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Toxic Pollution and Health in US Communities, US PIRG, 2007

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An Analysis of Toxic Chemicals Released in
Communities across the United States

U.S. PIRG Education Fund

March 2007

TOXIC POLLUTION AND HEALTH

An Analysis of Toxic Chemicals Released in
Communities across the United States

U.S. PIRG Education Fund

March 2007

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Written by Alison Cassady and Alex Fidis of the U.S. PIRG Education Fund.
© 2007, U.S. PIRG Education Fund
Cover photos: Photodisc (water pollution); invictus99/FOTOLIA (smokestack); and Jason
Smith/FOTOLIA (toxic waste drums).
The authors would like to thank Tom Natan of National Environmental Trust and Sean Moulton of
OMB Watch for their input on this report. We also thank Tony Dutzik, Policy Analyst with the
Frontier Group, who wrote an earlier version of this report from which we draw extensively.
Special thanks to the Bauman Foundation and Beldon Fund for their financial support of U.S. PIRG
Education Fund’s work on toxics and environmental health issues.
The authors alone are responsible for any factual errors. The recommendations are those of the
U.S. PIRG Education Fund. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views of our funders or those who provided editorial review.
For additional copies of this report, send $20 (including shipping) to:
U.S. PIRG Education Fund
218 D St. SE
Washington, DC 20003
202-546-9707
www.uspirg.org
U.S. PIRG is the federation of state Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs). The state PIRGs are
independent, state-based, citizen-funded organizations that advocate for a healthy environment, a
fair and sustainable economy, and a responsive democratic government.

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 6
Toxic Releases in the United States ........................................................................................... 7
Toxic Releases to Air and Water.............................................................................................................. 7
Carcinogens............................................................................................................................................... 7
Developmental and Reproductive Toxicants ....................................................................................... 10
Suspected Neurotoxicants .....................................................................................................................15
Suspected Respiratory Toxicants ..........................................................................................................19
Dioxins .....................................................................................................................................................21
Toxic Releases to Land..............................................................................................................................24
Bush Administration Weakens the Toxics Release Inventory.................................................. 27
Background: TRI Reporting Requirements ...........................................................................................27
Bush Administration Weakens Toxic Release Reporting Requirements ...........................................28
Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 30
Methodology ........................................................................................................................... 33
Appendices.............................................................................................................................. 34
End notes ................................................................................................................................. 63

3

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I

ndustries across the United States pump
billions of pounds of toxic chemicals into
our air, land, and water each year, many of
which can cause cancer and other severe
health effects. The Environmental Protection
Agency’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
program provides Americans with the best
information about toxic chemicals released in
their communities.
Unfortunately, in
December 2006 the Bush administration
limited the public’s right-to-know about this
pollution by giving some polluters a free
pass on reporting their toxic emissions.
The TRI program is a critical tool for citizens,
public health officials, and policy-makers
interested in identifying trends in toxic
pollution at the local, state and national
levels. Each year, the country’s largest
facilities from a range of industries report
their air, water, and land releases of more
than 600 toxic chemicals, providing valuable
information about which chemicals are
entering the environment and where. For
some of these chemicals, scientists know little
about their effects on public health and the
environment. For many, however, scientists
have linked exposure to harmful health
effects ranging from chronic bronchitis to
developmental problems to cancer.
Using the latest available TRI data, we
examined releases of chemicals known or
suspected to cause serious health problems
and identified states and localities that are
bearing the brunt of this pollution.
Specifically, we looked at releases of
substances recognized by the state of
California to cause cancer, birth defects or
reproductive problems; we also looked at
releases of substances suspected by scientists
to damage the neurological or respiratory
systems.
Our findings include:

