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The Policies and Politics of Local Immigration Enforcement Laws Unc School of Law 2009

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The

Policies and Politics of
Local Immigration
Enforcement Laws

287(g) Program in North Carolina

American Civil liberties Union

Immigration & Human Rights Policy Clinic

of North Carolina Legal Foundation

University of North Carolina af Chapel Hill

February
- i - 2009

- ii -

The

Policies and Politics of
Local Immigration
Enforcement Laws

287(g) Program in North Carolina
February 2009

American Civil Liberties Union
of North Carolina Legal Foundation
Immigration & Human Rights Policy Clinic
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Deborah M. Weissman
Reef C. Ivey II Distinguished
Professor of Law
Director of Clinical Programs

Rebecca C. Headen
Katherine Lewis Parker
Attorneys at Law
ACLU of North Carolina
Legal Foundation

UNC-CH School of Law Students
Katherine Bandy
Catherine Currie
Evelyn Griggs
Jill Hopman
Nicole Jones
Rashmi Kumar
Marty Rosenbluth
Christina Simpson

http://www.law.unc.edu/documents/clinicalprograms/287gpolicyreview.pdf

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till

UNC

SCHOOL OF LAW

Immigration & Human Rights Policy Clinic
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Document Design: Richard Cox, Jr.

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS

5

Executive Summary

8

I. Why a Policy Review?: Introduction and Purpose

15

II. Overview of the INA § 287(g) Program

18

A. Sources of Law

18

1. The Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 287(g)

18

III. Actual Consequences of INA § 287(g)

27

A. The Universal Effect of § 287(g): Marginalized Communities 

27

B. Chilling Effect: The Danger of Immigrants’ Fear of Reporting Crime
		

and Diminished Local Law Enforcement Capability

32

C. Economic Impact

36

D. The Encroachment on American Liberties

40

IV. Legal Issues

43

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A. Lack of Compliance with Federal Law

43

1. Lack of Compliance with Federal Law:
	

	

Equal Protection Violations through Racial Profiling 

43

2. Wrongful Application of Federal Immigration Laws

50

3.  Lack of Compliance with other Federal Laws.

53

B. Lack of Compliance with North Carolina Law 

54

	

1.  Violation of North Carolina Constitution

54

	

2. Violation of North Carolina Case Law

55

	

3. Violation of North Carolina Statutory Law

56

	

4.  Violation of State Agency Regulations

57

C. Problems within the Four Corners of the MOA

57

1. Problems with Complaint Mechanisms

58

2. Problems with Other Portions of the Alamance County
	

	

MOA and Others Similarly Drafted

63

V. Proposals for Improvement

71

A. Good Governance, Transparency, and Conformity with the Law

71

B. Applicability of All New 287(g) Programs to Convicted Felons Only 

73

C. Increased Community Participation

73

D. Amendments to the Complaint Mechanism in the MOA

74

1.  Revising the Complaint Mechanism

74

2.  Changes to the Method of Complaint Review 

76

E. Amendments to Other Portions of the MOA

79

1. Ensuring Availability of the MOA 

79

2. Detailing MOA Purpose and Policy

79

3.  Outlining Personnel Designation and Functions

80

4.  Providing Guidelines for Nomination of Personnel

80

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5. Detailing and Updating Training of Personnel

81

6.  Continued Certification and Authorization of Personnel
		

through Consistent Complaint Reports

81

7. Monitoring ICE Supervision of Personnel
8.  Clarification and Notice of the Civil Rights Standards and 
		

82

Provision of Interpretation Services

9. Detailing the Steering Committee’s Required Review of Activities

82

10. Executive Steering Committee Meetings Should Be
	

	

Open to the Public  

83

11. Increasing Information and Participation for 
	

	

Effective Community Outreach and Input

83

12. Improving Relations with the News Media and Other Organizations 84
13. Updated Officer Training and MOA Availability after Modification 

84

14. Providing Notice of Duration and Termination of the MOA;
		

Avoid Impunity

85

F. Amplification of Federal Regulations to Address § 287(g) MOAs

85

G. Other Models of Complaint Mechanisms

85

1. Overview

85

2.  Making the Complaint Form Accessible

86

3.  Uniform Statute of Limitations

87

4.  Authorized Complainants

87

5. Establishing a Review Board

88

6.  Composition of the Review Boards

91

7. Protecting the Complainant

92

8. Model Complaint Mechanism and Review Process

92

H. Data Collection

96

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I. Elimination of the 287(g) Program

97

VI. Conclusion

99

TABLE OF APPENDICES									

101

Appendix A - Exhibit 1									

102

Appendix A - Exhibit 2									

105

Appendix B - Exhibit 1									

110

Appendix C - Exhibit 1									

126

Appendix C - Exhibit 2									

128

Appendix C - Exhibit 3									

130

Appendix C - Exhibit 4									

132

Appendix C - Exhibit 5									

136

Appendix C - Exhibit 6									

138

Appendix C - Exhibit 7									

142

Appendix C - Exhibit 8									

144

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TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS

CAP		

Criminal Alien Program

DHS		

Department of Homeland Security

DHS OIG	

Department of Homeland Security Office of

			

Inspector General

DOJ 		

Department of Justice

DOJ CRD	

Department of Justice Civil Rights Division

ERPA	 	

End of Profiling Act

ICE		

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

ICE OPR	

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

	

	

	

Office of Professional Responsibility

INA		

Immigration and Nationality Act

JEO	 	

Jail Enforcement Officer

LEA		

Local Law Enforcement Agency

MOA		

Memoranda of Agreement/Memoranda

			

of Understanding

NCSA		

North Carolina Sheriffs’ Association

ACSO		

Alamance County Sheriff’s Office

TFO	 	

Task Force Officer

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Executive Summary
In 1996, the US Congress amended the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)
to include section 287(g), authorizing the federal agency U.S. Immigration and Customs
Enforcement (ICE) to enter into agreements with local law enforcement agencies, thereby
deputizing officers to act as immigration officers in the course of their daily activities.
These individual agreements are commonly known as Memoranda of Agreement or
MOAs. It is estimated that over sixty law enforcement agencies have entered into such
agreements, with eight MOAs currently in North Carolina.
The 287(g) program was originally intended to target and remove undocumented
immigrants convicted of “violent crimes, human smuggling, gang/organized crime
activity, sexual-related offenses, narcotics smuggling and money laundering.” However,
MOAs are in actuality being used to purge towns and cities of “unwelcome” immigrants
and thereby having detrimental effects on North Carolina’s communities. Such effects
include:
•	 The marginalization of an already vulnerable population, as 287(g) encourages, or
at the very least tolerates, racial profiling and baseless stereotyping, resulting in
the harassment of citizens and isolation of the Hispanic community.
•	 A fear of law enforcement that causes immigrant communities to refrain from
reporting crimes, thereby compromising public safety for immigrants and citizens
alike.
•	 Economic devastation for already struggling municipalities, as immigrants are
forced to flee communities, causing a loss of profits for local businesses and a
decrease in tax revenues.
•	 Violations of basic American liberties and legal protections that threaten to
diminish the civil rights of citizens and ease the way for future encroachments into
basic fundamental freedoms.
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The current implementation processes of 287(g) also present a number of legal
issues which implicate many individual rights and threaten to compromise the rights of
the community as a whole.
Lack of Compliance with Federal Law
287(g) programs raise significant concerns about the lack of compliance with federal
law. Although deputized § 287(g) officers must comply with federal laws, standards,
and guidelines when employing their immigration-enforcement functions, recent events
coupled with the lack of transparency as to the implementation of the program suggest
that law enforcement officers may be failing to comply with:
•	 Federal constitutional law by not complying with equal protection, as a result of
racial profiling and harassment of foreign nationals.
•	 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 by discriminating against individuals based on their
race, color, or ethnicity.
•	 Department of Justice Guidelines which were developed “for Federal officials to
ensure an end to racial profiling in law enforcement.”
•	 Federal criminal procedure law by hurrying undocumented immigrants through
the system.
•	 International treaty law by failing to communicate with consular officers from the
detainees’ countries of origin in a timely matter, as required by Article 36 of the
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.
Wrongful Immigration Determination
Wrongful immigration determination is yet another legal concern that arises
from the implementation of § 287(g) MOAs. Because immigration law is a complicated,
ever-evolving, and specialized area of law and law enforcement, state and local officers

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often lack the necessary expertise notwithstanding the § 287(g) training that they
undergo. Consequently, American citizens and lawful permanent residents as well as
undocumented immigrants who have legal claims to lawful status become vulnerable to
wrongful detention and even wrongful deportation. Proven, documented cases of both
have already occurred.
Violations of North Carolina Constitutional and Statutory Law
The current method of implementation of 287(g) agreements may also encourage
violations of North Carolina state law. These violations are manifested through racial
profiling. Racial profiling is prohibited by:
•	 The North Carolina State Constitution, which expressly prohibits “discrimination
by the State because of race, color, religion, or national origin.”
•	 North Carolina statutory law, which requires data collection and analysis in traffic
stops in order to prevent racial profiling and discrimination.
Deficient Compliance with the Terms of the MOAs
This policy brief also seeks to reveal those problems that exist within the four
corners of the MOAs. It accomplishes this goal by evaluating a specific MOA between
ICE and Alamance County Sheriff’s Office in North Carolina. While the MOA exists as
a contract between the federal agency and the local law enforcement agency, the terms
and conditions of the contract are often vague and confusing, with both parties often in
noncompliance with the contract. Such concerns with regard to the MOA include:
•	 Complaint mechanisms. The 287(g) programs are required to offer a complaint
mechanism for individuals who believe they have been aggrieved in the
implementation of the program. However, because of (1) confusion caused by
the complaint mechanism as described in the MOA, (2) the lack of notice and

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information about the right to file a complaint, (3) insufficient guidelines regarding
the complaint forwarding process, (4) conflicts of interest in reviewing a complaint,
and (5) unclear complaint resolution procedures, this aspect of the MOA is elusive
and ineffective.
•	 Designation of functions. Nowhere does the Alamance County MOA publicize the
policies and procedures that must be followed in immigration enforcement.
•	 Nomination of personnel. While the MOA requires a background check and
evaluation of Alamance County Sheriff’s Office law enforcement who may be
authorized to participate in the program, there is no indication as to how suitability
is to be determined. Lack of transparency in the implementation of the program
prevents assessment of suitability determinations.
•	 Training of personnel. Although it appears that there is a curriculum in place for
the training of personnel, the length of the training appears to be too short given
the complexities of the subject matter, and content of the curriculum is unclear.
Lack of transparency in the implementation of the program prevents assessment
of the training.
•	 Certification and authorization. While authorization of the MOA by ICE may be
revoked at any time, the language indicating what merits such a revocation is
unclear making oversight of and remedy for the program uncertain.
•	 ICE supervision. Although the MOA requires that there be ICE supervision before
any local officer can perform an immigration function, there is no indication as to
the nature or degree of the necessary supervision, nor is there any mechanism for
review to ensure that the officers comply with immigration law and procedure.
•	 Civil Rights standards and interpretation services. In addition to the obligations set
forth in federal civil right statutes and regulations, including the U.S. Department
of Justice “Guidance Regarding the Use of Race by Federal Law Enforcement

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Agencies,” the language in the MOA requires an interpreter for those who do not
speak English. Yet how law enforcement should comply with this requirement is
unclear. The MOA fails to establish the process by which an interpreter is obtained,
the procedure through which law enforcement officers confirm that an interpreter is
necessary, whether an interpreter must be requested before one must be provided,
and how the affected individual will be informed of the right to an interpreter.
•	 Required steering committee. The MOA requires that ICE and the local Sheriff
establish a steering committee. However, the existence, purpose, function, and the
selection process of the steering committee are not sufficiently clear.
•	 Community Outreach. Although the MOA provides that the local agency will
engage in community outreach programs with organizations interested in the
MOA, there is a great deal of discretion left with the agency in determining with
which organizations to work, thereby creating the opportunity to limit or deny
participation from critics of the program.
•	 Relations with the news media. This provision of the MOA also allows too much
discretion with the local agency creating the possibility that important information
about the MOA will not be communicated to the public in order to enhance the
program’s accountability and transparency.
•	 Modification of the MOA. While the MOA can be modified, there is no mention
as to how these amendments will be communicated to the public or whether the
amended document will be made publicly available.
•	 Duration and termination of the MOA and liability disclaimers. Although the
MOA states that authorization of immigration enforcement can be revoked at any
time, there is no requirement that the termination of the program be made public.
Additionally, language in the agreement attempts to insulate ICE and the local agency
from liability if they fail to comply with the requirements agreed upon in the MOA.

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Proposals for Improvement
In addition to bringing to light the many issues presented by the 287(g) program
and the way that the program is currently implemented, this policy brief sets forth a
number of proposals that would, if implemented, help to resolve many of the current
implementation problems. The recommendations include:
•	 Transparency in the implementation of the program
•	 Full conformity with the letter and the spirit of the law.
•	 Increased community participation in the program’s implementation and/or
oversight.
•	 Revision of all current 287(g) programs and implementation in all new 287(g)
programs, to permit 287(g) processing only for those convicted of felonies.
•	 Amendments to the complaint mechanism in the MOA, including clarification of
the process, providing notice of the right to file a complaint, enacting amendments
to the guidelines regarding the complaint forwarding process, and changes to the
method of complaint review.
•	 Ensuring the availability of the MOA and detailing the MOA purpose and policy.
•	 Improving personnel performance by outlining personnel designation and
functions, providing guidelines for nomination of personnel, detailing and
updating the training of personnel, continued certification and authorization of
personnel through consistent complaint reports, and monitoring ICE supervision
of personnel.
•	 Clarification of notice of the Civil Rights standards and provision of interpretation
services.
•	 Detailing the steering committee’s selection process that includes a broad range of
community interests and setting forth the committee’s required review of activities.
•	 Opening executive steering committee meeting to the public.
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•	 Increasing information and participation for effective community outreach and
input.
•	 Improving relations with the news media and other organizations.
•	 Updated officer training and MOA availability after modification as well as
providing duration and termination of the MOA and avoiding impunity.

	

These proposals for improvement also include suggestions and examples of other

complaint mechanisms that could be implemented in order to achieve greater effectiveness
in ensuring compliance on the part of local law enforcement agencies with applicable law
and MOAs.
Conclusion
Ultimately, by revealing the complexities of the 287(g) program and the difficulties
in its implementation, this policy brief seeks to illustrate that the program is actually an
ineffective means of immigration enforcement. It is too problematic, too costly, and too
difficult to implement. The reliance on local law enforcement by the federal government
for the enforcement of immigration laws is a strong indication of a systemic problem in
the federal program, which points to the need for comprehensive immigration reform at
the federal level that would allow local police and county sheriffs to return to their primary
function of protecting their local communities from crime. Until this reform occurs,
this paper reveals the deficiencies and illegalities of 287(g) agreements and encourages
communities and lawmakers to implement change under the current system.

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I. Why a Policy Review?: Introduction and Purpose
The purpose of this policy review is to raise public concern about a recent and
growing phenomenon particularly in the State of North Carolina: local enforcement of
immigration laws under the Immigration and Nationality Act § 287(g). This policy brief
endeavors to raise substantive issues and promote further dialogue about the changing
demographics in North Carolina, the failed immigration reform at the national level, and
the way in which our state has responded. More specifically, this policy brief focuses on
the implementation of the § 287(g) program in accordance with the Immigration and
Nationality Act, and the impact on our communities when local law enforcement agencies
undertake immigration enforcement duties.
Immigration is a complex area of law inherently within the domain of the federal
government under the U.S. Constitution. Until recently, immigration laws have been
traditionally enforced by federal immigration officers. Passed in 1996, § 287(g) of the
Immigration and Nationality Act as amended by the Department of Homeland Security
(DHS), empowers U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to enter into
agreements with state and local police enforcement agencies to execute immigration
monitoring and enforcement functions.1 These agreements are known as Memoranda of
Understanding, now more commonly referred to as Memoranda of Agreement (MOA).
These memoranda, for the first time, formally “deputize” state and local law enforcement
officers to enforce certain immigration laws. 
At the time of the writing of this policy brief, it is estimated that over sixty law
enforcement agencies throughout the nation have entered into such agreements and have
begun enforcing immigration laws at an unprecedented rate. With eight agencies

1	

8 U.S.C. § 1357(g) (2008).

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currently signed on, North Carolina has the second largest number of § 287(g) programs
in the nation.2 Thus far, however, these agencies have functioned under the MOAs with
little transparency or oversight and there has been little, if any, accountability as to the
implementation of the program.  Furthermore, since the implementation of § 287(g),
Hispanic-appearing residents in particular have reported discriminatory abuses related to the
program’s implementation. These abuses include harassment of legal residents and citizens
and subsequent alienation of ethnic communities from police authority and protection.
Much of the immigration controversy that underlies § 287(g) and
other anti-immigration initiatives is driven by fear and prejudice –
often inserted for the purpose of stifling debate.  Instead of fear and
prejudice, this policy review endeavors to approach the topic with
qualitative and quantitative data as well as a review of the legal and
policy questions raised by implementation of the program.
	

As a result of concerns about the program, an interdisciplinary research group

convened over the past year at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to study the
impact of the § 287(g) program. This group included faculty, law students, and graduate
students from the Institute of the Study of the Americas, the Departments of Sociology,
Anthropology, City and Regional Planning, and the School of Law, as well as faculty from
the Business School at Elon College. Our findings suggest that the § 287(g) program
functions as a deportation program largely unrelated to crime or national security.
Section 287(g) has been implemented without proper concern for due process and
legal protections and without concern for the negative consequences occurring among
communities throughout North Carolina.
Much of the immigration controversy that underlies § 287(g) and other anti2	
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Partners, available at
http://www.ice.gov/partners/287g/Section287_g.htm [hereinafter ICE Partners Website]. By early
November 2008, sixty-three municipalities had entered into MOAs and approximately eighty
agency requests for § 287(g) MOAs were pending. Virginia currently has nine agencies under
287(g) agreements. Id.

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immigration initiatives is driven by fear and prejudice – often inserted for the purpose of
stifling debate. Instead of fear and prejudice, this policy review endeavors to approach
the topic with qualitative and quantitative data as well as a review of the legal and policy
questions raised by implementation of the program. The authors of this policy brief urge
the state’s political representatives, as well as local and regional community leaders, to
consider the social and legal ramifications of the program’s wide-spread implementation.
North Carolina is a front-runner in utilizing § 287(g), but the state has not undertaken
acomprehensive analysis of the program in order to consider the program’s impact on the
state economy, the social networks of non-citizens and their families, and, as illustrated
in this policy review, the legal questions raised by the program.

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II. Overview of the INA § 287(g) Program
A. Sources of Law
1. The Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 287(g)
In 1996, the US Congress amended the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to
authorize the federal government to enter into agreements with local law enforcement
agencies and to deputize local law enforcement officers to act as immigration officers
in the course of their daily activities. Section 287(g) authorizes the Attorney General to
“enter into a written agreement with a state, or any political subdivision of a state, [to
determine qualified officers] to perform a function of an immigration officer in relation
to the investigation, apprehension, or detention of aliens in the United States . . . .” 3 The
statute also provides that immigration enforcement activities must be carried out at the
expense of the state or political subdivision and to the extent consistent with state and
local law.4
Historically, there was a clear division between the enforcement of civil
immigration laws and the enforcement of criminal immigration laws.5 Civil violations of
the INA include unlawful presence, working without proper employment authorization,
and visa-overstays.6 On the other hand, criminal immigration law covers offenses such
as human trafficking,7 the harboring of undocumented aliens,8 and the reentry of aliens
who were previously deported or excluded.9 Federal authorities have long held exclusive
jurisdiction over the ability to regulate civil immigration laws while federal, state, and
3	
8 U.S.C.S. § 1357(g) (2008).
4	
Id.
5	
  Dep’t of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel, “Assistance by State and Local Police
in Apprehending Illegal Aliens,” 1996 OLC Lexis 76 (1996), available at http://www.usdoj.gov/olc/
immstopo1a.htm.
6	
Alison Siskin, Congressional Research Service, Immigration Related Detention:
Current Legislative Issues, Order Code RL32369, at p. 6 (Apr. 28, 2004), available at
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl32369.pdf.
7	
Id.
8	
8 U.S.C.S. § 1324(a) (2008).
9	
8 U.S.C.S. § 1326 (2008).

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local authorities have had concurrent jurisdiction for the purpose of enforcing criminal
immigration laws.10 The written agreements under § 287(g) effectively erase that line,
enabling local law enforcement officers to enforce civil immigration law for the first time
in history.
During the first five years after the passage of the federal statute authorizing §
287(g) agreements, states expressed little interest in entering into MOAs. Following the
attacks of September 11, 2001, the Attorney General began to encourage State and local
law enforcement to enter into § 287(g) MOAs in order to assist with counter-terrorism
efforts.11 At the same time, local officials became increasingly frustrated with the failure
of the federal government to enact comprehensive immigration reforms. This led some
cities and municipalities to enact local legislation in an attempt to address what they
perceived to be the growing problem of illegal immigrants in their communities. Some
of these local ordinances attempted to restrict or bar access to housing and employment
to undocumented immigrants. Many of these ordinances, such as the ones in Hazelton,
PA, were found to be unconstitutional, leaving local authorities to seek other solutions.12
There are currently a total of sixty-three active § 287(g) MOAs in twenty states,
with 840 officers trained and certified.13 ICE reports that there were eighty pending
requests for agency approvals.14 Interest in § 287(g) MOAs appears to be higher in North
10	
Id.
11	
Blas Nuñez-Neto, Michael J. Garcia & Karma Ester, Congressional Research Service,
Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement, 2007, at 17.
12	
Lozano v. City of Hazelton, 496 F. Supp. 2d 477, 533 (2007).; The ordinances in Lozano
interfered with federal law and were declared unconstitutional. These ordinances included the
prohibition of employment and harboring of undocumented aliens and the requirement of a
permit to occupy an apartment, whereby the apartment dweller had to prove his citizenship or
lawful immigration status. The court permanently enjoined the city from enforcing the ordinances.
The case is currently on appeal. Id. North Carolina municipalities have similarly attempted to
establish ordinances targeted immigrant and Hispanic communities. See Mai Nguyen, Immigration Ordinances in North Carolina (on file with authors); See also Kristin Collins, Beaufort County
Wants to Stem Migrant Influx, News & Observer, May 25, 2008, available at http://www.newsobserver.com/politics/story/1084641.html.
13	
ICE Partners Website, supra note 2.
	
14	
This was the number last reported on the ICE Partners Website as of June 25, 2008. Id.

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Carolina than any other State.15 There are currently eight active MOAs in the North
Carolina; agreements have been signed by Alamance, Cabarrus, Gaston, Mecklenburg,
Wake, Cumberland, and Henderson Counties, and the Durham Police Department,16 As
last reported by ICE, at least twenty additional North Carolina law enforcement agencies
have requested § 287(g) partnerships.17
In addition to various MOA agreements, in 2007, North Carolina passed N.C. Gen.
Stat. § 162-62, a statute that requires any county or local jail to verify the immigration
status of persons who are detained in North Carolina facilities and who are detained on
felony or impaired driving charges. Furthermore, the North Carolina State legislature
approved nearly $2 million for the expansion of § 287(g) to other counties over a two-year
period.18 In 2007, $750,000 was appropriated to the North Carolina Sheriffs’ Association
(NCSA) Illegal Immigration Project for technical assistance and training associated with
immigration enforcement.19 The NCSA has used the money to become more involved with
the ICE ACCESS program, which includes § 287(g). The grant has been used for travel
reimbursement and salary costs for officers attending § 287(g) training20 but otherwise
provides no language or standards that regulate or provide for oversight or monitoring as
to how the money should be spent or how agencies are accountable for the expenditure of

15	
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, ICE and North Carolina
Sheriffs Working Together to Form Statewide Partnership, Oct. 15, 2007, available at http://www.
ice.gov/pi/news/newsreleases/articles/071015carolinabeach.htm [hereinafter ICE Press Release].;  
See also Michael Pearson, County Commission: Screening of Foreign Citizens Approved, Atlanta
Journal. and Constitution, Apr. 2, 2008, available at http://www.ajc.com/search/content/metro/
gwinnett/stories/2008/04/02/immigration0402.html (North Carolina is also considered a model
for § 287(g) programs in other states. The Chair of the County Commission of Gwinnett County,
Georgia, visited North Carolina while deciding whether to enter into an MOA.)
16	
ICE Press Release, supra note 15.
17	
Id.
18	
North Carolina General Assembly, House Bill 1950, Sheriffs Immigration Enforcement Agmt./Funds, 2007-2008 Session.
19	
North Carolina General Assembly, House Bill 1473, 2007 Appropriations Act, 2007
-2008 Session;  See also Joint Conference Committee Report on the Continuation, Expansion and
Capital Budgets, 2007, at I-15.
20	
Id.

