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INS Detention Standards Compliance Audit - ACI-Cranston Intake Service Center, Cranston, RI, 2002

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MEMORANDUM

To:

Anthony S. Tangeman, Deputy Executive Associate Commissioner Office of Detention and
Removal.

From: American Bar Association and Massachusetts Bar Association Delegation to the ACICranston Intake Service Center.
Re:

INS Compliance with Detention Standards at the ACI-Cranston Intake Service Center.

Date: September 2002

This memorandum summarizes and evaluates information gathered at the ACI-Cranston Intake Service
Center facility ("ACI") through interviews with detainees, materials supplied by detainees directly or
through their advocates, observation by delegation members, and discussions with the Immigration and
Naturalization Service and ACI personnel during a May 10, 2002 visit. 1

INS Detention Standards

The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) promulgated the INS Detention Standards (September
30, 2000, revised February 11, 2002) (the Standards) in November 2000 to ensure the "safe, secure and
humane treatment of individuals detained by the INS." The thirty-six Standards cover a broad spectrum
of issues ranging from visitation policies to grievance procedures and food service. The Standards apply
to INS Service Processing Centers (S.P.C.), Contract Detention Facilities (C.D.F.), and state and local
government facilities used by the INS through Intergovernmental Service Agreements (I.G.S.A.). The
Standards went into effect at the INS S.P.C. on January 1, 2001, and in state and local facilities in 2002.
The Standards constitute a "floor" not a "ceiling" for treatment of the INS detainees. In other words, they
are meant to establish the minimal requirements that INS must adhere to in its facilities. Each District
Office or Officer in Charge, (OIC) may, in his or her discretion, promulgate policies and practices
affording INS detainees more enhanced rights and protections than those provided for by the Standards. 2

1

b6
The delegation consisted of
, Center for Public Representation (on behalf of the Massachusetts Bar
b6
b6
Association,);
Rogers Powers & Schwartz (on behalf of the Massachusetts Bar Association);
b6
b6
b6
American Bar Association;
Physicians for Human Rights; &
, a partner at Ross,
Martel & Silverman.

2

See http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/lawsregs/guidance.htm

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ACI is a Rhode Island state correctional and detention facility that housed 1,068 detainees on May 10,
2002, which included 126 INS detainees. The length of stay for INS detainees varies from a number of
months to one year, although one detainee interviewed by the delegation had been detained at ACI for
fourteen months.

This memorandum discusses INS compliance with the Standards at ACI. The memorandum focuses on
select portions of the Standards where INS compliance is of particular importance for the achievement of
their stated goal to insure the "safe, secure, and humane treatment" of INS detainees. In particular, this
memo focuses on ACI compliance with the Standards on: (1) Legal Access; (2) Telephone Access; (3)
Legal Materials; (4) Group Rights Presentations; (5) Recreation Issues; (6) Classes; (7) Medical Issues;
(8) Religious Issues, and (9) Use of Force Issues.

The delegation met with the following ACI personnel:
1. Deputy Warden
2. Deputy Warden
3. Correctional Officer

b6, b7C
b6, b7C
b6, b7C

The delegation also spoke with INS Deportation Officer

b6, b7C

and

conference call. In the medical area, the delegation spoke with dentist Dr.
and

b6

b6, b7C
b6

of the INS via
Nurses

b6

; and one of the social workers. The delegation also had brief conversations with a few

other staff members.

I.

Summary

Persons serving state prison sentences are detained in different parts of ACI, which the delegation did not
tour. The INS detainees are detained in the Intake Service Center, with state pre-trial detainees who are
detained there during criminal proceedings. With the exception of two wings for sentenced prisoners,
ACI serves as a statewide pre-trial detention facility. ACI's capacity is 1,100, and as of May 10, 2002
there were 126 male INS detainees held there (and three women in different buildings). The facility does
not use a detainee handbook, but it does have its own "rule book" that all detainees receive upon arrival.
Nothing in the rulebook relates to INS or INS detainees, in apparent contravention of the Standards. See
Standards, Detainee Handbook & I (The Handbook will also describe the services, programs and

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opportunities available through various sources, including the facility, INS, various organizations, etc.)
(emphasis added). The language most encountered in the facility was Spanish and the "rule book" is
provided to the detainees in both English and Spanish.
The facility is very clean and not malodorous. Physically, the building maintenance appears to be good in
the areas the delegation toured. Also, ACI is in sound compliance with the standard on Group Rights
Presentations and the standard on Voluntary Work Programs. Problem areas with which the delegation
was concerned, which are discussed in greater detail later in specific subsections of this report, included
the following:

ACI Personnel Unfamiliar with the Standards: It was our impression that facility personnel were not
particularly well versed in the Standards. For example, Correctional Officer

b6, b7C

(hereafter CO) and the deputy wardens with whom we spoke were knowledgeable about some of the
more general standards concerning access to telephone use, such as the requisite number of
telephones per pod, and they said that changes are in the works to improve the current burdensome
system involving pin numbers and collect calls. The CO and deputy wardens, however, were
unaware that they must give INS detainees access to information on free legal service providers (see
Standards, Access to Legal Materials & III(D)), as well as allow INS detainees to receive telephone
messages on a regular basis (see Standards, Telephone Access & III(I). Similarly, while generally
familiar with the requirements for recreation time and access to library resources, the CO was
unaware that INS detainees should never have to forego one for the other. See Standards, Access to
Legal Materials & III(G). In some instances, the CO seemed unaware of any governing standards.
For example, he incorrectly asserted without qualification that detainees have no option for noncontact visits, and are strip searched after every visit. See Standards, Visitation & III(H)(4). He was
also forthright but erroneous in stating that those placed in segregation lose all privileges, including
visitation and telephone use, thus precluding their ability to contact even their attorneys. See
Standards, Visitation & III(I)(5) (A detainee shall normally retain visiting privileges while in
administrative or disciplinary segregation status.); and Standards, Telephone Access & III(G) (to the
same effect).

ACI Disavowal of Some of the Standards: ACI staff also demonstrated on several occasions no
intent to comply with certain Standards. These included recreation every third day instead of daily,
as required by the Standards. See Standards, Recreation & III(B). ACI staff also knew areas in
which the telephone system was not in compliance with the Standards, such as not having a way for

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new arrivals to call their attorneys or legal service providers, and not passing telephone messages
from attorneys or others to detainees.

See Standards, Telephone Access & III(I). Yet facility staff

offered no plans for bringing telephone access into compliance.

Denial of Necessary Medical Care: Both ACI medical staff and the detainees indicated that
necessary medical care is denied to INS detainees although such care is available to other inmates at
ACI. Treatment for specific medical conditions has not been pre-approved by INS. The more
common denials deal with routine care such as providing glasses and dentures. See Standards,
Medical Care & III(A) (Every facility will provide its detainee population with initial medical
screening, cost-effective primary medical care, and emergency care. The OIC will also arrange for
specialized health care, mental health care, and hospitalization within the local community).

Inadequate Library Resources: ACI staff indicated that while they have two libraries in the facility,
INS detainees only have access to one of these libraries. This library is the only one with any of the
designated Legal Reference Materials for detainees. The library materials are inadequate. Many
essential materials are missing and others have not been updated within the last one to four years.
For example, the copy of the Immigration and Nationality Act has been updated through August 2000
and the regulations only through January 1, 2000. The Board of Immigration Appeals cases have
been updated through 2000 and Federal Reporter cases through 1998. The failure to properly update
library materials violates the Standards. See Standards, Access to Legal Materials & III(E).
Use of Force: An issue of concern arises with regard to the appropriate use of force. There were
several complaints about excessive use of force by ACI correctional officers. Delegation members
were made aware of these matters, which appear to be under investigation. See Exhibits. These
complaints, as described in the Exhibits, appeared to be serious and worthy of careful consideration.
See generally Standards, Use of Force.

II.

Legal Access Visitation

The visitation schedule is posted at the front desk and the visitation rooms look clean and relatively
spacious.

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A. Visitation by Attorneys

The schedule for attorney visitation is seven days per week. ACI requires a photo ID if the attorney does
not have a Bar Membership card with him or her. This is in violation of the Standards. See Standards,
Visitation & III(I)(4) (If such documentation is not readily available to attorneys licensed in a particular
state, they will be required to indicate where they are licensed as an attorney and how that fact may be
verified. There are conflicting reports about whether attorneys can call ahead to determine if a detainee is
at a facility.

See Standards, Visitation & III(I)(6) (Each facility shall establish a written procedure to

allow legal service providers and legal assistants to telephone the facility in advance of a visit to
determine whether a particular individual is detained in that facility). However, under the attorney
visitation rules, anyone affiliated with counsel can visit. Facility staff advise that giving notice is usually
a good idea before a visit, especially in situations that call for an interpreter. The best way to give notice
is by fax, so that the request can be documented.

There are four "contact" interview rooms with plexiglas, which also include 2-3 chairs and a table. In
violation of the Standards, there is no option for a non-contact visit, providing detainees with an
opportunity to avoid a strip search. See Standards, Visitation & III(I)(11). The rooms are soundproof
and no cameras or listening devices are present. Three guards are stationed at the door. All detainees are
strip searched after every visit.

