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Fbi Interrogation Manual Cross-cultural Interrogation 2012

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This document

is

Unclassified/For

Official

Use Only

Cross Cultural Rapport-Based Interrogation

Version

ALL

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ACLURM036782

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dated

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Table of Contents
Introduction

In-Processing
conduct
stations

Detention

Developing

on during screening

questioning

plan

plan

Interrogation

of civilian

Categories

disadvantages of using an Interpreter

Approach

considerations

Planning

with Interpreters

and

Selecting

Screening

in the

techniques and

checklist

and

Advantages

Interpreters

Positioning the Interpreter

with your Interpreter

room Interacting

of screening

issues

the Interrogation

Working

The purpose

Topics to collect

of screening personnel

Planning
gambits

and Detention

Screening

in the interrogation

course of an interrogation

Interpreter

pre
17

brief checklist

Cultural
issues

and Motivational

for Arab

Conduct
deception

subjects

on Interrogation

Issues Impacting

of

Arabs

Cultural

Motivational issues

of the Interrogation

21

The structure

of the

Ws Map

Overcoming resistance The

Rapport Detecting

interrogation

26

tracking

Annex

This is an
Handling Walk-Ins claiming to have Threat Information
the
Reid
method
the
to
adaptation of
applied spec fically
determining
veracity
of threat
information provided