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these funds.21
The lack of requirements as to how the money should be spent was a departure
from general procedures where legislative allocations are passed through the Governor’s
Crime Commission (GCC). Such allocations are ordinarily subject to grant guidelines
established by the GCC, with recommendations from experts and stakeholders in the
community. In this instance, the NCSA received the initial $750,000 allocation without
being subject to the GCC’s review or any regular process, other than periodic reporting
to the North Carolina General Assembly. Consequently, there was a lack of sufficient
accountability as to the use of these funds.22
A resolution adopted by the NCSA Executive Committee and sent
to the North Carolina House of Representatives perpetuates many
myths and misinformation about immigrant populations; indeed it is a
document which a proper immigration enforcement training program
should discourage.
This year, $600,000 has been appropriated to the GCC to contract with the
NCSA for technical assistance and training associated with immigration enforcement.23
There will be conditions on reporting of spending — an expected improvement from
the circumstances in 2007.24 However, legislative accountability in connection with the
funding of the § 287(g) still must be strengthened.
Furthermore, the designation of NCSA as the agency responsible for administering
the funds poses an additional cause for concern. A resolution adopted by the NCSA
Executive Committee and sent to the North Carolina House of Representatives perpetuates
21	
American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina, Letter to the Members of the Joint
Legislative Crime Control and Juvenile Justice Oversight Committee, Mar. 11, 2008, [hereinafter
ACLU Letter].
22	
NC House Bill 1473 and July 27, 2007 Joint Conference Committee Report on the
Continuation, Expansion and Capital Budgets.
23	
North Carolina General Assembly, House Bill 2436, Modify Appropriations Act of
2007 , 2007-2008 Session;   See also Joint Conference Committee Report on the Continuation,
Expansion and Capital Budgets, 2008, at I-12.
24	
ACLU Letter, supra note 21.

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many myths and misinformation about immigrant populations; indeed it is a document
which a proper immigration enforcement training program should discourage.25 The
resolution claims that there is “reliable documented evidence” that terrorist groups are
entering the US through the southern border, that the influx of “illegal aliens” drains
the resources of the State, and that “illegal aliens” don’t pay taxes. All these claims are
disputable at best and have largely been proven to be inaccurate. The resolution also
refers to undocumented immigrants as “illegal alien invaders.”26 And perhaps most
notably, the resolution advocates not only for the reduction of illegal immigration but also
for the reduction of legal immigration as well.27 Since the NCSA functions as an advisor
to sheriffs in counties considering implementation of § 287(g) MOAs, the content of the
resolution indicates the need for additional or other oversight as to the use of funds and
implementation of the program.
2. Memoranda of Agreement
The MOAs function as binding contracts between the DHS and local law
enforcement agencies (LEAs). Pursuant to § 287(g), the MOAs require ICE to provide
training to designated LEA employees who will be deputized to carry out certain immigration
enforcement duties. The MOA also sets forth supervision requirements, guidance with regard
to civil rights standards, interpreter issues, complaint mechanisms, and the establishment
of a steering committee, as well as other guidance pertaining to communication with the
communities affected by these agreements. As noted below in Section IV.D., there are
concerns about the ambiguous terms of the MOA, as well as lack of compliance with the
terms that do exist.

25	
See January 2007 Resolution by the North Carolina Sheriffs’ Association regarding
Immigration (on file with authors.)
26	
Id. at Resolution # 8
27	
Id. at Resolution # 7.

- 22 -

There are concerns about the ambiguous terms of the MOA, as well as
lack of compliance with the terms that do exist.
	

There are two basic types of MOA which contain different training requirements.

The programs are referred to in some ICE publications as “Field Level” and “Correction
Personnel” programs;28 ICE refers to the officers as “Task Force Officers” (TFOs) and
“Jail Enforcement Officers” (JEOs).29 Under the correction model, § 287(g)-trained
corrections officers are authorized to check the immigration status of any individual who
is processed into a corrections facility after arrest and is suspected of being in the country
illegally. In the field-level model, LEA officers are empowered to check the immigration
status of individuals they encounter in the course of their routine law enforcement duties.
For example, under the MOA with the Durham, N.C. Police Department, a designated
officer is authorized to interrogate any person believed to be an alien as to his right to be
or remain in the United States, arrest without warrant any alien that the officer believes
is in the United States in violation of the law and is likely to escape before a warrant
can be obtained, serve warrants of arrest for immigration violations, issue immigration
detainers, and detain and transport arrested aliens to ICE-approved detention centers.30
As explained below, however, the line between the two models is often blurred. In
counties that have entered into correction model MOAs, evidence suggests that individuals
are often arrested under circumstances where they otherwise may not have been, merely
for the purpose of having their immigration status checked by 287(g)-deputized officers.
For example, a study of arrest data in Davidson County, Tennessee, a County that has
entered into a “correction model” MOA, demonstrates that the arrest rates for Hispanic
28	
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Delegation of Immigration
Authority: Section 287(g) Immigration and Nationality Act, Sept. 5, 2007, available at http://www.
ice.gov/pi/news/factsheets/070906factsheet287gprogover.htm, [hereinafter Delegation of Immigration Authority].
29	
ICE Partners Website, supra note 2.
30	
Durham Police Dept. Memorandum of Agreement (on file with authors).

- 23 -

defendants driving without a license more than doubled after the implementation of the §
287(g) program.31 The two most likely explanations for this statistic are: officers may have
stopped more Hispanic drivers and therefore found more instances of driving without a
license, or officers have arrested more Hispanic drivers, based on driving without a license
or other traffic violations, in order to allow the correction officers to check their status.
Similarly, as noted below, North Carolina data for Mecklenburg and Alamance
Counties show that the overwhelming number of individuals who are stopped by § 287(g)
officers are arrested for traffic offenses.32 Because the REAL ID Act, passed in 2005,
requires individuals to prove citizenship or legal status in order to acquire a driver’s
license, a number of undocumented immigrants are unable to get driver’s licenses and
are therefore arrested for driving without a license.33 Further, the North Carolina General
Assembly revised N.C. Gen. Stat. § 20-7(b1) in 2006, to require possession of a social
security number in order to obtain a driver’s license.34
North Carolina data for Mecklenburg and Alamance Counties show
that the overwhelming number of individuals who are stopped by §
287(g) officers are arrested for traffic offenses.
As noted above, under the § 287(g) statute, MOAs are required to explicitly state
the type of training the officers will receive, the structure of officer supervision, and the
	
31	
Arrests for No Drivers License By Ethnicity and Race, Tennessee Immigrant and
Refugee Rights Coalition Report in Conjunction with Criminal Justice Planning, July 31, 2007 (on file
with authors).
32	
Matt Tomsic, Many Latinos Deported, Not For Felonies But for Minor Offenses, The
Independent, Dec. 24, 2008 (noting that traffic offenses, not including DWIs, make up the largest
percentage of initial charges against Latinos in Mecklenber, Gaston, and Alamance counties),
available at http://www.indyweek.com/gyrobase/Content?oid=oid%3A272683.   Mai Nguyen
and Hannah Gill, Preliminary Data Analysis: NC Court and U.S. Census Bureua Statsitcis for No
Operators License Charges Against Latinos/Hispanics in Mecklenburg and Alamance County
(demonstrated a significantly disperate increase in the number of Hispanic drivers cited from July
2005 and December 2007) (on file with the authors).
33	
Department of Homeland Security, REAL ID, June 20, 2008, available at http://
www.dhs.gov/xprevprot/programs/gc_1200062053842.shtm.
34	
See Senate Bill 602 (2005).  

- 24 -

procedure for handling complaints.35 These guidelines, however, are quite vague. In
addition, there is no provision in the statute that sets forth the person or entity authorized
to sign an MOA on behalf of the local authority. ICE publications, however, state that
the signatory can be the governor, head of the local law enforcement agency or “a senior
political entity.”36
The requirements for the officers participating in the program appear to be
minimal. The officer must be a U.S. citizen, must be able to pass a background check,
have a minimum of two years experience in his or her current position, and have no
pending disciplinary action.37 He or she must also successfully complete the § 287(g)
training program which is evaluated on a pass/fail basis, requiring trainees to achieve at
least 70% in all courses.38 According to ICE, attendees receive training in immigration
and naturalization law, removal charges, statutory authority, racial profiling, cultural
awareness, criminal law, and alien processing.39 However, a concern that has been raised
about the 287(g) program is that the ICE training course for 287(g) officers typically takes
4-5 weeks, while federal immigration officers are trained for 4-5 months.40
The questionable nature and purpose of the § 287(g) program is evidenced in
part by the rhetoric used to convince communities of its necessity. Neither ICE nor local
law enforcement agencies have emphasized the need for assistance in enforcing civil
immigration law; instead the agreements are promoted as an important way to guarantee
that “criminal aliens incarcerated within federal, State and local facilities are not released
into the community upon completion of their sentences.”41 ICE states that the § 287(g)
program is designed to remove those undocumented immigrants convicted of “violent
35	
28 C.F.R. § 65.84 (2003).
36	
Delegation of Immigration Authority, supra note 28.
37	
Id.
38	
Id.
39	
Id.
40	
Carrie L. Arnold, Racial Profiling in Immigration Enforcement: State and Local
Agreements to Enforce Federal Immigration Law, 49 Ariz. L. Rev. 113, 129 (Spring 2007).
41	
ICE Partner’s Website, supra note 2.

- 25 -

crimes, human smuggling, gang/organized crime activity, sexual-related offenses,
narcotics smuggling and money laundering.”42
ICE promotes § 287(g) agreements as a “force multiplier” for the Criminal Alien
Program (CAP) with a heavy focus on national security and crime prevention. The
explanation of the § 287(g) program on the website begins in this way:
Terrorism and criminal activity are most effectively combated
through a multi-agency/multi-authority approach that encompasses
the skills and expertise of federal, State and local resources. State
and local law enforcement agencies play a critical role in protecting
our national security in part because the vast majority of criminals are taken
into custody under their jurisdiction.43
The same language is also used in the introduction to the promotional brochure for the
§ 287(g) program.44 Additionally, as recently as June 2008, the United States House
of Representatives House Oversight Committee described ICE’s methodology as one
designed “to find the most violent and dangerous criminals in an effort to ensure that those
who are the greatest threat to society are the first priority for removal.”45 Nonetheless, the
program has been used indiscriminately to find, arrest, detain, and remove immigrants
who do not fit the profile of the program.

The questionable nature and purpose of the § 287(g) program is
evidenced by the rhetoric used to convince communities of its necessity.
Neither ICE nor local law enforcement agencies have emphasized
the need for assistance in enforcing civil immigration law; instead the
agreements are promoted as an important way to guarantee that
“criminal aliens incarcerated within federal, State and local facilities are
not released into the community upon completion of their sentences.”

42	
43	
44	
45	

Id.
Id.
Delegation of Immigration Authority, supra note 28.
H.R. 2638, 110th Cong. (2007).	

- 26 -

III. Actual Consequences of INA § 287(g)
A. The Universal Effect of § 287(g): Marginalized Communities
Section 287(g) deputizes local law enforcement officers to perform immigration
functions in the course of their normal duties.46 These functions include investigating
the status of suspected undocumented residents who are stopped or detained for reasons
other than their status.47 Thus, § 287(g) applies only to undocumented residents lawfully
stopped or detained.48 However, as data analyses and qualitative evidence suggests,
the program’s application and implementation deviate from the legal requirements.49
Section 287(g) is utilized not as a tool to aid law enforcement, but instead as a localized
immigration weapon and tool for intimidation and isolation of foreign nationals and
Hispanic residents and citizens 50
The participation of individual states and counties in § 287(g) often follows
a well-publicized community tragic event which the media and public opinion link to
lax immigration enforcement.51 In entering into an MOA, a contracting municipality or
46	
Forcing Our Blues in Grey Areas: Local Police and Federal Immigration Enforcement, A Legal Guide for Advocates, Appleseed 7, available at http://www.appleseednetwork.org/
Publications/ReportsToolkits/ForcingOurBluesintoGrayAreas/tabid/97/Default.aspx
[hereinafter
Forcing Our Blues].
47	
Id.
48	
Id.
49	
See supra note 32.
50	
FIRE Coalition Interview with Sheriff Terry Johnson, conducted by FIRE Coalition
National Director, Jeff Lewis, Dec. 2007, available at http://www.truveo.com/FIRE-Coalition-Interviews-Sheriff-Terry-Johnson-1/id/2953567179.; Sheriff Johnson of Alamance County readily acknowledges identification and mass deportation, or purging, of undocumented residents as the
primary motivator for its passage. Upon being asked in an interview with the FIRE Coalition on how
he got involved in 287(g), Sheriff Johnson responded:
I have been Sheriff of Alamance County for four and a half years now…and being a
resident of Alamance County, I’ve seen a massive change in the population the County which
is automatically overburdening the taxpayers. And I began to notice…that a large amount of
our population…was in fact foreign born, illegal, criminal immigrants who had come to settle
in Alamance County . . . and that our services that we were…supposed to be providing to our
taxpaying citizens were being cut short simply because we had to be responding to a lot of
criminal, illegal immigrants here in Alamance County.
51	
For example, consider that Florida was the first state to enter into such agreements,
motivated in part due to the fact that the 9-11 terrorists passed through and were trained in, their
state. One example is the recent and grisly murder of a ten-year old

- 27 -

sheriff’s department invariably issues a statement asserting that § 287(g) only applies
to the violent repeat offender.52 For example, one district attorney in North Carolina
stated: “It’s not a broad sweeping net that’s going to cast about to get everybody who may
have a [sic] questionable status immigration wise. It’s trying to get to the problem of
illegal immigrants who commit crimes.”53 Similarly, prior to finalizing an agreement with
ICE, local law enforcement officials routinely assert that the MOA will not affect general
relations with the Hispanic and immigrant community, assuring that nothing would
happen unless these individuals were arrested for the commission of a crime.54 Wake
County Sheriff Donnie Harrison recently said: “You hate to make guarantees on anything,
but there’s not going to be any profiling.”55
Unfortunately, undocumented residence itself is increasingly identified as the
predicate crime meriting police attention and resources.56 Section 287(g) is consequently
utilized to purge a town of an “unwelcome” immigrant presence. In the first seven months
since implementation of its MOA, Mecklenburg County processed over one thousand
undocumented residents for deportation.57 Alamance County, although operating with
a smaller population and fewer enforcement resources, boasts of deporting over four
hundred individuals over the first nine months of participation in the program.58
Instead of focusing on those people who commit the violent crimes as stated by
child in Morristown New Jersey by an undocumented immigrant which encouraged the mayor of
the town to enter into an MOA with the Department of Homeland Security.
52	
Kareem Fahim, Should Immigration Be a Police Issue?, N.Y. Times, Apr. 29, 2007.
53	
John Harbin, Henderson County Gets OK for Illegal Immigration Program, BlueRidgeNow.com Times-News Online, Feb. 21, 2008, available at http://www.blueridgenow.com/
article/20080221/NEWS/802210334.
54	
Fahim, supra note 52.
55	
Sergio Quintana, Latino Groups Concerned 287(g) Encourages Racial Profiling,
NBC-17, Raleigh, NC, Jun. 5, 2008, available at, http://www.nbc17.com/midatlantic/ncn/news.
apx.-content-articles-NCN-2008-06-05-0028.html.
56	
For example, see note 50; Sheriff Johnson’s interview identifies undocumented immigrants as “foreign born, illegal, criminal immigrants.”  Id.
57	
“Program Helping Rid Mecklenburg County Jail of Illegal Immigrants” WSOCTV,
Nov. 27, 2006, available at http://www.wsoctv.com/news/10405433/detail.html.
58	
See supra note 50. “[S]ince that time there have been over 400 individuals who
have been deported . . . and removed from the United States.” Id.

- 28 -

ICE, local law enforcement officers seem to be targeting drivers of a particular race or
national origin and stopping them for traffic violations. For example, during the month
of May 2008, eighty-three percent of the immigrants arrested by Gaston County ICEauthorized officers pursuant to the 287(g) program were charged with traffic violations.59
This pattern has continued as the program has been implemented throughout the state.
The arrest data appears to indicate that Mecklenburg and Alamance Counties are typical
in the targeting of Hispanics for traffic offenses for the purposes of a deportation policy.60
§ 287(g) encourages, or at the very least tolerates, racial profiling and
baseless stereotyping, resulting in the harassment of local residents
and the isolation of an increasingly marginalized community.
The aggressive allocation of police resources has serious implications for the larger
community. Indeed, § 287(g) must be understood to have a universal impact on the
community. First, as described below, § 287(g) encourages, or at the very least tolerates,
racial profiling and baseless stereotyping, resulting in the harassment of local residents
and the isolation of an increasingly marginalized community. Alamance County Sheriff
Terry Johnson made this sweeping characterization of all Mexicans in a recent statement:
“Their values are a lot different – their morals – than what we have here. In Mexico, there’s
nothing wrong with having sex with a 12-, 13-year-old girl . . . . They do a lot of drinking
down in Mexico.”61 North Carolina State Trooper C.J. Carroll stated that “Mexicans
drink a lot because they grew up where the water isn’t good.”62 Johnson County Sheriff
Steve Bizzell, who was president of the NCSA from in July 2007 until he was named the
association’s chairman in July 2008, described an incident of drunk driving that resulted
59	
ACLU Letter, supra note 21.  Out of thirty-five people, twenty-one were arrested
on a traffic stop, eight due to DUIs.  Thirty-two were charged with misdemeanors; only one was
charged with a felony. Id
60	
Id.
61	
Kristin Collins, Sheriffs Help Feds Deport Illegal Aliens, News & Observer, Apr. 22, 2007,
available at http://www.newsobserver.com/102/story/566759.html.
62	
State of North Carolina v. Juan Villeda, 165 N.C. App. 431, 504-05 (2004).

- 29 -

in the death of a young boy by saying that the child paid the “ultimate price for another
drunk Mexican [emphasis added].”63
Recently, Bizzell further vocalized his hostility toward immigrants. He stated
that they are “breeding like rabbits,” and that they “‘rape, rob and murder’ American
citizens.”64 He classified “Mexicans” as “trashy” and said that he thinks “all they do is
work and make love.” Additionally, Bizzell announced his resentment toward civil rights
advances that have helped the immigrant population in Johnston County. In the article,
he reminisced about the “Johnston County of his youth” when immigrants “were all in a
group, down a path somewhere in a camp,” even though living that way “was bad for them
as human beings.”
Sheriff Bizzell claimed to be fulfilling the requests of Johnston County residents.
He maintained that everywhere he goes, “people say, ‘Sheriff, what are we going to do
about all these Mexicans?’” He acknowledged that his goal is to reduce if not eliminate
the immigrant population of Johnston County. Through 287(g) agreements, deputies
and officers across the state, who may be led by men like Sheriff Johnson, or influenced
by Sheriff Bizzell who have held a leadership position with the NCSA that has championed
the § 287(g) program, have the resources and virtually unfettered authority to act on the
discriminatory sentiment that they have espoused. Such a situation cultivates the illegal
activity of racial profiling.
Racial profiling is not only legally impermissible, but because it is based on
stereotypes and wrongful assumptions about the propensity of certain groups to commit

63	
Sarah Ovaska, Deportation Fear Fuels Flight, News & Observer, Jun. 12, 2008, available
at http://www.newsobserver.com/news/immigration/story/1105229.html#MI_Comments_Link.
64	
Kristin Collins, Tolerance Wears Thin, News & Observer, Sept. 4, 2008, available at
http://www.newsobserver.com/news/immigration/story/1209646.html.

- 30 -

crimes, it is also immoral and ineffective.65 As our courts have noted, assumptions based
on race “perpetuate negative racial stereotypes that are harmful to our rich and diverse
democracy, and materially impair our efforts to maintain a fair and just society.”66 The
societal and human costs as a result of such profiling are enormous.
Racial profiling diminishes trust and reduces the opportunities to develop social
capital and human bonds that make for strong communities.67 Ethnic minorities, who have
been subjected to harassment and law enforcement targeting, experience a deep sense of
injustice, often resulting in distrust and cynicism towards state and local institutions.68
For example, one woman living in Johnston County, who is a legal permanent resident
and has three citizen children, says that “many Hispanics feel as if law officers are looking
for excuses to deport them.”69 This distrust may result in reluctance on the part of the
community, including citizens, to otherwise participate in the building of social and
economic relationships that make our neighborhoods vibrant and healthy.
	

While the Hispanic community is most directly implicated, the implementation of

§ 287(g) renders negative consequences for the security and integrity of the community
as a whole. The aggressive use of local police to enforce immigration law often means
that vulnerable populations are less willing to interact with the police, either in reporting
65	
For a more detailed discussion of the racial profiling in the legal context, see the
section entitled “Lack of Compliance with Federal Constitutional Law: Equal Protection Violations
through Racial Profiling” below.  See also Reginald T. Shuford, Any Way You Slice It: Why Racial
Profiling is Wrong, 18 St. Louis Univ. Public Law Rev. 371, 372 (1999); Guidance Regarding the Use of
Race by Law Enforcement Agencies, U.S. Dep’t of Just. Civil Rights Division, June 2003, available
at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/split/documents/guidance_on_race.htm, [hereinafter DOJ Guidelines].
66	
Id. See also United States v. Montero-Camargo, 208 F.3d 1122, 1135 (9th Cir. 2000),
(“Stops based on race or ethnic appearance send the underlying message to all our citizens that
those who are not white are judged by the color of their skin alone. ”).
67	
David A. Harris, Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation’s Highway,
ACLU Special Report (1999), available at http://www.aclu.org/racialjustice/racialprofiling/15912
pub19990607.html.   Wrong Then, Wrong Now: Racial Profiling Before & After September 11, 2001,
Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund, available at http://www.civilrights.org/
publications/reports/racial_profiling/racial_profiling_report.pdf.
68	
David A. Harris, The Stories, the Statistics, and the Law: Why ‘Driving While Black’
Matters, 84 Minn. L. Rev. 265 (1999).
69	
Collins, supra note 64.

- 31 -

crimes or in offering information, both detrimental to the safety of all members of the
community. Section 287(g) thus must be understood as having a universal impact.
B. Chilling Effect: The Danger of Immigrants’ Fear of Reporting Crime
and Diminished Local Law Enforcement Capability
Since September 11, 2001, both the U.S. government and the public
have increasingly, although perhaps erroneously, linked immigration
with national security.

	

Participation in the § 287(g) program appears to present an attractive bargain

for many police and sheriff’s departments. Public perception links a growing crime rate
to a greater immigrant presence. However the incidence of criminal activity conducted
by foreign-born residents is actually lower than that of natural-born citizens.70 Since
September 11, 2001, both the U.S. government and the public have increasingly, although
perhaps erroneously, linked immigration with national security.
In fact, incarceration rates among young men have been lowest for immigrants
over the past three decades.71 As the undocumented immigrant population has doubled
its size since 1994, the violent crime rate in the United States has declined 34.2 percent
and property crime has fallen 26.4 percent.”72 A comprehensive study of population
growth and crime between 1997 and 2006 in all counties in North Carolina demonstrates
that the counties with the highest Hispanic population growth rate have the lowest
violent and property crime rates.73 The same study showed a positive correlation between
70	
Lindsay Haddix, Immigration and Crime in North Carolina: Beyond the Rhetoric,
Dept. of City and Reg. Planning, UNC Chapel Hill, Master’s Project, Spring 2008.
71	
Id. at 19.
72	
Rubén G. Rumbaut, Walter A. Ewing, The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the
Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates Among Native and Foreign-born Men, Immigration
Policy Center, Spring 2007.
73	
Haddix, supra note 70, at 11. Hispanics compromise about seventy-eight percent
of the undocumented population in the United States according to a March 2005 study by the
Pew Hispanic Center. Id.