Industries continue to release toxic
chemicals linked to severe health effects
into our air and water.
Š In 2004, U.S. facilities—led by the
chemical and paper industries—released
more than 70 million pounds of
recognized carcinogens to the air and
water. Texas, South Carolina, Louisiana,
Alabama and Florida ranked highest for
air and water releases of carcinogens.
Š In 2004, U.S. facilities—led by the
chemical industry—reported more than
96 million pounds of air and water
emissions of chemicals linked to
developmental problems, such as birth
defects and learning disabilities, and
almost 38 million pounds of chemicals
linked to reproductive disorders.
Tennessee ranked first in overall releases
of both developmental and reproductive
toxicants, followed by Texas and Illinois.
Š In 2004, U.S. facilities—led by the
chemical and paper industries and
electric utilities—released more than 826
million pounds of suspected neurological
toxicants to the air and water. Texas,
Tennessee, Georgia, Louisiana, and Ohio
ranked highest for air and water
releases of neurotoxicants.
Š In 2004, U.S. facilities released almost
1.5 billion pounds of suspected
respiratory toxicants to the air, with
electric utilities accounting for almost half
of the pollution. Ohio, North Carolina,
Tennessee, Texas and Pennsylvania
ranked highest for respiratory toxicant
releases to air.
Š In 2004, U.S. facilities reported releasing
2,631 grams of dioxins—one of the most
dangerous substances known to science—
to the air and water. The chemical
industry and electric utilities released the
most dioxins.

4

A relatively small number of communities
often experience the bulk of the air and
water pollution.
Š In 2004, almost a quarter (24 percent)
of all air and water releases of
carcinogens occurred within just 20 U.S.
counties. Four Texas counties—Harris,
Galveston, Brazoria, and Jefferson—
ranked in the top five counties for most
carcinogenic emissions.
Š Tennessee, Texas and Illinois accounted
for more than 40 percent of the nation’s
developmental toxicant releases and
more than 70 percent of the reproductive
toxicant releases in 2004.
Š Almost two-thirds (62 percent) of all air
and water releases of dioxins reported
to TRI in 2004 occurred within just 20 zip
codes. Zip code 77541 in Freeport,
Texas and 70765 in Plaquemine,
Louisiana are home to the two facilities—
both owned by Dow Chemical—that
released the most dioxins in 2004.
The mining industry overwhelmingly
releases the most toxic pollution to land.
Š In 2004, U.S. facilities reporting to TRI
released more than 608 million pounds
of carcinogens, developmental toxicants
and reproductive toxicants to land. The
metal mining industry was responsible for
about 485 million pounds (80 percent) of
these releases.
Š Two-thirds (67 percent) of the land
releases of carcinogens, developmental
toxicants and reproductive toxicants
were lead or lead compounds. Exposure
to lead can affect almost every organ
and system in the human body,
especially the central nervous system.
Š Nevada, Alaska, and Utah ranked
highest for land releases of carcinogens,

developmental
toxicants
and
reproductive
toxicants
in
2004,
accounting for 71 percent of the land
releases of these substances nationally.
The Bush administration has limited the
public’s right-to-know about toxic releases.
On December 22, 2006, the Bush
administration finalized a new rule that will
reduce the quantity and quality of toxic
chemical data submitted under TRI and
available to the public. Specifically, the new
rule allows facilities to avoid submitting
detailed reports for management of
persistent bioaccumulative toxins (other than
dioxins) under 500 pounds. These substances
persist in the environment, and even minute
amounts pose a serious risk to public health.
For all other chemicals, the Bush
administration raised the threshold at which
companies are required to submit detailed
reports from 500 pounds to 5,000 pounds
per year of waste generation, if not more
than 2,000 pounds are released to the
environment. The end result is that the public
will have less information about toxic
pollution released in communities.
The public needs more information about
toxic pollution, not less, and facilities need
to cut toxic chemical use and releases.
The Bush administration should reverse its
policy that limits reporting of toxic chemicals
and instead strengthen the quality and
quantity of data provided to the public.
Moreover, the United States needs to make
toxics use reduction a priority and require
facilities to find safer alternatives to
dangerous chemicals.

5

INTRODUCTION

E

very day in America, industrial facilities
release millions of pounds of toxic
substances into the nation’s air and water.
Many Americans – especially those who live
in close proximity to industrial facilities –
harbor deep concern about how those toxic
releases may affect their health.
Congress established the Toxics Release
Inventory (TRI) program in 1986 as a part of
the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). According to the
Conference Report from the passage of
EPCRA, Congress intended to “provide the
public with important information on
hazardous chemicals in their communities.”1
Under EPCRA, industrial facilities in specific
sectors must disclose to the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) their releases of
approximately 650 toxic chemicals to air,
water, and land, as well as the quantities of
chemicals they recycle, treat, burn, or
otherwise dispose of on-site and off-site.
The primary purpose of the TRI program is to
inform citizens, emergency responders, and
local and state governments of toxic hazards
in communities.2 By providing information on
toxic chemical releases, the TRI program

