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Florida's Top Juvenile Civil Citation Efforts, dewey & associates, 2016

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Stepping Up
Florida s Top Juvenile Civil Citation Efforts
Advocating the Importance of Civil Citation Programs
While Recognizing Those That Do It Best

Highlighted counties represent the top-performers in this year s Stepping Up Study (see page 7)

2016 Study
CO ND UCT ED B Y

W IT H SU P P OR T FRO M

SPO NSO RE D BY

Joseph W. &
Terrell S. Clark
IN CO NJ UN CTI ON W IT H

Introduction

When most adults were growing up, common youth misbehaviors – a school fight without injury,
vandalizing a bathroom wall, stealing a key chain from a surf shop – resulted in a trip to the
principal s office or a call to parents. Today these common youth misbehaviors can result in being
arrested – handcuffed, placed in the backseat of a police car, being fingerprinted, and most
importantly being fettered with a criminal misdemeanor record that can create hurdles for youth in
their education, employment, housing and loans.
Juvenile civil citations are an alternative to arrest for common youth misbehavior for youth under
the age of 18. Youth must take responsibility for their actions and complete a program that involves
community service, letters of apology to the victim and law enforcement officer, assessments to
determine if youth are at risk to reoffend, and if needed, intervention services such as counseling.
When Florida s first juvenile civil citation legislation passed in 1990, it made sense to allow
widespread discretion in implementation. With a pilot-like approach, each county could decide
which common youth misbehavior would be eligible for juvenile civil citations and those offenses
that should result in an arrest. Municipalities, law enforcement agencies and school districts could
decide whether to participate. At the time, there was limited data on civil citations so it made sense
for the law & order entities – sheriffs, police chiefs, state attorneys, chief judges, public defenders –
to be prudent and allow civil citations to grow slowly, locally and organically before considering any
widespread statewide standardization.
What once made sense no longer makes sense.
There now is overwhelming data that juvenile civil citations generate superior results – increasing
public safety, improving youth outcomes, and saving taxpayer money - than arrests for common
youth misbehavior. In fact, this year s study reveals that using arrests more often than civil citation
produces more reoffenders who commit more crimes – ultimately decreasing public safety.

A fair question to state and local law makers and policy makers: What value do arrests for civil
citation-eligible offenses bring to the community, to the youth offender, and to the taxpayer?
Stepping Up: Florida s
Top Civil Citation Efforts
2016 is authored by
Dewey Caruthers, one
of Florida s top civil
citation experts.
Stepping Up is an
annual study in its
second year.

Study Author:
Dewey Caruthers
dewey & associates

Contents // Sponsors
Update from 2015 Stepping Up Study

pg. 1

Statewide Juvenile Civil Citation Utilization Rate

pg. 4

Community Impact of Using Arrests Rather Than Issuing Civil Citations

pg. 4

Florida Juvenile Civil Citation Table

pg. 5

Increasing Statewide Juvenile Civil Citation Utilization by 25% and up to

pg. 6

Florida s Top Juvenile Civil Citation Efforts
By County
By School District
By Law Enforcement

pg. 7

Key Findings

pg.11

Recommendations

pg. 17

Update on 2015 Recommendations

pg. 21

National Comparison of State Civil Citation / Pre-Arrest Diversion Efforts
Comparison of State Statutes
Comparison of Data Reporting

pg. 26

Stepping Up Badge for Top-Performers

pg. 30

The Teenage Brain and Common Youth Misbehavior

pg. 30

The Facts on Juvenile Records Expunction

pg. 30

Appendix A: Full Lists by County, School District, Law Enforcement Agency

pg. 31

Appendix B: Overview of Florida Civil Citations

pg. 40

Stepping Up County Reports, which provide reporting of the performance of the county, school district and law
enforcement agencies, are available at www.iamforkids.org. Also provided is the community impact – increases in public
safety resources and reductions of arrests - of increased civil citation utilization.
W IT H SU P P OR T FRO M

SPO NSO RE D BY

Joseph W. &
Terrell S. Clark

IN CO NJ UN CTI ON W IT H

1
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Update from 2015 Stepping Up Study
The 2015 Stepping Up study showed juvenile civil citations
increase public safety, improve youth outcomes and save
taxpayer money. Civil citations increase public safety via
lower recidivism rates and through cost-savings that are
seamlessly reinvested into public safety resources to
prevent and handle felonies. Civil citations improve youth
outcomes because youth are able to face a future without a
criminal misdemeanor record. Civil citations save lots of
taxpayer money because it is more expensive to arrest a
youth than issue a civil citation.
This year s study shows – in more depth and with more
data -- these outcomes continue.

Civil citations increase
public safety, improve
youth outcomes and save
taxpayer money.

Moreover, new data reveals that arresting juveniles instead
of issuing civil citations produces more reoffenders,
running counter to the overarching public safety goal of
reducing crime.

New Recidivism Data: Juvenile Civil Citations
Outperform Arrests at Preventing Recidivism
New juvenile civil citation recidivism data available this
year better informs the conversation.

Civil citation utilization is the
percent eligible issued a civil citation

First, there now is data that directly compares the
recidivism of juvenile civil citations to that of post-arrest
diversion programs only for civil citation-eligible offenses,
according to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice
(FLDJJ). Data from previous years compared juvenile civil
citation recidivism to all misdemeanor post-arrest
diversions. This year s data shows recidivism for juvenile
civil citation is 5%, compared to post-arrest diversion
programs for civil citation-eligible offenses at 9%.

38%

43%

5%

Statewide juvenile civil citation rate
FY 2013-2014

Statewide juvenile civil citation rate
FY 2014-2015

Statewide juvenile civil citation
increase from last fiscal year

2
Update from Last Year s Study (cont.)
Said another way, arrests which lead to diversion programs
perform poorly when directly weighed against civil citations
for the same offenses.

Second, data is available for recidivism by offense category,
which shows arrests generate at least twice the recidivism
rate for seven of the nine most common offenses. For instance,
the recidivism rate for vandalism is three percent for civil
citation and nine percent for post-arrest diversion.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Key Findings
The statewide juvenile civil citation utilization rate increased
by five percent from 38% in fiscal year (FY) 2013-2014 to
43% in FY 2014-2015. This falls exponentially short of last
year s study which recommended that Florida increase
statewide utilization by a modest 25%. If that goal had been
met, it would have generated an increase of $19.7 million to
$61.8 million in public safety resources, and a 40% reduction
in arrests for common youth misbehavior.

Statewide utilization
growth was sluggish,
increasing by only 5%.

Impacting this sluggish utilization growth is the performance
in three Florida Counties – Duval, Hillsborough, Orange – that
comprised approximately one-quarter (24%) of all arrests
statewide (for a total of 2,860 arrests) in FY 2014-2015. The
three counties represent 18% of the state s population. But
the size of a county does not necessarily indicate high youth
arrest rates for civil citation-eligible offenses. For instance,
Broward, Miami-Dade and Palm Beach counties represent
30% of the state s population but only 9% of civil citation
eligible-arrests (for a total of 1,105).

24%

11,872

33

Duval, Hillsborough, Orange Counties
account for 24% of all civil citationeligible arrests statewide

Number of arrests for common youth
misbehavior (civil citation-eligible
offenses)

Average number of arrests in Florida
per day for common youth
misbehavior

3
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016
There was an uptick in
the number of counties
and school districts that
do NOT utilize civil
citation and always
arrest for common youth
misbehavior.

4
Number of counties with a utilization
rate of 75% or more in FY 2014-2015

14
Number of school districts with a
utilization rate of 75% or more in
FY 2014-2015

78
Number of law enforcement agencies
with a utilization rate of 75% or more
in FY 2014-2015

Update from Last Year s Study (cont.)
Further weighing down utilization growth is an uptick in
the number of counties and school districts with zero
utilization, which means law enforcement always arrest
and did not issue any civil citations. In last year s study
there were 16 school districts with zero utilization, and
this year there are 21; and last year s study showed 11
counties (of 67) with zero utilization and this year 13.
However, there was positive movement among law
enforcement agencies: In last year s study there were 191
with zero utilization and in this year s study the number
dropped to 159.

Unequal justice by geography continues. Common youth
misbehavior eligible for juvenile civil citations can vary per
county, per city and per agency. This means two youth
committing the same exact civil citation-eligible offense
can result in one being issued a civil citation and the other
being arrested.
Dismissals and no sanction increased slightly by one
percent from 20% FY 2013-2014 to 21% FY 2015-2016,
growing to a total of 2,489. Dismissals are cases where
youth are arrested but not prosecuted. Cases dismissed
without action may not require the youth to take
responsibility for the offense, may not provide a
consequence for youth, and may not provide resources to
the youth to prevent reoffending. The process also leaves
intact an arrest record for the youth.