- 32 -

total population growth and increased crime rates. In other words, counties with high
growth rates find increased crime rates, but counties with high growth rates of Hispanic
populations, find decreased or steady crime rates.74 Although studies dispel myths about
crime rates and immigration, responding to faulty public opinions and misperception is
politically advantageous for the agencies that take part in §287(g) programs.
In fact, § 287(g) has received a tepid response from law enforcement groups
nationally75 as some of the most ardent critics of § 287(g) are its potential enforcers.76 The
International Association of Chiefs of Police, the trade association representing Police
Chiefs in Washington, D.C., through its official publications, identifies the ways in which
the program is harmful to the mission of local law enforcement:
There are a number of compelling reasons why local law enforcement
executives should resist the temptation to make state and local police
agencies the frontline enforcers of federal immigration laws. These reasons
take into the account the primary responsibility of local law enforcement,
which is to fight crime at the local level. They also reflect the reality that
immigrants both legal and undocumented have become a large part of our
communities.77
Participation in § 287(g) and performance of immigration functions in tandem
with police enforcement threatens this mission.78

Law enforcement relies on the

cooperation of residents in preventing, solving, and prosecuting crimes.79

Without

assurance that they will not be “punished” or subjected to immigration investigation and
deportation for calling attention to themselves, studies find that “many immigrants with
critical information would not come forward, even when heinous crimes are committed
74	
Id.
75	
Fahim, supra note 52.
76	
Forcing Our Blues, supra note 46.
77	
Craig E. Ferrell Jr., Immigration Enforcement, Is It a Local Issue?, 71 The Police Chief 2,
Feb. 2004, available at http://policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_
arch&article_id=224&issue_id=22004.
78	
Id.
79	
Id.

- 33 -

against them or their families.”80 As many families are comprised of both documented
and undocumented immigrants as well as citizens, this direct “chilling effect” impacts
the entire immigrant community, driving a “potential wedge between police and . . .
the community . . . .”81 In the Association’s 2007 publication, Police Chiefs’ Guide to
Immigration Issues, the Association emphasized that “working with these communities
is critical in preventing and investigating crimes.” and noted that an open relationship
with a vulnerable immigrant community is increasingly difficult as:
Ethnic minorities are often afraid of the perceived potential for racial
profiling and prejudice towards them by the police and the communities
they reside in. This dynamic results in fear and distrust in the immigrant
community and a general lack of cooperation with law enforcement.82
The consequence of this “general lack of cooperation with law enforcement” is
reduced security. Undocumented residents are increasingly discouraged from reporting
crimes, which in turn seriously undermines the overall security of their communities. 83
Immigrants are thus tacitly identified as “fair game” and are “extremely vulnerable to
crime” because of the likelihood that they will not report crimes.84 Immigrant communities
are particularly vulnerable given the fact that immigrants less frequently have the ability
to bank and therefore often carry cash on hand.85 The Association’s Guide identifies the
immigrant population as one particularly vulnerable to crime and particularly important
as a resource in crime prevention and prosecution:
Many immigrant crimes are not reported . . . . Criminals tend to operate
80	
Id.
81	
Id.
82	
International Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Chiefs’ Guide to Immigration
Issues, July 2007, at 		
21, available at http://www.theiacp.org/documents/pdfs/Publications/PoliceChiefsGuidetoImmigration.pdf.
83	
Id. at 28.
84	
Id.
85	
Id. at 33.   “[B]ecause of the general distrust of banking and government institutions, including police. Immigrants tend to have and carry large sums of cash and valuables
making them vulnerable to crime and extortion.” Id.

- 34 -

in language environments they know and understand, which complicates
criminal detection by law enforcement and increases the potential for
retaliation by a perpetrator should a victim come forward to report a crime.86
The consequence of participation in § 287(g), therefore, is the increasing isolation
and victimization of an already vulnerable segment of society.87 This leads to decreased
security for the Hispanic community specifically and for the entire community as a whole.
Anecdotal evidence collected in Alamance County correlates with this phenomenon:
undocumented residents report being increasingly unwilling to contact law enforcement
to report crimes or otherwise come forward to aid the police department.88 Reports of a
decrease in crime following the passage of an MOA are therefore misleading. A decrease
in crime may be explained by the fact that fewer crimes may be reported, as a significant
portion of the population is no longer willing to contact the police out of fear of deportation.
Consequently, participation in § 287(g) may be marked by an initial decrease in reported
crime, but more importantly, it may also be characterized by an increase in actual crime
and a reduction in actual security.89
	

Section 287(g) significantly undermines security in another way. With an immigrant

community increasingly isolated from legitimate police enforcement and ostracized
from society generally, community members may turn to other avenues to ensure their
personal security. Anti-immigrant feelings, isolation from police, and greater crime rates
within an immigrant community may encourage gang development.90 Section 287(g),
frequently cited as an important tool in combating gang violence and activity, may instead
be considered as a possible important catalyst in its spread.

86	
Id. at 28.
87	
Hannah Gill, Institute for the Study of the Americas, Broken Promises: 287(g) in
Alamance County, Community Impacts of Local Policy Responses to Undocumented Immigration: A Community Conference, Apr. 6, 2008.  
88	
Id.
89	
Id.
90	
Id.

- 35 -

C. Economic Impact
The average cost to the federal government for one § 287(g) agreement is $17
million per year.91 The states and local agencies that enter into these agreements also
spend a great deal of money on the program. At first glance, § 287(g) appears to provide
a financial incentive for sheriff’s departments and selected communities by funneling
federal resources for the local detainment of deportees.92 A participating department
receives an average of $66 for every bed filled by an undocumented resident in a detention
center an attractive resource.93 However, at the same time, the program exacts a serious
economic cost on the community.94
There is concern that federal resources allocated to local law enforcement agencies
operating under § 287(g) may provide economic incentive to engage in racial profiling.
With the increase in pretextual stops of Hispanic-appearing individuals, there is an
increased opportunity for officers to inquire about an individual’s documentation and
subsequently, an increased chance of receiving funds for detaining deportable immigrants.
This financial incentive may give the appearance that local law enforcement officers have
been transformed into bounty hunters.
In reality, however, these MOAs may be a drain on the resources of the counties
and states that enter into them. Except for the expenses of training and providing access
to computers, it appears that all other expenses in connection with the program (outside
of those counties that obtain additional funding for housing arrestees in immigration
91	
Minutes of meeting between American Immigration Lawyers Association Immigration & Customs Enforcement, 12/12/2007 (on file with the authors).
92	
Robert Boyer, Dole Wants to Make Alamance County Regional Immigration Hub, Times
News, Sept. 11, 2007, available at http://www.thetimesnews.com/onset?id=5695&template=article.
html.; Alamance County constitutes one example.   Senator Dole recently reported a desire to
make Alamance County jail a “hub” for deportation detainment in the Southeast. This would
involve allocation of six million dollars to the County. Id. Kristin Collins, Sheriffs Help Feds Deport
Illegal Aliens, News & Observer, April 22, 2007, available at http://www.newsobserver.com/news/
immigration/story/566759.html, [hereinafter Sheriffs Help Feds].
93	
Id.
94	
Gill, supra note 87.

- 36 -

detention facilities) are borne by the localities themselves. Indeed, Gaston County officials
have noted that the 287(g) program is a drain on their resources.95 Because deputies
“often have to pull themselves away from other work to fulfill their ICE duties,” Gaston
County Sheriff Alan Cloninger said that the County will have to hire an additional three
officers to work at the County Jail.96 The positions will cost local taxpayers $175,000 in the
first year and will increase by over $8,000 for each year following.97 Wake County expects to
spend $539,341 per year on its 287(g) program, plus a one-time start-up cost of $89,975.98
There is concern that federal resources allocated to local law
enforcement agencies operating under § 287(g) may provide
economic incentive to engage in racial profiling.  In reality, however,
these MOAs may be a drain on the resources of the counties and
states that enter into them.
Even counties that do receive additional funding for housing arrestees in
immigration detention facilities can feel the economic strain of entering into the MOAs.
Although there have been no completed studies of economic costs borne by North
Carolina localities, one can look to the example of Prince William County, Virginia which
has adopted a 287(g) program and for which such analysis has been completed. In Prince
William County, the county jail is paying out more than it receives in compensated as a
result of the 287(g) agreement.99 This is because many suspects detained on state and
local charges who would normally be released on bond, are denied this option when also
95	
Michael Barrett, Gaston County Expanding Its Illegal Immigration Program, Gaston
Gazette, Mar. 28, 2008, available at http://www.gastongazette.com/news/county_18741___article.
html/cloninger_program.html.
96	
Id.
97	
Michael Barrett, New ICE Jail Positions Could Cost More Than $210,000 by 2013,
Gaston Gazette, Apr. 6, 2008, available at http://www.gastongazette.com/news/county_19075___
article.html/new_three.html.
98	
Partnership Between US Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency and the
Wake County Sheriff’s Office, Nov. 5, 2007, available at http://www.wakegov.com/agendas/2007/
november5/07/cover.htm.
99	
Nick Miroff, Detainee Program Strains Virginia Jail, The Washington Post, Apr. 8,
2008,
available
at
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/07/
AR2008040702470.html.

- 37 -

suspected of an immigration violation. Although the terms of the MOA require ICE to
remove these suspects within seventy-two hours of their release from state or county
custody, their removal from local facilities in fact is taking much longer. As a consequence,
people who are originally detained for “traffic violations or other minor offenses might
wait weeks for federal removal,” with the county jail picking up the extra cost.100 The
already overcrowded jail is forced to send inmates elsewhere in the state, costing the jail
over $220,000 a month in transportation and processing costs. Thus, 287(g) agreements
may increase costs to taxpayers, even with ICE’s economic incentives.
The financial incentive for law enforcement agencies is also nominal compared
to the serious economic cost suffered by a community under a § 287(g) program. The
potential for racial profiling by law enforcement officers results in economic damage when
residents who no longer want to live in a hostile county move, abandoning housing, and
causing a loss of profits for local businesses and a decrease in taxpayers. A 2006 study
reported that North Carolina’s Hispanic population contributes $9.2 billion annually to
the state’s economy.101 This number is expected to increase to $18 million by 2009.102
Immigrant labor is fundamental to economic growth of a community.
The narrative that depicts undocumented immigrants as individuals who drain
public resources without contributing to the community through taxes or economic
development is contested if not untrue. 103 A 2002 study demonstrated that immigrant
households and businesses contribute over $162 billion in direct taxes annually.104 They
100	
Id.
101	
John D. Kasarda and James H. Johnson, Jr., The Economic Impact of the Hispanic
Population on the State of North Carolina, Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, Jan. 2006.
102	
Id.
103	
FIRE Interview, supra note 50. This perception is demonstrated in Sheriff Johnson’s
description of the problem encountered in Alamance County which motivated him to seek an
MOA with ICE. Id.
104	
American Immigration Law Foundation, Immigrant Workers: Making Valuable
Contributions to Our Communities and Our Economy, Spring 2002 available at http://www.seiu.
org/issues/immigration/immigration_facts.cfm.

- 38 -

will also contribute almost $500 billion to Social Security between 1998 and 2022.105
The perception of immigrant workers “free-riding” on the public is therefore inaccurate.
In addition, immigrant labor is fundamental to economic growth.

Undocumented

immigrants alone contribute $300 billion annually to the United States GNP.106 This
vital contribution was recognized by then Federal Reserve Chairman, Alan Greenspan,
in his testimony before Congress as he identified immigrant labor as a “viable solution”
to the threat of a labor shortage and discussed the implications for continued economic
growth. At a recent conference on this topic at the University of North Carolina, Brian
Nienhaus of the Elon School of Business identified this contribution by linking a growing
immigrant presence with increased economic prosperity as reflected in increased housing
and commercial property values.107
There is also a risk of high litigation costs associated with wrongful convictions, racial
profiling, and other consequences of 287(g) programs. Indeed, in this more aggressive
enforcement environment, ICE is not exempt from responsibility for wrongful detention
which may result in costly litigation.108 Additional studies are necessary to demonstrate
the costs associated with the § 287(g) program and the economic consequences suffered
by counties whose law enforcement agencies enter into these agreements. But one
thing is clear: the economic costs to communities and governments have not been fully
considered in weighting the disadvantages of the § 287(g) program.
105	
Id.
106	
Id.
107	
Brian Nienhaus, Elon University School of Business, Immigrants, Real Estate and the
Economy in Alamance County, Community Impacts of Local Policy Responses to Undocumented
Immigration, Apr. 6, 2008.
108	
This is demonstrated by the litigation following the disastrous raids of Willmar,
Minnesota in 2007 and Georgia in 2006.  The Hutto Detention Center settlement, reached in the
fall of 2007, also illustrates the expense attached to such liability and emphasizes that ICE itself
is not immune to wrongful execution of duties or the liability that follows. Additional lawsuits
have been filed related to detention of immigrants.  See Lawsuit: Ice Drugging Detainees Set for
Deportation Oct. 7, 2007, at http://www.detentionwatchnetwork.org/node/416; CCA Immigration Detention: Immigration Agency, Contractors Accused of Mistreating Detainees, May 5, 2008
available at http://realcostofprisons.org/blog/archives/2008/05/cca_immigrant_d.html..

- 39 -

Anti-immigrant laws like § 287(g) are often passed with the idea that
“it won’taffect me.” Regardless of one’s personal stance on this
issue, history demonstrates that there is a very thin line dividing antiimmigrant laws from those that diminish the civil rights and due process
protections of citizens.

D. The Encroachment on American Liberties
Anti-immigrant laws like § 287(g) are often passed with the idea that “it won’t
affect me.” A voting citizen may justify the passage of a law that condones mistreatment
of non-citizens, but would consider the same law a violation of civil rights if applied to a
citizen. Some people believe that non-citizens do not merit the same rights and treatments
as citizens. Regardless of one’s personal stance on this issue, history demonstrates that
there is a very thin line dividing anti-immigrant laws from those that diminish the civil
rights and due process protections of citizens. Today’s anti-immigrant law paves the way
for future encroachments on American liberties.
The most commonly referenced example of this ‘slippery slope’ is the Japanese
internment camps during World War II. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, U.S.
authorities arrested and detained approximately 110,000 persons of Japanese heritage,
about 70,000 of whom were U.S. citizens. Thousands of people were forced to leave their
homes indefinitely, interned without constitutional protections. The federal government
has since issued a formal apology and made reparations for those interned, yet the antiimmigrant Enemy Alien Act of 1798, which was used to justify this government action,
remains valid law today.109 More importantly, the Enemy Alien Act was created to apply
only to citizens of foreign nations with which the United States is at war. The application
of this law to U.S. citizens was beyond the scope of its enactment. Over time, the Enemy
Alien Act thus brought about the conflagration between immigration and race, and an
109	

50 U.S.C §§21-24

- 40 -

anti-immigrant law became an anti-citizen law.110
Section 287(g) programs affect citizens and documented residents in other ways,
as well. Citizens and documented residents must deal with frequent roadblocks and
increased numbers of detention centers. For example Alamance County has repeatedly set
up a roadblock near a Latino market. “Immigration roadblocks” have also been reported
in Mecklenburg County and other parts of Alamance County. Three weekends in a row, a
roadblock was set up at both entrances to a church in Mt. Olive, North Carolina.111
Mecklenburg and Gaston Counties have been discussing another partnership
with ICE: the building of a new immigration detention center in one of the counties.
Although the detention center might bring about 300 jobs to the area, it would also bring
“unwanted attention” to the area.112 The proposed 1500-bed facility may be, like many
other immigration detention centers, an “environment of overcrowding, sexual assault,
lawsuits, public protests and even death.”113
Once again, Prince William County, Virginia offers an example of how American
liberties are affected through a 287(g) agreement. Because the county jail holds immigration
suspects for ICE for weeks at a time before they are removed to detention facilities, the
jail is overcrowded and forced to juggle its inmates between other jails throughout the
state.114 No answers are provided to lawyers and family members who seek information
about when or to which facility their clients and loved ones may are transferred.115 The
287(g) program negatively affects citizens and their families, as well as undocumented
immigrants who retain certain rights under the Constitution regardless of
110	
David Cole, Enemy Aliens 54 Stan. L. Rev. 953, 993 (2002).
111	
Elizabeth DeOrnellas, Immigrants Feel the ‘Shadow of Fear,’ The Daily Tar Heel, Oct.
30, 2007.  
112	
Lisa Zagaroli, Illegal Immigrant Detention Center: Boost in Jobs vs. Trouble Moving
In (Charlotte Observer), Detention Watch Network, Jan. 28, 2008.
113	
Id.
114	
Nick Miroff, Detainee Program Strains Virginia Jail, The Washington Post, Apr. 8, 2008, at
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/07/AR2008040702470.html.
115	
Id.

- 41 -

their status. Detention conditions and interference with attorney-client relationships are
likely to produce costly litigation for counties that enter into these agreements.

The detention and deportation of community members implicates
many individual rights and threatens to compromise the rights of the
community as a whole.   Racial profiling and harassment of foreign
nationals are some of the most pernicious consequences reported as
resulting from agreements between federal immigration authorities
and state and local police authorized to enforce immigration laws.

- 42 -

IV. Legal Issues
Section 287(g) presents pressing legal concerns. The detention and deportation
of community members implicates many individual rights and threatens to compromise
the rights of the community as a whole. The legal concerns include, but are not limited
to: (1) lack of compliance with federal law and guidelines including wrongful immigration
determinations, (2) lack of compliance with North Carolina law, (3) problems with the
contractual provisions of the MOA in application. The following section evaluates these
topics in greater detail.
A. Lack of Compliance with Federal Law
INA § 287(g) requires that any officers certified under the program “shall have
knowledge of and adhere to Federal law relating to the function.” As such, deputized §
287(g) officers must comply with federal laws, standards, and guidelines when employing
their immigration-enforcement functions. At this point, the public has no way of knowing
whether the program as implemented and supervised ensures such compliance. The
following section reviews just some of the concerns related to § 287(g) compliance with
federal constitutional, statutory and case law, and guidelines.
1. Lack of Compliance with Federal Law:
Equal Protection Violations through Racial Profiling
Racial profiling and harassment of foreign nationals are some of the most pernicious
onsequences reported as resulting from agreements between federal immigration
authorities and state and local police authorized to enforce immigration laws. These
harmful practices occur notwithstanding the obligations of deputized § 287(g) officers
to comply with federal laws, standards, and guidelines when engaged in immigrationenforcement functions—laws that include the prohibition of racial profiling.

- 43 -

Anecdotal evidence and other data suggest that § 287(g)-deputized law enforcement
officers in some North Carolina counties are violating legal standards and engaging in
racial profiling by stopping motorists in the community who appear to be Hispanic/Latino.
Alamance and Mecklenburg County residents have raised concerns that under the guise of
“pretextual” vehicle stops, law enforcement officers appear to be hunting for minor traffic
offenses by Hispanic-appearing individuals. Concerns mount daily that law enforcement
officers equate Hispanic last names and appearances with criminality and use national origin
and ethnicity without probable cause or reasonable suspicion to stop and detain residents.
a. Federal Constitutional Violations:
Racial Profiling of Hispanic-Appearing Individuals
The Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment extends its protection
to all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States and prohibits law enforcement
from stopping, detaining, or seizing individuals based on racial characteristics.116 The
term “racial profiling” refers to the practice by law enforcement agents of “relying, to any
degree, on race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin in selecting which individuals to
subject to routine or spontaneous investigatory activities, or in deciding upon the scope
and substance of law enforcement activity following the investigatory procedure.”117
Most 287(g) programs in North Carolina are detention model programs, meaning
that 287(g)-trained officers are not authorized to check the immigration of individuals

116	
United States v. Brignoni -Ponce, 422 U.S. 873, 884, 95 S.Ct. 2574, 45 L.Ed.2d 607 (1975);
Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806, 813, 116 S.Ct. 1769, 135 L.Ed.2d 89  (1996) (noting that “the Constitution prohibits selective enforcement of the law based on considerations such as race”). See
also Melendres v. Arpaio, No. CV 07-02513-PHX-MHM (D. Ariz.) (class action in early stages of litigation challenging Maricopa County, AZ Sheriff’s Office’s implementation of 287(g) program and
alleging “a widespread pattern or practice of racial profiling and other racially and ethnically
discriminatory treatment in an illegal, improper and unauthorized attempt to ‘enforce’ federal
immigration laws against large numbers of Latino persons in Maricopa County without regard for
actual citizenship or immigration status”).
117	
Black’s Law Dictionary 1286 (8th ed. 2004).

- 44 -

unless they have been arrested on other charges and are detained in the jail facilities.118 As
such, the general rule applies regarding the prohibition against law enforcement stopping,
detaining, or seizing individuals based on racial characteristics.119 Nevertheless, residents
in local communities where § 287 programs are in effect have expressed concerns that
some § 287(g) officers are violating legal standards and engaging in racial profiling by
stopping motorists who appear to be Hispanic/Latino.120 Local residents and advocacy
groups have raised concerns that under the guise of pretextual vehicle stops and license
and DWI checkpoints, law enforcement officers appear to be targeting Hispanic-appearing
individuals for minor traffic offenses.
b. Illegality of Pre-Textual Stops Based on Race
Pre-textual stops occur when an officer stops a vehicle for a traffic violation as a
pretext for “initiating contact and future investigation.”121 It is true that the police may
briefly detain and search an individual (known as a “Terry Stop”) based on “reasonable
suspicion” that a “crime” has been committed.122 Terry Stops may be considered to be

118	
The only current field level MOA in North Carolina is that of the City of Durham,
in which a designated officer is authorized to interrogate any person believed to be an alien as
to his right to be or remain in the United States, arrest without warrant any alien that the officer
believes is in the United States in violation of the law and is likely to escape before a warrant can
be obtained, serve warrants of arrest for immigration violations, issue immigration detainers, and
detain and transport arrested aliens to ICE-approved detention centers.
119	
In contrast, immigration officers are permitted to consider an individual’s race or
ethnic appearance as one specific articulable fact that could be combined with reasonable inferences to create a reasonable suspicion that a person may be in the country illegally. However,
race may not be the only factor considered. Brignoni -Ponce, 422 U.S. at 886-87.
120	
The ACLU of North Carolina and other local organizations are receiving complaints
that “license check” roadblocks and checkpoints have been set up by sheriff’s deputies in areas
frequented by the Latino community. Buncombe County Sheriff Van Duncan has also acknowledged statistics that demonstrate that a significant number of people seized by §287(g) officers
have been picked up for non-alcohol related motor vehicle or traffic offenses.  Robert Mccarson,
Buncombe Sheriff Questions Appropriateness of Federal-local Immigration Program, La Voz Independiente, Oct. 17, 2008, available at http://www.lavozindependiente.com/news.php?nid=519.
121	
Carrie L. Arnold, Racial Profiling in Immigration Enforcement: State and Local
Agreements to Enforce Federal Immigration Law, 49 Ariz. L. Rev. 113, 119 (2007).
122	
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 29-30, 88 S.Ct. 1868, 1884, 20 L.Ed.2d 889 (1968).  

- 45 -

limited or less intrusive searches, but their consequences are anything but limited. Law
enforcement officers, in reliance on the lower threshold of suspicion required in Terry
stops, often justify stopping and detaining immigrants for minor traffic matters as a
pretext for other purposes, namely to remove the immigrant from the United States. For
example, § 287(g)-deputized law enforcement officers may stop a car on the pretext that
a rear brake light is broken. At that point, the officer is free to check the immigration
status of any individual in the car.123 Further, it is important to remember that even in
a detention model jurisdiction, a non-287(g) trained officer has the discretion to arrest
individuals for certain traffic offenses, such as driving without a license124 and speeding
in excess of fifteen (15) miles per hour.125 In fact, the majority of individuals arrested
by § 287(g) officers in Gaston, Mecklenburg, and Alamance Counties were arrested for
traffic offenses.126 In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that some Hispanic-appearing
individuals are stopped, at times while on foot or in public places, and are otherwise
mistreated, notwithstanding a lack of any individualized suspicion or any evidence of
criminal activity, including traffic infractions.
The nature of vehicle codes, traffic laws, and equipment violations make traffic
stops particularly susceptible to misuse for purposes unrelated to law enforcement.
Enforcement of traffic offenses allows for a high degree of police discretion; officers
may be motivated by prejudices relating to race and ethnicity in their determination of
targeted individuals.127 In these cases, a person is stopped not because of a violation, but
rather because of his or her membership in a perceived racial or ethnic group.128 This
123	
But note that under a detention model, no officers should be asking immigrationrelated questions of anyone on the street or anywhere else outside of the jail, including drivers and
passengers.
124	
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 20-28 (2008).
125	
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 20-16.1 (2008).
126	
See supra note 32.  
127	
David A. Harris, When Success Breeds Attach: The Coming Backlash Against Racial
Profiling Studies, 6 Mich. J. Race & Law 237 (2001).
128	
David A. Harris, The Stories, the Statistics, and the Law: Why ‘Driving While Black’
Matters, 84 Minn. L. Rev. 265 (1999).