Annex

Conducting

considerations

Annex
terrorist

by

Preamble

Questioning
Order of Battle

Annex

Letter

Suggested

Reading

walk-in source

Law

38

Enforcement Interviews

questionnaire

Advice

Quick Reference The

OB

Overseas

Planning
47

of rights

Ws and

Missions

Insurgent

57

questions

from Major

Sherwood

and

Moran LJSMC

Interrogator

in

WW

II. .66

75

Endnotes

76

Unclassified/For

Official

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ACLURM036783

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This

in

cross-cultural

both

conducting

and

FBI

the

while using an

situation

and

intelligence

This

been

addresses

in

to

such

in

Treatment

on

Branch

is

of Prisoners

interrogation
in

compliance

and

point

that

his or

situation

Detainees

and

handling

not the

her current

is

to

mentally

preparing

to

disregard for personal

may be

detainee

demonstrates an

ill

the

many

refers

to

374

page

Science

the

issues

in

cross-

be

may

that

included

the

will

Interrogator

of experience

levels

with

working

rapport

statements

obtaining

also

and

face but
can

training

the

to

cooperation

it

is

use to

for profiting

strategy

harsh

the

may steel

approaches
With

presented

of his

that

you

in this

culture

will

such

the

shock

For example

abusive

encounter someone who

of the detainees

using cultural
from the

This quote

from

approach

detainee

preferences

understanding

source

of this entire document

essence

infidels
to

on

emphasis

places

of your

of expectations

cultural

methodologies
as

the

effective

respond

and

prepared

long term detainees

Intelligence

captures

of the

impressive

Although
battlefield

obtain

often

hands

in the

all

interrogation
building

specifically

set

skill

dislocation

use

for
is

presented in the document

and

creative

to

with varying

Interrogators

and rapport to
intelligence
Information
Study
Educina

mistreatment

answer

and

an

conducting
It

Interpreter

an

planning

considerations

walk-ins

an

methodology

with

associated

utilizing

on procedures

annex

The methodology

phenomenon

screening

motivational

courts

is

detainee

while

interrogation

logical

multitude of issues

cultural

as

and

coherent
the

An

U.S

This primer

Intelligence

titled

from

learned

numerous overseas

resources

Law

Security

interrogation

lessons
in

interrogations
unclassified

intelligence-

apply to any

combines

National

address

and

cultural

situation

admissible

enhance

It

Interpreter

rapport-based
also

but can

enforcement

the

by

provides

cross

issues

interpreters

This

law

communication

electronic

designed

interrogation

cultural

reviewed

primer

specifically

Art

custodial

conducting

environments

05/19/2004

dated

start

in overseas

with information drawn from numerous

This primer has
with

on

oriented

is

primer

interrogations

locations

2/23/2011

Introduction

Chapter

oriented

dated

himseiffor

him

the

and

language

hardened

affords

of capture
anticipating

worst
blatant

expectations

better

the

treatment and

and language.1

interrogate

primer can

will

be readily

not be
adapted

fresh

off the

to deal

with

well

report

Board

on

called

interrogation

Phase

Report

Information

Educing

This study

was published by

Interrogation
the

Science

and

National Defense

College

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ACLURM036784

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Chapter

In-Processing

Screening

has become

process
are

you

working

influence

the

The

and

However

has

screener

he

knowlede

to

established

normally

you

have

the

are

screening
in

working
or no

little

or

if

to

ability

key pieces of

identifies

an interrogation

in

which

the

the

attempts to obtain

screener

and

source cooperation
of

identifing knowledge
basics

source

the

passes

interrogation

facilities

this chapter

cases

knowledge

in addition

detention

you may

facility

in these

even

of general

techniques

the

holding

successful

on the location

Dependent

before beginning

areas

data

DOD

more formal process

is

screening

approach

Once

tasks

long term

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for

preparation

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information

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Currently

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aspect

2/23/2011

and Detention

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vulnerability

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cooperation

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personnel

conduct

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questioning

The
about

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and

related

probable

will

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different

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sources

cooperative

are

used in dealing

There are two purposes
To determine

To determine

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the

if

source

provocation

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educated

An estimate

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to

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KUBARK

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information of value which

possess

requires

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made

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have

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events

and

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easier

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by

which he
trained

fact

may

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source

It

important that gross

likeliest

familial

to

talk

to

or at least the

Interrogators

them later

will interrogate

that

the

interested

is

screener

Most

possess

recite

speak

in

many

people--even

legend--will

about childhood

is

by interviewers not
same personnel

the

information

the

agents

by

cooperate

Personnel

conducted

of screening
in

likely to

of Screening

should be

task

not

with these

likely to

is

should not be screened

source

freedom

or

detainee

to

of the subject

Screening

the

recalcitrant

of screening

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Selection

subjects

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if

identification

full

is

toward the interrogation

be

methods

of screening

purpose

attitude

with

some

relationships

freely

if

screeners

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manner

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friendly

and

patient.7

Persons

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the

is

suffering

KUBARK

Cold

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War and was

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declassified

abnormalities

mental

severe

CIAs
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interrogation

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2/2312011

Dismissal or

save time and

money

from the formalized screening

beginning

name

given

Fathers

or to

screening

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explanations

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ill

dated

name

given

Grandfathers given

name

Tribe

Sub-Tribe

Other names used

Date

and Place

Places

the

Abu name

of Birth

detainee

has lived and

10

How

long has the detainee

11

Why

is

he

in

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traveled

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or

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cover

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What

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13

What

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the

detainees

current

14

What

languages

15

Detainees

ethnic

and

16 Detainees

social

status

17

Is

foreigner

is

12

country

foreign

does the detainee

religious

fighter

is

on

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to try

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work history

speak

Sunni Shia Kurd Arab Persian

background

within the society

married Does he have

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foreigner

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Collection

Where

level

job and

if he

etc

of the country of origin

How

children

old are they and

where

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18

How

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20 Has

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does he have

siblings
will not

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have

any

ever been

how

about

old are they and
female family

what sex

members Do

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aware

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not push this

interrogation

health

issues

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Assessment

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exchange

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when

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detainees

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through

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of anxiety and

level

does the detainee

explanation

Screening

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of detainees

2/2312011

go

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before interrogation

is

asked which can

carry

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detainee

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photos of the

digital

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detainees
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of anxiety

level

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information

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of previous

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in the

cooperativeness
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past

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into

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process

should take
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at

prohibit

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photograph
only

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head

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if you

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DETAINEE PLACARD
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detainees

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detainees
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encountered

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12

resolve

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Guantanamo

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strategies

outcome

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FBI036335

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FBI036336

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36

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Unclassified/For

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FBI036344

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movement
and

organizations

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independently

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networks

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criminal

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have

religious

links

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to

other

political

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Does

Weapons

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movement place more weight on

political

action

or violent

action

and Equipment Strength

Weapons AK-47s RPGs

Individual

What

individual

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Sniper Rifles Hand

target

Guns

unit

How many
What

is

Where

the

distribution

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of the

weapons

weapons obtained

Crew-Served Weapons mortars heavy

machine guns

What

unit

crew-served weapons are in target

recoilless

rifles

How many
What

is

the

distribution

Other Weapons
What
What

How

other

Vehicles

weapons
missiles chemical

anti-aircraft

weapons

types
are

of the

are there

in

target

weapons

unit

How many

they distributed

What

vehicles

are

in

unit

How many
What

nomenclature
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Official

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dated

Version

IEDs

IEDs

2/23/2911

EFPs \TBTEDs

Explosively Formed Penetrators

What type

How many
Where

they

are

Dispositions
is

questioning

Disposition

Where

is

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target

Show

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map

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ideally

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of the target

location

disposition

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are
What security measures are being employed at
Additionally