empowers citizens and local governments to
hold companies accountable for how toxic
chemicals are used and managed in their
communities.
The TRI program has some limitations. Not
all industries and facilities have to report
their toxic pollution, and those that do report
do not have to disclose releases of all
chemicals.
That said, the TRI program
remains a critical tool for citizens and others
who are concerned about toxic chemicals
released, burned, and otherwise present in
their communities.
Unfortunately, as
described later in this report, the Bush
administration finalized a rule in December
2006 that will enable facilities to withhold
currently reported toxic chemical information
from the public.
This report uses the most recent TRI data
available to show which industries are
releasing carcinogens and other harmful
substances, where, and in what amounts. In
doing so, this report also demonstrates
something else: the importance of the TRI
program for understanding the problem of
toxic chemicals in our communities.

6

TOXIC RELEASES IN THE
UNITED STATES

I

ndustries across the United States continue
to pump billions of pounds of toxic
chemicals into our air, land, and water. For
some of these chemicals, scientists know little
about their potential effects on public health
and the environment. In the most recent
government study on the subject, EPA found
in 1998 that it had the full set of basic
toxicity information for only seven percent of
the high volume chemicals manufactured in
the United States.3 For many chemicals,
however, scientists have linked exposure to
harmful health effects ranging from chronic
bronchitis to developmental problems to
cancer.
Using the most recent data from the Toxics
Release Inventory, we examined which
industries are releasing chemicals known or
suspected to cause serious health problems
and which communities are bearing the brunt
of this pollution. Specifically, we looked at:

maintains the most comprehensive list
available of chemicals known to cause
cancer,
birth
defects
or
other
reproductive problems as part of
Proposition 65, an initiative passed by
voters in 1986 to inform Californians
about their exposure to toxic chemicals.
Š Releases of suspected neurotoxicants and
respiratory toxicants. No government
agency maintains an authoritative list of
toxic chemicals that are known to cause
neurological or respiratory problems.
Environmental Defense, however, has
compiled a comprehensive list of
substances suspected by government or
academic researchers to damage the
neurological and respiratory systems.
Communities would not know about these
toxic chemical releases without the Toxics
Release Inventory program, unless facilities
opted to voluntarily disclose this information.

Š Releases of known carcinogens and
chemicals known to cause developmental
and reproductive problems. California

TOXIC RELEASES TO AIR AND WATER
Industries reporting to the Toxics Release
Inventory released 1.8 billion pounds of toxic
pollution to our air and water in 2004.4
Scientists have linked exposure to many of
these toxic chemicals to severe health effects,
including cancer; many more remain
understudied and their health effects poorly
understood. Since not all industries and
facilities report to TRI and those that do
report do not have to disclose releases of all

chemicals, the following likely understates the
problem of toxic pollution in the United
States.
CARCINOGENS
A carcinogen is a substance that causes
cancer, including malignant tumors and other
cancerous diseases such as leukemia. The
risk of cancer accumulates over a lifetime. In
7

the United States, men have about a 1 in 2
lifetime risk of developing cancer; for
women, the lifetime risk is slightly more than
1 in 3.5 Scientists estimate that exposure to
carcinogens in the workplace or the general
environment account for at least six percent
of cancer deaths, or 33,900 people each
year.6
Scientists know a great deal about cancer
risks from exposure to some substances.
Studies have shown that workers exposed to
asbestos, for example, have a greater risk
of developing lung cancer and malignant
mesothelioma.7 Similarly, many studies have
shown that radon, which develops from the
decay of naturally-occurring uranium in soil
and rock and can accumulate in basements
and underground unventilated spaces, can
cause lung cancer.8 Based on extensive
scientific research, the state of California has
listed almost 500 substances as known to
cause cancer under Proposition 65. The TRI
program does not require industries to
report their releases of all of these
substances.

FINDINGS
In 2004, U.S. facilities reporting to TRI
released more than 70 million pounds of
recognized carcinogens directly to the air
and water. Acetaldehyde was the most
frequently released carcinogen, with total air
and water releases of almost 14 million
pounds (Table 1). Acetaldehyde is used
primarily as a chemical intermediate,
principally for the production of certain acids
and other chemicals. Human exposure occurs
most often through inhalation, especially in
urban areas or near other sources of
combustion.9 Studies have linked inhalation
exposure to acetaldehyde with an increased
incidence of respiratory tract tumors in
laboratory animals.10 In addition to being
listed as a known carcinogen under
Proposition 65, acetaldehyde is a suspected
respiratory and neurological toxicant.