Attorneys can continue client visits through meal breaks and counts, with meals served during such visits.
If a visit continues through a meal, the detainee has the option of getting snack meals; some reported that
they do not get the same meal, but rather scraps from the kitchen depending on the officer on duty.
Interview with

b6, b7C

Detainees who are in segregation are improperly deprived of all visitation privileges. See Standards,
Visitation & III(I)(5) and (12). According to CO

b6, b7C

they are allowed to see their attorney, but this

is made difficult by the fact that they have no access to telephones, again in violation of the Standards.
See Standards, Telephone Access & III(F) and (G).

B. Visitation by Friends, Family and the Media

Visitation from family and friends is allowed seven days a week with either two adults or one adult and

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two children at a time. Detainees are allowed only one visitation session a day and visits can last up to
one hour and fifteen minutes. Minors, immediate family members and relatives, friends and associates
are allowed to visit, but for immediate family members detained in the same facility, visitation is limited.
Special visits can be made if the family member lives 50 miles or more away from the facility. CO
b6, b7C

Interview with

b6, b7C

Most of the INS detainees interviewed had family and friends

outside of Rhode Island. According to CO

b6, b7C

visitors are allowed to deposit money in the account

of detainees only by sending the money in the form of a check or money order via the postal service.
Visitors may not deposit money directly into a detainees account in prison, a policy which is inconsistent
with the Standards. See Standards, Visitation & III(D) (The OIC shall allow a visitor to leave money
with a designated staff member for deposit in a detainees account).

III. Telephone Access

According to the Standards each facility shall enable all detainees to make calls to the INS-provided list
of free legal service providers and consulates at no charge to the detainee or the receiving party. In
SPCs/CDFs, INS has required its telephone service provider to program the telephone system to permit
detainees free calls to numbers on the official pro bono legal representation list, immigration judges and
consulates, and to permit detainees to make direct calls by use of debit cards. INS encourages and will
work with IGSA facilities toward adopting similar procedures, and share INS knowledge and experience
in this area. Standards, Telephone Access & III(E).

The telephone system has not been installed according to specifications in the Standards. There is only a
list of bail bondsmen in the booking area, however there are no lists of legal service providers. When the
detainee first arrives, there are two numbers to make bail calls that are collect calls. See Standards,
Telephone Access & III(E) (free calls for indigent detainees). Contrary to the Standards, there are no
postings on how to use the telephone system, only basic rules on telephone use which are printed in both
Spanish and English. See Standards, Telephone Access & III(B). All calls are electronically monitored,
except for calls to attorneys. The telephone system is complicated and requires a system accessed by a
pin number. This system can take up to a week to activate, even though the Standards require access
within twenty-four hours. See Standards, Telephone Access & III(E). All numbers must be supplied in
advance, including numbers for lawyers, family and friends. There is a limit of ten numbers included on
each detainees list, and it can take up to a week to change a number on the list.

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There is one telephone for every 12 cells, and two telephones for every 24 cells. If there are more than 24
cells, then there is a telephone bank consisting of 5-6 telephones. There is nothing to ensure privacy in
the telephone bank, as detainees must sit side by side on a bench when making their calls.
ACI does not take or deliver telephone messages in many instances. There is no set procedure for
delivering emergency telephone calls, but the chaplain usually delivers news of deaths, if he is aware of
such events. See Standards, Telephone Access & III(I) The telephone service provider is AT&T and the
cost of a collect call is over a dollar a minute, even for indigent detainees. See Standards, Telephone
Access & III(E). CO

According to CO

b6, b7C

b6, b7C

indicated that AT&T will not allow pre-programmed calls.

, detainees are allowed to make only collect calls to legal service providers and

legal representatives, a policy that is in violation of the Standards. The Standards require the facility to
provide free calls:

to the local immigration court and the Board of Immigration Appeals; to Federal and
State courts where the detainee is or may become involved in a legal proceeding; to
consular officials; to legal service providers, in pursuit of legal representation or to
engage in consultation concerning his/her expedited removal case; to a government
office, to obtain documents relevant to his/her immigration case; and in a personal or
family emergency, or when the detainee can otherwise demonstrate a compelling need (to
be interpreted liberally).
Standards, Telephone Access & III(E)

Detainees can only make telephone calls after they have a PIN number, and can only call to pre-approved
numbers. Some detainees say they had to wait for a month or longer to obtain/change a PIN number.
Interview with
Interview with

b6, b7C
b6, b7C

They also say that they cannot make free calls to their consulate or the court.
. They say that there is no information about how to make calls, in violation

of the Standards. See Standards, Telephone Access & III(B).