types of dispositions

specific

Area-Type Dispositions
Show on

the

map or

are units or activities

Where

are the
unit

What

vehicles

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is

is

location

location

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require

follow-up

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describe

at that

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located

approaches/entrance

charge

in

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are located

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of information

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Tactics

What

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SVBIED
What

other

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did

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are

unit

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lED VBIED

involved

units are

unit begin employing

are the

What

What

units are

other

tactics

defensive tactics are being employed by

unit

involved

unit begin employing

did

these

major objectives

Defensive

When

tactics

offensive

Ambush Kidnapping etc

What

Special Operations

these tactics

special

operations

tactics

are

being employed by

unit
What

are the

When

did

designations

of the units employing

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are these

tactics

Training

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Where/Why

special

special

operations

tactics

tactics

operations

being employed

Trainin2
Individual

Who
How

is

effective

Where
What

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training

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the training

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training

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Where

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is

Unit Training

Who
How

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the

training

the training

conducted

are the training

standards

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Specialized

Training

What

specialized

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training

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being conducted

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unit
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Who

is

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effective

Where
What

2/23/2011

being trained
is

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training

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Losses
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When

What were

have

personnel losses

been

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Where
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losses
Equipment What equipment
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ranks
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What

equipment

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unit

How many
From where

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equipment

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the level

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long does

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type

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is

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did the reinforcing

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long will the reinforcing

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replacement

type of equipment

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take

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many
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did

equipment

replacements available

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assigned as reinforcement

are available

unit/location

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available

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unit

reinforcements

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to

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What

How
Suicide

of units are available

types

long does

it

take

reinforce

to

reinforcements

for

dated

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unit

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How

from

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are

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Morale
Describe the morale of the members of

How
What

is

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effect

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unit

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long has the morale

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leadership

morale had on the behavior

has high/low

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Logistics

What

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are

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often

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Where

How

are

are

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often

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condition
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in

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maintenance
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vehicle

condition

performed
How often

Unclassified/For

By

whom

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Is

there

What

an increased

is

What

done

are there

parts

spare

What problems

there

on maintenance

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for vehicles

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with spare parts

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usage

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Where

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how

Does

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members

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If so

how much

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Are unit members paid

Do

why

quality

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2123/2011

them

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cell phones

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communications

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so

What

unit

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Communications Equipment What
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If

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activity

Medical
What

Equipment

medical equipment

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is

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are the contents

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is

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shortages

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medical

kits in the

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quality

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What problems

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is

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are the contents

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is

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shortages

medical equipment

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the distribution

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of vehicular

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unit

quality

there

are

What problems

unit
unit
members of unit How many

with the vehicular medical equipment/supplies

are there

Personnel What medical personnel

are

assigned

in

to

What medical personnel are available to treat
What are the duty positions of the medical personnel
What
of

of medical care

level

medical personnel

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able to

provide

to

members

unit
What medical

Facilities

Where

are the

What

level

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of care

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What

are

to

available

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care

MEDEVAC

members of

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shortages

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Procedures

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are

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procedures

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MEDEVAC procedures are

Food What

to

there

different

personnel

What

is

Evacuation

are available

are available

facilities

medical facilities

lightly

used for more seriously

wounded

wounded

members of unit eating
of

food

Unclassified/For

Official

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Version

What

the

is

been

When was the last issue
When is the next issue

is

encountered

in

been

water purification

encountered

methods

Under what circumstances

unit

to

members of

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used what

tablets are

water purification

are available

unit

unit

with quality shortages

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will

to

unit

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What problems have
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If

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stocks

reserve

Water What

What

2123/2011

quality

What problems have

What

dated

color

are

they

Obstacles

What

Enemy
What

have

obstacles

Where when

what

safe lanes

are there

type

How

are the

Why

have

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sack

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around

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fields

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method of emplacement of mines