Table 1. Carcinogens Released in the Highest
Volume to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Chemical
ACETALDEHYDE
FORMALDEHYDE
DICHLOROMETHANE
BENZENE
TRICHLOROETHYLENE

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
13,866,013
13,006,975
6,749,078
6,666,412
6,150,291

The chemical industry was responsible for
17.3 million pounds (25 percent) of all
releases of carcinogenic substances to the air
and water in the United States during 2004,
followed by the paper industry, lumber and
wood products industry, and petroleum
refineries (Table 2).
BP’s Texas City
refinery, one of the largest refineries in the
country, topped the list for the most releases
of recognized carcinogens to the air and
water, including more than 1.9 million pounds
of formaldehyde. Similarly, the 3V chemical
facility in Georgetown, South Carolina
released almost 861,000 pounds of
dichloromethane and 23,000 pounds of
acetaldehyde into the air and water (Table
3).
Table 2. Industries Releasing the Most Carcinogens
to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4

Industry
Chemicals and Allied Products
Paper and Allied Products
Lumber and Wood Products, Except Furniture
Petroleum Refining and Related Industries

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
17,320,073
12,409,815
6,085,273
5,331,550

5
6
7
8
9
10

Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery
and Transportation Equipment
Primary Metal Industries
Food and Kindred Products
Transportation Equipment
Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Products
Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products

4,097,416
4,096,199
3,507,874
3,300,501
2,832,873
2,739,830

8

Table 3. Facilities Releasing the Most Carcinogens
to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Facility
BP TEXAS CITY REFINERY
3V INC
UNITED STATES SUGAR CORP
WEYERHAEUSER CO
EASTMAN KODAK CO.
DDE LOUISVILLE
U.S. AIR FORCE DYESS AFB
GE PLASTICS
TRIGEN-BOSTON ENERGY
PLUM CREEK MDF INC

City
TEXAS CITY
GEORGETOWN
BRYANT
LONGVIEW
ROCHESTER
LOUISVILLE
DYESS AFB
MOUNT VERNON
BOSTON
COLUMBIA FALLS

State
TX
SC
FL
WA
NY
KY
TX
IN
MA
MT

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
2,086,948
883,714
726,120
697,693
620,628
538,858
524,899
524,305
478,090
473,295

The Southeastern and Gulf regions of the
country experienced the most carcinogenic
pollution, with Texas, South Carolina,
Louisiana, Alabama and Florida ranking
highest for total carcinogen releases to air
and water in 2004 (Figure A). These states
are home to more than 300 chemical
facilities, 40 pulp, paper and paperboard
mills, and 90 petroleum refining facilities that
reported emissions of carcinogens in 2004.
See Appendix A for a list of all states with
facilities releasing carcinogens to air and
water in 2004.

Figure A. Air and Water Releases of Carcinogens by State, 2004 (pounds)

Note: Hawaii reported 93,000 pounds of carcinogens released to air and water in 2004; Alaska reported 48,000
pounds.

9

In 2004, almost one-fifth (18 percent) of all
air and water releases of carcinogens
reported to TRI occurred within just 20 zip
codes. Zip code 77590 in Texas City, Texas,
the site of several chemical facilities and
refineries, ranked first for total releases of
carcinogens to air and water, followed by
zip code 29440 in Georgetown, South
Carolina and 98632 in Longview,
Washington (Table 4).
Similarly, almost a quarter (24 percent) of
all air and water releases of carcinogens
reported to TRI occurred within just 20 U.S.
counties.
Four Texas counties—Harris,
Galveston, Brazoria, and Jefferson—ranked
in the top five counties for most carcinogenic
air and water emissions in 2004 (Table 5).
See Appendix B for the 100 U.S. zip codes
and Appendix C for the 100 U.S. counties
reporting the most carcinogens released to
air and water in 2004.
Table 4. Top 10 U.S. Zip Codes for Air and Water
Releases of Carcinogens, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Zip
Code
77590
29440
98632
33439
40216
35601
14652
77530
47620
79607