4
Statewide Juvenile Civil Citation
Utilization Rate
The statewide juvenile civil citation utilization rate increased
by five percent from 38% in fiscal year (FY) 2013-2014 to
43% in FY 2014-2015. This 5% utilization increase is similar
to previous year s increases – there was a 7% increase in
utilization in each of the two previous years from 2012-2013
and 2011-2012.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Based on the average upward trend of six percent since 20112012, if this trend continues it will be the year 2023 before
juvenile civil citation utilization reaches the reachable 90
percent range, being met by several counties.

Youth arrested for
common youth
misbehavior are twice as
likely to reoffend than if
issued a civil citation.

Community Impact of Using Arrests
Rather Than Juvenile Civil Citations
Arrests decrease public safety: Arrests for common youth
misbehavior take valuable resources away from preventing
and handling felonies like violent crimes.
Arrests generate more crime: Youth arrested for common
youth misbehavior are more likely – often twice as likely – to
reoffend than if issued a civil citation.

Youth s futures are diminished: Youth are harmed in
considerable ways for many years – education, housing,
employment, loans – by arrest records for common youth
misbehavior.

13
Number of counties with a zero %
utilization rate in FY 2014-2015

21
Number of school districts with a zero
% utilization rate in FY 2014-2015

159
Number of law enforcement agencies
with a zero % utilization rate in
FY 2014-2015

Florida Civil Citation Utilization

5

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCE: Florida Dept. of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard July
2014 through June 2015. NOTE: Utilization rates are based on all statewide eligible offenses, not based on eligible offenses per county.
NOTE: Civil citation reporting includes other juvenile prearrest diversion efforts operated under a different name.

State Civil Citation Utilization
by Race

State Civil Citation Utilization
(all 67 counties)

Utilization:
Eligible Youth:
Arrested:
Issued Civil Citation:

(all 67 counties)

43%
20,833
11,872
8,961

Arrest %
Black:
56%
Hispanic: 50%
Other:
60%
White:
60%

# Arrested
4,182
1,857
111
5,722

Civil Citation %
44%
50%
40%
40%

State Civil Citation Utilization
by School District

State Civil Citation Utilization
by Gender

(all 67 counties)

(all 67 counties)

Utilization:
Eligible Youth:
Arrested:
Issued Civil Citation:

55%
5,436
2,436
3,000

Arrest %
Male:
57%
Female: 57%

# Arrested
7,096
4,776

Civil Citation %
43%
43%

RRI: 2.27
Relative Rate Index (RRI) is a means of comparing the rates of
juvenile justice contact experienced by different groups of youth,
according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention (OJJDP). The RRI above represents arrest rate for
white youth with the arrest rate for black youth. The RRI does not
necessarily imply racial bias in the arrest process. There could be
many reasons other than racial bias that produced this racial
disparity at arrest (e.g., different levels of delinquency behavior
by white juveniles and black juveniles). All the RRI can say is that
disparity exists and additional exploration is needed to determine
the source of the bias, according to OJJDP.

Dismissals = 21%
(all 67 counties)

2,489 cases dismissed
Dismissals are cases where the youth was arrested but not
prosecuted nor required to participate in any diversion program.
Cases dismissed without action do not require the youth to take
responsibility for the offense, do not provide a consequence for
youth, and do not provide resources to the youth to prevent
reoffending. Please note, there may be cases where the arrested
youth receives services contingent upon the case being dismissed,
and these cases are not reported.

State Civil Citation Utilization and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
(black males in all 67 counties)

Black Male School-Based:
Black Male Community-Based:

Arrest %
47%
59%

# Arrested
619
1,863

Civil Citation %
53%
41%

The school-to-prison pipeline is a term for the national trend where children are funneled out of public schools and into the juvenile and
criminal justice systems. Students of color – particularly black males – are especially vulnerable to the pipeline that may begin with
arrests for common youth misbehavior and leads to continued contact with law enforcement and further arrests.

6
Increasing Statewide Utilization by 25%

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

UTILIZATION

=

PUBLIC SAFETY
Civil citation utilization is the
percent of eligible youth issued
a civil citation.

Increasing statewide utilization of juvenile civil citations in
Florida by 25 percent will result in $16,208,516 to $50,978,933
of law and order resources available to prevent and handle
felonies (the range accounts for youth being diverted before
being processed through the entire criminal justice system);
and a reduction of 44% in arrests for common youth
misbehavior, which would account for 5,208 youth not
arrested. Financial calculations based on studies are presented
on page 41.
A 25% increase was identified in the 2015 Stepping Up study
as a moderate goal that all counties, school districts and law
enforcement agencies with low utilization rates are capable of
accomplishing in one year.

25%
Increase Civil Citation
Utilization Statewide =

Reduction in Arrests for common youth misbehavior: 44%
Increase in public safety resources: $16 million-$51 million
Youth not arrested: 5,208

Increasing Statewide Utilization up to 75%
Florida increasing statewide utilization of juvenile civil
citations up to 75% (total utilization) will result in $19,847,410
to $62,423,960 in law and order resources available to
prevent and handle felonies; and a reduction of 56% percent in
arrests for common youth misbehavior, which would account
for 6,663 youth not being arrested. Financial calculations
based on studies presented on page 41.
Increasing utilization up to 75% is a reasonable public policy goal
– in Florida today, four counties, 14 school districts, and 78 law
enforcement agencies have rates that reach or exceed 75%.

75%
Increase Civil Citation
Utilization Statewide up to =

Reduction in Arrests: 84%
Increase in public safety resources: $20 million-$62 million
Youth not arrested: 6,663

7
Florida s Top Civil Citation Efforts:
By COUNTY
This study classifies Florida counties into three divisions based
on the number of civil citation-eligible youth, which allow for
fairer comparisons.
 Division One counties with 100 or more eligible youth
 Division Two counties with 31-99 eligible youth
 Division Three counties with 30 or less eligible youth.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

The tables below use data from the 2014-2015 Florida DJJ Civil
Citation Dashboard and rank the top 20 percent of counties
with the highest civil citation utilization rates per division.

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by COUNTY
DIVISION ONE
(of 35 counties with 100 or more eligible youth)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Dade County
Pinellas County
Broward County
Bay County
Leon County
Seminole County
Marion County

91%
82%
68%
66%
62%
62%
59%

Mean = 38% / Median = 37%

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by COUNTY
DIVISION TWO
(of 15 counties with 31-99 eligible youth)

1.
2.
3.

Monroe County
Baker County
Nassau County

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by COUNTY
DIVISION THREE
(of 17 counties with 30 or less eligible youth)

80%
61%
44%

Mean = 24% / Median = 18%

1.
2.
3.

Union County
Wakulla
Lafayette County
Mean = 16% / Median = 0%

77%
61%
50%

8
Florida s Top Civil Citation Efforts:
By SCHOOL DISTRICT
This study classifies Florida school districts into three divisions
based on the number of civil citation-eligible youth, which
allow for fairer comparisons.
 Division One counties with 100 or more eligible youth
 Division Two counties with 31-99 eligible youth
 Division Three counties with 30 or less eligible youth.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

The tables below use data from the 2014-2015 Florida DJJ Civil
Citation Dashboard and rank the top 20 percent of school
districts with the highest civil citation utilization rates per
division.

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by SCHOOL DISTRICT
DIVISION ONE
(of 22 counties with 100 or more eligible youth)

1.
2.
3.
4.

Dade County
Palm Beach County
Pinellas County
Lee County

92%
84%
84%
82%

Mean = 59% / Median = 68%

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by SCHOOL DISTRICT
DIVISION TWO
(of 17 districts with 31-99 eligible youth)

1.
2.
3.

Monroe County
Nassau County
Bay County

97%
77%
68%

Mean = 50% / Median = 51%

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by SCHOOL DISTRICT
DIVISION THREE
(of 28 districts with 30 or less eligible youth)

1.
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Lafayette County
Union County
Baker County
Wakulla County
Okaloosa County
Citrus County
Jefferson County
Columbia County

100%
100%
92%
92%
62%
50%
40%
32%

Mean = 21% / Median = 0%

9
Florida s Top Civil Citation Efforts:
By LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY
This study classifies Florida law enforcement agencies into
three divisions based on the number of civil citation-eligible
youth, which allow for fairer comparisons.
 Division One counties with 100 or more eligible youth
 Division Two counties with 31-99 eligible youth
 Division Three counties with 30 or less eligible youth.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

The tables below use data from the 2014-2015 Florida DJJ Civil
Citation Dashboard and rank the top 20 percent of law
enforcement agencies with the highest civil citation utilization
rates per division.