- 46 -

phenomenon has been demonstrated in studies in other parts of the United States; data
shows that in some localities, police officers conduct discretionary searches of minority
drivers twice as often as white drivers.129
Some Hispanic-appearing individuals are stopped, at times while on
foot or in public places, and are otherwise mistreated, notwithstanding
a lack of any   individualized suspicion or any evidence of criminal
activity, including traffic infractions.

The End of Profiling Act (ERPA), based on an Amnesty International report on
racial profiling, was introduced to Congress in 2004 by Representatives Conyers (D-MI)
and Shays (R-CT) and co-sponsored by 107 other members of Congress.130 Had it passed,
ERPA would have established that racial profiling causes a disparate impact on racial,
ethnic, or religious minorities. To address these consequences, the law would prohibit
any law enforcement agent or agency from engaging in racial profiling.131 It would
have expressly prohibited all pretextual stops and required officers to further refine or
articulate the basis of their suspicion when stopping a suspect.132 Although ERPA was not
passed, it demonstrates a national concern and continued organizational support for the
termination of racial profiling. ERPA reiterates the holding of the Supreme Court in U.S.
v. Brignoni-Ponce, which declared that “articulable facts” must exist before officers on
roving patrols may stop vehicles and ask the occupants about their immigration status.133

129	
The Persistence of Racial Profiling in Rhode Island: A Call for Action, ACLU, (2007),
available at http://www.aclu.org/pdfs/racialjustice/riracialprofilingreport.pdf.
130	
Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the
United States, Amnesty International USA 28 (2004).
131	
End Racial Profiling Act of 2004, S. 2132--108th Congress (2004) available at http://
www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?tab=summary&bill=s108-2132.
132	
Id. at § 501(6).
133	
Brigoni-Ponce, 422 U.S. at 884.  

- 47 -

c. Lack of Compliance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 states that “no person in the United States
shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation
in, be denied benefits, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity
receiving federal financial assistance.”134 Section 287(g)-participating agencies receive
financial assistance from the federal government and are therefore required to abide by
the provisions in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These agencies must not “utilize criteria or
methods of administration which have the effect of subjecting individuals to discrimination
because of their race, color, or national origin . . . ”135 Section 287(g) agencies that racially
profile are certainly discriminating against individuals based on their race, color, or
ethnicity, and are therefore violating federal law.
d. Lack of Compliance with Department of Justice Guidance
In a February 2001 Address to a Joint Session of Congress, President George W.
Bush “declared that racial profiling is ‘wrong and we will end it in America.’”136 President
Bush ordered the Attorney General to “review the use of race by Federal law enforcement
authorities as a factor in conducting stops, searches, and other investigative procedures”137
In response, the Attorney General directed the Department of Justice Civil Rights Division
(DOJ CRD) to “develop guidance for Federal officials to ensure an end to racial profiling
in law enforcement.”138 The Introduction and Executive Summary of the DOJ guidance
that resulted provides:
The use of race as the basis for law enforcement decision-making clearly has
a terrible cost, both to the individuals who suffer invidious discrimination
134	
135	
136	
137	
138	

42 U.S.C. § 2000d (1964).
34 C.F.R. Part 100 (2000).
DOJ Guidelines, supra note 65.
Id.
Id.

- 48 -

and to the nation, whose goal of “liberty and justice for all” recedes with
every act of such discrimination. For this reason, the Department of Justice
guidelines impose more restrictions on the consideration of race and
ethnicity in Federal law enforcement than the Constitution requires.139
The DOJ guidelines specify that:
•	 In making routine or spontaneous law enforcement decisions, such as
ordinary traffic stops, Federal law enforcement officers may not use
race or ethnicity to any degree, except that officers may rely on race and
ethnicity in a specific suspect description. This prohibition applies even
where the use of race or ethnicity might otherwise be lawful.
•	 In conducting activities in connection with a specific investigation,
Federal law enforcement officers may consider race and ethnicity only to
the extent that there is trustworthy information, relevant to the locality
or time frame that links persons of a particular race or ethnicity to an
identified criminal incident, scheme, or organization. This standard
applies even where the use of race or ethnicity might otherwise be lawful.
•	 In investigating or preventing threats to national security or other
catastrophic events (including the performance of duties related to air
transportation security), or in enforcing laws protecting the integrity of
the Nation’s borders, Federal law enforcement officers may not consider
race or ethnicity except to the extent permitted by the Constitution and
laws of the United States.140
Since under the program, county law enforcement officers are enforcing federal
immigration laws, the MOA requires them to comply with federal laws, court decisions,
139	
140	

Id.
Id.

- 49 -

and guidelines with regard to use of race in traffic stops and other police procedures.
2. Wrongful Application of Federal Immigration Laws
Immigration law is a complicated, ever-evolving, and specialized area of law
and law enforcement.141 It is an area in which state and local officers currently lack the
training, tools, and expertise, notwithstanding any § 287(g) training programs in which
they may participate.142 The challenges inherent in allowing local law enforcement officers
to undertake immigration enforcement, an area outside of their expertise, was recognized
in a recent article published by the International Association of Police Chiefs:
Addressing immigration violations such as illegal entry or remaining in the
country without legal sanction would require specialized knowledge of the
suspect’s status and visa history and the complex civil and criminal aspects
of the federal immigration law and their administration. This is different
from identifying someone suspected of the type of criminal behavior
that local officers are trained to detect. Whether or not a person is in fact
remaining in the country in violation of federal civil regulations or criminal
provisions is a determination best left to these agencies and the courts
designed specifically to apply these laws and make such determinations
after appropriate hearings and procedures. The local patrol officer is not in
the best position to make these complex legal determinations.143
When local enforcement takes the lead in immigration enforcement, the result
may be confusion and lack of coordination between agencies, and costly mistakes. As the
article’s author reported, “[w]hen local police have waded into immigration enforcement,
it has often come with disastrous and expensive consequences.”144 For example, in 1994,
police raids in Katy, Texas, resulted in the detention of eighty U.S. citizens and legal
residents.145 Those raids occurred at a time of more relaxed immigration enforcement;
the dangers of wrongful detention are greatly increased in today’s anti-immigrant climate.
141	
142	
143	
144	
145	

Ferrell, supra note 77.	
Id.
Id.
Id.
Id.

- 50 -

Harrowing tales of U.S. citizens being wrongfully detained or removed
as illegal aliens have been surfacing. The Los Angeles Daily Journal
reported on a dozen of such errors.  Law enforcement experts predict
future similar incidents as more databases are created to “fight illegal
immigration.” North Carolina is not immune from these errors.
As examples from around the country demonstrate, today’s blurred lines between
immigration law enforcement and local law enforcement have even resulted in detention
and deportations of U.S. citizens. In May 2007, Pedro Guzman, a developmentally
disabled United States citizen from California, was serving a sentence for trespassing.
Under a § 287(g) agreement, Guzman was mistakenly identified as a Mexican nationaland
transferred to an ICE detention center from which he was later deported.146 The Los
Angeles Times editorial board commented on the situation by writing, “Guzman’s trespass
has earned him a sentence of banishment and disappearance, a fate common in third-rate
dictatorships but abhorred in civilized nations.”147
Similarly, Alicia Rodriguez, a U.S. citizen born in Texas, was detained when police
identified her as an undocumented alien who had been previously deported. Although
Rodriguez’s sister showed authorities Alicia Rodriguez’s birth certificate, Rodriguez
remained in detention overnight until officers discovered that she had a driver’s license
and social security number. Authorities say that fingerprints which would have proven
that Rodriguez was not the undocumented immigrant were overlooked.
Other harrowing tales of U.S. citizens being wrongfully detained or removed as
illegal aliens have been surfacing. The Los Angeles Daily Journal reported on a dozen of

146	
Guzman was missing in Tijuana for three months before his family located him.  
It appears that the deportation was further confused by his developmental disability.  Guzman
signed a voluntary departure.  Daniel Hernandez, Pedro Guzman’s Return, LA Weekly News, Aug 7,
2007, available at http://www.laweekly.com/news/news/pedro-guzmans-return/16956/.
147	
Opinion L.A., ACLU: Pedro Guzman Going Back to Cali, Los Angeles Times, Aug. 7,
2007, available at http://opinion.latimes.com/opinionla/2007/08/aclu-pedro-guzm.html.

- 51 -

such errors.148 Law enforcement experts predict future similar incidents as more databases
are created to “fight illegal immigration.”149
North Carolina is not immune from these abhorrent errors. At a conference in June
2008 in Charlotte, NC about the consequences of the 287(g) program, an immigration
attorney told the story of a U.S. citizen client whom authorities were attempting to deport.
In December 2008, another U.S. citizen born in Fletcher, NC was reported to have been
arrested and processed under § 287(g) for possible removal.150 Other North Carolina
attorneys have shared concerns with regard to at least two other clients.151
Furthermore, a recent Government Accountability Office survey determined that
ICE does not have adequate means to keep local officers updated on the changing nature
of immigration law:
ICE does not have a mechanism to ensure the timely dissemination of legal
developments to help ensure that officers make decisions in line with the
more recent interpretation of immigration law. As a result, ICE officers are at
risk of taking actions that do not support operational objectives and making
removal decisions that do not reflect the most recent legal developments.152
Integrating immigration enforcement into the duties of local enforcement officers
dangerously complicates and burdens their mission, thereby exposing them to increased
liability notwithstanding efforts to limit that exposure.153

148	
Sandra Hernandez, Detainee Tries to Prove He Is A U.S. Citizen, Los angeles daily j.
Nov. 4, 2008 at p.1
149	
Patrick McGee, Texan is Jailed as Illegal Immigrant, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Aug.
30, 2007.
150	
  Information on file with authors.
151	
  Communication on file with the authors.
152	
United States Government Accountability Office, Report to Congressional Requesters, Immigration Enforcement: ICE Could Improve Controls to Help Guide Alien Removal
Decision Making, October 2007.
153	
Some MOAs set forth ability for ICE-authorized SO personnel to request representation by the DOJ for legal claims arising out of their duty as federal actors. Mecklenburg County’s
MOA is an example of this.

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3.  Lack of Compliance with other Federal Laws.
a. Federal Criminal Procedure Law
Section 287(g) officers are required to comply with federal law governing criminal
procedure, which includes the requirement that officers disclose potential witness
impeachment information, including, in some circumstances, officers’ personnel
files.154 With regard to the implementation of § 287(g), it appears that undocumented
immigrants are hurried through the system, encouraged, if not coerced, to sign voluntary
departure agreements, and rarely have an opportunity to obtain exculpatory information,
particularly related to officer misconduct and racial profiling.
b. Lack of Compliance with Treaty Law
Under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, to which the
United States is a signatory, any U.S. officer who arrests or detains a foreign national
shall, if requested by the national and without delay, inform the national’s consular post
of the person’s arrest or detention.155 As a treaty with federal legal significance, a § 287(g)deputized officer is required to comply with its provisions.156
	

U.S. officers must forward any communication with the applicable consular office

n a timely manner, if requested by the person arrested or detained.157 U.S. authorities
154	
Giglio v. United States, 405 U.S. 150, 155, 92 S.Ct. 763, 766 (1972); United States v.
Henthorn, 931 F.2d 29, 31 (9th Cir. 1991).
155	
Vienna Convention of Consular Relations, Art. 36(1)(b), Apr. 24, 1963, [1970] 21
U.S.T. 77, 101, T.I.A.S. No. 6820.
156	
Medellin v. Dretke, 544 U.S. 660, 667 125 S.Ct. 2088, 161 L.Ed.2d 982 (2005) (Ginsburg, J.,
concurring) (noting that petitioner, a Mexican national, was not informed of rights accorded him
under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, Apr. 24, 1963, [1970] 21 U.S.T. 77, 100-101,
T.I.A.S. No. 6820, which called for prompt notice of arrest to the Mexican consul and the opportunity for petitioner to seek consular advice and assistance); see also generally L. Henkin, Foreign
Affairs and the United States Constitution 206-209 (2d ed. 1996) (“A treaty . . . is a law of the land
as an act of Congress is, whenever its provisions prescribe a rule by which the rights of the private
citizen or subject may be determined.  And when such rights are of a nature to be enforced in a
court of justice, that court resorts to the treaty for a rule of decision for the case before it as it would
to a statute.”).
157	
Medellin, 544 U.S. at 667.

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must also inform arrested or detained nationals of this right to contact his or her consular
office without delay.158 Further, consular officers have the right to visit nationals in prison
or place of detention and can arrange legal counsel for the national.159
However, concerns have arisen that a foreign national arrested under § 287(g) who
is put into removal proceedings may not always be informed of the right to contact his
or her consular office. The U.S. Department of State notes that foreign nationals must
be notified of this right when arrested or detained.160 This is true whether the arrest
is based on state charges or federal charges. Detailed instructions, forms, training and
outreach materials, and foreign language translations of consular notification statements
are available on the State Department website.161 The § 287(g) MOAs generally do not
mention protocol for informing subjects of their right to contact their consular office.
Without a detailed description of information covered in training, it is likely that many
foreign nationals will not be informed of this right when arrested under § 287(g). Indeed,
anecdotal evidence suggests that detained individuals are not being afforded their rights
under the Vienna Convention.
B. Lack of Compliance with North Carolina Law
1. Violation of North Carolina Constitution
Racial profiling that occurs as a consequence of 287(g) agreements not only
violates the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution, it violates the
North Carolina Constitution as well. Article 1, Section 19 of the N.C. Constitution provides
that “No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall any person be
subjected to discrimination by the State because of race, color, religion, or national origin.”162
158	
Id.
159	
Id.
160	
United States Dept. of State, Consular Notification and Access, available at http://
www.travel.State.gov/law/consular/consular_753.html.
161	
Id.
162	
N.C. Const. art. 1, § 19.

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2. Violation of North Carolina Case Law
The North Carolina Supreme Court, like the United States Supreme Court, subjects
government activity that discriminates against a class of people based on race or national
origin to the highest level of scrutiny which can only be legitimated after demonstrating
that there are no other means to accomplish a compelling government interest.163 Under
287(g), police who target Hispanics through racial profiling are denying those individuals
equal protection of the law. The all too common refrain of racially hostile comments about
Hispanic immigrants made by various law enforcement agencies as noted throughout this
policy brief cannot be justified, nor has there been or can there be evidence of a compelling
governmental interest for such inflammatory statements. These racially hostile remarks
correlate with disproportionate routine traffic stops of Hispanic-appearing individuals for
no reason or for pretextual reasons. There is no compelling government interest for such
racially motivated stops, particularly given ICE’s own rationale for the program which
was established to target terrorists and violence criminals.164 This behavior violates not
only the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution, but also the North
Carolina Constitution.
In State v. Villeda the trial court dismissed charges against a Hispanic defendant
who demonstrated that his arrest was “motivated ‘in part by [his] race or national origin’”
in violation of Article 1, Section 19 of the N.C. Constitution.165 Not unlike the circumstances
in many of the counties where 287(g) agreements have been entered into, the arresting state
trooper made several discriminatory remarks. The court considered the state trooper’s
discriminatory assertion that, “[e]veryone knows that a Hispanic male buying liquor on a
Friday or a Saturday night is probably already drunk,” as well as his admission to patrolling
163	
In re Declaratory Ruling by North Carolina Com’r of Ins. Regarding 11 N.C.A.C.
12.0319, 134 N.C.App. 22 (1999).
164	
ICE Partners Website, supra note 2.
165	
State v. Villeda, 165 N.C.App. 431, 435, 599 S.E.2d 62, 65, (2004).  

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a specific area “for the purpose of looking for Hispanic males.”166 These remarks were
indicative of a practice of racial profiling: the trooper’s citation history showed that 71% of
his citations were made against Hispanics in an area where Hispanics made up only 32% of
the total population. The N.C. Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court’s decision to dismiss
the charges against the defendant.167
3. Violation of North Carolina Statutory Law
The North Carolina General Assembly has acted to eliminate racial profiling throughout
the state by passing legislation that requires the collection, correlation, and maintenance
of information on traffic law enforcement.168 The statute requires the North Carolina
Attorney General to establish within the Department of Justice a Division of Criminal
Statistics.

This division is mandated to collect and maintain data related to racial

profiling including the race and ethnicity of individuals stopped by law enforcement and
then correlate and analyze the data. Traffic Stop Reports, which contain the data, are then
published on the State Bureau of Investigation website.169 The statute not only requires
that the information be gathered, but that it be analyzed and disclosed, thus serving as a
method for discouraging racial profiling among law enforcement officers.
North Carolina’s data collection statute has been enacted for the purpose of curbing
racial profiling. The state’s reputation has benefited as a result. For example, through
funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, Northwestern
University created an online Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center.170 The
166	
167	

Id. at 433.
Id.at 439; see also State v. Ivey, 360 N.C. 562, 564, 633 S.E.2d 459, 461 (2006), abrogated
on other grds (noting that “this Court will not tolerate discriminatory application of the law based
upon a citizen’s race”).
168	
N.C. Gen. Stat. §114-10 (2001).  
169	
North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation, http://trafficstops.ncsbi.gov/ (last
visited Nov. 3, 2008.).
170	
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.  Bureau of Justice Statistics
Fact Sheet: Traffic Stop Data Collection Police for State Police, 2004, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/
bjs/pub/pdf/tsdcp04.pdf (last visited Nov. 3, 2008)

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website classifies North Carolina as a “jurisdiction collecting” data, and lists one of the
benefits of this action as sending “a strong message that . . . racial profiling is inconsistent
with effective policing and equal protection.”171
But circumstances today suggest that the website’s characterization of North
Carolina’s concern with racial profiling may be misleading. Hispanic/Latinos in North
Carolina are subjected to racially motivated and improper stops, detentions, and arrest
under the current implementation of the 287(g) program, contrary to North Carolina’s
statutory law and agency regulations. More notably, the racial profiling that occurs under
the 287(g) program deprives them of equal protection under the law as guaranteed by the
U.S. and N.C. Constitutions. This is inconsistent with a state that wants to disavow and
end racial profiling.
4.  Violation of State Agency Regulations
North Carolina state agencies have joined with the courts and the North Carolina
General Assembly in denouncing racial profiling. In the Villeda matter, for example,
the state trooper’s questionable citation history triggered his investigation by Internal
Affairs, indicating that racial profiling not only violates the law, but ought not be
tolerated by state agency regulations.172
C. Problems within the Four Corners of the MOA
A review of the 287(g) agreements reveal a number of problems related to
compliance and oversight. The concerns with the failure of local law enforcement
agencies to strictly meet the guidelines set forth in federal law and within the MOAs
themselves are widespread. The House Appropriations Committee has expressed
171	
Data Collection Resource Center, www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu (last visited
Nov. 3, 2008).
172	
Villeda, 165 N.C. App. at 433-34.

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concern about how the MOAs are being implemented and controlled.173 In June 2008
the Committee stated in a report that it “is concerned that ICE has not established
adequate oversight of State and local law enforcement agencies that are delegated
authority to enforce Federal immigration laws.”174 According to the Committee, the
“lawsuits that have been filed accusing some of ICE’s State and local partners of not
following the procedures outlined in the Memoranda of Agreement” are the cause of its
concern.175
1. Problems with Complaint Mechanisms
The MOAs are contracts between local law enforcement agencies and ICE. These
documents set out authority and obligations with regard to local enforcement of immigration
and, as noted above, contain a number of requirements that govern the implementation
of the program. The terms appear to be unnecessarily vague and confusing, and without
requisite standards, measures of accountability or adequate protection for the rights of
persons present in the United States. Moreover, notwithstanding the binding effect of
the terms of the agreement, there are a number of provisions in the MOAs for which
there appears to be a lack of compliance. Perhaps most notable is the requirement that
§ 287(g) programs offer a complaint mechanism for individuals who believe they have
been aggrieved in the implementation of the program. However, other terms regarding
community oversight also appear to be ignored. The steering committee is an important
source of oversight mandated in the MOA, but its specific role is unclear and there is
often no compliance with the MOA in creating such a committee in the first place. The
following is an analysis of the Alamance MOA, which would also apply to any similarly
drafted agreements.
173	
174	
175	

H.R. 2638, 110th Cong. (2007).
  House Report 110-62, Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Bill, 2009.
Id.

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a. Confusing Dual Complaint Process
Within the Alamance County MOA, there are essentially two different complaint
mechanisms: 1) a complaint mechanism dealing with Alamance County Sheriff’s Office
(ACSO) personnel who may exercise immigration authority, but who are neither
designated, nor certified under the MOA; and 2) a complaint mechanism that deals
with ACSO personnel who have been designated and certified under the MOA. This
dual approach raises important questions which need clarification. If the officer against
whom a complaint is filed is not designated and certified under the MOA, the basis for the
exercise of immigration authority by ACSO personnel is not clear and thus the complaint
process is not straightforward.
Complaints filed against non-certified ACSO personnel are handled according to
ACSO policies and procedures and are monitored by a steering committee established
by the ICE Assistant Secretary and the Sheriff.176 If, however, the complaint pertains to
the enforcement of criminal law (a law enforcement officer’s authority regardless of ICE
designation or certification), the complaint process would fall under the authority of the
ACSO. The roles and responsibilities of the ACSO, ICE, and the steering committee are
muddled and unclear. For more information on the steering committee, see “Required
Steering Committee” in section IV(D)(2)(h).
b. Lack of Notice and Information about Right to File a Complaint
	

Section XII and Appendix B of the Alamance County MOA relates to the

mechanism that governs complaints filed against officers who are designated and
certified under the MOA. While minimal information on how and where to file a
complaint is included in the appendix, it is unlikely that the public will have access to
176	
The steering committee also lacks transparency. For a more detailed explanation,
see “Required Steering Committee” in section IV(D)(2)(h) below.  

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the information, especially if the ACSO is reluctant to release the MOA to the public or
otherwise fails to provide meaningful and adequate notice of the process. The ACLU of
North Carolina waited five full months before the ACSO responded to a public records
request for the MOA appendices and ICE reports. While the ACSO now posts its MOA
on its website in English, it does not appear that ACSO has any established complaint
mechanism associated with its 287(g) program.177 The MOA and all reports should be
posted and available to the public, in both English and Spanish, without the need for a
public records request. The public’s lack of accessibility to the MOA and its appendices
will likely lead to the under-utilization of the complaint process simply because the
public will not know that a right and procedure to file a claim exists.
c. Insufficient Guidelines Regarding the Complaint Forwarding Process
In addition to the lack of notice and information about the right to file a complaint,
the complaint process in the Alamance County MOA lacks transparency in a number
of other respects. Under the complaint mechanism, there is limited information about
the procedure for reviewing complaints. According to the terms of the MOA, the ICE
Office of Professional Responsibility (ICE OPR) will forward the received complaint to
the DHS Office of the Inspector General (DHS OIG) as appropriate for review. The DHS
OIG notifies the Department of Justice Civil Rights Division as necessary. However,
there are no guidelines in the documents that allocate responsibility for determining the
circumstances under which a complaint will be forwarded to DHS OIG and DOJ CRD.
The MOA provides no direction for individual or supervisory responsibility for any part of
the process, nor does it set forth a means to track the process of the complaint.