City
TEXAS CITY
GEORGETOWN
LONGVIEW
BRYANT
LOUISVILLE
DECATUR
ROCHESTER
CHANNELVIEW
MOUNT VERNON
DYESS AFB

State
TX
SC
WA
FL
KY
AL
NY
TX
IN
TX

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
2,207,262
1,052,995
734,693
726,120
632,791
628,789
620,628
579,198
531,148
524,899

Table 5. Top 10 U.S. Counties for Air and Water
Releases of Carcinogens, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

County
HARRIS
GALVESTON
GEORGETOWN
BRAZORIA
JEFFERSON
JEFFERSON
COWLITZ
PALM BEACH
MORGAN
MONROE

State
TX
TX
SC
TX
TX
KY
WA
FL
AL
NY

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
2,557,944
2,383,244
1,052,996
928,811
927,624
832,951
756,248
726,365
707,188
672,782

DEVELOPMENTAL AND
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANTS
Scientists have shown that exposure to some
toxic chemicals can impede the proper
physical and mental development of young
children. Potential developmental health
effects cover a wide range of conditions
including fetal death, structural defects such
as cleft lip/cleft palate and heart
abnormalities, and functional defects such as
neurological, hormonal or immune system
problems.
Less is known about the developmental
impacts of many toxic chemicals than about
their carcinogenicity, in part because
developmental effects have been less widely
studied and in part because the mechanism
by which toxic substances can affect
development is complex. Based on available
knowledge, the state of California has listed
more than 250 substances as known to cause
developmental disorders under Proposition
65. The TRI program does not require
industries to report their releases of all of
these substances.
Toxic substances also have the potential to
impair the male or female reproductive
10

system, leading to sterility, spontaneous
abortion or stillbirth. The state of California
currently lists 40 substances as known to
cause reproductive disorders in females and
57 substances known to cause reproductive
disorders in males. Again, the TRI program
does not require industries to report their
releases of all of these substances.
Few chemicals have been fully tested for
their impact on the developing fetus. In fact,
of the nearly 3,000 high production volume
chemicals studied by EPA in 1998, threefourths (77 percent) did not have publicly
available screening-level information on
developmental or reproductive toxicity.11 In
addition, the timing of exposure during a
fetus or child’s development is significant.
Maternal exposure to a toxic substance at a
critical time during pregnancy may result in a
developmental defect, while exposure
during another time may not.

FINDINGS
In 2004, facilities reporting to TRI released
more than 96 million pounds of
developmental toxicants directly to the air
and water. Toluene was the most commonly
released developmental toxicant in 2004,
totaling 54 million pounds, followed by
carbon disulfide at almost 27 million pounds
(Table 6). Emissions of toluene and carbon
disulfide accounted for 84 percent of all
developmental toxicant releases in 2004.
Toluene occurs naturally in crude oil and is
produced in the process of refining oil and
making coke from coal. It also is used in the
manufacture of paints, fingernail polish,
adhesives and other products. Toluene does
not remain in the environment for long, nor
does it accumulate within animal tissue. At
high levels of exposure, toluene can affect
the kidneys, induce light-headedness, or
cause unconsciousness or death. Lower level
exposures can affect the nervous system and
cause fatigue, nausea, and temporary
hearing and color vision loss. No evidence

links toluene to cancer, but inhalation of high
levels of toluene during pregnancy can result
in children with birth defects and mental
retardation. Less is known about the
developmental
impacts
of
low-level
exposure during pregnancy.12
Table 6. Developmental Toxicants Released in the
Highest Volume to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Chemical
TOLUENE
CARBON DISULFIDE
BENZENE
N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
1,3-BUTADIENE

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
54,008,597
26,899,459
6,666,412
2,355,373
1,881,877

In 2004, facilities reporting to TRI released
almost 38 million pounds of reproductive
toxicants directly to the air and water.
Carbon disulfide was the reproductive
toxicant released in the greatest quantity to
air and water in 2004, accounting for more
than 70 percent of all reproductive toxicant
emissions (Table 7). Carbon disulfide is used
in various manufacturing processes and can
be lethal at high levels of exposure due to
impacts on the nervous system. Animal studies
suggest that carbon disulfide can affect the
normal functions of the brain, liver and heart
and can lead to birth defects and neonatal
death.13
Table 7. Reproductive Toxicants Released in the
Highest Volume to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)14