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY
DIVISION ONE
(of 62 agencies with 100 or more eligible youth)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Miami-Dade Police (Dade Co.)
99%
Homestead Police (Dade Co.)
95%
Pinellas Park Police (Pinellas Co.)
93%
Dade Co. Public Schools (Dade Co.)
91%
St. Petersburg Police (Pinellas Co.)
90%
Miami Police (Dade Co.)
89%
Pembroke Pines Police (Broward Co.)
88%
Altamonte Springs Police (Seminole Co.)
86%
Palm Beach Co. School Police (Palm Bch Co.)85%
Metro-Dade Police (Dade Co.)
82%
Broward County Sheriff (Broward Co.)
81%
Pinellas County Sheriff (Pinellas Co.)
75%
[Mean = 50% / Median = 55%]

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY
DIVISION TWO
(of 59 agencies with 31-99 eligible youth)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Sweetwater Police (Dade Co.)
Aventura Police (Dade Co.)
Hialeah Police (Dade Co.)
Doral Police (Dade Co.)
North Miami Police (Dade Co.)
Hialeah Gardens Police (Dade Co.)
North Miami Beach Police (Dade Co.)
Largo Police (Pinellas Co.)
Palm Beach Police (Palm Beach Co.)
Coconut Creek Police (Broward Co.)
Monroe Co. Sheriff (Monroe Co.)
Miami Gardens Police (Dade Co.)
[Mean = 38% / Median = 30%]

100%
98%
97%
96%
96%
93%
91%
89%
85%
84%
78%
74%

Florida s Top Civil Citation Efforts:
By LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY

Top 20% Civil Citation
Utilization by LAW ENFORCEMENT
AGENCY
DIVISION THREE
(of 254 agencies with 30 or less eligible youth)
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
51.
53.
53.
53.

Florida City Police (Dade Co.)
Kenneth City Police (Pinellas Co.)
Florida Highway Patrol-Troop A (Jackson Co.)
Coral Gables Police (Dade Co.)
Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish (Leon Co.)
Miami Shores Police (Dade Co.)
Gulf Breeze Police (Santa Rosa)
Juno Beach Police (Palm Beach Co.)
State Attorney s Office (Monroe Co.)
Pinecrest Police (Dade Co.)
Pasco Co. Clerk of Circuit Court (Pasco Co.)
Treasure Island Police (Pinellas Co.)
Seminole JAC (Seminole Co.)
Brevard Community College (Brevard Co.)
North Bay Village Police (Dade Co.)
Sunny Isles Police (Dade Co.)
Apalachicola Police (Franklin Co.)
Atlantis Police (Palm Beach Co.)
Manalapan Public Safety Dept. (Palm Beach Co.)
State Attorney s Office (Suwannee Co.)
Baker Co. Clerk of Circuit Court (Baker Co.)
Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Svcs. (Bay Co.)
Marine Patrol-Titusville (Brevard Co.)
Melbourne Beach Police (Brevard Co.)
El Portal Police (Dade Co.)
Florida Intl. University (Dade Co.)
Golden Beach Police (Dade Co.)
Key Biscayne Police (Dade Co.)
Miami-Dade Police-Hammocks (Dade Co.)
Miami-Dade Police-Northside
Miami-Dade Police-Palmetto Bay
DJJ Youth Custody Officer (Duval)
Escambia Co. Clerk of Court (Escambia Co.)
Public Defender s Office (Lake Co.)
Windermere Police (Orange Co.)
15th Circuit-Juvenile Justice (Palm Beach Co.)
Juvenile Services Program (Pinellas Co.)
Seminole Community College (Seminole Co.)
7th Circuit-Juvenile Justice (Volusia Co.)
Opa Locka Police (Dade Co.)
South Miami Police (Dade Co.)
Gulfport Police (Pinellas Co.)
DBPR (Leon Co.)
Tarpon Springs Police (Pinellas Co.)
DBPR (Bay Co.)
Pinellas Co. School Police (Pinellas Co.)
Port Richey Police (Pasco Co.)
Vero Beach Police (Indian River Co.)
Key West Police (Monroe Co.)
Neptune Beach Police (Duval Co.)
Lady Lake Police (Lake Co.)
Union Co. Sheriff (Union Co.)
Parker Police (Bay Co.)
Duval Co. Clerk of Court (Duval Co.)
Indian Shores Police (Pinellas Co.)
[Mean = 30% / Median = 0%]

100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
95%
92%
89%
88%
88%
88%
88%
87%
86%
83%
80%
77%
77%
75%
75%
75%

10
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

11
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Key Findings
Key Finding 1: Civil citations continue to increase
public safety, improve youth outcomes, and save
taxpayer money.
The 2015 study revealed juvenile civil citations increase
public safety, improve youth outcomes and save taxpayer
money. This year s study shows – in more depth and with
more data - these trends continue.
Civil Citation Increase Public Safety

The data now shows
conclusively that civil
citations increase
public safety.

Youth issued civil citations have better outcomes than
youth arrested for civil citation-eligible offenses. The
recidivism rate for youth issued civil citations is five
percent, while youth arrested and completing post-arrest
diversion programs have a rate of nine percent, according
to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Briefing
Report: Civil Citation Effectiveness Review. This is the first
reporting of civil citation recidivism compared to postarrest diversion only for civil citation-eligible offenses.
Previous data available compared civil citation recidivism
to all misdemeanor post-arrest diversions.

The recidivism rate for civil citation is 5%,
while youth arrested for civil citation-eligible offenses
who complete post-arrest diversion programs have a rate of 9%.

12
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Youth arrested for
common youth
misbehavior face many
hurdles in pursuing
college, housing,
employment and loans.

Key Findings (cont.)
Civil Citations Improve Youth Outcomes
There were 8,961 civil citations issued in FY 2014-2015,
providing each of the youth with the opportunity to pursue
their futures without an arrest record. This represented
822 more civil citations than the previous year – also taking
into account there were 534 fewer eligible youth this year.
Fewer eligible youth could mean there were fewer youth
offenders, or that law enforcement that confronted youth
offenders chose not to arrest or issue a civil citation – likely
providing a lecture and letting them go.
There were 11,872 arrests for common youth
misbehavior in FY 2014-2015. While this number
represents 1,356 fewer arrests than last year, it s
important to note there were 534 fewer eligible youth
this year.

Youth arrested will be required to report their arrest
record on applications for college and vocational school,
housing, loans and other such factors that shape and
determine success and quality of life.
Moreover, for many youth this first contact with law
enforcement - an arrest - often pushes them deeper into the
juvenile justice system. The data shows issuing a civil
citation makes it less likely these youth will reoffend, and
less likely they will dive deeper into the system.

Youth arrested are fingerprinted and photographed;
may be questioned by police without a parent or attorney being
notified or present; and may be asked during intake private,
personal information without a parent present.

13
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016
Civil citations save
taxpayer money that is
seamlessly reinvested
into preventing and
handling serious crimes
like violent felonies.

Key Findings (cont.)
Civil Citations Save Taxpayer Money
The 8,961 civil citations issued in FY 2014-2015 generated
a range of taxpayer savings of $13,145,787 to $41,346,054.
The range accounts for youth being diverted before
processing through the entire criminal justice system,
which often occurs even in misdemeanor arrests.

If not more important than taxpayer savings, this range of
dollars represents an amount of money that is seamlessly
invested into preventing and handling serious crimes like
violent felonies. This means law enforcement in Florida
was able to invest an additional $13 million to $41 million
into preventing and handling felonies – without relying on
increased taxes or other government spending, or
siphoning money away from other law and order priorities.

What taxpayer doesn t want to see resources increased to
handle and prevent violent felonies without increasing taxes or
government spending, or siphoning money away from other
law & order resources?

14
Key Findings (cont.)
Key Finding 2: Juvenile civil citations have superior
recidivism rates by offense.
Recidivism rates for arrests fare poorly when compared
directly to the utilization of civil citations. For example, when
comparing nine of the most common youth related offenses,
arrests resulted in at least double the recidivism rate for seven
of those offenses (shown below).

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

This is the first reporting of recidivism by offense category –
comparing civil citation recidivism to post-arrest diversion
recidivism for civil citation-eligible offenses.

Offense Category
(Civil Citation-eligible)

Civil Citation
Recidivism Rate

Post-Arrest Diversion
Recidivism Rate

Petit theft

3%

7%

Assault and/or battery
(non-aggravated)

5%

12%

Drug offenses
(marijuana-related)

5%

10%

Loitering and prowling

5%

21%

Trespassing

6%

16%

Obstruction of justice

7%

15%

Vandalism

3%

9%

Disorderly conduct

5%

8%

Alcohol offenses

2%

3%

SOURCE: Florida Dept. of Juvenile Justice Briefing Report: Civil Citation Effectiveness Review

Civil citations are at least twice as effective at reducing
recidivism in 7 of the 9 most common offenses.