177	
See Answers to the Public Comments on the 287(g) Program from the September
15, 2008, Commissioners Meeting, (hereinafter Answers to the Public Comments available at
http://www.alamance-nc.com/Alamance-NC/Departments/Commissioners/Answers+to+287(g)
+Program+Questions.htm (last accessed December 16, 2008)

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d. Conflict of Interest in Reviewing Complaints
The process for review of complaints suggests that the MOA creates a conflict
of interest in the review process. Under the scheme identified in the MOA, it appears
that ICE polices itself and all officers who are deputized in accordance with the MOA.
All complaints (written or oral) directly reported to the ACSO which involve activities
connected to immigration enforcement activities by MOA-authorized ACSO personnel
will be further reported to the ICE OPR. ICE OPR will verify the officer’s status under
the MOA. In addition, any and all other complaints received by any ICE entity will be
reported to ICE OPR according to the existing policies and procedures.
Because the existing policies and procedures are unclear, it is not known whether
they are reviewed by anyone outside of ICE with the possible exception of the ACSO.
Mention is made as to the possibility of forming guidelines for immigration enforcement
complaints against ICE officers in 8 C.F.R. §287.10. The relevant section reads: “Alleged
violations of the standards for enforcement activities established in accordance with
the provisions of § 287.8 shall be investigated expeditiously consistent with the policies
and procedures of the DHS and pursuant to any guidelines issued by the Secretary.”178
Rather than clarifying which procedures will apply, repeated reference is made to existing
procedures. Clarification of these procedures is necessary to assure that those who wish
to invoke the procedure have a basic understanding of the process to which they are
submitting themselves and by which they can hold the monitoring entity responsible.
ICE will also report the complaint to the ACSO. No outside entity is involved
in the review of the complaint; instead, it appears that the review is left up to the very
entity that implements the program without any independent oversight or review.
For example, according to the Alamance County MOA, the ACSO and ICE OPR will
coordinate appropriate investigative jurisdiction which may include initiation of a joint
178	

8 C.F.R. § 287.10 (2008).

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investigation to resolve the issue(s). Unfortunately, this section does nothing to clarify
what an “appropriate investigative jurisdiction” might be or how it may be determined.
There is also a lack of information regarding the joint investigation. What does such
an investigation consist of and how is it shared? There is no guidance about lines of
responsibility and supervisory authority.
When ICE OPR receives a complaint, it will make an initial determination
regarding DHS investigative jurisdiction given the nature of the complaint and then refer
the complaint to the appropriate office for action as soon as possible. Questions arise as
to when DHS has jurisdiction and precisely which office is able to handle the complaint.
In sum, the lack of apparent independent or impartial adjudication of complaints
undermines the integrity of complaint process. Without some guarantee of impartiality,
those whose rights may have been violated in the context of the MOA may be deterred
from seeking relief.
e. Unclear Complaint Resolution Procedures
The MOA states that ICE OPR will undertake a complete review of each complaint
in accordance with existing ICE allegation criteria and reporting requirements. Again, the
existing allegation criteria and reporting requirements are not detailed and no reference
is given as to where to locate those requirements. Are these criteria and requirements
available to the public or anyone outside of ICE? How can individuals be apprised of the
requisite contents of a complaint so they can submit relevant facts and circumstances
which would best assure the consideration of their grievance?
According to the MOA, any complaint received will be resolved within ninety
days; however, allowance for an extended time-frame is made based on the nature and
complexity of the substance of the complaint. No explanation or parameters are otherwise
provided as to what circumstances might constitute a complaint that would fall into the

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category for extended resolution times. The lack of criteria is exacerbated by the fact that
ICE has the unilateral right to increase this time-frame while at the same time, it is the
only agency that oversees the complaint process, the purpose of which is to investigate law
enforcement officers acting under its designation and authority. Not only is this a conflict
of interest, but it makes the established time-frame meaningless as there is no person or
entity that will be able to discern whether ICE is in fact adhering to its own policies.
In addition, there is no indication that the complainant will be informed of the
progress and/or resolution of the investigation at any time, or has any other means by
which to track the complaint. This is particularly important for those individuals whose
deportation is summarily processed and have limited means to address their grievances
if they must do so from outside of the United States. The related and larger question
remains: whether all of the complaints are in fact investigated as there is no check in
place to ensure resolution of any given complaint.
2. Problems with Other Portions of the Alamance County MOA
and Others Similarly Drafted
a.  General Information
Most people remain unaware of the content of the MOA, which guidelines need
to be followed by authorized agents, and the procedures under which to file a complaint.
This is the most pressing and far-reaching transparency issue in regard to the MOA. In
addition to this over-arching issue, there are problems with individual sections of the
Alamance County MOA as is set forth in greater detail below.
b. Designation of Functions179
In the absence of any contrary agreement, the policies and procedures that must
179	
Alamance County Memorandum of Understanding, at 2, available in Appendix
below, [hereinafter AC MOA].

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be followed by local law enforcement agency (LEA) personnel in exercising immigration
functions are those of DHS. The Alamance County MOA, however, does not specify what
these policies and procedures are or where they can be found. As a result, it is impossible
to access those policies and procedures, which in turn makes it is impossible to determine
whether ACSO personnel conform to those policies and procedures.

Oversight by

independent parties as well as an opportunity for individuals aggrieved by implementation
of the MOA is virtually impossible.
c. Nomination of Personnel180
The MOA requires a background check and an evaluation in order to determine
the suitability for all ACSO personnel who are to take part in immigration enforcement.
However, there is no indication of how suitability is to be determined. The only clear
factor in determining suitability seems to be that the ACSO candidate shall not be married
or otherwise related to or associate with a person who is illegally present in the United
States. It is unclear what other disqualifications exist; this makes it impossible to tell
whether guidelines are being violated.
The “nomination of personnel” section notes that a future expansion of the
program is possible. The original MOA envisions that the Sheriff will initially nominate
ten detention officers, thirteen sworn Deputy Sheriffs, and two Supervisory Deputy Sheriff
candidates for ICE training and certification. If additional ACSO personnel are nominated
to ICE, the MOA does not require the parties to enter into a new written agreement; an
oral agreement between the parties will be sufficient. The problem with this approach is
that once oral agreements are entered into, it may no longer be possible to monitor the
expansion of the program.

180	

Id. at 3.

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d. Training of Personnel181
The training section of the MOA requires clarification. It states that ACSO personnel
are to be provided with “adequate” training by ICE, which includes completion of an ICEdesignated curriculum and competency testing. While there appears to be a curriculum
in place, the content of this curriculum is unclear. A list of topics to be covered in the
training is provided, but the extent or method of coverage is not divulged. This lack of
information results in the inability to offer an independent judgment as to the adequacy
of the training or to know whether deputized officers have received the required training.
The MOA further requires that the accepted personnel receive specific training
with regard to their obligations under federal law and the Vienna Convention on Consular
Relations. A discussion on the compliance with federal laws is provided in the section
IV(A) entitled “Lack of Compliance with Federal Law” above. Again, there is no way to
ascertain whether ACSO personnel have received the required training on these topics
or to determine whether they are complying with these laws during the enforcement of
immigration laws.
Section 287(g)(2) states that an MOA “shall contain a written certification that
the officers or employees performing the function under the agreement have received
adequate training regarding the enforcement of relevant Federal law.” Similar language is
in fact included in the MOA; however, there is no federal statutory or regulatory language
that describes adequate training in the context in the MOA.
e. Certification and Authorization182
According to the Alamance County MOA, authorization may be revoked by ICE or
the ACSO at any point. Complaints against an officer are one of the considerations used in
181	
182	

Id. at 4.
Id.

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determining whether an officer’s authorization should be revoked. The MOA states that
the ACSO has to inform ICE of any complaint filed against participating ACSO personnel.
There is an exception to this requirement when a complaint results in discipline of a de
minimis nature. This language is problematic because “de minimis” is not defined and is
therefore open to interpretation. Furthermore, this exception may serve as an incentive
to limit the disciplining of officers to a de minimis level in order to avoid reporting
requirements. A further issue is that of oversight. There is no information setting forth
the mechanism for control and oversight of the reporting process. There is no way to
ensure that complaints are reported to ICE or that they are in fact handled appropriately.
f. ICE Supervision183
According to the MOA, ACSO personnel cannot perform any immigration functions
under the MOA unless he or she is supervised by ICE. There is no indication as to the
nature or degree of the supervision provided. Due to the lack of outside monitoring, it is
difficult to ascertain whether there is, in fact, adequate supervision. ICE monitors its own
supervision of LEA personnel, with the exception of monitoring by the required steering
committee. For a discussion on the steering committee, please see the section entitled
“Required Steering Committee” in section IV(D)(2)(h) below.
In addition to supervision, the actions of participating ACSO personnel are to be
reviewed by ICE on a regular basis to ensure that ACSO personnel comply with immigration
law and procedure and to assess the need for additional training or guidance. It is nearly
impossible for the public to know how this review is supposed to be performed and
whether it is in fact occurring. Although the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) provides
any person the right to access federal agency records or information,184 this information
183	
Id. at 7.
184	
U.S. Department of Justice, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), available at http://
www.usdoj.gov/oip/index.html.

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is only accessible after a formal request is made, and often after considerable delay. The
FOIA excludes the right of access to certain information, such as documents pertaining
to national security, but seemingly would allow for the public to access information about
how ICE operates as a whole.185 Training manuals and information about supervision
can be requested through a written FOIA request. As a matter of public policy, however,
these materials should be readily available to the public.
g. Civil Rights Standards and Provision of Interpretation Services186
For a discussion of the LEA personnel’s duty to follow federal civil right statutes
and regulations, including the U.S. Department of Justice “Guidance Regarding the Use
of Race by Federal Law Enforcement Agencies,” please see section IV(A)(1).
In unclear language, this section of the Alamance County MOA requires an
interpreter for subjects who do not speak English. The MOA states that “[p]articipating
. . . [AC]SO Personnel will provide an opportunity for subjects with limited English
language proficiency to request an interpreter. Qualified foreign language interpreters
will be provided by . . . [AC]SO as needed.” The MOA language does not clearly establish
the process by which an interpreter is obtained, whether an officer has to ask if the subject
would like to have an interpreter present, whether an interpreter has to be provided only
if the subject requests one, and how an affected individual would be apprised of her rights
to an interpreter.
h. Required Steering Committee187
The MOA requires that the ICE Assistant Secretary and the head of the local LEA
establish a steering committee. The purpose of the steering committee is not sufficiently
185	
186	
187	

22 C.F.R. 171 (2008).
See e.g., Section XI of the Alamance County MOA.
See e.g., Section XIII of the Alamance County MOA.

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clear; however, its function relates, among other things to the monitoring of the number
and type of complaints filed against ACSO personnel who may exercise immigration
authority, but who are not designated and certified under this MOA. Overall, the function
of the steering committee is to assess the immigration enforcement authority exercised
locally and ensure compliance with the terms of this MOA. The committee’s specific
function, however, is not stated in the context of the complaint mechanism. There is no
indication as to the exact purpose served by monitoring the type and number of complaints
received, nor is there indication as to how these complaints are monitored.
The MOA does not specify who is to be appointed to this steering committee or
how the integrity of the committee is to be assured. Furthermore, there are no guidelines
orcriteria that set forth committee members’ qualifications, length of term, or other
factors relating to the establishment of the committee.
An initial meeting of the steering committee is required no later than nine months
after certification of the initial participating ACSO personnel. ACSO has been reluctant to
commit to establishing a steering committee at all, much less one that holds meetings that
are open to the public and that includes a community member.188 Consequently, there
is no way of determining whether such a meeting has taken place, whether there were
findings by the committee, and the substance of these findings, if made.
Illustrative of the transparency problems surrounding steering committees, a
spokesperson for the North Carolina Sheriffs Association recently informed the Joint
Legislative Oversight Committee that the meetings of the “Executive Steering Committee”
established by ICE and the NCSA are not open to the public. However, this interpretation
is flawed. The NCSA and the 287(g) counties receive state taxpayer money from the
NCSA to support their 287(g) programs. Thus, it appears that these committees should
188	
See Answers to Public Comments, supra note 177. Additionally, even though
ACSO has stated that community members would be included “[i]f the Commissioners chose to
form a [steering] committee, on December 1, 2008, Sheriff Terry Johnson advised a group of local
residents that community members would not be included in any such committee.

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be considered to be “public bodies,” thereby rendering all steering committee meetings
subject to North Carolina’s Open Meetings Law.189
i. Community Outreach190
The MOA provides that the ACSO will, at its discretion, engage in community
outreach with organizations interested in the MOA. ICE may be brought in to participate
in community outreach at the request of the ACSO. This section gives the ACSO significant
leeway to engage in discourse only with organizations that are favorably disposed toward
the MOA program, while at the same time limiting communication with critics of the
program. Because community outreach is discretionary, it is unlikely that critics of the
program will be able to engage the ACSO in constructive discourse about the program.
j. Relations with the News Media191
The section of the MOA addressing relations with the news media continues
with an approach that grants too much discretion to the ACSO. The ACSO, may in its
discretion, as “part of its commitment to the communities it serves . . . communicate
the intent, focus, and purpose of this agreement to the media, organizations and groups
expressing interest in the law enforcement activities to be engaged in under this MOA.”192
Because of such vague wording, there is little guarantee that the ACSO will engage in
regular communication with the media. It is also likely that important information about
the MOA will not be communicated to the public in order to enhance the program’s
accountability and transparency
189	
News & Observer Pub. Co. v. Wake County Hosp. Sys., Inc., 55 N.C. App. 1, 284
S.E.2d 542 (1981); see also Craig D. Feiser, Protecting the Public’s Right to Know: The Debate Over
Privatization and Access to Government Information Under State Law, 27 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 825, 837
(Summer 2000).
190	
See e.g., Section XIV of the Alamance County MOA.
191	
See e.g., Section XV Alamance County MOA.
192	
Id.

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k. Modification of the MOA193
Modifications to the MOA must be proposed in writing and approved by the
signatories. No mention, however, is made as to how amendments will be communicated
to the public or whether an amended document will be made available. ICE is responsible
for ensuring that participating ACSO personnel are “fully and timely” apprised of such
changes and receive appropriate training in a timely manner. It is unclear what constitutes
timely notification or adequate and timely training. This allows ICE to determine what
the terms “timely” and “adequate” mean in this context.
l. Duration and Termination of this MOA and Liability Disclaimers194
At any time, the MOA can be terminated or suspended by ICE or the ACSO. There
is no requirement of notice of such suspension or termination to the public. Furthermore,
the MOA states generally that the agreement does not give rise to any “rights, substantive
or procedural, enforceable at law by any person in any matter, civil or criminal.”195 This
language is problematic because it attempts to insulate ICE and the ACSO from liability
should they fail to comply with the requirements agreed upon in this document. The
agencies therefore operate in a vacuum that leaves aggrieved persons no recourse in
contravention of basic principles of fairness.

193	
194	
195	

See e.g., Section XVI Alamance County MOA.
See e.g., Section XVII Alamance County MOA .
Id. at 9.

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V. Proposals for Improvement
A. Good Governance, Transparency, and Conformity with the Law
The system of checks and balances is one of the most fundamental characteristics
of the American system of government. The framers of the U.S. Constitution intended
checks and balances not only to be the backbone of the U.S. federal and state government
structure, but also the intrinsic underpinning of society. James Madison advocated such
a philosophy in Federalist Paper Number 51, where he stated, “this policy of supplying,
by opposite and rival interests, the defect of better motives, might be traced through the
whole system of human affairs, private as well as public.”196
The § 287(g) Program has been demonstrated to lack transparency,
with no provision for community input in the creation or implementation
of the MOA. Virtually no protection mechanisms are embedded within
the program to counterbalance the power it grants to contracted
enforcement authorities.
The primary concern with the § 287(g) program is precisely this lack of opposite
and rival interest within the system. Rather, § 287(g) has been demonstrated to lack
transparency, with no provision for community input in the creation or implementation
of the MOA. Further, virtually no protection mechanisms are embedded within the
program to counterbalance the power it grants to contracted enforcement authorities.
Section 287(g) MOAs are often created without community notification or
opportunity for public comment. Affected constituent groups rarely have the opportunity
to discuss or debate the program with their elected officials before its implementation.
Further, under the broad powers given to county sheriffs pursuant to North Carolina law,
sheriff departments appear, in many cases, to be able to negotiate MOAs virtually on
their own without approval from the County Board of Commissioners except for matters
196	
James Madison, The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and
Balances Between the Different Departments, The Federalist No. 51, at 319, (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1961).

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related to the MOA budget. As a result, contracts for the program have been negotiated
without the protections inherent in and necessary to the democratic process.	
As previously mentioned, agencies implementing §287(g) appear to make little or
no effort to institute or publicize the complaint mechanism – the primary check available
to individuals that is required by federal regulation. Furthermore, although the MOAs
call for a steering committee, such a committee will only be effective if it provides for
representation of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds and interests in the
community. Regardless of its title or form, some type of formal public body must evaluate
the program regularly in meetings open to the public and should regularly publish its
reports to the community.
The following recommendations would provide additional protections for basic
rights in the implementation of § 287(g):
•	 Revision of all current 287(g) programs and implementation in all new 287(g)
programs, to permit 287(g) processing only for those convicted of felonies.
•	 MOAs should require contracting LEAs to engage in community outreach to
provide information on the function and process of the program. At the moment,
such outreach is only voluntary and rarely utilized.
•	 All contracting parties should be required to post the MOA and its appendices on
its website in both English and Spanish.
•	 MOAs must be required to provide for a date of termination with opportunity for
extension and renegotiation of terms.
•	 Agencies applying to sign or extend §287(g) agreements should be required to hold
a public meeting, open to all interested members of the community, before signing.
•	 Contracting jurisdictions must enforce a working complaint mechanism as
required by federal regulations and adequately publicize this mechanism in both
English and Spanish.
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B. Applicability of All New 287(g) Programs to Convicted Felons Only
As set forth in this brief, Federal, state and local lawmakers, as well as sheriffs,
tout the benefits of the 287(g) program in taking “hardened criminals” off the street
in North Carolina.197 Similarly, ICE states that § 287(g) MOAs provide “local and state
officers” with the “necessary resources and latitude to pursue investigations relating to
violent crimes, human smuggling, gang/organized crime activity, sexual-related offenses,
narcotics smuggling and money laundering; and increased resources and support in more
remote geographical locations.”198 However, the data from the 287(g) programs currently
operating in North Carolina demonstrate that an undocumented individual can be –
and frequently is – processed under the 287(g) program after being arrested for traffic
offenses such as driving without a license. A requirement that all current and new 287(g)
programs permit processing only for those individuals convicted of felonies would further
the original intent of the statute.
C. Increased Community Participation
From a governance perspective, a key issue with the MOAs relates to the lack of
transparency with regard to the process to establish the program. Typically made at the
initiative of a public representative and approved by special committee, these contracts
are not subjected to the same scrutiny, transparency, or level of participation.

In

197	
  For instance, in Senator Elizabeth Dole’s first television advertisement in her 2008
senate campaign, sheriffs from around the state extol the virtues of the 287(g) program. In the
advertisement, Davidson County Sheriff David Grice states that the program is focused on “illegal
immigrants who are repeatedly committing crimes.” Similarly, Davie County Sheriff Andy Stokes
states in the advertisement that the program is designed to apprehend “the ones who are tough.  
Hardened criminals.”  See ElizabethDole.org, Senator Elizabeth Dole’s Campaign Releases Its First
Television Advertisement, available at http://www.elizabethdole.org/docs/articles/SENATOR-ELIZABETH-DOLES-CAMPAIGN-RELEASES-ITS-FIRST-TELEVISION-ADVERTISEMENT.html. See also Michael
Biesecker, Wake Jail to Look for Illegal Aliens, News & Observer, Nov. 6, 2007, available at http://www.
newsobserver.com/news/crime_safety/story/762094.html (Wake County Sheriff Donnie Harrison
describing 287(g) program as focusing on “getting the bad guys” out of the local immigrant
community).
198	
ICE Partners Website, supra note 2.

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approving, renewing, and modifying MOAs, contracting entities should follow existing
open governance ordinances and principles, inviting community input and feedback for
each step. Meaningful community input requires incorporating the insights of immigrant
community action groups, which may significantly minimize both the excesses of §287(g)
agreements as well as reduce community estrangement that otherwise may result from
the implementation of the program.
Meaningful community input requires incorporating the insights of
immigrant community action groups, which may significantly minimize
both the excesses of §287(g) agreements as well as reduce community
estrangement that otherwise may result from the implementation of
the program.

D. Amendments to the Complaint Mechanism in the MOA
There are several amendments and revisions which would improve the existing
complaint mechanism within the four corners of the MOA. The following are suggestions
that would improve the existing mechanism:
1. Revising the Complaint Mechanism
a. Clarification Regarding Dual Complaint Processes
The language of the MOA must be clarified in order to explain the dual approach
that currently exists in the complaint mechanism. Language must be added to explain
the circumstances under which some LEA personnel who are not designated and
certified under an MOA may exercise immigration authority. As suggested above, there
are essentially two possibilities for this. Either the officers are only enforcing criminal
immigration law violations (outside of the scope of the MOA), or they are enforcing
immigration laws without the necessary authority pursuant to § 287(g) of the Immigration
and Nationality Act. If the exercise of immigration authority is limited to criminal law,
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the officer is acting within his duties under North Carolina State law, and should therefore
be subject to the complaint mechanism employed within the respective LEA. ICE should
be able to review these complaints as part of a supplementary process to the LEA review;
however, this review should be outside of §287(g) MOA procedures. However, those who
enforce immigration laws without §287(g) authority present a significant problem that
should give rise to complaints against such officers. These complaints should be handled
by an independent, outside agency to avoid conflict of interest issues and to ensure that
any arrests made by those officers are invalidated as made without lawful authority.
b. Providing Notice and Information about
the Right to File a Complaint
Complaint reporting procedures should be made available to the public in both
English and Spanish, by publication in the LEA and ICE offices, at all local law enforcement
offices, at the N.C. Sheriffs’ Association office, at jails and detention centers used by the
LEA and ICE, and other offices and agencies identified as sites that would enhance efforts
to disseminate the information. The information should also be made available online
and should be easily accessible by members of the public via phone or mail from all
agencies that implement the 287(g) program or otherwise provide guidance and oversight
functions. This would, at the very least, ensure that the public is made aware of their right
to complain and provided information about the filing process.
Further, a standard complaint form should be available to the public to give guidance
in formulating and submitting the complaint. At this point, no such form appears to exist.
Such postings of rights to the public are not without precedent and have been successfully
implemented in a number of other fields (e.g. filing complaints regarding worker’s rights,
citizen police review boards, nursing home and other health care facilities).

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Entrust the complaint procedures to an independent agency.

c. Amendments to the Guidelines Regarding
the Complaint Forwarding Process
As noted above, the ICE OPR will forward the received complaint to DHS OIG as
appropriate for review and to ensure notification as necessary to the Department of Justice
Civil Rights Division. This provision should either provide reference to the criteria and
procedures that apply in this forwarding process, or these procedures should be included
in the MOA itself.
To make this process more transparent, there should also be authority outside
of ICE to ascertain how to determine appropriateness with regard to the processing
and evaluation of complaints and to establish guidelines to be followed in making that
determination. The same is true as to the existing LEA and ICE OPR complaint procedures
relating to the reporting and resolution of the complaints which are referenced in the
MOA. It is not sufficient for the MOA to simply point out that such determinations will
be made. The forwarding criteria should be known and accessible to the public in order
to provide checks and balances and accountability in the complaint process.
2. Changes to the Method of Complaint Review
a. Avoiding a Conflict of Interest by Requiring Independent Review
The Complaint review process should be completely restructured as it is fraught
with conflicts of interest. ICE is currently policing itself and all deputized officers. An
impartial outside entity should be established to conduct the review of the complaint.
One potential way to resolve this problem is by entrusting a properly established steering
committee (see section V(D)(9)) with oversight functions regarding the complaint process.