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What

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forces

enemy

through

pattern quantity and

canalization

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type of obstacles

mortars ambush
where

emplaced

etc

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of terrain

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have

obstacles

enemy

forces

Where

encountered

When
Have

those

What

effect

been

obstacles

have

breached

the friendly

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had

neutralized

on enemy maneuver

PSYOP
What

Who

is

are

being conducted

by

unit

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the text

audience

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is

Where

PSYOP

What

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PSYOP materials prepared
how are they delivered

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and

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is

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form

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effect

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is

effect

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What
of

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have

When

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PSYOP had

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Where

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have

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unit

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PSYOP

Miscellaneous
Personalities

Question for

name rank

unit duty position

and

unit

of key

leaders
Collect

identifying

color writing

number

Key Leader
Role

facial

hair

and

such

as

and

age height

weight build

hair

and

eye

teeth

information such as work

Obtain contact
fax

characteristics

hand

and

home

addresses telephone numbers

email address

Traits

in the organization

Known

activities

Unclassified/For

Official

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Known

dated

2/23/2011

associates

and

Background

personal history
and

Beliefs motivations
Education and

ideology

training

Temperament for example careful impulsive thoughtful

violent

Importance in the organization
Popularity

Code

outside

Names

used for specific

Passwords

When
When

did
will

go

it

What

will the

What

other

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is

into

name of each

unit What

code

names

are

being

the current

challenge/password

for

unit

effect

change
next challenge/password

infonnal run

What methods

code

operations

What
it

the organization

What

do

group

be

in passwords

members use

Unclassified/For

for

are in

use

authentication

Official

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Official

Version

Annex

The

USMC

WW

to

Prior

Interrogator

he was

II

he became

war

working

Marine Interrogator

After

the battle for Guadalcanal he became

wrote

based on

brief guide

this

his

being

II

World War

during

declaration

Upon

extremely successfuL

trainer of Marine

2/23/2011

the most

Moran

Japanese

for 20 years

Japan

in

missionary

the

against

WW

During

Interrogator

by Major Sherwood

was written

article

foLlowing

successful

Moran USMC

from Major

Letter

dated

II

of

during

and

Interrogators

experiences

BASED ON

WORK

IN

THE

FIELD

SUGGESTIONS FOR JAPANESE INTERPRETERS BASED ON

WORK

IN

THE

FIELD

SUGGESTIONS FOR JAPANESE INTERPRETERS
by Sherwood
Moran Major USMC
REPRINT
Division

Section

Intelligence

Marine Division

First

Headquarters

Fleet Marine Force

C/O

Fleet Post Office

168/292

of all

First

from

wish

really

be himself He

shouLd

cormorant

karasu

mizu

methods

ni

oboreru

But his

experience

and

importance
out

love

word

Last

interviewer

an interviewer must

his

strange

But of course

own temperament
as it may seem to

technique

woman

to

The

three

of his

no mane

attempt

suru

the

that

without saying

goes

These
say

three

own

his
is

very
not

are of prime

things

think the first and the last are

so

Based on these

comparison

be

What

have to say concretely

the interpreter

it

the

in

own

three

fLip

will

man does

just as

merely

he

things

bon

mot

in

the

gradualLy

making

interviewer

wooer

should

reaL

and drowning

student
of best
be open to suggestions
and should be
work will be based primarily upon his own character his own

most important of the

work

and

work

his

upon

and cannot try to copy or imitate somebody else or
proverb he will be Like the crow trying to imitate