15
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Unequal justice by
geography means youth
committing the exact
same offense are treated
differently based on
where they are located.

Key Findings (cont.)
Key Finding 3: Common youth misbehavior eligible for
juvenile civil citations can vary per county, per city and
per agency - creating geographical unequal justice.

Far too often, whether youth are arrested or issued a civil
citation depends on the county or city where a youth is
located when committing the offense, as well as the law
enforcement agency that confronts her/him.
Five Florida counties have not put in place civil citation
efforts (Bradford, Calhoun, Gulf, Hardee, Washington), one
county is in the start-up process (Taylor), and 61 have civil
citation efforts, according to FY 2014-2015 data. Of the 61
counties that utilize civil citations, eligible offenses vary by
county - one county may include eight offenses, while
another county 15 or more. Both instances create
scenarios where two youth committing the same offense
but in different counties may be treated differently – one
being arrested while the other may be issued a civil
citation.
In addition, some counties are using civil citations but have
municipalities situated within them that don t utilize civil
citations. This creates another scenario: Two youth
committing the same offense, but in different cities or the
unincorporated areas of the same county – may be treated
differently with one arrested while the other may be issued
a civil citation.
Furthermore, the eligible offenses vary by law enforcement
agency. A municipal police department may include
offenses the county sheriff does not. This scenario has two
youth committing the same offense, but confronted by
different law enforcement officers – one a sheriff deputy
and the other a city police officer – who may treat the youth
differently with one being arrested while the other receives
a civil citation.

Will your child be arrested or issued a civil citation for common
youth misbehavior? It can vary by county, by city, and by
law enforcement agency.

16
Key Findings (cont.)
Further convoluting these real life scenarios, in some counties
civil citations are offered only on school grounds (but not
elsewhere off school grounds in the community). Yet another
example of unequal justice: Two youth committing the same
offense – one at school and the other off school grounds – may
be treated differently.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

The consequences of unequal justice can be severe: some youth
are arrested and negatively impacted for possibly the
remainder of their lives (and worth noting are statistically
more likely to reoffend); and the others embrace a future
without an arrest record (and are less likely to commit another
crime).
Key Finding 4: Three Florida counties comprised
approximately one quarter of all arrests statewide.

Three counties with large metro-area populations had low
utilization rates for FY 2014-15: Duval/Jacksonville,
Hillsborough/Tampa, Orange/Orlando. Duval and
Hillsborough each have a juvenile civil citation utilization rate
of only 32 percent, and Orange 17 percent. The arrests for
these three counties - totaling nearly 3,000 - comprises 24
percent of all the state s arrests for common youth
misbehavior.

24%
Duval, Hillsborough and
Orange Counties accounted for
24% of all civil citation-eligible
arrests in Florida.

Two of the three continue heading in in the wrong direction in
2016: From January – May Duval has an average rate of 28%
and Hillsborough 29%, an actual drop from the previous year.
Heading in the right direction, however, is Orange County,
which has nearly tripled its utilization rate to an average rate
of 44% for the five-month period.

The data shows Duval and Hillsborough counties moving in
the wrong direction with juvenile civil citatons.

17
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Low-performing
jurisdictions should
increase their utilization
rates quickly and
dramatically if they hope
to show that there is no
need to remove law
enforcement discretion.

Recommendations
Recommendation 1: In those rare and exceptional
circumstances for using an arrest rather than a civil
citation, law enforcement should document, justify and
have supervisory approval.
The use of civil citations is based on the understanding that
children should not be arrested for youthful misbehavior,
especially when an arrest can have lifelong, harmful
consequences and only increases the chances that a child
will re-offend in the future.
For this reason, when a child s misbehavior meets the
criteria to receive a civil citation in lieu of arrest, that child
should as a matter of practice receive a civil citation. The
arrest of a child who is eligible for a civil citation should
occur only in an extraordinary and exceptional
situation. Because civil citation is available only to the least
culpable children suspected of the most minor offenses, it
best serves the public interest for law enforcement to give a
civil citation in just about every eligible case.
Should there be an exceptional circumstance where law
enforcement believes arrest of a civil citation eligible child
is necessary, those exceptional circumstances should be
documented, and subject to supervisory review and
approval. Collecting this information will provide
additional data for the ongoing evaluation of civil citation
programs statewide.

There are more counties and school districts not utilizing
civil citation than the previous year.

18
Recommendations (cont.)
Recommendation 2: For some offenses with younger
children, law enforcement should take no action other
than allowing school officials and parents handle the
behavior.
It s important to keep in mind that law enforcement discretion
can involve officers taking no action – not issuing a civil
citation nor making an arrest.

In light of the data presented in this year s study showing
arrests can cause more harm to public safety, sometimes the
best action to address common youth misbehavior is simply
allowing school officials or parents to handle the behavior –
and taking no other action against the youth. For some
offenses with younger children this should be the norm.
Things like disrupting a school event or loitering – based on the
circumstances – seem like obvious candidates.
This approach was the case for many who grew up in the 20 th
century and were caught committing common youth
misbehaviors – the law enforcement officer had a long
discussion with us, but ultimately let us go into the custody of
parents without an arrest (to which we today are still
thankful).

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Low-performing
counties, districts and
law enforcement
agencies should act
quickly to increase
utilization rates to show
there is no need to
remove law enforcement
discretion.

For some offenses with younger children - like disrupting a
school event or loitering - civil citations should be the norm.

19
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Recommendations (cont.)
Recommendation 3: Dramatically increase juvenile
civil citation utilization rates in Duval and
Hillsborough, and continue the upward trend in
Orange.
Duval, Hillsborough and Orange Counties were
underperformers in the state in FY 2014-2015. These
three counties accounted for 24 percent of all civil citationeligible arrests in Florida in FY 2014-2015 – totaling nearly
3,000 arrests for common youth misbehavior.
These three counties represent the single biggest
opportunity for the state to dramatically increase
utilization rates.

Dismissals may not require the youth to take responsibility,
may not provide a consequence, and
may not provide resources to prevent reoffending.

Counties should review
their dismissal rates, and
if high, explore how to
reduce them through
better utilization of civil
citation.

Recommendation 4: Increase statewide utilization rate
to 75% by end of calendar year 2017.
A 75% statewide utilization rate is nearly double that of the
rate in FY 2014-2015. Yet, if recommendations 1, 2 and 3
are followed, this is an achievable goal.

Recommendation 5: ALL counties, school districts and
law enforcement agencies should be using civil
citations.
This study shows that in FY 2014-2015 there are more
counties and school districts NOT utilizing civil citations
than in FY 2013-2014 – a shift in the wrong direction.
Regardless, 100% of all counties, school districts and law
enforcement agencies should at least be utilizing civil
citations in some instances. This study shows all of the
benefits of using civil citations, and reveals how the use of
arrests decreases public safety. Local civil citation
advocates and elected officials should insist those counties,
districts and agencies not utilizing civil citations to begin
immediately.

20
Recommendations (cont.)
Recommendation 6: Provide programs with data on the
impact of recent legislation allowing youth to receive
multiple civil citations to make better decisions.
In an effort to encourage greater use of juvenile civil citations,
the Florida Legislature passed better legislation allowing law
enforcement to issue civil citations up to three times for the
same youth – or three bites at the apple But its impact is still
unknown. Initial thinking is that youth who have been issued
more than one civil citation may need interventions with a
more robust scope of services to prevent further repeat
offenses. But with no data on the impact of the new legislation,
this recommendation requires further study. Data is needed
for programs to make data-driven decisions on how to best
address youth issued multiple civil citations to further increase
utilization rates.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

The impact of the recent legislation that allows
three bites at the apple is still unknown.

Initial thinking is that youth who have been
issued more than one civil citation may need
interventions with a more robust scope of
services to prevent further repeat offenses.

21
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Update on 2015 Recommendations
Several recommendations were made in the 2015 Stepping
Up Study based on the factual research. The following
presents those recommendations along with an update.
2015 Recommendation 1: Increase juvenile civil
citation utilization statewide by a modest 25 percent to
achieve significant increases in public safety.

Update: In the fiscal year since the study, statewide
juvenile civil citation utilization increased by only five
percent – exponentially less than what was recommended.
Impacting this sluggish growth were school districts and
counties moving in the wrong direction: more in FY 201415 were not using civil citation than the year before.
Specifically, there were 16 school districts with zero
utilization last year. There are 21 this year. Last year there
were 11 counties with a zero utilization, this year there are
13. However, moving slightly in the right direction were
law enforcement agencies. Last year 191 law enforcement
agencies had zero utilization, this year there are 159.