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The steering committee would ensure that the process is carried out in a timely and
adequate manner, but the actual complaint review would be entrusted to an independent
agency as suggested below (see section V(F)(4)). This change would ensure the integrity
of the complaint process and that appropriate action will be taken to resolve the issue.
For this to work properly, however, the steering committee would have to be appointed
through a process outside of the complete control of the LEA and ICE, much in the way
that civilian police review boards in major cities across the United States are established.
Amendments are also necessary to establish criteria for determining “appropriate
investigative jurisdiction.” Details about the joint investigation arrangement between LEA
and ICE OPR are also required. At a minimum, explanation is needed as to each agency’s
responsibility, including which agency will make the final determination regarding a
particular complaint. Other questions about the joint investigation include:
•	 If both ICE OPR and the LEA provide a full review, what will happen if the agencies
reach different conclusions?
•	 If mediation is required for resolution, what will the mediation consist of, and what
entity will provide mediation services? Is there an alternative to mediation?
•	 How will independent oversight of a joint investigation be provided?
In addition, the ICE OPR process by which a determination is made as to whether
DHS has investigative jurisdiction should be made transparent. If such procedures do
not currently exist, they must be implemented and clearly identified in the MOA. Finally,
as suggested throughout all of the recommended changes, a review by an independent
entity is necessary in order to avoid the conflicts of interest.
b. Detailing Complaint Resolution Procedures
As with the complaint review procedure, the complaint resolution procedure must
be detailed or otherwise specifically referenced to give outside entities the ability to assess
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whether the procedure is adequate and whether it is being followed.
As noted above, a major deficiency with the complaint resolution process relates
to the lack of information provided to the complainant regarding investigation and
resolution. Currently, the requirement is that a complaint be resolved within ninety days,
subject to exceptions. The nature of exceptions warranting an extended time-frame must be
specifically stated to provide better oversight and accountability of the resolution procedure
as relates to timeliness and due process. The best way to resolve the inherent conflict of
interest would be to entrust an independent agency with the review and resolution of the
complaints to ensure that complaints are processed and investigated in a timely manner.
It is also important that the complainant be periodically apprised of the progress of
his or her complaint and have the ability to track his or her complaint (see section V(F)(2)).
Receipt of the complaint should be acknowledged in writing to the complainant within
ten days of receipt of the complaint. In this letter, the individual should be informed that,
barring exceptional circumstances, his or her complaint should be investigated and resolved
within ninety days of receipt of the complaint. After the initial ninety-day time period has
lapsed, the complaining party should be informed of the resolution of the complaint in
writing. If it becomes clear that an extended timeframe is required to satisfactorily resolve
the complaint, written notice of the duration of that timeframe should be provided to the
complaining party as soon as possible. If additional time is necessary, the complainant
should receive updates on the resolution of his or her complaint periodically (e.g. every
ninety days) until the complaint is resolved. The complainant should be afforded an
opportunity to update the complaint during this period as necessary.
c. Creation of New and More Comprehensive Complaint Mechanism
While the preceding suggestions would certainly improve the current complaint
mechanism in place under the Alamance County MOA, more sweeping changes may be

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necessary for Alamance County and other participating entities. A proposal for a new
model complaint mechanism is therefore attached to this document as Appendix A. This
model may be especially useful for communities considering a § 287(g) agreement. In
addition, other model complaints from other agencies that publish their complaint forms
to facilitate their use and processing are attached as Appendix B, Exhibits A-K. North
Carolina LEAs should adopt the proposed model and include a process that allows the
complainant to track the progress of the complaint to disposition.
E. Amendments to Other Portions of the MOA
1. Ensuring Availability of the MOA
In order to increase the transparency of the MOA, the document should be made
available to the public. A public announcement could be made when the MOA is entered
into, along with distribution of information on how to obtain the document. As discussed
above, the MOA should be made available in electronic format online. Announcements
should be placed in all agencies implementing or otherwise related to the 287(g) program,
setting forth how the public might obtain copies of the MOA.
2. Detailing MOA Purpose and Policy
The MOA outlines the purpose of the agreement and sets forth how SO personnel
will be nominated, trained, authorized and supervised in their performance of immigration
functions. In order to make this information meaningful, especially for accountability
purposes, the MOA should deliver specific information on the above mentioned factors,
including the duration of ICE supervision and other specifics about mandatory training.
Moreover, the purpose of the MOA should be rewritten to comport with true intent
of the 287(g) program, that is, the removal of terrorists, repeat violent offenders and
serious criminals. The MOA should make clear in the purpose and policy section that the

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program is not designed to allow local law enforcement to perform random stops or street
operations, or to randomly stop individuals to ascertain their immigration status. (It goes
without saying that local law enforcements should then change their practices in order
to comply with the true purpose of these programs.) As DHS has stated in its previous
fact sheet about the program, it is a program meant for individuals who are suspected
of a state crime more serious than a traffic offense. The purpose and policy should be
unequivocal so as to provide guidance and set clear standards to local law enforcement.
3.  Outlining Personnel Designation and Functions
The policies and procedures applicable to LEA personnel in their enforcement of
immigration laws have to be publicly available to ensure sufficient oversight. The policies
and procedures should therefore be outlined in the MOA or, at the very least, reference
should be made to the exact location where personnel policies and procedures can be
accessed by the public. This will increase the transparency of the process and introduce a
means for necessary checks and balances.
4.  Providing Guidelines for Nomination of Personnel
In order to ensure that individuals selected to act under the MOA will carry out
their immigration enforcement functions in an impartial manner, further clarification on
the determination of candidate suitability is necessary.

Selection guidelines should be

included in the MOA or otherwise published and referenced in the agreement.
Whenever the § 287(g) program is to be expanded, a public announcement
including the proposed changes should be made. A written amendment should be added
to the existing MOA and then made available to the public according to the same process
as the original MOA.

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5. Detailing and Updating Training of Personnel
Training procedures should be made available to ensure that proper oversight
can be provided. Training curriculum should be included in the MOA or be otherwise
made available and referenced in the MOA. Such transparency would ensure that there
is compliance with training requirements and also ensure that the training is adequate.
Training should include education regarding the population likely to be encountered during
immigration enforcement and should include challenges associated with interacting with
such populations, particularly language differences and vulnerabilities to due process
violations. The importance of adhering to civil rights and due process of law guarantees
and protections should be stressed during training.
Firm guidelines for updated training should be established to avoid postponement
of necessary training. A provision suspending LEA personnel who have not received
updated training within a set time frame (e.g. fifteen months after the original training and
certification) would help ensure that updated training is carried out in a timely manner. To
ensure that personnel remain competent in the laws and regulations to which they must
adhere, regular testing should be implemented as a requisite for SO personnel to remain
certified under the MOA. This ensures that LEA personnel will remain competent in the
laws that they are enforcing as well as the laws and guidelines that govern their behavior.
6.  Continued Certification and Authorization of Personnel
through Consistent Complaint Reports
Clear guidelines must direct the process by which complaints are reported to ICE.
In no way should the reporting requirement depend on the actual complaint penalty. An
independent complaint mechanism should be implemented to ensure that all complaints
are handled with the required attention and that all complaints are recorded, regardless
of how the complaints are subsequently adjudicated.
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7. Monitoring ICE Supervision of Personnel
The role of ICE in supervising LEA personnel is important for identifying the need
for further training and guidance. This supervision aids in monitoring compliance of SO
personnel with immigration law and procedure, but outside supervision is also necessary.
Independent review of the § 287(g) program would ensure that all entities involved
carry out their responsibilities in a professional and informed manner. With outside
monitoring, both ICE and LEA personnel would be supervised to ensure that both law
enforcement agencies comply with the requirements under the MOA.
8. Clarification and Notice of the Civil Rights Standards and
Provision of Interpretation Services
The rights of limited or non-English-proficient individuals under the MOA need
to be clearly articulated. The potential danger to a subject due to language barriers is
incalculable. In order to provide a subject with a fair interview, the officer in contact with
the individual should affirmatively and immediately inquire as to whether an interpreter
is desired to aid in the conversation. Firm guidelines regarding interpreter access and
services must be established and communicated to the person prior to questioning. These
guidelines should be included in the MOA and made accessible to the public to ensure
that the public is aware of this important right.
Racial profiling, discriminatory stops and treatment of any kind must be prohibited
through clear instructions about compliance with constitutional, statutory, and regulatory
standards. Clear standards and instruction must be provided. Officers who commit civil
rights violations should be removed from the program.
9. Detailing the Steering Committee’s Required Review of Activities
Clear guidelines setting forth the steering committee’s function with regard to
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the complaint mechanism must be formulated, implemented, and made available to the
public to increase the transparency of the process and decrease the conflict of interest
inherent in the current model. Clarification is required as to who may be appointed to
this steering committee, the committee members’ required qualifications, and the term
of membership.
The steering committee’s findings should be made public. The results of the
reviews should be made available online or in print and the public should be informed of
the availability of these reports. This could be accomplished by including information of
these reports in the MOA and making the MOA available to the public.
10. Executive Steering Committee Meetings Should Be Open to the Public
As noted herein, a spokesperson for the North Carolina Sheriffs Association recently
informed the Joint Legislative Oversight Committee that the meetings of the “Executive
Steering Committee” established by ICE and the NCSA are not open to the public. Aside from
the legal argument that such meetings may be subject to North Carolina’s Open Meetings
Law,199 it is important that individuals from the North Carolina Governor’s Crime Commission
and/or from the North Carolina Governor’s Advisory Council on Hispanic/Latino Affairs, as
well as members of the community in general, be included at these meetings. Participation
in Executive Steering Committees by these individuals would ensure transparency and
accountability in the implementation of 287(g) programs around the state.
11. Increasing Information and Participation for
Effective Community Outreach and Input
Community outreach is only effective if all members of the community are informed
about §287(g). Outreach should include dissemination of information about the program
199	

See supra note 189.

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in general and should direct the public to the agency and individual where their questions
can be answered and their concerns addressed. Section 287(g) critics and opponents, as
well as supporters and the general public should have a voice in the implementation of the
program through community input.
12. Improving Relations with the News Media and Other Organizations
The LEA should be required to share information on the intent, focus, and purpose
of the MOA with the public in general and should be open to discourse with organizations
that who have concerns about the program’s negative consequences.
Community outreach is only effective if all members of the community
are informed about §287(g). Outreach should include dissemination
of information about the program in general and should direct the
public to the agency and individual where their questions can be
answered and their concerns addressed.

13. Updated Officer Training and MOA Availability after Modification
ICE should be required to inform LEA personnel of MOA modifications and
amendments within two weeks of amendment approval. Officers must be provided
updated training within one to two months of the approved changes. This would ensure
that SO personnel are promptly trained and have continuing knowledge of the latest
law and policy. As mentioned previously, there must be further clarification as to what
constitutes adequate training.
Amendments and modification to an existing MOA must be made available to the
public. The public may be informed of amendments by the same means as the original
MOA (e.g., public announcement, publication).

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14. Providing Notice of Duration and
Termination of the MOA; Avoid Impunity
Notice of any termination or suspension of the MOA should be given to the public.
The public must be provided with the means to challenge behavior of the parties to the
agreement in court to ensure that they have recourse against any grievances experienced.
F. Amplification of Federal Regulations to Address § 287(g) MOAs
In order to avoid abuse of § 287(g), federal regulations should be implemented that
clearly govern § 287(g) and the MOAs that it authorizes. Federal regulations should specifically
outline all of the requirements that relate to the purpose and function of the program from
“adequate training” to civil rights standards. Federal regulations must establish specific and
measureable standards by which oversight and accountability can be maintained.
G. Other Models of Complaint Mechanisms
1. Overview
To combat the deficiencies in the § 287(g) MOA complaint resolution process
discussed previously, sweeping changes are necessary. In order to determine how best
to protect individuals who may have their rights violated by law enforcement officers
operating under a § 287(g) MOA, it is helpful to analyze and compare various complaint
mechanisms that have been utilized throughout the country in other similar settings.
These mechanisms appear in agencies and organizations which include Civilian Review
Boards, County Sheriff Departments, Nursing Home Complaint Units, Medical Review
Boards, and HIPAA Review Boards. Best practices may be identified by investigating
samples representative of different regions and major cities within the United States, as
well as a model complaint mechanism that can be effectively used to combat violations
pertaining to INA § 287(g) violations.
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The formation of a complaint mechanism specifically for §287(g) violations is
critical. Because of the vulnerable nature of immigrant communities, misconduct may
run just as rampant here – if not more so – than in other avenues of police abuses.
Currently, there are complaint mechanisms available for nursing home members,
prisoners, immigrants in DHS/USCIS proceedings, students and teachers on university
campuses, and employees of major (and even some minor) corporations. Often created
for vulnerable populations that are either targeted by authority figures or subject to abuse
by such authority figures, a complaint mechanism is especially needed for this group of
targeted individuals.
In §287(g) enforcement situations, law enforcement officers are frequently working
with a non-English speaking population who often lack the benefit of education and may
not be familiar with their rights. Due to a lack of uniform training procedure, racial
sensitivity education, and other pertinent and specialized information about immigrant
issues, a formal complaint procedure is critical and must be established for the alreadyambiguous INA § 287(g) law.
The following suggestions are based on evaluation of best practices.
2. Making the Complaint Form Accessible
It is crucial that those who are aggrieved by the conduct of law enforcement officers
acting pursuant to the authority of an MOA have information about how to access the
complaint mechanism, including information on how to locate the actual form that must
be submitted. An examination of various complaint mechanisms reveal that a number of
agencies design their websites in such a manner that makes it easy for individuals to locate
and complete complaint forms; these websites may serve as models for §287(g) programs.
Thus, best practices borrowed from the realms of Civilian Review Boards, Nursing Home
Complaint Units, and HIPAA and Police Departments’ complaint mechanisms indicate

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that the actual process of locating the complaint form and providing instruction on how
to file a complaint should be transparent, clear, and readily available on the website of all
agencies that have or relate to 287(g) programs. In addition to filing a complaint on the
internet, there should also be a process for persons wishing to file complaints to do so
over the phone and by mail. Providing multiple user-friendly methods for filing ensures
that individuals across the entire vulnerable population are able to voice complaints with
ease.
Complaints should also have tracking numbers or other means for individuals to
check on the status of pending complaints.
3.  Uniform Statute of Limitations
Most complaint mechanisms allow an individual to file a complaint for up to one
year after an alleged incident. This is not only a fair way of limiting complaints so that
allegations can be investigated before a claim is stale, but also the most uniform way of doing
so. In some jurisdictions, Civilian Review Boards have different statutes of limitations for
different alleged crimes and complaints; however, this may lead to confusion and missed
deadlines by complainants. Therefore, it is better to have one statute of limitations,
minimally set at one year from the time of the incident, for all reported situations.
4.  Authorized Complainants
It should be noted that in some jurisdictions, Civilian Review Boards allow family
members or witnesses, in addition to the actual victim, to submit a complaint. Similarly,
Nursing Home Complaint Unit Review Boards and HIPAA Review Boards also allow
family members and witnesses to submit a complaint on behalf of the actual victim
who has been violated. This practice of allowing family members and witnesses to file
complaints on behalf of the actual victim is necessary for cases where individuals who

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have claims against deputized officers under §287(g) may be unable to file for themselves
because of language difficulties or because they are detained or removed.
5. Establishing a Review Board
	

Establishing and defining the purpose of a Review Board for § 287(g) is essential.

Review Boards should oversee and advise agencies signing MOAs, implement disciplinary
action against local police officers and ICE agents abusing individuals’ rights, and monitor
compliance with the terms of the MOA. The Review Board should serve as a channel for
individuals whose rights have been violated by the implementation of INA § 287(g) to
complain and seek justice.
	

In designing a Review Board for § 287(g) programs, it is helpful to look at the

purpose of other Review Boards’ designed for vulnerable populations and understand
how they present their purpose to the necessary individuals:
a. Civilian Review Boards (Law Enforcement)
The Civilian Review Board is a permanent, independent agency which is authorized
to process complaints lodged by members of the public alleging various abuses by a law
enforcement agency. A Review Board oversees and advises law enforcement regarding
citizen complaints, makes recommendations for departmental policies and practices,
and makes suggestions for disciplinary action to the Police Commissioner or Sheriff.
Research shows that some Review Boards, for example, those in New York, encourage
the filing of a complaint regardless of the availability of evidence.
b. Nursing Home Complaint Units
	

The Nursing Home Complaint Units are government-funded agencies, typically

within the Division of Health Service Regulation within the state. The purpose of the

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Division of Health Service Regulation is to provide for the health, safety and well-being
of individuals through effective regulatory and remedial activities including appropriate
consultation and training opportunities and by improving access to health care delivery
systems through the rational allocation of needed facilities and services. The Complaint
Unit is available to patients, residents, and consumers by health care facilities, agencies,
and homes, licensed within the state by the Division of Health Service Regulation (DHSR).
An individual can file a complaint against a nursing home if they have suffered abuse
or neglect. “Abuse,” according to N.C. Gen. Stat. § 131D-2, means the willful or grossly
negligent infliction of physical pain, injury or mental anguish, unreasonable confinement,
or the willful or grossly negligent deprivation by the administrator or administrative
staff. “Neglect,” on the other hand, means the failure to provide the services necessary to
maintain a resident’s physical or mental health.
c. Residential Facilities
A facility of Residential Mental Health Facilities, Adult Care Homes, and Nursing
Homes are required to display information for contacting the Complaint Intake Unit in order
to be in compliance with N.C. Gen. Stat § 122C-25(d) (Residential Mental Health Facilities),
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 131D-2(j) (Adult Care Homes), and Fed. Reg. § 483.10(b)(7). A poster may
be used to display the required contact information in a public place in the facility.
d. Suggestions for a § 287(g) Review Board
	

The following proposals pertain specifically to the establishment and purposes

outlined above for the INA § 287(g) Review Board:
•	 A Review Board should provide guidance to the public about the right to complain
about various actions and offenses that may be committed by the law enforcement
agency. In order to provide specific guidance, the Review Board should identify in

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broad terms the types of crimes or offensive conduct by law enforcement that would
give rise to a complaint, such as abusive language, harassment, excessive force,
criminal conduct, discrimination and racial targeting, neglect, misappropriation
of resident’s property and documents during the course of a stop or arrest, or in
the facility, and non-compliance with provisions of the law and other requirements
pertaining to law enforcement.
•	 The mission statement and purpose of the Review Board should be carefully
defined. Detail the pledges that the Review Board promises to the public; i.e., to
encourage the use of complaints when an individual feels he or she has been a victim
of misconduct, neglect or harassment, to encourage all parties in the complaint to
come forward, to make objective determinations on the merits of each case, to
be fully independent from any influence by the entity or staff against whom the
complaint is made, to examine each case carefully and fully investigate all claims,
to report to the entity and its official head patterns or abuse and misconduct, to
make recommendations and disciplinary rulings, etc.
•	 The independent nature of the Review Board and its monitoring activities should
be clearly articulated. Review Boards which gain the trust of the community will
advertise the importance of making a complaint, stress that each complaint will
be taken seriously, and assure the public that meaningful rectification and/or
discipline will follow after verification of the alleged incident. Individuals should
be encouraged to file complaints on the basis of their own verified testimony, even
if other evidence is unavailable to them at the time of filing. A Review Board should
create a record and have authority to suggest and oversee changes to current police
practices that may be unlawful or otherwise detrimental to establishing trusting
relationships that help build law abiding communities. The filing of a complaint
with a Review Board should result in a “permanent, official record that will remain

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on the officer’s history.” Such complaint, when founded, should be the foundation
for discipline against misconduct, prevent other citizens from having similar
experiences, and influence changing police policy.
•	 Review Boards should maintain public information sites that include a section on
recent updates, decisions, and relevant news. This would serve as a means to keep
the public informed and present an open and transparent Board and Complaint
Unit that individuals trust.
6.  Composition of the Review Boards
	

The composition of the Review Board for § 287(g) should be modeled after Civilian

Review Boards. There are many ways to select members for the Civilian Review Boards,
but the most efficient groups seem to have a balance of appointed and elected members,
as well as a balance between mayor-appointed members, police-appointed members, city
council-appointed members and publicly-elected members. While Boards have ranged
from as few as seven members to as many as twenty-five members, it seems that a smaller,
well-balanced board is most effective. For example, a twelve person board, made up of
an equal number of members appointed by the local executive, (e.g., Mayor), the City
Council or County Commission, the local law enforcement agency, and elected by the
public would offer a fair and balanced board to oversee all complaints filed. This board
would also be large enough to handle multiple complaints, but not too large that it would
be cumbersome and inefficient. A Board of about twelve to fifteen members also ensures
that three-person investigatory teams can be comprised to review a complaint before it
is presented to the full Board. Smaller teams are only needed if the Board cannot handle
the massive complaint load on a case-by-case basis. In such a situation, smaller teams
from the Board can review a complaint to determine its merits before involving the entire
Board and its resources.

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The duration of each member’s term of appointment or election should also be

determined. A review of best practices of other Review Boards suggests that three years
is an appropriate term of service. Similarly, implementing mechanisms should set forth
where and when the Board meets; such meetings should be open to the public.
7. Protecting the Complainant
Once an individual files a complaint with the Review Board, it is essential that the
complainant not be re-victimized. Although the accused may receive notice that there is
a complaint filed against them, the actual complaint form does not need to be forwarded
to the accused police officer or ICE agent before the situation has been investigated.
From a policy standpoint, this would hinder an investigation of the incident and deter
individuals from filling out a complaint form. For example, Act C-25 Part VI Complaint
about or by Military Police of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom stands
as support for the proposition that the complaint need not be sent to the accused in all
circumstances. Section 250.37 of that Act states that no report shall be sent to the person
who is the subject of a complaint if sending the report might adversely affect or hinder
any investigation. After the initial investigation has commenced, the accused then has a
chance to view the formal complaint, voice his or her concerns, and defend him or herself
against the charges.
8. Model Complaint Mechanism and Review Process
	

Based upon the many different processes and procedures for various Civilian

Review Boards and Nursing Home Review Boards, the following proposals serve as
elements for a template for a model complaint mechanism pursuant to INA § 287(g):

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a. Filing the Complaint
The complaint form should be easily accessible and straightforward. A tracking
number should be listed on each complaint form. A tracking form should also be attached
to the complaint form itself to record the dates and board members who review the
complaint form. Once a complaint is filed, the Board’s screening panel should review
the complaint and make an initial decision as to whether it sets forth a sufficient basis of
alleged misconduct and whether the Board has legal jurisdiction. If the panel finds that
there is either no legal jurisdiction or that there is an insufficient basis to find misconduct,
the complaint is dismissed by the Board.  If the panel finds that the complaint sets forth a
sufficient basis to find misconduct, the complaint is immediately forwarded to the Board
investigator for a full investigation.
b. Investigation
Within three days of a complaint being submitted, the Board investigator – an
independently hired investigator – will contact the complainant and set up an interview.
During this period, the investigator researches all information pertaining to the complaint,
including the time, date, and location of the incident, the names and descriptions of the
police officers, potential witnesses, and any paperwork or photographs related to the
event. After speaking to the complainant, the investigator will contact the witnesses that a
complainant provided, visit the site of the incident, and try to locate other possible witnesses
who might be able to provide information helpful to a successful investigation (for example,
storekeepers and neighborhood residents). Occasionally after information is uncovered
in the course of the investigation, the complainant may need to be interviewed a second
time. Investigators are required to interview witnesses and subject police officers as soon
as possible after identifying them and interviewing the complainant. The investigation itself
should be completed within one month from the time of the alleged complaint.
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c. Board Review of Investigation
When the investigation is complete, it is forwarded to the Board. The Board
has subpoena power, which means that it is able to obtain records from commercial
establishments and medical facilities.

It can also obtain all relevant documentary

evidence from the police department, some of it immediately through on-site databases
and some of it through document requests. At this hearing, the Board will hear evidence
in support of the complainant and may subpoena witnesses to attend.  The proceedings at
this hearing are confidential by law until the Board’s decision is made public.
d. Board Vote after Presentation of Case
A panel of three members of the Board will read the case, review all of the
evidence, and then present the case to the full Board to vote on the disposition of every
allegation raised by the complaint. The Board may dismiss the complaint if it determines
that no misconduct, abuse, neglect, or other violation occurred.  If any allegations are
substantiated, the case will be forwarded to the police commissioner, who has the final
say in disciplinary matters for civilian review boards. Then, the Board may recommend
that specific discipline be taken against the officer involved and offending practices be
changed.
e. Appropriate Discipline upon a Finding of Misconduct, Abuse, or Neglect
Depending on the findings of the investigation and the Board review, appropriate
discipline is administered to the officer involved in a substantiated complaint. Discipline
may include training, verbal counseling, written admonishment, suspension, or
termination of employment. If the Board finds that misconduct likely occurred, it must
inform the head of the law enforcement agency and the local executive and legislative
branch. The Board will also make recommendations of discipline, training, systemic
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changes, and changes in policy or procedure to prevent future occurrences of similar
misconduct between the community and police. In determining discipline, components of
disciplinary philosophy include: employee motivation (Was the employee operating in the
public interest?); the degree of harm (What are the costs, financial and otherwise, to the
department and community?); employee experience (How long has this employee been
working? Was this an unfamiliar assignment?); intentional/unintentional errors (What
was the employee’s intent?); and an employee’s past record (Has there been previous
disciplinary action?).
f. Notification/Appeal
	

The complainant is notified of the Investigation and Review Board findings. If the

complainant is unsatisfied with the findings of the Board, there is a contact list for other
resources including the Mayor or other town, city or county executive’s office, the District
Attorney, the FBI, and Town or City Council or County Commission. The entire process,
from complaint to disciplinary action, should be completed within three months.
	

An ideal complaint mechanism and review board is a critical part of transparency,

oversight, and public awareness. Through the use of an effective complaint mechanism,
the public not only has the ability to file complaints pertaining to police abuse, it has the
ability to have input and a voice in the community. A review board can be used to keep
the public informed by posting updates and any relevant decisions that it adjudicates,
as well as pertinent information that can aid in watchdogging and general oversight by
community members affected by local policies.
	

Attached in Appendix B as Exhibits A-H are copies of model complaints that may

serve as examples for use in drafting a meaningful complaint mechanism for use in the
implementation and execution of the § 287(g) program.