IV.

Legal Material

The Standards require: The law library shall contain the materials listed in Attachment A. Standards,
Access to Legal Material & III(C). Each detainee shall be permitted to use the law library for a minimum

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of five (5) hours per week. Detainees may not be forced to forego their minimum recreation time, as
provided in Detainee Recreation standard, to use the law library. Standards, Access to Legal Material &
III(G).

Legal materials are in poor condition. The majority of essential legal references are so outdated as to be
of extremely limited use in light of prolific immigration law changes and ever-changing legal precedent.
Standards, Access to Legal Material & III(E). ACIs violations of the Standards with respect to library
holdings are described in greater detail, below.

A. Materials Identified in Attachment A-2 of the Standards

The following materials were found to be up to date:
1. Guide for Immigration Advocates
2. Rights of Prisoners
3. Spanish-English Law Dictionary

The following materials need to be updated:
1. Constitution of the United States of America; Analysis and Interpretation- April 2001
2. United States Code, Title 8, Aliens and Nationality- Updated to 2000
3. Code of Federal Regulations, title 8, Aliens and Nationality- January 1, 2001
4. Benders Immigration and Nationality Act Service- August 2000
5. Benders INS Regulation Service- 3 sets, September 1999
6. Administrative Decisions Under Immigration & Nationality Laws- Vol. 1-20, 2001
7. Immigration Law and Defense, by the National Lawyers Guild- 2 sets up to 1998
8. Immigration Law and Crimes, by the National Immigration Project of the National Lawyers Guild.June 2000
9. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.-1999
10. Federal Habeas Corpus, Practices & Procedures- 2000
11. Federal Civil Judicial Procedure and Rules.- 2001
12. United States Code, Title 28, Rules, Appellate Procedure Pamphlets I & II.- 1999 revision
13. Federal Criminal Code and Rules- March 9, 2001
14. Criminal Procedure (hornbook) By LaFave- 2000

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The following books were not found during our tour:
1. Human Rights Watch- World Report
2. UNHCR handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status
3. Consideration for Asylum Officers Adjudicating Asylum Claims from Women Immigration and
Naturalization Service Basic Law Manual
4. Immigration and Naturalization Service Basic Law Manual
5. Lawyers Committee Handbook on Representing Asylum Applicants.
6. Legal Research and Writing: Some Starting Points.
7. Directory of Nonprofit Agencies that Assist Persons in Immigration Matters.
8. Other Translation Dictionaries Depending on the Most Common Language Spoken by the Detainee
Population.
9. Detainee Handbook and Detainee Orientation Materials.
10. Self Help Materials.

B. Library Conditions
There is no librarian on site to assist detainees. There are no legal materials on computer disks or CDROMS on site. Detainees are not permitted to make their own copies of legal documents.

See

Standards, Access to Legal Material & III(J) (The facility shall ensure that detainees can obtain
photocopies of legal material, when such copies are reasonable and necessary for a legal proceeding
involving the detainee). Detainees give their materials to another detainee (who may be an inmate or an
INS detainee) who is assigned to the library and who makes the copies. There are no provisions for
confidentiality.

C. Photocopies and Mail

The Standards state that staff shall neither read nor copy special correspondence. The inspection shall be
limited to the purposes of detecting physical contraband and confirming that any enclosures qualify as
special correspondence. Standards, Correspondence and Other Mail & III(E). Special correspondence is
the term for detainees written communications to or from private attorneys or other legal representatives
Id.

The detainees can submit requests to make photocopies twice a week. Those in segregation must submit

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a written request for photocopies. Confidentiality is a serious problem. The facility assigns an inmate to
make photocopies, with no issue of confidentiality discussed. Detainees must fill out a slip to have copies
made. Days later, they get copies and originals back, though all originals are not consistently returned.
An inmate copies the documents and takes a 10 hour training course, but receives no training on
confidentiality. The two deputy wardens and CO

b6, b7C

said (or agreed with one another) that the

reason the inmates are not allowed to copy documents themselves, according to ACI personnel, is to keep
the copiers from breaking or being overused or misused, as well as to control the content of what is being
copied; that the inmates lawyers should be making copies of legal documents if they, or their clients, are
really concerned about confidentiality. There was no set procedure for requesting copies free of charge
for indigent detainees, but they were allowed a limited number of free stamps and envelopes for legal
Standards, Access to Legal Material & III(J).

matters. These practices violate the Standards.