Juvenile civil citation utilization rates have not increased significantly in FY 2014-2015.

Counties should take the
lead in immediately
providing for equal
justice within their
geography.

2015 Recommendation 2: Increase juvenile civil
citation utilization rates to better inform legislative
discussion regarding law enforcement discretion.
Update: During the 2014 legislative session there was
considerable discussion about removing law enforcement
discretion, which meant officers would have no choice
whether to issue a civil citation or make an arrest – law
enforcement would be required to always issue a civil
citation. The 2015 Stepping Up Study recommendation was
intended to encourage increased utilization within a
voluntary framework by pointing to those areas of the state
with more robust civil citation policies.
But utilization rates have not increased significantly in the
past year. As a result, it is expected that continued underutilization will add volume to the voices calling to remove
law enforcement discretion statewide. Alternatives do
exist and are reflected in the 2016 Recommendations
section of this report.

22
2015 Recommendations Update (cont.)
2015 Recommendation 3: Improve law enforcement
training to yield quick, significant juvenile civil citation
utilization gains.
Update: The issue of law enforcement training will be
addressed in Stepping Up: Florida Civil Citation Best Practices
to be released in the fall. Data being collected will reveal if and
how law enforcement training for civil citations is increasing.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Law enforcement training is the single most effective tactic for
low-performers to increase utilization.
2015 Recommendation 4: Increase juvenile civil citations
to reduce reliance on the court system for dismissals of
low-level offenses.

Update: Dismissals increased slightly – from 20% in last year s
study to 21% in this year s study, growing to 2,489 in FY 20142015.
Dismissals are cases where the youth was arrested but not
prosecuted nor required to participate in any diversion
program. Cases dismissed without action may not require the
youth to take responsibility for the alleged offense, may not
provide a consequence for youth who have committed the
alleged offense, and may not provide resources to those youth
to prevent reoffending. Please note, there may be cases where
the arrested youth receives services contingent upon the case
being dismissed, and these cases are not reported. The process
also leaves intact an arrest record for the youth.

Increase statewide
utilization rates by funding
local civil citation efforts.

23
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

2015 Recommendations Update (cont.)
2015 Recommendation 5: Explore high disparities in
arrests of black youth to identify any school-to-prison
pipelines.
Update: There continue to be counties that are
experiencing a high relative rate index (RRI), which is a
means of comparing the rates of juvenile justice contact
experienced by different groups of youth, according to the
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
(OJJDP). RRI represents a comparison of the arrest rate for
white youth with the arrest rate for black youth. The RRI
does not necessarily imply racial bias in the arrest process.
Many reasons may exist other than racial bias that
produced this racial disparity at arrest (e.g., different levels
of delinquency behavior by white juveniles and black
juveniles). The RRI is limited to pointing out the existence
of a disparity. Additional exploration is needed to
determine the source of the statistical correlation,
according to OJJDP.

This study provides an RRI for the state, as well as for each
county in the County Report.

In those rare and
exceptional circumstances
for using an arrest rather
than a civil citation, law
enforcement should
document, justify and have
supervisory approval.

2015 Recommendation 6: Bring juvenile civil citation
work into public view.
Update: The issue of county civil citation efforts having
regular public meetings will be addressed in Stepping Up:
Florida Civil Citation Best Practices to be released in the
Fall. Data being collected will reveal if and how such public
meetings are increasing.

Issuing civil citations should be the presumptive norm for a law
enforcement response to common youth misbehavior.

24
2015 Recommendations Update (cont.)
2015 Recommendation Seven: Provide for equal justice
within counties.
Update: As this study shows, unequal justice continues and can
vary by county, by city, and/or by law enforcement agency.

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

Law enforcement discretion can involve officers taking no
action – not issuing a civil citation nor making an arrest.
2015 Recommendation Eight: Establish statewide
communications among juvenile civil citation programs,
practitioners and advocates to promote sharing of
successful practices and collaboration.
Update: There is some good news to report since the 2015
Stepping Up study. In conjunction with the Florida Juvenile
Justice Association (FJJA), the Department of Juvenile Justice
convened a statewide meeting on civil citation, bringing
together practitioners, providers, law enforcement and
advocates from 28 organizations to explore innovative services
and discuss effective practices. Additionally, the Department of
Juvenile Justice has held numerous events around the state and
continues to work with stakeholders to encourage and assist in
the implementation or improvement of civil citation.

While progress is being made, there remains a need for more
formal statewide communications among civil citation
programs, practitioners and advocates to promote sharing of
successful practices and collaboration.

For some offenses with
younger children law
enforcement should take
no action other than
allowing school officials
and parents handle the
behavior.

25
Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

2015 Recommendations Update (cont.)
2015 Recommendation Nine: Provide law enforcement
with immediate access to juvenile records.
Update: The Florida Department of Law Enforcement
(FDLE) added a new feature to its Criminal Justice Network
(CJNet), which is a secure, private, statewide intranet
system managed and maintained by the FDLE to connect
Florida criminal justice agencies to various data sources
provided by the criminal justice community.
In 2016, a new feature was added to CJNet that expedites a
law enforcement officer s ability to issue a juvenile civil
citation. This new feature is expected to streamline and
increase the issuance of civil citations by allowing law
enforcement officers with CJNet access to a real time
review of a youth s history and eligibility for civil citation.

Statewide attention is now focused on the juvenile civil citation
performance of Duval, Hillsborough and Orange Counties.

Increase juvenile civil
citation utilization rates
in Duval, Hillsborough
and Orange Counties to
push statewide
utilization rate to more
than 50 percent in one
year.

2015 Recommendation Ten: The state's juvenile
civil citation efforts need funding for continuous
improvements in public safety, youth opportunities
and taxpayer savings.
Update: In the 2015 legislative session it appeared the
civil citation conversations were focused solely on policy
and not related appropriations. The data shows that
improved utilization through expanded infrastructure
would reap benefits of increasing public safety,
improving youth outcomes and saving taxpayer money.
The survey of civil citation programs in the 2015
Stepping Up study showed there is infrastructure to be
built in some places, effective practices to be added in
others, and in many places there is a need to rely on datadriven analysis to inform policy-making.

26
National Comparison:
State Statutes on Civil Citations
(or pre-arrest / pre-petition diversion)
Statutes chart the direction of a state s success with civil citation.
Those states with the strongest civil citation statutes will have the
highest chances for statewide success, while those with no civil
citation statutes may have a small number of good programs but
there is little uniform success statewide. State statutes were
analyzed and placed into four categories: Strong, moderate, weak,
and no statute.
The criteria for this year s study has been refined, with a focus on
whether state statutes address four critical issues:


Is pre-arrest specified? Statutes that identify pre-arrest were
scored higher than those that are post-arrest or not identified.



How many offenses are eligible? Statutes with more eligible
offenses were scored higher.



Is remedy identified and if so what are the specifics? Statutes
that listed more remedies were scored higher. (i.e., Does the
remedy specify consequences like community service,
intervention services like mental health counseling, and
restorative justice like victim restitution?)



Is swift justice addressed via a timeline for program start and
completion? Statutes that require youth to start and complete
the programs sooner are scored higher. (i.e., swift justice)

Strong
Civil
Citation
State
Statutes
(in alpha order)





Arizona
Florida
Nebraska

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

27
National Comparison:
State Statutes on Civil Citations
(or pre-arrest / pre-petition diversion)

Moderate
Civil Citation
State Statutes

Weak
Civil
Citation
State
Statutes

(in alpha order)























Alabama
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kentucky
Maine
Minnesota
Montana
Nevada
New Jersey
North Carolina
Ohio
Oklahoma
Rhode Island
Tennessee
Washington
Wisconsin

No
State
Statutes
(in alpha order)







Delaware
Massachusetts
Mississippi
South Carolina
Wyoming

(in alpha order)























Alaska
Connecticut
Georgia
Hawaii
Kansas
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Missouri
New Hampshire
New Mexico
New York
North Dakota
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

28
National Comparison:
State Reporting of Civil Citation Data
(or pre-arrest / pre-petition diversion)

What gets measured gets done. And there is no measurement
without data.
Statewide data is arguably the most important asset for a state
to move toward utilizing civil citations / pre-arrest diversion.
State s data reporting was placed into categories: Strong,
moderate, weak, none. State reporting of civil citation data was
conducted in the same manner as last year, with those states
that include the following data reporting higher:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Demographics: Age, race, gender
Data by state
Data by county / region / circuit / district
Eligible youth
Utilization
Disposition
Disproportionate minority contact / relative rate index
Education for participating youth

To prioritize access to the data, each state was given no more
than 30 minutes of online research time to capture the data.

