, and use idiosyncratic reasons unrelated to
ideology, such as financial gain and personal disputes, to justify their actions. The FBI further
judges it is very likely BIEs proactively target police and openly identify and justify their actions
with social-political agendas commensurate with their perceived injustices against African
Americans, and in some cases, their identified affiliations with violent extremist groups.
(U) Outlook
(U//FOUO) The FBI assesses it is very likely that BIEs’ perceptions of unjust treatment of
African Americans and the perceived unchallenged illegitimate actions of law enforcement will
inspire premeditated attacks against law enforcement over the next year. This may also lead to an
increase in BIE group memberships, collaboration among BIE groups, or the appearance of
additional violent lone offenders motivated by BIE rhetoric. The FBI further assesses it is very
likely additional controversial police shootings of African Americans and the associated legal
proceedings will continue to serve as drivers for violence against law enforcement. The FBI
assesses it is likely police officers of minority groups are also targeted by BIEs because they are
also representative of a perceived oppressive law enforcement system.
(U//FOUO) Possible indicators for BIEs posing a violent threat to law enforcement include
advocating for violence against law enforcement, violent anti-white rhetoric, attempts to acquire
illegal weapons or explosives, and affiliations with others in both the BSE and sovereign citizen
extremist movements.

(U) Intelligence Requirements
(U) FBI National Standing Collection Requirement
•

(U//FOUO) USA-TERR-CTD-SR-0519-17.III.A.2.a

(U) This Intelligence Assessment was prepared by the FBI Domestic Terrorism Analysis Unit, Counterterrorism
Analysis Section (CTAS), of the Counterterrorism Division. Comments and queries may be addressed to the CTAS
Section Chief by calling

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(U) Appendix A: Expressions of Likelihood (or Probability)

(U) Phrases such as "the FBI judges" and "the FBI assesses," and tenns such as "likely" and
"probably" convey analytical judgments and assessments. The chait approximates how
expressions of likelihood and probability conelate with percentages of chance. The FBI only
uses likelihood expressions. Fmthennore, the FBI does not derive judgments via statistical
analysis and will not use expressions of probability to convey lmce1tainty in external FBI
intelligence products.
UNCLASSIFIED

Te1111s· of
Lzkehhood

Terms of
Probabilzty

Almost
No
Chance

Very
Unlikely

Unlikely

Roughly
Even
Chance

Likely

Very
Likely

Almost
Certain(ly)

Remote

Highly
Improbable

Improbable
(Improbably)

Roughly
Even
Odds

Probable
(Pr·obably)

Highly
Pl'Obable

Nearly
Certain

- - • •• •
20-45%

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(U) Appendix B: Confidence in Assessments and Judgments Based on a Body of
Information
(U) Confidence levels reflect the quality and quantity of the source information supporting
judgment. Consequently, the FBI ascribes high, medium, or low levels of confidence to
assessments, as follows:
(U) High confidence generally indicates the FBI’s judgments are based on high quality
information from multiple sources. High confidence in a judgment does not imply the assessment
is a fact or a certainty; such judgments might be wrong. While additional reporting and
information sources may change analytical judgments, such changes are most likely to be
refinements and not substantial in nature.
(U) Medium confidence generally means the information is credibly sourced and plausible but
not of sufficient quality or corroborated sufficiently to warrant a higher level of confidence.
Additional reporting or information sources have the potential to increase the FBI’s confidence
levels or substantively change analytical judgments.
(U) Low confidence generally means the information’s credibility or plausibility is uncertain,
the information is too fragmented or poorly corroborated to make solid analytic inferences, or the
reliability of the sources is questionable. Absent additional reporting or information sources,
analytical judgments should be considered preliminary in nature.