Mail is read for contraband and gang activity. ACI personnel [CO

b6, b7C

] asserted that the detainees

opened the mail in front of the mail officers upon delivery of legal mail, while the detainees insisted that
they received their mail already opened [Interview with

b6, b7C

]. If the detainees are correct, then ACI

is in violation of Standards, Correspondence and Other Mail & III(E).

D. Computer Access, Equipment and Holdings

The library had two computers for detainee use. There were no CDs with legal materials available. The
library also had one typewriter and one printer. The computer was equipped with CD-ROM to insert CDs
relating to immigration law. It was unclear whether detainees were able to save any material on diskettes.

E. Access to Library

Every detainee has certain times in which he can go to the library. They are usually allowed 1.5 hours at a
time. Detainees may request additional time if needed. The INS detainees could use the library three
times a week for 1.5 hours but might have to use it during times reserved for other activities, in violation
of the Standards. See Standards, Access to Legal Material & III(G) (Detainees may not be forced to
forego their minimal recreation time, as provided in Detainee Recreation, standard to use the law library).
The library was open three times a day for an hour plus. A person in segregation who makes a request
can access the library, according to facility staff.

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V.

Group Rights Presentation

The Standards require detention facilities to permit Group Rights Presentations (GRP) to groups of INS
detainees, to inform them about immigration law and procedures (not to be a forum for providing
confidential or case-specific legal advice). The presenters need to be pre-authorized, and the GRP must
be consistent with the security and orderly operation of the facility, but the facility must cooperate fully
with the authorized presenters to facilitate the GRPs.

See Standards, Group Presentations on Legal

Rights & I.

According to the facility staff, GRP requests usually are granted two weeks in advance of the presentation
date and notices of the GRP are posted throughout the facility within a day of the approval of the
presentation. A detainee sign-up sheet is used to ensure custodial arrangements for detainees who want to
attend the GRP, which is held in either the law library or a classroom (otherwise used for prisoner
education programs). The notices of the GRP and sign-up sheets were not seen posted in any housing
units, rather a detainee mentioned that he only saw them in the law library, which detainees have limited
access to and, therefore, does not notify all detainees of the GRP or provide all detainees the opportunity
to sign up.

According to one detainee, he had attended a GRP, presented by Catholic Relief. Interview with
b6, b7C

b6, b7C

. He complained of a lack of particularized assistance for his individual case that was not met by the

GRP. He did not have an opportunity to meet with the presenter after the GRP. He had not seen the
Florence Project video. According to a second detainee, he had attended GRPs presented by Boston
College Law School. (Interview with

b6, b7C

.) He complained that the sessions were over-

crowded for the room size. He also had not been able to meet with the presenter afterwards, and was
disappointed with the lack of individualized, case-specific advice.

ACI substantially meets the minimum requirements of the GRP detention standard. ACI reports that no
GRP requests had been denied, that appropriate notice was given and appropriate access allowed for
detainees. The rooms used for GRPs appear to have been too small for the attendance, but the delegation
did not hear of a detainee being excluded from a GRP.

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VI. Recreation Issues

According to the Standards, if outdoor recreation is available at the facility, each detainee shall have
access for at least one hour daily, at a reasonable time of day, five days a week, weather permitting. If
only indoor recreation is available, detainees shall have access for at least one hour each day and shall
have access to natural light. Under no circumstances will the facility require detainees to forego basic law
library privileges for recreation privileges. Standards, Recreation & III(B).

Outdoor recreation is allowed every third day if the weather is above 33 degrees. Detainees are mixed
with pre-trial inmates during recreation. The coats given to the inmates are dingy and do not appear to be
laundered regularly. There is no exercise equipment provided except for basketball nets, in violation of
Standards, Recreation & III(G)(1) and (2). The detainees are given the option of foregoing library
privileges for recreation when schedules conflict, a practice that conflicts with the requirements of
Standards, Recreation & III(B). Indoor recreation is limited to a few soft-cover books and board/card
games in the common area of the housing unit, conditions which do not comply with Standards,
Recreation & III(B). Those detainees in segregation lose all recreational privileges. They are allowed to
walk around in a circle inside their unit for a few minutes after the first five days in which they are not
allowed out of their cell at all. This policy is in apparent conflict with Standards, Recreation & III(H)

VII.

Classes

Other than the Group Rights Presentation, the delegation only learned of ACI providing ESL classes that
are offered three times a week. The classes are usually offered in English.

VIII.

Medical Issues

The Standards require: All detainees shall have access to medical services that promote detainee health
and general well being. Every facility will provide its detainee population with initial medical screening,
cost-effective primary medical care, and emergency care. The OIC will also arrange for specialized
health care, mental health care, and hospitalization within the local community. Standards, Medical Care

& I.