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Chemical
CARBON DISULFIDE
BENZENE
1,3-BUTADIENE
LEAD COMPOUNDS
ETHYLENE OXIDE

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
26,899,459
6,666,412
1,881,877
1,031,090
335,054

11

The chemical industry released the most
developmental and reproductive toxicants to
air and water in 2004, accounting for almost
a third (31 percent) of developmental
toxicant releases and more than half (57
percent) of reproductive toxicant releases
(Tables 8 and 10). Within the chemical
industry, the cellulosic manmade fibers sector
– which includes the manufacture of acetate
and rayon fibers for clothing – was
responsible for the most pollution. This sector
uses large amounts of carbon disulfide to
treat cellulose in the manufacture of rayon.
In Lowland, Tennessee, the Liberty Fibers
facility, which manufactures rayon staple
fiber products, released more than 14.4
million pounds of carbon disulfide to the air
and water in 2004.
Four of the 10 facilities releasing the most
developmental and reproductive toxicants
belong to the rubber and plastic products
industry (Tables 9 and 11). Teepak LLC and
Viskase Corp. produce cellulose, fibrous and
plastic casings for the packaging of meat;
Spontex Inc. makes wiping and scouring
products (such as sponges) and rubber
gloves. Each of these facilities released
large amounts of carbon disulfide in 2004.
Table 8. Industries Releasing the Most
Developmental Toxicants to Air and Water, 2004
(pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Industry
Chemicals and Allied Products
Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products
Printing, Publishing, and Allied Industries
Paper and Allied Products
Petroleum Refining and Related Industries
Transportation Equipment
Primary Metal Industries
Lumber and Wood Products, Except Furniture

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
29,723,637
15,026,397
12,445,438
9,626,332
6,983,611
5,439,134
2,237,833
1,843,622

9
10

Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery
and Transportation Equipment
Furniture and Fixtures

1,768,415
1,648,780

The printing and publishing industry ranked
third for emissions of developmental
toxicants. Commercial printing facilities using
the gravure printing process for long runs of
multi-colored products such as food
packaging, wallpaper, wrapping paper,
magazines, and greeting cards, often rely on
toluene-based ink. The Quebecor World
Memphis Corp. commercial printing facility in
Dickson, Tennessee released more toluene
than any other facility in this industry—more
than 1.5 million pounds.
Table 9. Facilities Releasing the Most
Developmental Toxicants to Air and Water, 2004
(pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Facility
LIBERTY FIBERS CORP
TEEPAK LLC
INTERTAPE POLYMER GROUP
VISKASE CORP
QUEBECOR WORLD MEMPHIS CORP.
VISKASE CORP
SPONTEX INC.
SHURTAPE TECHNOLOGIES
QUEBECOR WORLD RICHMOND INC
INNOVIA FILMS INC

City
LOWLAND
DANVILLE
COLUMBIA
LOUDON
DICKSON
OSCEOLA
COLUMBIA
HICKORY
RICHMOND
TECUMSEH

State
TN
IL
SC
TN
TN
AR
TN
NC
VA
KS

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,410,790
3,555,300
2,244,218
2,226,146
1,510,219
1,428,423
1,308,128
1,127,803
1,123,901
1,115,957

Table 10. Industries Releasing the Most
Reproductive Toxicants to Air and Water, 2004
(pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Industry
Chemicals and Allied Products
Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products
Petroleum Refining and Related Industries
Paper and Allied Products
Primary Metal Industries
Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Products
National Security and International Affairs
Food and Kindred Products
Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services
Wholesale Trade, Non-Durable Goods

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
21,496,968
8,935,031
2,160,364
1,214,972
1,190,040
627,176
610,280
449,115
255,709
229,450

12

Table 11. Facilities Releasing the Most Reproductive
Toxicants to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Facility
LIBERTY FIBERS CORP
TEEPAK LLC
VISKASE CORP
VISKASE CORP
SPONTEX INC.
INNOVIA FILMS INC
U.S. AIR FORCE DYESS AFB
COLUMBIAN CHEMICALS CO
3M CO TONAWANDA
COLUMBIAN CHEMICALS CO