Strong
Civil
Citation
Reporting
(in alpha order)

1.
2.

Florida
Pennsylvania

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

29
National Comparison:
State Reporting of Civil Citation Data
(or pre-arrest / pre-petition diversion)

No
Civil
Citation
Reporting

Moderate
Civil
Citation
Reporting

(in alpha order)

(in alpha order)








Arizona
Iowa
Maine
Maryland
Oregon
Utah

Weak
Civil
Citation
Reporting
(in alpha order)









Idaho
Mississippi
Montana
New Mexico
South Carolina
Virginia
Washington





































Alabama
Alaska
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Hawaii
Illinois
Indiana
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Rhode Island
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Vermont
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Stepping Up:
Florida s Top
Juvenile
Civil Citation
Efforts 2016

30
Stepping Up Badge for Top-Performers
The top-performing counties, school districts and law
enforcement agencies can display the Stepping Up Badge
on their websites and letterhead, in social media, and
other similar communications. This badge indicates the
organization is among the top 20% of the state s civil
citation efforts.

The Teenage Brain and Common Youth Misbehavior
Youth often make bad decisions. Research shows the maturity of the teenage brain is a major
contributor. In recent years the widely disseminated adolescent brain studies tell us that
youth do not really appreciate risk and consequences until their twenties.
The adolescent brain is only 80 percent fully mature, with the remaining 20 percent – where
the ability to assess risk and danger is situated – is yet to be fully developed. This explains
teens impulsivity and lack of ability to consider the consequences of their actions at the
times of decision-making.

The Facts on Juvenile Records Expunction
A common misperception of youth arrests is that they are easily expunged (removed).
While working with individual Florida counties to build and grow civil citation programs,
the author of this study often heard this comment from many inside and outside the formal
juvenile justice system. It is simply not accurate. Even with private outside legal counsel –
something many if not most youth arrested cannot afford – juvenile record expunction is
more complicated than commonly thought and may not be successful.
The Florida Legislature passed an updated juvenile expunction law in 2016 which lowers
the age for record expunction for identified offenses from age 24 to age 21. It is currently
being implemented so its effect is not yet fully known. However, without question, based
on hard data, avoiding an arrest record is far better for future youth outcomes than relying
on the expunction process.

31

Florida County Rankings

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.

Division 2 [bold = top 20%]

Division 1 [bold = top 20%]
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
33
33

County
Dade
Pinellas
Broward
Bay
Leon
Seminole
Marion
Palm Beach
Hernando
Pasco
Alachua
Collier
Indian River
Escambia
St Johns
Lee
Volusia
Martin
Flagler
Duval
Hillsborough
Manatee
Lake
Santa Rosa
Brevard
Charlotte
Osceola
Highlands
Orange
St Lucie
Clay
Okaloosa
Polk
Sarasota
Walton

CC UTIL %
91.16%
81.74%
67.78%
65.68%
62.32%
62.30%
59.42%
58.51%
52.89%
52.85%
50.73%
47.02%
46.76%
45.61%
43.30%
38.81%
38.67%
37.09%
34.65%
32.38%
31.80%
29.75%
29.51%
28.86%
21.88%
21.86%
21.24%
17.12%
16.96%
13.82%
11.90%
4.21%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Rank
%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

County

CC UTIL

Monroe
Baker
Nassau
Jackson
Citrus
Columbia
Putnam
Suwannee
Hendry
Desoto
Sumter
Okeechobee
Gadsden
Levy
Hardee

80.28%
60.53%
44.30%
39.39%
23.94%
22.99%
21.88%
17.86%
16.84%
14.89%
8.47%
6.98%
3.23%
3.13%
0.00%

Division 3 [bold = top 20%]
Rank
%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

County

CC UTIL

Union
Wakulla
Lafayette
Jefferson
Franklin
Gilchrist
Glades
Hamilton
Bradford
Calhoun
Dixie
Gulf
Holmes
Liberty
Madison
Taylor
Washington

76.92%
60.71%
50.00%
22.22%
20.00%
17.65%
16.67%
8.33%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Florida School District Rankings

32

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.

Division 3 [bold = top 20%]

Division 1 [bold = top 20%]
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

County
Dade
Palm Beach
Pinellas
Lee
Hernando
Pasco
Marion
Collier
Broward
Escambia
Volusia
Leon
Lake
Duval
Brevard
Seminole
Osceola
Hillsborough
Orange
St. Lucie
Manatee
Polk

% UTIL
91.95%
84.15%
83.62%
81.74%
77.59%
76.76%
75.50%
74.87%
73.76%
72.83%
69.87%
66.39%
64.23%
58.33%
57.27%
55.56%
30.23%
28.11%
27.85%
26.21%
24.03%
0.00%

Division 2 [bold = top 20%]

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

County
Monroe
Nassau
Bay
St. Johns
Santa Rosa
Indian River
Martin
Charlotte
Clay
Flagler
Alachua
Putnam
Highlands
Suwannee
Hendry
Sumter
Sarasota

% UTIL
97.22%
76.74%
68.29%
68.25%
63.64%
60.00%
57.69%
54.05%
50.91%
48.84%
46.91%
42.55%
39.13%
28.57%
27.59%
14.71%
0.00%

Rank
1
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

County
Lafayette
Union
Baker
Wakulla
Okaloosa
Citrus
Jefferson
Columbia
Okeechobee
Franklin
Gulf
Taylor
Calhoun
Glades
Holmes
Bradford
Dixie
Liberty
Washington
Gilchrist
Levy
Madison
Gadsden
Jackson
Walton
Hamilton
Desoto
Hardee

% UTIL
100.00%
100.00%
92.31%
91.67%
61.90%
50.00%
40.00%
31.58%
21.43%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Florida Law Enforcement Agency
Rankings

33

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.

Division 1 [bold = top 20%]
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
59
59
59

County
Dade
Dade
Pinellas
Dade
Pinellas
Dade
Broward
Seminole
Palm Beach
Dade
Broward
Pinellas
Broward
Broward
Escambia
Bay
Leon
Bay
Duval
Broward
Seminole
Alachua
Marion
Pinellas
Lee
Leon
Marion
Broward
Palm Beach
Volusia
Pasco
Seminole
Hernando
Collier
Indian River
Lake
St. Johns
Lee
Escambia
Alachua
Osceola
Manatee
Hillsborough
Martin
Hillsborough
Santa Rosa
St. Lucie
Orange
Duval
Brevard
Charlotte
Brevard
Lee
Brevard
Clay
Okaloosa
Osceola
Orange
Polk
Walton
Polk
St. Lucie

Agency
Miami-Dade Police
Homestead Police
Pinellas Park Police
Dade Co. Public Schools Police
St. Petersburg Police
Miami Police
Pembroke Pines Police
Altamonte Springs Police
Palm Beach County School Police
MetroDade Police
Broward County Sheriff
Pinellas County Sheriff
Coral Springs Police
Sunrise Police
Pensacola Police
Panama City Beach Police
Tallahassee Police
Bay County Sheriff
Duval Co. School Police
Miramar Police
Seminole County Sheriff
Gainesville Police
Marion County Sheriff
Clearwater Police
Fort Myers Police
Leon County Sheriff
Ocala Police
Plantation Police
Palm Beach County Sheriff
Volusia County Sheriff
Pasco County Sheriff
Sanford Police
Hernando County Sheriff
Collier County Sheriff
Indian River County Sheriff
Lake County Sheriff
St. Johns County Sheriff
Lee County Sheriff
Escambia County Sheriff
Alachua County Sheriff
Osceola County Sheriff
Manatee County Sheriff
Hillsborough County Sheriff
Martin County Sheriff
Tampa Police
Santa Rosa County Sheriff
St. Lucie County Sheriff
Orange County Sheriff
Jacksonville Sheriff
Brevard County Sheriff
Charlotte County Sheriff
Melbourne Police
Cape Coral Police
Palm Bay Police
Clay County Sheriff
Okaloosa County Sheriff
Kissimmee Police
Orlando Police
Polk County Sheriff
Walton County Sheriff
Lakeland Police
Port St. Lucie Police

CC UTIL %
98.87%
95.49%
92.70%
91.04%
89.77%
89.03%
87.98%
86.36%
85.25%
81.67%
81.42%
75.12%
73.76%
73.15%
71.20%
70.69%
69.49%
67.68%
67.13%
65.91%
65.52%
63.93%
63.27%
62.76%
62.50%
58.16%
57.78%
57.39%
56.22%
56.05%
56.03%
54.47%
54.34%
51.52%
50.00%
49.38%
45.16%
43.98%
40.63%
40.00%
33.13%
32.03%
31.04%
30.33%
29.61%
27.48%
26.58%
23.48%
22.90%
22.86%
22.37%
18.64%
16.57%
15.24%
12.85%
4.85%
4.73%
3.59%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Florida Law Enforcement Agency
Rankings

34

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.