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A. General Access to Health Care

According to several ACI medical staff who spoke with the delegation, the infirmary is staffed 24 hours a
day. Five staff are on the first and second shift and two on the third shift. Dr.

b6

, the dentist, is on-

site five days a week. They have a private eye doctor. They have one doctor three-quarters of the time for
six days and one doctor for half time for only five days. There is also a nurse practitioner available five
days.

This infirmary has four isolation cells, three "psych" cells and 20 beds in two 10-bed rooms. The psych
cells, as an ACI guide in that part of the health clinic admitted [delegation members did not obtain his
name], were pretty deprived looking cells. The main hospital bedrooms looked clean and adequate and an
officer was stationed right outside. There is a separate room for the pharmacy. Staff pointed to a separate
room containing medical records that they said are kept separate from other prison or detainee records.
When a detainee is transferred, medical staff faxes a form with medication and vital signs to the next
facility, but ACI does not send a copy of the records, thus contravening Standards, Medical Care & N.

For routine medical care the inmates and detainees must submit a written request at the next meal. The
staff triage the requests by seeing the most important conditions first. One of the medical unit staff is
"right outside the chow line", according to Nurse

b6

and the detainee puts in the request. Typically,

the facility staff maintains that requests are responded to within the week. But if it is a more serious health
issue, say a respiratory problem, they are seen "right away." For example, seen right away would be
someone with chest pains or a diabetic on insulin with a cut that won't heal. Someone with headaches
may not be seen for a week.

In contrast, several INS detainees reported delays and difficulties being seen for common complaints such
as headaches, the flu or a cold. While staff said a week was typically as long as a detainee waits for
treatment of common complaints, detainees specifically said they waited one to three weeks. Interview
with

b6, b7C

; Interview with

b6, b7C

. Staff indicated they have to deal with some requests

that do not warrant their attention. However, one detainee specifically said that if a detainee has a bad
case of something like the flu, if he waits a week or more, in all likelihood, the illness will be over by the
time he is seen. Interview with

b6, b7C

By any measure, a wait of even one week is a violation of

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the Standards. See Standards, Medical Care & III(F)(2) (Facilities with 50 to 200 detainees - [sick call
shall be available] a minimum of 3 days per week).

The infirmary has its own laboratory and x-ray capabilities.

ACI medical staff must request INS advance approval for many kinds of medical treatment. The INS
typically responds within a week to requests for approving care. ACI medical staff noted that they could
make the decision on the spot for Rhode Island prisoners and schedule sending them out for necessary
treatment. Differences in the medical care provided to INS detainees occur with respect to specialty care.
For example, with eye care, "unless you are just about blind," the INS won't approve it, according to
Nurse

b6

If a detainee has vision of 2100, he or she may have the opportunity to get glasses. If

you can’t read law books, then they [the INS] are not going to pay for glasses. [Nurse

b6

]. Such

conditions deprive detainees of the primary and specialty medical care required by the Standards.
Standards, Medical Care & III(A) (Every facility will provide its detainee population with initial medical
screening, cost-effective primary medical care, and emergency care. The OIC will also arrange for
specialized health care, mental health care, and hospitalization within the local community).

Dental care is another place where care is distinguished. The facility staff has the capacity to perform the
majority of dental procedures on site, including partial dentures and restorations. "If they (detainees)
have any problem, they are seen," including swelling, according to Dr.

b6

If detainees are less able

to function because of few teeth, the ACI dental staff will do partial dentures, if detainees have a cavity,
staff can treat and do restoration. If detainees have an abscess or broken tooth, staff will pull it. However,
the INS will not pay for dentures, and it appears they will not pay for much other than tooth pulling. This
policy results in a distinction between the state and INS detainees.

The Standards for dental treatment are ambiguous about routine care and dentures. See Standards,
Medical Care & III(E)(2). Routine care is conditioned on a detainee being held at least 6 months before
being eligible for such care. Although the Standard refers to care to maintain the health of detainees, it
only says it may be provided. One detainee had no teeth and reported being turned down repeatedly for
dentures. Interview with

b6, b7C

. Given that ACI can provide dentures to non-INS detainees, the

denial of INS approval is a denial of care that maintains a detainees health. Cost appears to be the sole
reason this practice does not conform to standards of care since other ACI inmates do obtain dentures.

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The delegation learned of other examples of INS not approving outside medical care. [Interview with
b6, b7C

; Interview with

b6, b7C

]. One detainee [

b6, b7C

] reported that INS had

denied surgery to remove a 10x15 centimeter lump on the detainees back, despite his symptoms of
chronic pain, sleep difficulty and reduced mobility.