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H. Data Collection
As discussed throughout this paper, §287(g) has a multitude of unintended
consequences which negatively impact a community’s security and economic stability.
Identified as a means of reducing crime and “regaining” control of a community, §287(g)
frequently has the very opposite effect, exacting a great cost on society. Former Mayor
of Farmer’s Branch, Texas, Dave Blair, identified this problem when he observed impact
of a similar immigration ordinance: “It’s not because I’m in favor of illegal immigration.
That is not the question here. The question is what . . . [it] is doing . . . and it’s doing very
little, but the damage is very, very great.”200 For this reason, data collection is paramount
so that the costs and the benefits may be fairly and accurately assessed.
Using local law enforcement to aggressively enforce federal immigration laws
undermines the ability of law enforcement offices to execute their primary function:
protecting the security of its citizens. Additionally, given the heterogeneous makeup of the
immigrant community and immigrant households, systemic deportations undermine the
stability of households, placing an additional strain on state and local welfare resources.
In once recent report, researchers attributed an increase in murder rates to the siphoning
off of resources from local law enforcement agencies for the Department of Homeland
Security which includes immigration enforcement functions.201 The consequences in both
instances, while intuitive, are not well-recognized or documented. Instead, given the
frequently hostile environment, these negative consequences (for example, reliance on
public assistance when undocumented parents are deported, increasing gang presence,
reduction in crimes reported and prosecuted) are erroneously and dismissively attributed
to the immigrant community itself.
200	
Anabelle Garay, Cities Spend Big Money Defending Immigration-related Ordinances, Associated Press, May 3, 2007, available at http://www.brownsvilleherald.com/articles/
city/76085/article.html/ordinance_costs.html.
201	
Erik Eckhom, Murders by Black Teenagers Rise, Bucking a Trend, N.Y. Times, Dec. 29,
2008 at A12.

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There must, therefore, be a broad and systemic analysis on the impact of § 287(g).
The analysis requires a permanent system to evaluate its impact and an expansive
approach which incorporates various resources to determine the full impact (for example,
evaluating school drop out rates as an indirect product of this aggressive program). This
may be accomplished through:
•	 Development and implementation of an effective complaint mechanism.
•	 Community action, including administration of surveys and the collection of
anecdotal evidence.
•	 Inclusive scholarship assessing the direct and indirect financial impact of this
isolation on public resources and the local economy.
I. Elimination of the 287(g) Program
Ultimately, the most obvious and effective way to eliminate the problems associated
with 287(g) implementation is to eliminate the 287(g) program altogether. The program,
as illustrated through this policy paper, is too problematic, too costly, and too difficult to
properly operate. The existence of such a program, one where a federal agency abdicates
authority to inadequately trained, less knowledgeable agents, indicates fundamental
issues with the current federal immigration law enforcement scheme.
In “Making the Case for Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Resource Guide,”
the American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA) outlines an effective approach
to immigration reform.202

Comprehensive reform is necessary because the current

immigration system’s problems are all interrelated.”203 Specifically, the guide points out
that the “tough enforcement-focused strategy,” of which 287(g) is a part, has failed.204
202	
American Immigration Lawyers Association, Making the Case for Comprehensive
Immigration Reform: Resource Guide, (2008), http://www.aila.org/content/fileviewer.aspx?docid
=21713&linkid=157219.
203	
Id. at 8.
204	
Id. at 6.

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AILA notes that the new immigration laws “must simultaneously create legal avenues for
people to enter the U.S.; allow people already here to earn the opportunity to adjust their
status; address the multi-year backlogs in family and employment-based immigration;
and create and implement a smart border security and enforcement regime that respects
core principles of due process.”205 These suggestions would allow for a fix of the systemic
problems. The 287(g) program could then be eliminated as the urgent problems that flow
from a broken system would dissipate.

Ultimately, the most obvious and effective way to eliminate the
problems associated with 287(g) implementation is to eliminate
the 287(g) program altogether. The program, as illustrated through
this policy paper, is too problematic, too costly, and too difficult to
properly operate.

205	

Id. at 8.

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VI. Conclusion
James Madison predicted unchecked power to develop into inevitable tyranny
under any context, but especially in the context of government. As he stated, “If men
were angels, no government would be necessary.”206 He also recognized tyranny not only
in government, but among sectors of society, requiring a check on the stronger sects over
the weak: “In a society under the forms of which the stronger faction can readily unite and
oppress the weaker,” he stated, “anarchy may as truly be said to reign as in a state of nature,
where the weaker individual is not secured against the violence of the stronger. . . .”207
The current legislation on § 287(g) and its implementation creates the precise
situation against which Madison warned. As illustrated in this policy analysis, § 287(g)
creates a powerful immigration enforcement program, not counterbalanced by any
effective oversight, public transparency, or voting power by those it affects the most.
It is a situation worthy of concern to both non-citizens and citizens alike. As Madison
acknowledged, imbalance of power infiltrates every sector of society and must be
counterbalanced regardless of who it appears to most affect, because in the end, it affects
us all.

206	
207	

Madison, supra note 190, at 319.
Id. at 321.

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- 100 -

TABLE OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX A
Exhibit 1.	

Sample North Carolina 287(g) Complaint Form

Exhibit 2.	

Sample North Carolina 287(g) Complaint Instruction Sheet
APPENDIX B

Exhibit 3.	
		

Alamance County Memoranda of Understanding with
Appendices
APPENDIX C

Exhibit 4.  	 North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services:
	 Health Information Privacy Complaint Form
	
Exhibit 5. 	 North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services:
	
	 Health Information Privacy Tracking Form
Exhibit 6. 	
		

North Carolina Medical Board: Physician, Physician’s
Assistant and Nurse Practitioner Complaint Form

Exhibit 7. 	 North Carolina Division of Health Service Regulation:
	
	 Nursing Home Complaint Form
Exhibit 8.  	
		

Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil 	
Rights: Health Information Privacy Complaint Form

Exhibit 9. 	

New York City Civilian Review Board: Complaint Form

Exhibit 10.  	 Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department Citizen Review 	
		
Board: Complaint Form
Exhibit 11.  	 San Diego Citizens’ Review Board on Police Practices:
	Complaint Form

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Appendix A - Exhibit 1: Sample North Carolina 287(g) Complaint Form
287(g) LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT COMPLAINT FORM

INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR COMPLAINT
DATE OF INCIDENT ___ /___ /___

TIME OF INCIDENT ______ AM/PM

LOCATION OF INCIDENT _________________________________________
DESCRIPTION OF INCIDENT (Please describe what happened to you and why you are
making this complaint. Please give as much detail as necessary.) ________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Please attach additional pages as necessary.

OFFICER INFORMATION (Please list as much information as possible about the
officer(s) that stopped and questioned you. Include badge number(s), name(s), and
physical description(s). It is okay if you do not remember anything about the officer(s);
you may skip this question.)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

COMPLAINTANT INFORMATION (If you would like to give your contact
information, please do so. You do not have to list your contact information if
you do not want to. If you do not want to list your contact information, please
call ACLU-NC at (919) 834-3390 for assistance.)

COMPLAINTANT NAME __________________________________________
DATE OF BIRTH ___ /___ /___
ADDRESS ____________________________________________________
HOME PHONE (___)____________ WORK/CELL PHONE _(___)__________
CITY _______________________________ STATE _______ ZIP _________
Check here if additional documents are attached

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�

Appendix A - Exhibit 2: Sample North Carolina 287(g)
Complaint Instruction Document
287(g) LAW ENFORCEMENT: HOW TO FILE A COMPLAINT

Can I file a complaint?
Yes. If you have been stopped and questioned by state or local law enforcement and in
the course of the stop you were questioned about your immigration status and you believe
you were wrongfully stopped, racially profiled, or otherwise treated unfairly, you may file
a complaint.

What should I include in the complaint?
Be sure to include details about the incident (date, time, location) and explain what
happened that you think was unfair. Even if you do not know exactly what was unfair,
but you felt that you were treated poorly during the stop, please include that in the
complaint. It is not your responsibility to identify the officer(s) who stopped you, but if
you do have that information (name, badge number, description, etc), also include that
in the complaint. If you can give your contact information, please do so. If you do not
want to give your contact information, please call the American Civil Liberties Union of
NC (ACLU-NC) at (919) 834-3390, and they will assist you. A sample complaint form is
attached and you may use that form if you wish. Be sure to keep a copy of the complaint
for your records.

Where do I send the complaint?
(1) Please send one copy of the complaint to Immigration and Customs Enforcement
(ICE), and one copy to the North Carolina Sheriff’s Association: [Insert appropriate state
agency in place of NC Sheriff’s Association]

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U.S. Department of Homeland Security
		
U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement	
	
Office of Professional Responsibility 	
	
	
425 I Street, N.W.  Room 3260
Washington, D.C. 20536

North Carolina Sheriff’s Association
P.O. Box 20049
Raleigh, NC 27619

(2) You should also send a copy of the complaint to the local law enforcement agency that
stopped or questioned you. [The 287(g) participating agency addresses can be listed
here]

Can I call someone to complain?
Yes. You can call the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Office of Professional
Responsibility (ICE OPR) toll-free at (877) 246-8253 or the Office of the Special Agent in
charge of the ICE OPR at (954) 327-4100. Be sure to write down the time and date that
you called and to whom you spoke.

When will my complaint be resolved?
Most complaints are resolved within 90-days of receipt of the complaint. Sometimes if
the complaint is complex, it may take longer.

Will I be notified of an outcome?
You should be notified of an outcome after the 90-day period. If you have not been
contacted by someone about your complaint by that time, please call [a number
provided by DHS/ICE and the local 287(g) program for tracking complaints].

Who can I contact if I have questions?
[Include a number provided by DHS/ICE and the local 287(g) program for tracking
complaints.]
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IMPORTANT PHONE NUMBERS
Mexican Consulate in Raleigh: (919) 754-0046 or (919)754-0730 or (919) 754-0150
Honduran Consulate in Atlanta: (770) 645-8881 or (770) 645-8879
Salvadoran Consulate in Virginia: (703) 490-4300
Guatemalan Consulate in Atlanta: (404) 320-8804

KNOW YOUR RIGHTS: INFORMATION FOR NON-CITIZENS

Q: What can I do if law enforcement officers want to question me?
A: You have the same right to be silent that U.S. citizens have, so the general rule
is that you do not have to answer any questions that a law enforcement officer asks you.
However, there are exceptions to this at ports of entry, such as airports and borders.

Q: Do I have to answer questions about whether I am a U.S. citizen, where I was
born, where I live, where I am from, or other questions about my immigration
status?
A: You do not have to answer any of the above questions if you do not want to
answer them. But do not falsely claim U.S. citizenship. It is almost always a good idea
to speak with a lawyer before you answer questions about your immigration status.
Immigration law is very complicated, and you could have a problem without realizing it.
A lawyer can help protect your rights, advise you, and help you avoid a problem. Always
remember that even if you have answered some questions, you can still decide you do
not want to answer any more questions.
If you are a non-immigrant who is already in the U.S. (a non-citizen who is
authorized to be in the U.S. for a particular reason or activity, usually for a limited
period of time, such as a person with a tourist, student, or work visa), you may be

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required to provide information related to your immigration status. However, even if
you are a nonimmigrant, you can still say that you would like to have your lawyer with
you before you answer questions, and you have the right to stay silent if you answer to a
question could be used against you in a criminal case.

Q: Do I have to show officers my immigration documents?
A: The law requires non-citizens who are 18 or older and who have been issued
valid U.S. immigration documents to carry those documents with them at all times.
Failure to carry these documents can be a misdemeanor crime.
If you have your valid U.S. immigration documents and you are asked for them,
it is usually a good idea to show them to the officer because it is possible that you will
be arrested if you do not do so. If you are arrested because you do not have your U.S.
immigration documents with you, but you have them elsewhere, ask a friend of family
member (preferably one who has a valid immigration status), to bring them to you.
It is never a good idea to show an officer fake immigration documents or pretent
that someone else’s immigration documents are yours. If you are undocumented and
therefore do not have valid U.S. immigration documents, you can decide not to answer
questions about your citizenship or immigration status or whether you have documents.
if you tell an immigration officer that you are not a U.S. citizen and you then cannot
produce valid U.S. immigration documents, there is a very good chance you will be
arrested.
Q: What should I do if immigration officers arrest me?
	

A: Assert your rights. You do not have to answer questions. You can tell the

officer you want to speak with a lawyer. You do not have to sign anything giving up your
rights, and you should never sign anything without reading, understanding and knowing
the consequences of signing it. If you do sign a waiver, immigration agents could try to

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deport you before you see a lawyer or judge.

Q: Do I have the right to talk to a lawyer before answering any law enforcement
officers’ questions or signing any immigration papers?
	

A: Yes. You have the right to call a lawyer or your family if you are detained, and

you have the right to be visited by a lawyer in detention. You have the right to have your
attorney with you at any hearing before an immigration judge. You do not have the right
to a government-appointed attorney for immigration proceedings, but immigration
officials must give you a list of free or low-cost legal service providers. You have the
right to hire your own immigration attorney.
For more information, or for a “Know Your Rights” brochure,
contact ACLU-NC at (919) 834-3390.

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- 110 -

Appendix B - Exhibit 1:
Alamance County Memoranda of Understanding with Appendices

- 111 -

This MOD sets forth the scope of the immigration officer functions that DRS is
authorizing the Participating ACSO Personnel to perform. It sets forth with
specificity the duration of the authority conveyed and the specific lines of authority,
including the requirement that Participating ACSO Personnel shall be subject to
ICE supervision while performing immigration related duties pursuant" to this
MOU. ACSO retains supervision of all other aspects of the employment of and
performance of duties by Participating ACSO Personnel.
Before Participating (ACSO) Personnel will be authorized to perform immigration
officer functions granted under this MOU, they must successfully complete
mandatory training in the enforcement of federal immigration laws and policies as
provided by DHS instructors and pass examinations equivalent to those given to
ICE officers. This MOU further sets forth requirements for regular review of this
MOD. Only Participating ACSO Personnel have authority pursuant to this MOU to
conduct the immigration officer functions enumerated in this MOU.
The ICE and ACSO points of contact for purposes of this MOD are identified in
AppendixA.
IV.

DESIGNATION OF FUNCTIONS

For the purpose of this MOU, the functions that may be performed by Participating
ACSO Personnel with their associated authorities are indicated below:
FUNCTIONS

AUTHORITY

.. The power to interrogate any alien or person .. Interrogate iu order to determine
believed to be an alien as to his right to be or
probable cause for an immigration
violation.
remain in the United States. INA & 287(a)(1)
And 8 C.F.R. 287.5(a)(1).
.. The power and authority to administer oaths .. Complete required criminal alien
processing, to include fingerand to take and consider evidence. INA &
printing, photographing, and
287(b) and 8 C.F.R. 287.5(a)(2).
interviewing for ICE supervisor
revie'v.

.. Prepare affidavits and take sworn
statements.
.. The power to issue detainers. 8 C.F.R.
287.7.

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.. Prepare immigration detainers for
aliens in categories established by
ICE supervisors.

AUTHORITY

FUNCTIONS

.. The authority to prepare charging
documents. INA & 239;8 C.F.R.239.1;
INA & 238.8; 8 C.F.R. 238.1; INA
241(a)(5); 8 C.F.R. 241.8; INA & 235(b)(1);
8 C.F.R. 235.3.

.. Prepare, as needed, a Notice to
Appear (NTA) 01' other removal
charging document, as appropriate,
including Notice ofIntent to
Administratively Remove, Notice of
Intent to Reinstate Removal, 01'
Notice ofIntent to Expeditiously
Remove for signature ofICE officer
For aliens in categories established
By ICE supervisors.

.. Transportation of aliens. INA & 236.

In the absence of a written agreement to the contrary, the policies and procedures to
be utilized by the Participating ACSO Personnel in exercising these authorities shall
be DHS policies and procedures. However, when engaged in immigration
enforcement activities, no Participating ACSO Personnel will be expected or
required to violate or otherwise fail to maintain ACSO standards of conduct, 01' be
required to fail to abide by restrictions or limitations as may otherwise be imposed
by law, or ACSO rules, orders, standards, or policies.
V.

NOMINATION OF PERSONNEL

The Sheriff of ACSO will initially nominate ten (10) Detention officers thirteen (13)
sworn Deputy Sheriffs and two (2) Supervisory Deputy Sheriff candidates to ICE
for initial training and certification under this MOU. All ACSO candidates and
supervisors will be operationally assigned by ACSO to carry out the duties
contemplated by the parties, with the principal places of assignment being the
Central Jail Facility.
For each candidate nominated, ICE may request any information necessary for a
background check and evaluation for suitability to participate in the enforcement of
immigration authorities under this MOU. All candidates must be United States
citizens. All candidates shall either be competent English/Spanish bilingual
speakers 01' have readily available interpreter services provided by ACSO. All
candidates will have at least two years' work experience for ACSO. No candidate
will be married to a person illegally present within the United States or knowingly
have family or any other associations which could adversely impact their ability to
perform ICE functions under this MOU. All candidates must be approved by ICE
and must be able to qualify for appropriate security clearances. Should a candidate
not be approved, a substitute candidate may be submitted, so long as such
substitution happens in a timely manner and does not delay the start of training.
Any future expansion in the number of Participating ACSO Personnel 01' scheduling

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of additional training classes may be based on an oral agreement of the parties, but
will be subject to all the requil'ements of this MOU.
ACSO will endeavor not to reassign approved candidates from their primary place
of duty for a period of at least two years following training and certification of
approved candidates as outlined in this MOU. Further, to the extent possible and
practicable, ACSO will give ICE sixty (60) days notice of its intent to reassign any
approved candidate.
VI.

TRAINING OF PERSONNEL

ICE will provide appropriate training of nominated ACSO personnel tailored to the
designated immigration functions and types of cases typically encountered by
ACSO. Training of such ACSO personnel will be at a mutually designated site in
Charlotte, North Carolina, utilizing ICE designated curriculum and competency
testing. Training will include but not necessarily be limited to, presentations on this
agreement and elements of this MOU, the scope of immigration officer authority,
cross-cultural issues, the ICE Use Of Force Policy, civil rights law, the Department
of Justice "Guidance Regarding The Use Of Race By Federal Law Enforcement
Agencies" dated June 2003, public outreach and complaint procedures, liability, and
other relevant issues. ICE will provide all training materials. ACSO is responsible
for the salaries and benefits for any of its personnel being trained or performing
duties under this MOU. ACSO will cover the costs of all candidates' travel, housing
and per diem while involved in training required for participation in this
agreement.
.
All nominated and accepted personnel will receive specific training regarding their
obligations under federal law and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations to
make proper notification upon the arrest or detention of a foreign national.
Approximately one year after the Participating ACSO Personnel are trained and
certified, unless any party tel'minates this MOU pursuant to Section XVII below,
ICE will provide such personnel with additional updated training on relevant
administrative, legal and operational issues related to the performance of
immigration officer functions. Local training on relevant administrative, legal and
operational issues will be provided on an ongoing and timely basis by ICE
supervisors.
VII.

CERTIFICATION AND AUTHORIZATION

The ICE Training Division will certify in writing to the ICE Special Agent in
Charge in Atlanta, Georgia, the names of those ACSO personnel who successfully
complete training and pass all required testing. Upon receipt of the ICE Training
Division certification, the Special Agent in Charge, Atlanta, Georgia, will provide to
the Participating ACSO Personnel a signed authorization to perform specified
functions of an immigl'ation officer for an initial period of one year from the date of

- 114 -

the authorization. ICE will also provide a copy of the authorization to ACSO. The
activities of all Participating ACSO Personnel with regard to ICE functions will be
evaluated by the ICE Immigration Enforcement Agents as addressed in Section IX
below.
Authorization of any Participating ACSO Personnel to act pursuant to the MOU
may be revoked at any time by ICE or ACSO. Such revocation will require
immediate notification by the revoking party to ICE or ACSO, as the situation
requires. The Sheriff of ACSO or his Deputy Chief and the ICE Special Agent in
Charge in Atlanta, Georgia or the Assistimt Special Agent in Charge in Charlotte,
North Carolina will be responsible for notification of the appropriate personnel in
their respective agencies. If one of the Participating ACSO Personnel is the subject
of a complaint of any sort that may result in that individual receiving employer
discipline of anything other than of a de minim liS nature or becoming the subject of
a criminal investigation, ACSO shall, to the extent allowed by state law, immediately
notify ICE of the complaint. The resolution of the complaint shall be promptly
reported to ICE. Complaints regarding exercise of immigration enforcement
authority by any Participating ACSO Personnel shall be handled in accordance with
Section XII below. The termination of this MOU shall constitute revocation of all
immigration enforcement authorizations conveyed hereunder.
VIII. COSTS AND EXPENDITURES
Except as specifically provided otherwise herein, Participating ACSO Personnel will
carry out ICE functions designated in this MOU as delegated to ACSO at ACSO
expense, including salaries and benefits. Any movement and detention of ACSO
inmates, who also happen to be aliens, will be for ACSO's own purposes and at
ACSO expense. However, after ACSO determination that any individual has been
released to ICE custody, ICE shall bear all expenses and costs associated with the
movement and detention by ACSO of any such individual. Such costs and expenses
shall be reimbursed to ACSO at the federal rate and in a timely manner.
IX.

ICE SUPERVISION

Immigration enforcement activities of the Participating ACSO Personnel will be
supervised and directed by ICE in Raleigh and/or Charlotte, North Carolina.
Participating ACSO Personnel cannot perform any immigration officer functions
pursuant to the authorities granted under this .MOU except when working under
the supervision ofICE. Participating ACSO Personnel shall give notice to the ICE
as soon as practicable after, and in all cases within 24 hours, of any detainer issued
under the authorities set forth in this MOU. The actions of Participating ACSO
Personnel will be reviewed by ICE on an ongoing basis to ensure compliance with
the requirements of the immigration laws and procedures and to assess the need for
additional training or guidance for any individual.

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For the purposes of this MOU, ICE will provide supervision of Participating Acso
Personnel only as to immigl'ation enforcement functions. ACSO retains supervision
of all other aspects of the employment of and performance of duties by Participating
ACSO Personnel or any ACSO pel'sonnel in the process of f1'aining hereunder.
If a conflict arises between an order or direction provided by ICE and ACSO rules,
standards, orders or policies, the conflict shall be promptly reported to the Assistant
Special Agent in Charge, Charlotte, and the Sheriff of ACSO or his designee as soon
as circumstances safely allow the concern to be raised. The Assistant Special Agent
in Charge and the Sheriff of ACSO or his designee shall attempt to resolve the
conflict.

X.

LIABILITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

ACSO will bear its own costs and be responsible for any liability created as a result
of any act or action of its personnel, or damage to its property or resources, which
occur outside the scope of this agreement.
Participating ACSO Personnel shall not be h'eated as federal employees except for
purposes of the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 U.S.C. & 2671-2680, and worker's
compensation claims, 5 U.S.c. & 8101 et seq. when p,erforming a function as
authorized by this MOU. 8 U.S.C. & 1357(g)(7). Participating ACSO Personnel will
have the same immunities and defenses as do ICE officers from personal liability
from tort suits based on actions conducted in compliance with the MOU. 8 U.S.C. &
1357(G)(8). ICE wiiI not be responsible for any intentional misconduct on the part
of any Participating ACSO Personnel.
Participating ACSO Personnel who are named as defendants in litigation arising
from activities carried out under this MOU may request representation by the U.S.
Department of Justice. Such requests must be made in writing directed to the
Attorney General of the United States, and be presented to the Office of the Chief
Counsel, at 77 Forsythe Sh'eet, Room 385, Atlanta, Georgia, 30303. Any request for
representation must clearly be marked on each written communication that the
information is "Subject to Attorney-Client Privilege." The Chief Counsel will
forward the individual's request, together with a memorandum outlining the factnal
basis underlying the event(s) at issue in the lawsuit to the ICE Office of the Principal
Legal Advisor, which will forward the request, the factual memorandum, and a
statement of the views ofICE with respect to whether such representation would be
in the interest of the United States, to the Director of the Constitutional and
Specialized Torts Staff of the Civil Division of the Department of Justice.
ACSO agrees to cooperate with any federal investigation related to this MOU to the
full extent of its available powers. It is understood that information provided by an
ACSO personnel under threat of disciplinary action in an administrative
investigation cannot be used against that individual in subsequent criminal

- 116 -

proceedings, consistent with Garrity v. New Jersey, 385 U.S. 493. 87 S.Ct. 616, 17
L.Ed.2d 526 (1967).
The Supreme Court's decision in Giglio v. United States, 405 U.S. 150. 92 S.Ct. 763.
31 L.Ed.2d 104 (1972), relates to disclosure of potential impeachment information
about potential witnesses or affiants in a criminal case or investigation. See also
United States v. HentlzoJ'll, 931 F.2d 29 (9 th Cir. 1991). As the activities of
Participating ACSO Personnel under this MOU are undertaken under federal
authority, to the extent Participating ACSO Personnel are performing services
hereunder, unless specifically provided othenvise herein, Participating ACSO
Personnel will comply with federal standards and guidelines relating to such cases
or any subsequent cases that establish federal standards adopted by ICE and
provided to ACSO.
XI.