Division 2 [bold = top 20%]
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
47
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49

County
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Pinellas
Palm Beach
Broward
Monroe
Dade
Palm Beach
Hillsborough
Broward
Palm Beach
Broward
Seminole
Baker
Duval
Nassau
Bay
Orange
Volusia
Manatee
Flagler
Seminole
Citrus
Columbia
Palm Beach
Brevard
Pasco
Putnam
Hendry
Highlands
Manatee
Suwannee
Volusia
Brevard
DeSoto
Palm Beach
Volusia
Sumter
Okeechobee
Broward
Orange
Palm Beach
Volusia
Broward
Lake
Lake
Orange
Osceola
Sarasota
Polk
Polk
Sarasota
Polk
St. Lucie

Agency
Sweetwater Police
Aventura Police
Hialeah Police
Doral Police
North Miami Police
Hialeah Gardens Police
North Miami Beach Police
Largo Police
Palm Beach Police
Coconut Creek Police
Monroe County Sheriff
Miami Gardens Police
Jupiter Police
Plant City Police
Davie Police
Palm Beach Gardens Police
Lauderhill Police
Winter Springs Police
Baker County Sheriff
Jacksonville Beach Police
Nassau County Sheriff
Panama City Police
Ocoee Police
Daytona Beach Police
Bradenton Police
Flagler County Sheriff
Oviedo Police
Citrus County Sheriff
Lake City Police
Greenacres Dept. of Public Safety
West Melbourne Police
Zephyrhills Police
Putnam County Sheriff
Hendry County Sheriff
Highlands County Sheriff
Palmetto Police
Suwannee County Sheriff
Ormond Beach Police
Titusville Police
DeSoto County Sheriff
Boynton Beach Police
Orange City Police
Sumter County Sheriff
Okeechobee County Sheriff
Hollywood Police
Winter Garden Police
Boca Raton Police
Port Orange Police
Ft. Lauderdale Police
Clermont Police
Leesburg Police
Apopka Police
St. Cloud Police
Sarasota County Sheriff
Winter Haven Police
Bartow Police
North Port Police
Haines City Police
Fort Pierce Police

CC UTIL %
100.00%
97.85%
96.92%
96.43%
96.23%
93.02%
91.18%
89.04%
85.29%
83.95%
78.38%
74.00%
71.05%
65.08%
63.46%
62.50%
62.32%
62.00%
59.46%
56.25%
48.53%
45.45%
41.05%
39.51%
37.50%
36.84%
36.36%
29.82%
29.73%
29.51%
28.95%
28.57%
25.93%
22.54%
21.35%
17.33%
17.02%
15.63%
15.22%
12.50%
11.36%
10.53%
9.43%
8.33%
6.98%
6.35%
5.88%
5.88%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Florida Law Enforcement Agency
Rankings

35

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.

Division 3 [bold = top 20%]
Rank
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
51
53
53
53

County
Dade
Pinellas
Jackson
Dade
Leon
Dade
Santa Rosa
Palm Beach
Monroe
Dade
Pasco
Pinellas
Seminole
Brevard
Dade
Dade
Franklin
Palm Beach
Palm Beach
Suwannee
Baker
Bay
Brevard
Brevard
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Duval
Escambia
Lake
Orange
Palm Beach
Pinellas
Seminole
Volusia
Dade
Dade
Pinellas
Leon
Pinellas
Bay
Pinellas
Pasco
Indian River
Monroe
Duval
Lake
Union
Bay
Duval
Pinellas

Agency
Florida City Police
Kenneth City Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop A
Coral Gables Police
Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish
Miami Shores Police
Gulf Breeze Police
Juno Beach Police
State Attorney's Office
Pinecrest Police
Pasco County Clerk of Circuit Court
Treasure Island Police
Seminole JAC
Brevard Community College
North Bay Village Police
Sunny Isles Police
Apalachicola Police
Atlantis Police
Manalapan Public Safety Department
State Attorney's Office
Baker County Clerk of Circuit Court
Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services
Marine Patrol - Titusville
Melbourne Beach Police
El Portal Police
Florida International University
Golden Beach Police
Key Biscayne Police
Miami-Dade Police - Hammocks
Miami-Dade Police - Northside
Miami-Dade Police - Palmetto Bay
DJJ Youth Custody Officer
Escambia Co. Clerk of Court
Public Defender's Office
Windermere Police
15th Circuit - Juvenile Justice
Juvenile Services Program
Seminole Community College
7th Circuit - Juvenile Justice
Opa Locka Police
South Miami Police
Gulfport Police
DBPR
Tarpon Springs Police
DBPR
Pinellas County School Police
Port Richey Police
Vero Beach Police
Key West Police
Neptune Beach Police
Lady Lake Police
Union County Sheriff
Parker Police
Duval Co. Clerk of Court
Indian Shores Police

CC UTIL %
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
94.74%
92.31%
89.47%
88.89%
88.46%
88.00%
87.50%
86.67%
85.71%
82.76%
80.00%
76.92%
76.92%
75.00%
75.00%
75.00%

Florida Law Enforcement Agency
Rankings

36

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.
56
57
58
59
59
59
59
59
59
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
86
86
88
89
89
91
92
93
94
95
95
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
104
106
107
107
109
110
111
112
113
113
115
116
117
118
119
120

Bay
Seminole
Duval
Volusia
Broward
Hamilton
Palm Beach
Pinellas
Palm Beach
Martin
Bay
Palm Beach
Palm Beach
Wakulla
Palm Beach
Brevard
Brevard
Seminole
Seminole
Jefferson
Lake
Bay
Columbia
Dade
Lafayette
Marion
Orange
Palm Beach
Pasco
Brevard
Palm Beach
Seminole
Leon
Duval
Palm Beach
Dade
Palm Beach
Alachua
Palm Beach
Dade
Hillsborough
Brevard
Palm Beach
DeSoto
Broward
Columbia
Bay
Lake
Gadsden
Pasco
Indian River
Alachua
Nassau
Charlotte
Gilchrist
Glades
Lake
Volusia
Pasco
Brevard
Levy
Broward
Volusia
Volusia
Collier

Lynn Haven Police
Lake Mary Police
DBPR
Daytona Beach Shores Public Safety
Lighthouse Point Police
White Springs Police
Florida Atlantic University
Belleair Police
Palm Springs Public Safety
Stuart Police
Springfield Police
North Palm Beach Public Safety
DBPR
Wakulla County Sheriff
Palm Springs Police
Satellite Beach Police
Cocoa Beach Police
Longwood Police
Casselberry Police
Jefferson County Sheriff
State Attorney's Office
Bay District Schools Police
FWCC
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Lafayette County
Belleview Police
UCF
Tequesta Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop C
Indian Harbor Beach Police
Lantana Police
Sanford Airport Police
FSU
Atlantic Beach Police
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Miami Beach Police
Riviera Beach Police
Alachua Police
Delray Beach Police
Bay Harbor Island Police
Temple Terrace Police
Rockledge Police
West Palm Beach Police
Arcadia Police
Hallandale Police
Columbia County Sheriff
Bureau Fish and Wildlife
Mount Dora Police
Gretna Police
New Port Richey Police
Sebastian Police
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Fernandina Beach Police
Punta Gorda Police
Gilchrist County Sheriff
Glades County Sheriff
Eustis Police
Edgewater Police
Dade City Police
Cocoa Police
Levy County Sheriff
Margate Police
Deland Police
New Smyrna Beach
Naples Dept. of Police & Emergency Services

73.33%
71.43%
70.00%
66.67%
66.67%
66.67%
66.67%
66.67%
66.67%
65.52%
64.71%
63.64%
61.54%
60.71%
58.33%
57.14%
56.52%
55.56%
53.33%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
50.00%
45.45%
45.45%
43.75%
42.86%
42.86%
41.38%
40.74%
35.71%
35.29%
33.33%
33.33%
29.17%
29.17%
28.57%
27.78%
27.59%
27.27%
25.93%
25.00%
25.00%
23.08%
20.00%
20.00%
18.52%
17.65%
16.67%
15.00%
11.11%
11.11%
7.14%
6.67%
5.00%
4.76%
4.35%
3.33%

Florida Law Enforcement Agency
Rankings

37

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.