City
LOWLAND
DANVILLE
LOUDON
OSCEOLA
COLUMBIA
TECUMSEH
DYESS AFB
PROCTOR
TONAWANDA
ULYSSES

State
TN
IL
TN
AR
TN
KS
TX
WV
NY
KS

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,410,776
3,555,300
2,226,146
1,428,423
1,308,128
951,757
524,899
486,973
406,000
359,006

Tennessee ranked first in overall releases of
both developmental and reproductive
toxicants, followed by Texas and Illinois
(Figures B and C).
These three states
accounted for more than 40 percent of the
nation’s developmental toxicant releases and
more than 70 percent of the reproductive
toxicant releases. Tennessee, home to several
facilities in the rubber and printing industries
and the facility releasing the most
developmental and reproductive toxicants,
contributed almost a quarter (24 percent) of
the nation’s releases of developmental
toxicants and almost half (48 percent) of the
nation’s releases of reproductive toxicants.
See Appendices D and E for a list of all
states with facilities releasing developmental
and reproductive toxicants to air and water
in 2004.

Figure B. Air and Water Releases of Developmental Toxicants by State, 2004

Note: Hawaii reported 32,000 pounds of developmental toxicants released to air and water in 2004; Alaska reported
almost 58,000 pounds.

13

Figure C. Air and Water Releases of Reproductive Toxicants by State, 2004

Note: Hawaii reported almost 17,000 pounds of reproductive toxicants released to air and water in 2004; Alaska
reported almost 33,000 pounds.

Releases of developmental and reproductive
toxicants
are
quite
concentrated
geographically. In 2004, 40 percent of all
air and water releases of developmental
toxicants and 75 percent of all air and
water releases of reproductive toxicants
occurred within just 20 zip codes (Tables 12
and 13). Zip code 37778 in Lowland,
Tennessee, home to the Liberty Fibers Corp.,
ranked first for total releases of both
developmental and reproductive toxicants to
air and water. Similarly, zip code 61832 in
Danville, Illinois, home to the Teepak LLC
facility discussed earlier, ranked second for
total releases of both developmental and
reproductive toxicants to air and water.

Table 12. Top 10 U.S. Zip Codes for Air and Water
Releases of Developmental Toxicants, 2004
(pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Zip
Code
37778
61832
29201
37774
37055
72370
38401
28601
23228
66542

City
LOWLAND
DANVILLE
COLUMBIA
LOUDON
DICKSON
OSCEOLA
COLUMBIA
HICKORY
RICHMOND
TECUMSEH

State
TN
IL
SC
TN
TN
AR
TN
NC
VA
KS

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,410,790
3,555,300
2,253,649
2,226,210
1,519,851
1,428,423
1,308,483
1,144,614
1,124,656
1,116,113

14

See Appendices F and G for a list of the
100 zip codes reporting the most releases of
developmental and reproductive toxicants,
respectively, to air and water in 2004.
Table 13. Top 10 U.S. Zip Codes for Air and Water
Releases of Reproductive Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Zip
Code
37778
61832
37774
72370
38401
66542
79607
26055
14150
67880

City
LOWLAND
DANVILLE
LOUDON
OSCEOLA
COLUMBIA
TECUMSEH
DYESS AFB
PROCTOR
TONAWANDA
ULYSSES

State
TN
IL
TN
AR
TN
KS
TX
WV
NY
KS

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,410,776
3,555,300
2,226,209
1,428,423
1,308,478
951,849
524,899
486,973
416,892
359,006

Similarly, 43 percent of all air and water
releases
of
developmental
toxicants
reported to TRI occurred within just 20 U.S.
counties. Four Tennessee counties—Hamblen,
Loudon, Dickson, and Maury—ranked in the
top 10 counties for most air and water
emissions of developmental toxicants in 2004
(Table 14). Almost 80 percent of all air and
water releases of reproductive toxicants
occurred within just 20 U.S. counties. Three
counties in Tennessee and three in Texas
landed in the top 10 for most releases of
reproductive toxicants (Table 15).
See Appendices H and I for a list of the 100
counties releasing the most developmental
and reproductive toxicants, respectively, to
air and water in 2004.