With headaches from stress or infection, if these are serious enough, staff can order a CAT scan. If
detainees have migraines, staff can prescribe Imatrix, but do not prescribe it often. They will start with
something else because of its cost. The medical staff implied that INS is much less likely to approve the
more costly medication like Imatrix.

Emergency care is the same for INS and state inmates. Emergencies are sent to RI Hospital. The ACI
staff can order that, for instance, for heart attacks, seizures or a broken arm. But for something that would
be termed urgent care, say stitches, most would be sent to a local private facility known as Stat Care.

B. Privacy and Consent

There is a separate room for medical records. Records are kept separate from other prison or detainee
records. When there is a language barrier in dealing with detainees medical and social/psychiatric
services, the interpretation is usually done by available corrections officers who are not instructed to keep
the context of conversations confidential. Detainees reported that they or their lawyers, as authorized,
were able to obtain copies of their ACI medical records without difficulty. [Interview with
b6, b7C

Interview with

b6, b7C

]. Medical staff [Nurses

b6, b7C

and

b6, b7C

b6, b7C

] described an

apparently adequate consent process before treating detainees.

C. HIV and other Infectious Diseases

Basic medication for HIV is included in the basic medical care. Upon admittance, facility staff does a
standard health screening that includes vital signs, health history and tests for syphilis, TB, and HIV. If
the TB test is positive, they do an x-ray and if and when the condition is confirmed, they put the detainee
on a drug treatment regimen. They only isolate a detainee if the disease is communicable.

The HIV test takes about 4 weeks to get results. The test is confidential. Giving the specimen and inmate
a number ensures confidentiality and a special team tests that specimen number. The team is there every

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week to brief new detainees. ACIs practices seem to conform to Standards, Medical Care & III(K).

IX.

Religious Issues

There are regular religious services on site, some weekly others daily for Catholics, Protestants, Jewish
and Muslim denominations. Religious counseling is available upon request. The detainee is allowed to
meet with any chaplain or clergy approved by the jail after the detainee's request. ACI provides special
diets to meet with religious observances. The detainees are allowed to keep soft cover bibles and Korans
in their possession. The conditions comply with Standards, Religious Practices.

X. Other Issues

A. Mental health

There is a Department of Corrections psychiatrist, who is a state employee rather than a contractor to the
state DOC; he services all the facilities within the state DOC campus and is located on the campus
(although outside of the ISC). The Intake Services Center, which has its own 40 hr/wk psychologist, and
two clinical social workers (one position vacant, but a new LICSW is expected to be on staff shortly) to
service 1,000 to 1,100 prisoners. There also is a peer (prisoner in need to prisoner volunteer) counseling
program.

Fifteen percent, more than 1,000, of all prisoners have mental illness diagnoses, yet only 90 of them
receive psychotropic medications. There appears to be no specialized on-going treatment of mental
illness, other than emergency intervention for close observation status of suicide risks and prescribing of
psychotropic medication. LICSWs may provide some rudimentary discharge planning, but persons with
mental illness ordinarily do not receive treatment plans.

In the 20 years the facility has been open, there have been (according to Deputy Warden

b6, b7C

no

more than 10 suicides. There was one a suicide committed by an inmate approximately two months ago,
but the staff reported that the last one before that was 2-3 years before. The medical unit has 7-10 close
observation beds for suicide risk prisoners, and three isolation and restraint unit cells located immediately
adjacent to the clinical staff and formulary. The isolation units have video and window monitoring.
Correctional officers as well as clinicians can transfer suicide risks from general population to the medical

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unit for close observation.

B. Detainee Classifications

INS detainees are commingled with pre-trial inmates, but are not classified by security risk. ACI
classifies its inmates as post-trial or pre-trial. INS detainees are all housed in one general population
setting or in segregation, and are not subject to a separate classification system, as permitted by
Standards, Detainee Classification System & I. Several detainees said that they were in lockdown for 18
to 19 hours each day.

C. Accommodations

Cells are double occupancy and are approximately 7’x12’. Linens and clothing are changed weekly.
Sleep hours are from 10 p.m.- 7 a.m.

D. Dietary Requirements

The Standards require: Detainees with certain conditions (chronic or temporary; medical, dental, and/or
psychological) will be prescribed special diets as appropriate. The physician may order snacks or
supplemental feedings for such reasons as: (a) insulin-dependent diabetes. Standards, Food Service &
III(F)(1) and (2).