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(U) Endnotes
1

(U) Online newspaper article; The New York Times; “(U) Five Dallas Officers Were Killed as Payback, Police
Chief Says”; 9 July 2016; https://www nytimes.com/2016/07/09/us/dallas-police-shooting.html?_r=0; accessed on
17 January 2017; Source is an open-source news article from a reputable news Web site.
2
(U) FBI; Information; 14 July 2016; 20 March 2016; “[TITLE REDACTED]”; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL
USE ONLY; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; Source is open source reporting.
3
(U//FOUO) FBI; Information; 13 July 2016; 12 July 2016; “(U//FOUO) Set Lead to FBI Houston to Interview
[Name withheld]”; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE
ONLY; Source is open source reporting.
4
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 10 November 2016; 9 November 2016; “[TITLE REDACTED]”
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICAL USE ONLY; Source is law
enforcement reporting.
5
(U) Online newspaper article; The New York Times; “(U) Attacker With Hatchet Is Said to Have Grown Radical on
His Own”; 25 October 2014; https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/25/nyregion/man-who-attacked-police-withhatchet-ranted-about-us-officials-say html?_r=1; accessed on 24 January 2017; Source is open source reporting.
6
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 6 November 2014; 23 October 2014; “(U) Lead requests to interview former
female companions of subject [Name withheld]”; UNCLASSIFIED; UNCLASSIFIED; Source is law enforcement
reporting.
7
(U//FOUO) FBI-DHS; Joint Intelligence Bulletin; 27 October 2014 “(U//FOUO) Lone Offender Hatchet Attack on
New York Police Department Officers Has No Apparent Link to a Foreign Terrorist Organization”;
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; Source is open
source and law enforcement reporting.
8
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 24 October 2014; 23 October 2014; “(U) Opening EC”; “UNCLASSIFIED;
UNCLASSIFIED; Source is law enforcement reporting.
9
(U) Online news article; Fox 59 News; “(U) DNA ties Zionsville murder suspect to IMPD headquarters
shootings”; 31 October 2016; http://fox59.com/2016/10/31/court-docs-dna-ties-zionsville-murder-suspect-tied-toimpd-headquarters-shootings; accessed on 15 December 2016; Source is open source reporting from a local news
organization.
10
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 7 October 2016; 4 October 2016; “(U) Opening EC”; UNCLASSIFIED;
UNCLASSIFIED; Source is law enforcement reporting.
11
(U) FBI; Information; 8 November 2016; 31 October 2016; “(U) Arrest of [Name withheld]”; UNCLASSIFIED;
UNCLASSIFIED; Source is law enforcement reporting.
12
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 17 July 2016; 17 July 2016; “[TITLE REDACTED]”; UNCLASSIFIED;
UNCLASSIFIED; Source is law enforcement reporting.
13
(U) Online news article; The Daily Caller; “(U) Baton Rouge Cop Killer [Name withheld] Was Nation Of Islam”;
17 July 2016; [URL REDACTED]; Source is open source reporting.
14
(U) FBI; Information; 1 August 2016; 29 July 2016; “(U) Kansascity.com Interview with [Name withheld]”;
UNCLASSIFIED; UNCLASSIFIED; Source is open source reporting.
15
(U//LES) FBI; Information; 2 August 2016; 2 August 2016; “(U//LES) Baton Rouge and Dallas Shooters Alluded
to [Name withheld]”; UNCLASSIFIED; UNCLASSIFIED; Source is open source reporting.
16
(U) FBI; Information; 21 July 2016; 1 July 2016; “(U) Potential Targeting of Law Enforcement Officers through
Open Source Personally Identifiable Information (PII)”; UNCLASSIFIED; UNCLASSIFIED; Source is law
enforcement reporting.
17
(U) Online news article; NBC News; “(U) What Is the Washitaw Nation, ‘Sovereign’ Group Baton Rouge Shooter
Identified With?”; 19 July 2016; http://www nbcnews.com/storyline/baton-rouge-police-ambush/what-washitawnation-sovereign-group-baton-rouge-shooter-identified-n612101; accessed on 8 September 2016; Source is open
source reporting.
18
(U//LES) FBI; Information; 31 August 2016; 29 July 2016; “(U//LES) Baton Rouge and Dallas Shooters Alluded
to [Name withheld]”; UNCLASSIFIED; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; Source is subject’s
manifesto.
19
(U) Online news article; ABC News; “(U) Man crashes into Phoenix officers: [Name withheld] fought with
officers after intentional crash”; 14 September 2016; [URL REDACTED]; accessed on 14 September 2016; Source
is open source reporting.

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20

(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 14 September 2016; 13 September 2016; “(U) Opening EC”;
UNCLASSIFIED//LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE; UNCLASSIFIED//LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE;
Source is law enforcement reporting.
21
(U) Blog post; Anti-Defamation League; “(U) Black Nationalist Charged With Attacking Phoenix Police
Officers”; 15 September 2016; http://blog.adl.org/?s=black+nationalist+charged+with+attacking+
phoenix&x=0&y=0; accessed on 15 September 2016; Source is open source reporting.
22
(U) Ibid.
23
(U) Ibid.
24
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 14 September 2016; 13 September 2016; “(U) Opening EC”;
UNCLASSIFIED//LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE; UNCLASSIFIED//LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE;
Source is law enforcement reporting.
25
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 9 September 2014; 9 September 2014; “(U) Opening EC”;
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; Source is law
enforcement reporting.
26
(U) FBI; Electronic Communication; 30 June 2016; 1 November 2014; “(U) Closing EC”;
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; Source is law
enforcement reporting.
27
(U//FOUO) FBI; Information; 17 June 2015; 1 November 2014; “(U//FOUO) Interview of [Name withheld]”;
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; UNCLASSIFIED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY; Source is law
enforcement reporting.
28
(U//FOUO) FBI; Electronic Communication; 31 August 2015; 29 August 2015; “(U//FOUO) Kansas City Star
article “(U) Sovereign Citizens Now Consist of All Colors and Creeds”; UNCLASSIFIED; UNCLASSIFIED;
Source is open source reporting from a local news organization whose deemed reliable.
29
(U) Op. cit., endnote 26.
30
(U) Online news article; Southern Poverty Law Center; “(U) Extremists Exploit Racial Tensions in Ferguson,
MO”; 2015; https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/intelligence-report/2015/extremists-exploit-racial-tensionsferguson-mo; accessed on 11 August 2016; Source is open source reporting.
31
(U) Blog post; Anti-Defamation League; “(U) Arrested Black Panther Also Involved in Sovereign Citizen
Movement”; 26 November 2014; http://blog.adl.org/extremism/arrested-black-panther-also-involved-in-sovereigncitizen-movement; accessed on 11 October 2016; Source is open source reporting.
32
(U) Ibid.
33
(U) FBI; Primer; January 2014; “(U) Black Separatist Extremists: An Introduction for Law Enforcement”;
UNCLASSIFIED; UNCLASSIFIED; Multiple sources.

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(U) Distribution
BUNet/FBI Intelligence Portal
LEEP/LESC
e-Guardian
Department of Homeland Security

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