121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121

Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Bradford
Bradford
Brevard
Brevard
Brevard
Broward
Broward
Broward
Broward
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Collier
Collier
Columbia
Columbia
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dixie
Dixie
Duval
Duval
Duval
Escambia
Escambia
Escambia
Flagler
Flagler
Franklin
Franklin
Gadsden
Gadsden
Gadsden
Gadsden
Gadsden
Gulf
Gulf
Hamilton
Hamilton
Hardee
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Highlands

DBPR
High Springs Police
University of Florida
Waldo Police
Bradford County Sheriff
Starke Police
Fish and Wildlife
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop D
Indialantic Police
DBPR
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop L
Seminole Department of Law Enforcement
Wilton Manors Police
Calhoun County Sheriff
State Attorney's Office
Florida Fish and Wildlife
State Attorney's Office
State Attorney's Office
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Marco Island Police
State Attorney's Office
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop B
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop E
Miccosukke Police
West Miami Police
Cross City Police
Dixie County Sheriff
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop G
State Attorney's Office
First Circuit - Juvenile Justice
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop A
FWC -Bureau of Marine Enforcement
Bunnell Police
Flagler Beach Police
Franklin County Sheriff
FWC - Franklin County
Chattahoochee Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop H
Gadsden County Sheriff
Havana Police
Quincy Police
Gulf County Sheriff
Port St. Joe Police
Hamilton County Sheriff
Jasper Police
Hardee County Sheriff
Wauchula Police
Clewiston Police
Brooksville Police
Lake Placid Police
Sebring Police

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Florida Law Enforcement Agency
Rankings

38

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121

Hillsborough
Hillsborough
Hillsborough
Hillsborough
Hillsborough
Hillsborough
Hillsborough
Holmes
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jackson
Jefferson
Lake
Lake
Lake
Lake
Lake
Lee
Lee
Lee
Lee
Lee
Lee
Leon
Leon
Leon
Levy
Levy
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Madison
Manatee
Manatee
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okaloosa
Okaloosa
Okaloosa
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Osceola
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pinellas
Polk
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
St. Lucie
St. Lucie

DBPR
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop C
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop K
Hillsborough Co. Fire Rescue
Seminole Indian Police
Tampa International Airport Police
University of South Florida
Bonifay Police
Holmes County Sheriff
Fellsmere Police
Jackson County Sheriff
Marianna Police
Monticello Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop D
Fruitland Park Police
Groveland Police
Tavares Police
Umatilla Police
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop F
Lee Co. Clerk of Circuit Court
Sanibel Police
State Attorney's Office
20th Circuit - Juvenile Justice
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Florida Highway Patrol - General HQ
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop H
Cedar Key Police
Chiefland Police
Williston Police
Liberty County Sheriff
Madison County Sheriff
Madison Police
Holmes Beach Police
Longboat Key Police
Bureau Fish and Wildlife
Dunnellon Police
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop G
Florida Fish and Wildlife
State Attorney's Office
Crestview Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop A
Fort Walton Beach Police
Niceville Police
Valparaiso Police
Okeechobee Police
Agricultural and Consumer Services
DBPR
Eatonville Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop D
Maitland Police
9th Circuit - Juvenile Justice
Oakland Police
Winter Park Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop D
Osceola County Corrections
Ocean Ridge Public Safety
St. Petersburg College
Auburndale Police
Santa Rosa Co. Clerk of Circuit Court
Venice Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop K
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop L

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Florida Law Enforcement Agency
Rankings

39

Civil citation utilization is the percent eligible issued a civil citation. SOURCES: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Civil Citation Dashboard
June 2014 – July 2015.
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121
121

Polk
Putnam
Seminole
St. Johns
Sumter
Volusia
Volusia
Polk
Volusia
Volusia
Sumter
Polk
Walton
Washington
St. Johns
Suwannee
Taylor
Polk
Volusia
Santa Rosa
Volusia
Putnam
Taylor
Washington
Polk
Sarasota

Lake Hamilton Police
Interlachen Police
State Attorney's Office
St. Augustine Beach Police
Center Hill Police
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop D
State Attorney's Office
Florida Highway Patrol - Troop C
Ponce Inlet Police
Volusia County Beach Services
Wildwood Police
Davenport Police
DeFuniak Springs Police
Chipley Police
St. Augustine Police
Live Oak Police
Taylor County Sheriff
Lake Alfred Police
South Daytona Police
Milton Police
Holly Hill Police
Palatka Police
Perry Police
Washington County Sheriff
Lake Wales Police
Sarasota Police

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Overview of Florida Civil Citations

40

The 2015 Stepping Up study revealed juvenile civil citations generate three key benefits: Increasing public
safety, improving youth outcomes, and saving lots of taxpayer money. The following represents last year s
relevant narrative and key benefits.
Separating Common Youth Misbehavior from Serious Offenses
Common youth misbehaviors in the 21 st Century result in dramatically different consequences. Back in your
days at school, getting into a fight where no one was injured or vandalizing a bathroom wall previously
brought consequences like a trip to the principal s office, apologies, shaking hands, or scrubbing the
bathroom wall. In the community, stealing a key chain from a surf shop or underage beer drinking resulted
in calls to parents, who would bring their own consequences of punishment and prevention from repeating
those behaviors.
Today, such common youth misbehavior can result in being arrested – handcuffs, riding in the backseat of a
police car, fingerprints, being detained until making bail, and most harmful having a criminal misdemeanor
record that will impact employment, housing, loans and postsecondary education for the rest of one s life.
For instance, try leasing a college apartment with a petit theft misdemeanor (stealing the key chain); or
getting a part-time job to help pay for college with an assault and battery misdemeanor (fight without
injury); or joining the military to serve your country with a misdemeanor drug charge (caught with a
marijuana joint).
Florida leads the nation with the solution that separates common youth misbehavior from more serious
offenses - it s called a civil citation and it provides an alternative to arrest.

Civil Citations Increase Public Safety, Improve Youth Opportunities and Save Taxpayer Money
Civil citations offer an alternative to arrest for youth under the age of 18 for the following common youth
misbehavior:
+
+
+
+
+
+

Affray
Criminal mischief
Disrupting school function
Possession of marijuana
Disorderly conduct
Loitering

+
+
+
+
+
+

Battery
Petit theft
Possession of alcohol
Trespassing
Vandalism
Prowling

To receive a civil citation, youth must take responsibility for their actions, and complete the civil citation
program that can involve:

- Community service (up to 50 hours)
- Mental health assessment to determine if youth are first-time,
one-time offenders or are likely to reoffend
- Mandatory counseling for those deemed likely to reoffend,
such as anger management for a teenage boy in a fight
- Letters of apology to the victim
- Letters of apology to law enforcement officers outlining their consequences had the officer chose to
arrest

Overview of Florida Civil Citations (cont.)

41

Research clearly shows civil citations increase public safety, improve youth opportunities and save
taxpayer money. For public safety, the recidivism rate for civil citations is 5%, while it is 9% for other
diversion programs.
With civil citations, valuable and limited law & order resources can be used to prevent and handle serious
misdemeanors and all felonies, instead of being squandered on arrests for common youth misbehavior. In
many Florida counties this amounts to hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of dollars of increased law &
order resources to address serious crimes and criminals. What taxpayer doesn t want law & order
resources shifted from arresting a 14-year-old girl stealing a blouse from the mall to preventing violent
criminals committing armed robbery?
Civil citations improve youth opportunities by not fettering youth with a lifelong arrest record, which may
be required to be disclosed on applications for employment, school, loans, military, housing and other
aspects of life that shape quality of life and determine individual success. Additionally, resources like
mental health counseling provided for youth deemed at risk to reoffend increase the likelihood of future
individual success.
Civil citations save taxpayer money because it is significantly more expensive to arrest a youth for common
youth misbehavior than to issue a civil citation. Cost savings estimates range from $1,467 to $4,614 per
civil citation. The cost savings are seamlessly reinvested into preventing and handling serious crimes and
criminals.

A 2011 study by Florida TaxWatch Center for $mart Justice – Expansion of Civil Citation Programs
Statewide Would Save Taxpayers Tens of Millions of Dollars and Improve Public Safety - showed a range of
taxpayer savings of $44 million to $109 million annually. A 2012 study by the same organization – Modern
Management and Sensible Savings - found diversion programs like civil citations can reduce the prison
population by 10 percent and save taxpayers up to $139 million each year.
Another cost savings study in 2010 by Associated Industries of Florida – Getting Smart on Juvenile Crime in
Florida: Taking It to the Next Level - places the cost of processing youth through the criminal justice system
at $5,000 and the cost of issuing one civil citation $386. This is the current cost savings analysis utilized by
the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice.

 

 

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