CIVIL RIGHTS STANDARDS AND PROVISION OF
INTERPRETATION SERVICES

Pursuant to this MOU, Participating ACSO Personnel will perform certain federal
immigration enforcement functions. While doing so, unless specifically provided
otherwise herein, Participating ACSO Personnel are bound by all federal civil rights
statutes and regulations, as well as policy directives, including the U.S. Department
of Justice "Guidance Regarding The Use Of Race By Federal Law Enforcement
Agencies" dated June 2003.
Participating ACSO Personnel will provide an opportunity' for subjects with limited
English language proficiency to request an interpreter. Qualified foreign language
interpreters will be provided by ACSO as needed.
XII.

COMPLAINT PROCEDURES

The complaint reporting and resolution procedure for allegations of misconduct by
Participating ACSO Pel'sollllel or for activities undertaken under the authority of
this MOU is included at Appendix B.
.
XIII. REQUIRED REVIEW OF ACTIVITIES
The ICE Assistant Secretary and the Sheriff of ACSO shall establish a steering
committee that will meet periodically to review and assess the immigration
enforcement activities that have been conducted pursuant to this MOU. The
steering committee will meet periodically in Raleigh and/or Charlotte, North
Carolina at locations to be agreed upon by the parties. These reviews are intended
to assess the use made of immigration enforcement authority and to ensure
compliance with the terms of this MOU. Steering committee participants will be
supplied with specific information on case reviews, individual participants'
evaluations, complaints filed, media coverage, and, to the extent practicable and
available, statistical information on increased immigration enforcement activity in

- 117 -

the Couuty. An initial review meeting will.be held no later than nine months after
certification of the initial class of Participating ACSO Personnel under Section VII.,
above.
XIV. COMMUNITY OUTREACH
ACSO will, in its discretion, engage in community outreach with individuals and
organizations expressing an interest in this MOU. ICE may participate in such
outreach upon ACSO request.
XV.

RELATIONS WITH THE NEWS MEDIA

As part of its commitment to the communities it serves, ACSO may at any time and
in its discretion, communicate the intent, focus, and purpose of this agreement to the
media, organizations and groups expressing an interest in the law enforcement
activities to be engaged in under this MOU.
The parties hereto agree that ACSO and ICE will coordinate any release of
information to the media regarding specific actions taken by any party under this
MOU. The points of contact for ICE and ACSO for this purpose can be found at
Appendix C. Both ICE and ACSO recognize the need to respond to media requests
in a timely manner.
XVI. MODIFICATION OF THIS MOU
Any modifications to this MOU must be proposed in writing and approved by tbe
signatories. However, modification or amendment of any statue, regulation, case,
act 01' any other authority cited herein shall be deemed to be automatically updated
to include any such modification or amendment. ICE shall be responsible for.
ensuring that Participating ACSO Personnel are fully and timely apprised of such
modifications or amendments and receive appropriate· and timely training if
necessitated by such modifications and amendments.
XVII. DURATION AND TERMINATION OF THIS MOU
This MOU will be in effect from tbe date of signing until terminated by any party
hereto. Any party to this MOU, npon sixty (60) da)'s prior written notice to the
other parties, may terminate it at any time. Such notice shall be delivered
personally or by certified or registered mail.
In the event of an unforeseen emergency 01' other exigent circumstances, ICE 01'
ACSO may, upon written notice to the otber, temporarily suspend activities under
this MOD when resource constraints 01' completing priorities necessitate. ICE and
the ACSO must agree in writing to begin activities under this MOD after such
suspension. Notice of termination or suspension by ICE shall be given to the Sheriff

- 118 -

'.

or ACSO. Notice of termination or suspension by ACSO shall be given to the ICE
Assistant Special Agent in Charge in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Except for the rights of Participating ACSO Personnel as described herein, this
MOD does not, is not intended to, shall not be construed to, and may not be relied
upon to create ay rights, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by any
person in any matter, civil or criminal.
.
By signing this MOU, each party represents it is fully authorized to enter into this
agreement and accepts the terms, responsibilities, obligations and limitations of the
Agreement, and agrees to be bound thereto to the fullest extent allowed by law.

Julie L. Myers
Assistant Security
U.S. Immigration and Customs
Enforcement

Larry Sharpe, Chairman of the
Board of Commissioners, Alamance
County, North Carolina

Date:

Date:

_

Terry S. Johnson, Sheriff
Alamance County, North Carolina
Date:
_

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_

APPENDIX A
POINTS OF CONTACT FOR MOU IMPLEMENTATION

As called fOl' in Section III of the MOU, the ICE and ACSO points of contact for
purposes of implementation of this MOU are:

For the County:

Terry S. Johnson
Alamance County Sheriff's Office
109 S. Maple Street
Graham, North Carolina 27253
336-570-6311
.

For ICE:

Jeffrey S. Jordan
Assistant Special Agent in Charge
3700 Arco Corporate Drive
Suite 300
Charlotte, North Carolina 28271
704-679-6140

- 120 -

APPENDIXB
COMPLAINT PROCEDURE

This MOU is a joint agreement between DHSIICE, the County and the ACSO, in
which selected ACSO personnel are authorized to perform immigration
enforcement duties in specific situations under federal authority. As such, the
training, supervision, and performance of certain ACSO personnel pursuant to the
MOU, as well as the pl'otections for individuals' civil and constitutional rights, are
to be monitored. Part of that monitoring will be accomplished through these
complaint reporting and. resolution procedures, which the parties to the MOU have
agreed to follow.
The MOU sets forth the process fOl' designation, training and certification of
designated ACSO personnel to perform certain immigration enforcement functions
specified herein. Complaints filed against those personnel in the course of their nonimmigration duties will remain the domain of ACSO and be handled in accordance
with ACSO policies and procedures. ACSO will also handle complaints filed against
ACSO personnel who may exercise immigration authority, but who are not
designated and certified under this MOU. The number and type of the latter
complaints will be monitored by the steering committee established under Section
XIII of the MOU.
In order to simplify the process for the public, complaints against participating
ACSO personnel relating to their immigration enforcement actions can be reported
in a number of ways. The ICE Headquarters Office of Professional Responsibility
(ICE OPR) and the ACSO of Professional Standards will coordinate complaint
receipt and investigation. The ICE OPR will fonvard complaints to the Department
of Homeland Security's Office oflnspector General (DHS OIG) as appropriate for
review, and ensure notification as necessary to the U.S. Department of Justice Civil
Rights Division (DOJ CRD). It is contemplated by the parties that ACSO's existing
complaint processes for Participating ACSO personnel will be utilized to the extent
they do not conflict with this agreement.
The ICE OPR will coordinate complaints related to participating ACSO personnel
with the ACSO OPC as detailed below. Should circumstances warrant investigation
of a complaint by the DHS lOG 01' the DOJ CRD, this will not preclude the DHS
OIG, DOJ CRD or ICE OPR from conducting the investigation in coordination with
ACSO Professional Standard.
The ICE OPR will adhere to established procedUl'es relating to reporting and
resolving allegations of employee misconduct, and the ACSO will follow applicable
ACSO policies and procedures, personnel rules, North Carolina statutes and any
other guidelines established for operation of the ACSO.

- 121 -

I.

Complaint Reporting Procedures

A. Dissemination of Complaint Reporting Procedures
Complaint reporting procedures shall be disseminated as appropriate. by ACSO .
within facilities under its jurisdiction (in English and other languages as
appropriate) in order to ensure that individuals are aware ofthe availability of
such procedures.

B.' Acceptance of Complaints
Complaints will be accepted from any source (e.g., ICE, ACSO, personnel
operating under the authority of this MOD, and the public).
C. Reporting Mechanisms
Complaints can be reported to federal authorities as follows:
1. Telephonically to the ICE OPR at the Joint Intake Center (JIC) in
Washington, D. C. at the toll-free number 1-877-246-8253, or
telephonically to the Office of the Special Agent in charge of the ICE OPR
office in Plantation, Florida at 954-327-4100; or,
2. Via mail as follows:
D. S. Department of Homeland SecUl'ity
U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Office of Professional Responsibility
425 I Street, NW
Room 3260
Washington, D. C. 20536

u. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Office of Professional Responsibility
425 I Street, NW
Room 3260
Washington, D. C. 20536

Complaints can also be referred to and accepted by any of the following at ACSO:
1. The Sheriff of Alamance County
Alamance County Sheriffs Office
109. S. Maple Street
Graham, North Carolina 27253

- 122 -

2. Alamance County Sheriffs Office
Office of Professional Standards
109 S. Maple Street
Graham, North Carolina 27253
Phone: 336-570-6311

D. Review of Complaints
I. All complaints (written or oral) directly reported to ACSO, which involve
activities connected to immigration enforcement activities by ACSO
authorized under this MOU, will be reported to the ICE OPR. The ICE OPR
will verify participating ACSO personnel status under the MOU with the
assistance of the Assistant Special Agent in Charge of the ICE Office of
Investigations in Charlotte, NOlth Carolina.
2. Complaints received by any ICE entity will be reported directly to the ICE
OPR as per existing ICE policies and procedures and shall also be reported to
ACSO Professional Standards Agent in charge of the ICE Office in Charlotte,
NOlth Carolina.
.
For both of the above, the ICE OPR, as appropriate, will make an initial
determination regarding DRS investigative jurisdiction and refer the complaint to the
appropriate office for action as soon a possible, given the nature ofthe complaint.
Complaints reported directly to the ICE OPR will be shared with the Sheriff of ACSO
or his designee, anytime the complaint involves ACSO personnel. Both offices will
then coordinate appropriate investigative jurisdiction which may include initiation-of
ajoint investigation to resolve the issue(s).

II.

Complaint Resolution Procedures

Upon receipt of any complaint, the ICE OPR will undertake a complete review of
each complaint in accordance with' existing ICE allegation criteria and reporting
requirements. As stated above, the ICE OPR will adhere to existing ICE reporting
requirements as they relate to the DRS OIG and/or the DOJ CRT. Complaints will be
resolved using the existing procedures, supplemented as follows:
A. Referral of Complaints to ACSO
The ICE OPR will refer complaints, as appropriate, involving ACSO personnel to the
ACSO for resolution. The ACSO will inform ICE OPR of the disposition and
resolution of any complaints referred by ICE OPR.
B. Interim Action Pending Complaint Resolution

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Whenever any participating ACSO personnel are under investigation and subject to
intelTOgation by ACSO for any reason that could lead to disciplinary action,
demotion, or dismissal, the requirements of all applicable ACSO manuals or Orders
of Policy and Procedures shall be honored and shall be deemed controlling. If
appropriate, an individual may be removed from palticipation in the activities covered
under the MOD pending resolution of an inquiry.
C. Time Parameters for Resolution of Complaints
It is expected that any complaint received will be resolved within ninety (90) days;
however, this will depend upon the nature and complexity of the substance of the
complaint.
D. Notification of Resolution of a Complaint
ICE OPR will coordinate with the ACSO Professional Standards to ensure
notification as appropriate to the subject(s) of a complaint, regarding the resolution of
the complaint.

- 124 -

APPENDIXC
PUBLIC INFORi\1:ATION POINTS OF CaNTACT
Pursuant to Section XV of the MOU, the signatories agree to coordinate any
release of information to the media regarding actions taken under this MOU.
The points of contact for coordinating such activities are:
FOR ACSO:
Sheriff Terry S. Johnson
Alamance County Sheriff's Office
109 S. Maple Street
Graham, North Carolina 27253
Phone: 336-570-6311 or 336-570-6363

FaRleE:
Public Affairs Officer
Office of Public Affairs and Internal Communication
U. S. Department of Homeland Security
U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
425 I Street, NW, Room 7232
Washington, D. C. 20536
Phone: 202-514-2648

- 125 -

- 126 -

Appendix C - Exhibit 1:
North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services:
Health Information Privacy Complaint Form

- 127 -

THIS AREA FOR DHHS USE ONLY
DISPOSITION OF COMPLAINT

D
D
D
D

COMPLAINANT NOTIFIED OF DISPOSITION ON

D

COMPLAINT DISPOSITION SENT TO DHHS PRIVACY OFFICER ON

RESOLVED ON

_

30 DAY EXTENSION BEGINNING ON

_

REFERRED TO DHHS PRIVACY OFFICER ON

_
_
_

EXPLANATION OF RESOLUTION

SIGNATUREITITLE

DATE

DHHS-1040 (8/03)
DHHS Health lnfonnation Privacy Complaint

2

- 128 -

Appendix C - Exhibit 2:
North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services:
Health Information Privacy Tracking Form

- 129 -

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
PRIVACY COMPLAINT TRACKING FORM

TRACKING #

DATE
COMPLAINT
RECEIVED

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF COMPLAINT

DATE
RESOLVED

DATE
COMPLAINANT
NOTIFIED

DATE INFO SENT
TO DHHS PRIV
OFCR

COMMMENTS

- 130 Complaints_Trackin9_Lo9_v1.xls

2of2

11/13/2008

Appendix C - Exhibit 3:
North Carolina Division of Health Service Regulation:
Nursing Home Complaint Form

- 131 -

STATEMENT OF YOUR COMPLAINT
Provide a clear statement of your major concerns regarding the licensee on this form or attach a typed
document to this form. Do not send your original documents or photographs as the Board cannot be
responsible for their return.

- 132 -

Appendix C - Exhibit 4:
North Carolina Medical Board: Physician, Physician’s Assistant
and Nurse Practitioner Complaint Form

- 133 -

North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
Division of Health Service Regulation • Complaint Intake Unit
Tel 800-624-3004/919-855-4500 • Fax 919-715-7724
2711 Mail Service Center • Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-2711
Michael F. Easley, Governor

Carmen Hooker Odom, Secretary

Rita C. Horton, Branch Manager

If you have any questions about this form, call DHSR (toll-free) at:
I 800 624 3004
Date:

Facility/Agency Information
Facility/Agency Name:

y
I_C_i_t_:

_S_tr_e_et_A_d_dr_e_s_s:
State:

_

Zip:

Resident Information
D.O.B.

Name of Resident/Patient/Client:

Date of Admission:

Date of Discharge:

Room Number

Male

Female

D

D

Current Location:

Complainant Information
Relation,hip to R«identIPatient

I

Name:

Home Phone:

Work Phone:

Cell Phone:

I

Street Address:

I

City:

I
State:

Zip:

Email:

Other Information
How often do you visit?

Do you attend care plan meetings?

If admitted to the hospital, is the resident returning to facility?

Location: 1205 Umstead Drive • Dorothea Dix Hospital Campus • Raleigh, N.C. 27603
An Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Employer

- 134 -

North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
Division of Health Service Regulation • Complaint Intake Unit
Tel 800-624-3004/919-855-4500 • Fax 919-715-7724
2711 Mail Service Center • Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-2711
Michael F. Easley, Governor

Carmen Hooker Odom, Secretary

Rita C. Horton, Branch Manager

Page 1

Location: 1205 Umstead Drive· Dorothea Dix Hospital Campus· Raleigh, N.C. 27603
An Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Employer

- 135 -

FITst Narne:

Ifwe cannot reach you directly, is there someone we can contact to help us reach you?
L ast N arne:

I
Home Phone:

Work Phone:

Cell Phone:

City:

Street Address:

I
State:

Zip:

Email:

Description ofComplaint
Please provide as much description about your complaint as possible. Please answer as many questions below as possible.
You may attach other notes to describe your complaint.
What happened? How did it happen? When did it happen? Where did it happen? Who was involved? Were there any witnesses?
Has this happened before? When? How often? Was the incident reported to the staff? Who was told about this? When were they
told? What did they do about it? Is anything being done to prevent it from happening again? Has the resident/patient/client
experienced any negative outcome? What? How has the negative outcome affected the resident/patient/client's functioning?

Please return form to:
Division of Health Service Regulation
Complaint Intake Unit
2711 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699
Or:
Intake@ncmail.net
Page 2

- 136 -

Appendix C - Exhibit 5:
Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights:
HealthInformation Privacy Complaint Form

- 137 -

(The remaining information on this form is optional. Failure to answer these voluntary
questions will not affect OCR's decision to process your complaint.)
Do you need special accommodations for us to communicate with you about this complaint (check all that apply)?

D Braille
D Large Print
D Cassette tape
D Sign language interpreter (specify language):
D Foreign language interpreter (specify language):

D Computer diskette

D Electronic mail
D

D TDD

Other:

If we cannot reach you directly, is there someone we can contact to help us reach you?
FIRST NAME

LAST NAME

HOME PHONE

WORK PHONE

(

(

)

)

STREET ADDRESS

CITY

STATE

E-MAIL ADDRESS (If available)

ZIP

Have you filed your complaint anywhere else? If so, please provide the following. (Attach additional pages as needed.)
PERSON I AGENCY 1 ORGANIZATION 1 COURT NAME(S)

DATE(S) FILED

I CASE NUMBER(S) (If

known)

!
!

To help us better serve the public, please provide the following information for the person you believe had their health information
privacy rights violated (you or the person on whose behalf you are filing).
ETHNICITY (select one)
Hispanic or Latino

D

RACE (select one or more)
American Indian or Alaska Native

D

D Asian

D Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

D Black or African American

D White

D Other (specify):

D Not Hispanic or Latino

PRIMARY LANGUAGE SPOKEN (if other then English)

HOW DID YOU LEARN ABOUT THE OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS?

To mail a complaint, please type or print, and return completed complaint to the
OCR R"
" were
h
h II ege d d"Iscnmmatlon
" too k place.
I
tea
eglona I Add ress b ase d on t h e region
Region I - CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
JFK Federal Building - Room 1875
Boston, MA 02203
(617) 565-1340; (617) 565-1343 (TOD)
(617) 565-3809 FAX

Region V - IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
233 N. Michigan Ave. - Suite 240
Chicago, IL 60601
(312) 886-2359; (312) 353-5693 (TDD)
(312) 886-1807 FAX

Region II - NJ, NY, PR, VI
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
26 Federal Plaza - Suite 3313
New York, NY 10278
(212) 264-3313; (212) 264-2355 (TOD)
(212) 264-3039 FAX

Region VI - AR, LA, NM, OK, TX
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
1301 Young Street - Suite 1169
Dallas, TX 75202
(214) 767-4056; (214) 767-8940 (TDD)
(214) 767-0432 FAX

Region 11I- DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
150 S. Independence Mall West - Suite 372
Philadelphia, PA 19106-3499
(215) 861-4441; (215) 861-4440 (TOD)
(215) 861-4431 FAX

Region VII - lA, KS, MO, NE
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
601 East 12th Street - Room 248
Kansas City, MO 64106
(816) 426-7278; (816) 426-7065 (TDD)
(816) 426-3686 FAX

Region IV - AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
61 Forsyth Street, SW. - Suite 3B70
Atlanta, GA 30323
(404) 562-7886; (404) 331-2867 (TOD)
(404) 562-7881 FAX

Region VIII - CO, MT, NO, SO, UT, WY
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
1961 Stout Street - Room 1426
Denver, CO 80294
(303) 844-2024; (303) 844-3439 (TDD)
(303) 844-2025 FAX

Region IX - AZ, CA, HI, NV, AS, GU,
The U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
50 United Nations Plaza - Room 322
San Francisco, CA 94102
(415)437-8310; (415)437-8311 (TOD)
(415) 437-8329 FAX

Region X - AK, 10, OR, WA
Office for Civil Rights
Department of Health & Human Services
2201 Sixth Avenue - Mail Stop RX-11
Seattle, WA 98121
(206) 615-2290; (206) 615-2296 (TOD)
(206) 615-2297 FAX

Burden Statement
Public reporting burden for the collection of information on this complaint form is estimated to average 45 minutes per response, including the time for
reviewing instructions, gathering the data needed and entering and reviewing the information on the completed complaint form. An agency may not
conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a valid control number. Send comments
regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to: HHS/OS Reports
Clearance Officer, Office of Information Resources Management, 200 Independence Ave. S.W., Room 531 H, Washington, D.C. 20201.
HHS-700 (4/03) (BACK)

- 138 -

Appendix C - Exhibit 6:
New York City Civilian Review Board: Complaint Form

- 139 -

NYC Civilian Complaint Review Board - Complaint Form

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Year:

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Is this person a:

First Name:

Address:

City:

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Date of Birth: Month:

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0

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List any additional witnesses, along with their contact information, in your description of the incident.

INCIDENT Information

https://www.nyc.govlhtml/ccrblhtmllcomplaint.html(2 of 5) [11/13/2008 2:47:53 PM]

- 140 -

NYC Civilian Complaint Review Board - Complaint Form

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Date of Incident: Month:

Time of Incident:

Date:

Year:

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Please provide a detailed description of the police officer(s):

OFFICER 1:

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Rank: [

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Sex:

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Precinct/Command:

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Plainclothes/In Uniform?

Patrol Car #:

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Shield #:

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On Foot/In Car? [ _ _----'

License Plate #:

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Physical Description (eye color, hair color, approx. height & build, age, etc):

Please describe the role of this officer in the incident:

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OFFICER 2:
Rank:

1

1 First Name:

1

1 Last Name:

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Is this officer a

Sex:

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0

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Precinct/Command:

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Shield #:

https://www.nyc.govlhtml/ccrblhtmllcomplaint.html(3 of 5) [11/13/2008 2:47:53 PM]

- 141 -

1

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----'

NYC Civilian Complaint Review Board - Complaint Form

Sex: 1:-..

1 Race:

Precinct/Command:

1:-..

1

----'

_

Shield #:

JI

Plainclothes/In Uniform? I:-..

Patrol Car #: """'--

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]

On Foot/In Car? [

License Plate #: .......

--' Car Marked/Unmarked? "--

--'

Physical Description (eye color, hair color, approx. height & build, age, etc):

Please describe the role of this officer in the incident:

_

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Description of the Incident:
Please enter as much detail as possible.

[~-

I have read the foregoing complaint and the contents thereof are true to the best of my knowledge:

o True

0

False

Please note: This online complaint form is hosted on a secure server.

1Submit JII

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https://www.nyc.gov/html/ccrb/htmllcomplaint.html(5 of 5) [11/13/2008 2:47:53 PM]

- 142 -

••

.

.

Appendix C - Exhibit 7:
Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
Citizen Review Board: Complaint Form

- 143 -

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING COMPLAINT FORM
Please fill out this form completely and describe in detail the incident that led to
this complaint. Please be as clear and as specific as you can be and include as
much information as possible. If you do not know the name(s) or badge
number(s) of the officer(s) involved, please try and describe the individual to the
best of your ability. If you need more space, please attach additional sheets as
needed. Please type or print neatly using an ink pen. You may mail or hand
deliver the complaint forms to the:

Citizen Review Board
310 S. Third Street, Suite 319
Las Vegas, NV 89155
Please be sure to return both your complaint form and the preliminary
questionnaire. If you have any further questions or need help, you may contact
our office Monday through Friday between 8:00 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1:00 to
5:00 p.m. at 455-6322. Should you move or change phone numbers, please let
the review board know so that we may be able to contact you when necessary.

PRELIMINARY QUESTIONNAIRE TO BE ANSWERED BY COMPLAINANT.
1. Is the officer whose conduct you are reporting employed as a police officer
with the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department?
2.
Is the conduct of said officer(s) the subject of an ongoing criminal
investigation or prosecution, including appeal or forms of judicial review?
3. Has a complaint or claim been filed with the police department relating to this
incident? If yes, please attach copies of complaint or claim.
4. Is the conduct of said officer(s) the subject of an ongoing internal investigation
by the police department? If yes, the Citizen Review Board must wait for their
investigation to be concluded prior to reviewing the case.
5. Has this conduct of the officer(s) previously been reviewed by the screening
panel or the hearing panel of the Citizen Review Board? If yes, the Review
Board may not review the same incident or conduct again.
6. Is this a request to review the findings of the completed internal investigation
by LVMPD? If yes, please attach their findings.

- 144 -

Appendix C - Exhibit 7:
San Diego Citizens’ Review Board on
Police Practices: Complaint Form

- 145 -

- 146 -

- 147 -

UNC

AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION

SCHOOL OF LAW

0' HORTH CAROLINA

American Civil Liberties Union
of North Carolina
Legal Foundation
P.O. Box 2B004.

Raleigh. NC 27611
Phone: (919) 834-3390
www.acluofnorthcarolina.org

Immigration & Human Rights Policy Clinic
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
School of Law
Van Hecke-Wellach Hall
160 Ridge Road
CB #3380
Chapel Hill. NC 275991
Phone: (919) 962-5106
www.law.unc.edu

- 148 -

 

 

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