The kitchen appeared sanitary. Hairnets along with aprons were worn, but we did not observe the
consistent use of gloves. The food was prepared by the inmates. Kosher meals are available upon request
and Ramadan may also be observed upon request. Every year the diet is reevaluated and adapted.
Although the standards say a dietician should review the diet every 35 days, staff mentioned nothing like
that. [N.B.: The menu cycle for detainees must be at least 35 days. Standards, Food Service & III(D)(1).
Religious diets and therapeutic diets are written for 30 days, and must be renewed. Standards, Food
Service & III(E)(1) (religious diets) and (F)(1) (therapeutic diets). The menu cycle for religious diets is
14 days. Standards, Food Service & III(E)(2).] In the medical unit, several specialized diets were posted:
(1) someone requiring more than 2,500 calories a day, (2) no added salt, for say a case of hypertension,
(3) no sweets, (4) low fat, (5) calorie controlled. Medical staff said they could authorize these diets and
do. The kitchen staff checks that the detainees follow specialized diets. Allergies are generally not

-17-

accommodated. According to CO

b6, b7C

, there is an overabundance of calories in any given meal. He

said that the detainees are told to eat around what they are allergic to. The exception might be if you are
allergic to tomatoes and tomato sauce covers the pasta, which is the main part of the meal.

Several detainees indicated that they do not receive an appropriate diet for their medical needs. One INS
detainee is diabetic [

b6, b7C

] and said that he does not receive a proper diet

appropriate for diabetics, but rather the regular diet. He says that he has even had snacks taken away
from him. A second detainee [

b6, b7C

] complained about his inappropriate diet [poultry]. Another

detainee complained about the problem of inappropriate diets in general [

b6, b7C

]. These

complaints, if true, evidence violation of Standards, Food Service & III(F).

E. Detainee Work Program

Detainees are allowed to participate in a work program, including janitorial jobs, kitchen and law library
jobs. Detainees are paid anywhere from $1 - $3 per day. Here, ACIs practices exceed the Standards for
SPCs/CDFs. See Standards, Voluntary Work Program & III(K).

F. Grievance and Disciplinary Procedures

There are "Level 1" and "Level 2" procedures. The prisoners are to request forms from officer on duty,
but the detainees state that requests are ignored, in violation of both the spirit and the letter of Standards,
Detainee Grievance Procedures. The Level 2 procedure involves the Warden; such complaints rarely get
that far. There is no INS presence on internal disciplinary/grievance boards. The staff reports that they
have fewer complaints about INS detainees then about in the pre-trial population. There is no change in
underwear, uniform, visitation or phone privileges for the first 5 days in segregation. Lockdown is
supposedly 10 hours a day, but the detainees report that it sometime lasts up to 20 hours.

G. Segregation

Administrative and disciplinary segregation are the same. If an officer witnesses violence, (i.e. a punch,
between a detainee and another officer or another detainee), he can send the person directly to
segregation. If there is an altercation between a detainee and an officer with no other witnesses, the
officer needs to get his supervisor to approve putting the detainee in segregation, but that approval is

-18-

received on the spot within minutes. However, often the supervisor approves a disciplinary waiver type
of segregation that is two days.

Once in segregation, there is a grievance process with the detainee being booked in 24 hours and getting
to appeal before the disciplinary board in a couple of days. Segregation means one hour out of cell on a
weekday and not even this on weekends and holidays.

H. Use of Force

The Standards state that the use of force is authorized only after all reasonable efforts to resolve a
situation have failed. Officers shall use as little force as necessary to gain control of the detainee;
Standards, Use of Force & I.

Several detainees reported being mistreated by ACI guards, particularly guards on the second shift. The
delegation was provided with copies of correspondence to INS describing some of these incidents, as well
as INS responses. See Exhibits. However, it was not clear from the correspondence if INS’ investigation
of the allegations will address ACIs compliance with INS’ use of force standards, e.g., whether records
are maintained by ACI of reasonable efforts utilized to resolve a situation without force and what led such
efforts to fail, or of efforts made to minimize the amount of force used. The delegation did not directly
interview the officials concerning these matters in order not to interfere with any investigations that may
be pending. However, upon interviewing the detainees, the delegation members did confirm allegations
referred to in the Exhibits regarding excessive force, racial slurs, and other forms of physical and verbal
mistreatment. These allegations strongly suggest ACI violations of multiple provisions of the Standards,
Use of Force.

XI. Conclusion
As described more fully above, the ACI is compliant with the Standards in several areas, including Group
Rights Presentations and Voluntary Work Program, but noncompliant in several key areas, including
Legal Material and Medical Care. Of additional concern is the ACIs unfamiliarity with some of the
Standards and disavowal of others, as well as the reported complaints regarding Use of Force-- although
the latter appear to be under investigation by INS.

***

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