fish

catching

interpreter should

the

first

is

interpreter

the

Like

every interpreter

efficient
not

just entering

words of the Japanese

the

the

letter to an interpreter

to say that

better for any

in

Calif

Francisco

July 1943

17

selections

Being

San

towards

his

is

divided

into two
His

prisoner

sections

knowLedge

The

attitude

of

and use of the

Language
the first one his ATTITUDE
more
important than his knowledge
ways
Let

us take

suppose
all

would on

one needs

is

first

thought

knowledge

think

This

is

language

attitude

of the language

Unclassified/For

of prime importance

of the

Official

had nothing

Many

in

many

peopLe

to do with

it that

then shoot out questions and
Use Only

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expect and demand
of

reply Of course

that

is

unthinking

very

dated

2/23/2011

and naive

point

view

can simply
what

start

attitude

my

self-appointed

way

in

attitude

reply
the

in

the

that

it

When

it

that

since

he

if

This

is

safe

you

wouldnt

place

But that

the

is

used the word

where even he knows

to

ningen

the

tired

combat

for

this

is

at first

the point
That is the

not

safe
there

enemy
am

and

as

taLking

sleepy the

good they

no hope

is

stuff

shite And they respond

the

sick

are out of the

they

sneer that

try to escape

will

Some

or starving

will

people

paragraph

out of

war

doubly so

wounded

you know he

been

has

as out of the
is

all

comes to the wounded

consider

enemy

at the

right

man who

place

hard-boiled

human being

to

being

an

prisoner

over Then forget as it were the
tell them to forget
it telling them

is

prisoner stuff

human

safe

speaking

part of this

point get the prisoner to
of escape

not

tell

i.e

prisoner

and say Dont
Of course
do

first

often

is

perfectly

critics self-styled

opportunity
that

in

and physically

psychologically

sentimental

attitude

consider

is

and thus

picture

Notice

my

and disarmed and

captured
the

you what

tell

to this

starving

are simply

needy

human beings needing our help physical and spiritual This is the standpoint
But in addition it is hard
of one human being thinking of another human being
from the Intelligence
business common sense and yields rich dividends
standpoint

consider
consider

that

the

Japanese

often

and

tell

years what

know

really

Ida no naka no kawazu

taikai

with

acquainted

the

shirazu

ocean

them

the

But in relation

idea that

to

alL

is

on

in

The

been allowed

not

bottom

frog in the

is

to

know

telling

them by

such

where character

for

proverb

of the well

phrase to emphasize

superiority standpoint

this

than hated

world etc etc The

the

to antagonize

you have

above

the

and have

sometimes

not

to be pitied rather

they have been led around by the nose

been going

point But one must be carefuL
giving

person

do not

has

not

10

is

that

by their leaders that they
over

soLdier

them so

statements

is

your
by

etc etc

comes

in that

on the preceding
mean that
page One must be absolutely sincere
one must not just assume the above attitudes in order to gain the prisoners
mentioned

confidence
to

know by
voice

your

quote

and get him to talk He
the

was

My

me

that what
sincere

general

Psychology

on your face

you do think

that

and Chinese

Japanese

remarked to
think

expression

that

that

he thought

he was

was

meaning

know
the

the men

proverb
was

has

already

difference

the

You must get him
of your eye the tone of

glance
of the

four

seas

keiteL

Shikai

fine gentleman

to convey

was that

trying to be fair did not have

attitude
of the

will

been brought

it

out

are brothers

to

One Japanese prisoner
rippana shinshi

he instinctively sensed that
in

for the Japanese

in

the

article

as

such

The

Japanese

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Official

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Official

Version

In

to

regard
has

years

big advantage

etc That

etc

versa
infinite

famous

atone

this

with

were

He

here

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alL

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above

could

on

with

four

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must be alive

shumi etc
before we

miles to shore

and about the Olympics

be

should

had quite

hobbies

his

pages

Japanese

remember how

an interpreter

being

conversational

real

etc etc
two or three

write

had asked what

had swum

has

art politics

history

places

eating

and vice

home

his

not

is

man

but

serpents

harmless

but withal

as

of culture insight

warm

gags

From the above

you

wilt

as

of

have not

on common

are based

ideas

But

Wise

proper sense

characteristics

most of these

realize that

he

he must be vivid

dignity and

Two

open and frank
and tact
patience

friendly

mentioned

specifically

He must have

doves

Right

being

He must have

ability

he must be

simpLy

he must have integrity sympathy yet he must be firm wise

aLl

values

He

of interpreter

tine He

must have

stores

of

his life in

This line

about Japanese

about the crawl stroke

and with

resourcefulness

Japanese

whom

that

in

homesick

2/2312011

names and

mentioning

had to break off conversations

swimming

talked

type

even

they to talk on and

were

to prove

goes

tourist

knew

interminable

one of our prisoners

number

for

Japan

the prisoner how pleasant

anything

have

in

lived

how he had Japanese

department

relatively

mentioned

has

he

make

will

personally

him We

captured

tell

you know

places

so willing

prisoners
talk

If

may be

conversation

One can

fine Japanese

alone

possibilities

athletics

who

and their schools

students

places

person

above

was how many

Japan

on

the

all

dated

man should have sympathetic
might sum it alL up by saying that
common sense There may be some who read the above paragraphs or rather
sense

just glance

show

Now

it

in

is

to the

different

and yet not

must

interpreter

in

But first in regard
but

is

right

in

such
the

first

This
as

we

midst

interpretation

Notice

in

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Understanding

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