Table 14. Top 10 U.S. Counties for Air and Water
Releases of Developmental Toxicants, 2004
(pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

County
HAMBLEN
VERMILION
HARRIS
RICHLAND
LOUDON
DICKSON
MISSISSIPPI
JEFFERSON
MAURY
CATAWBA

State
TN
IL
TX
SC
TN
TN
AR
TX
TN
NC

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,578,261
3,621,127
2,346,750
2,258,044
2,226,212
1,519,851
1,430,888
1,390,937
1,335,292
1,174,320

Table 15. Top 10 U.S. Counties for Air and Water
Releases of Reproductive Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

County
HAMBLEN
VERMILION
LOUDON
MISSISSIPPI
HARRIS
MAURY
SHAWNEE
JEFFERSON
TAYLOR
MARSHALL

State
TN
IL
TN
AR
TX
TN
KS
TX
TX
WV

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,410,776
3,593,888
2,226,211
1,429,962
1,351,884
1,309,932
951,860
588,806
524,899
494,578

SUSPECTED NEUROTOXICANTS
Exposure to certain chemical substances can
cause adverse effects on the brain or central
nervous system. While some substances –
such as lead and mercury – have long been
known to impair central nervous system
function, many other substances have not
been fully tested for their neurological
effects. Substances toxic to the central
nervous system can cause confusion, fatigue,
15

irritability, and other behavioral changes as
well as degenerative diseases of the brain
(encephalopathy). Chemicals that harm the
peripheral nervous system may affect how
nerves carry sensory information and motor
impulses from the brain to the rest of the
body, leading to weakness or tingling in the
limbs and loss of coordination.15
No government agency maintains an
authoritative
list
of
neurotoxicants.
Environmental Defense, however, has
compiled a comprehensive list of substances
suspected by government or academic
researchers
to
cause
neurological
problems.16 The TRI program does not
require industries to report their releases of
all of these substances.

FINDINGS
In 2004, facilities reporting to TRI released
more than 826 million pounds of suspected
neurotoxicants directly to the air and water.
Methanol was the most commonly released
suspected neurotoxicant in 2004, totaling
more than 177 million pounds, followed by
ammonia at more than 135 million pounds
(Table 16).
Together, these chemicals
accounted for more than one third (38
percent) of all neurotoxicant releases in
2004. Methanol is used as a solvent in
adhesives, cleaners and inks; forms from the
combustion of plastics and other wastes; and
is present in automobile exhaust. At high
levels of exposure, methanol can cause
headaches, loss of muscle coordination, vision
problems, blindness or death. Exposure to
methanol also can result in nerve damage,
and because the chemical is only slowly
eliminated from the body, repeated lowlevel exposures can have severe effects.17

Table 16. Suspected Neurotoxicants Released in the
Highest Volume to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Chemical
METHANOL
AMMONIA
HYDROGEN FLUORIDE
TOLUENE
STYRENE

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
177,613,616
135,563,847
71,959,637
54,008,597
51,858,677

The chemical industry released the most
suspected neurological toxicants in 2004,
accounting for a quarter (26 percent) of all
releases (Table 17). Within the chemical
industry, the nitrogenous fertilizers sector was
one of the largest air and water polluters,
releasing large amounts of ammonia and
methanol. This sector manufactures ammonia
fertilizer
compounds
and
anhydrous
ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium nitrate,
ammonium sulfate and nitrogen solutions,
urea, and natural organic fertilizers.18 The
Terra Nitrogen facility in Sergeant Bluff,
Iowa released more than 6.4 million pounds
of ammonia to the air in 2004, ranking the
facility third in the country for total releases
of neurotoxicants (Table 18).
Table 17. Industries Releasing the Most Suspected
Neurotoxicants to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Industry
Chemicals and Allied Products
Paper and Allied Products
Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services
Transportation Equipment
Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products
Food and Kindred Products
Petroleum Refining and Related Industries
Primary Metal Industries
Fabricated Metal Products, Except
Machinery and Transportation Equipment
Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Products

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
214,855,785
169,309,749
67,434,469
58,507,561
56,704,211
42,937,605
38,240,105
35,592,989
30,370,845
28,458,766

16

Table 18. Facilities Releasing the Most Suspected
Neurotoxicants to Air and Water, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Facility
LIBERTY FIBERS CORP
BP TEXAS CITY REFINERY
TERRA NITROGEN
CF INDUSTRIES INC
SUN CHEMICAL BUSHY PARK
MILLENNIUM INORGANIC
CHEMICALS
KOCH NITROGEN CO
INTERNATIONAL PAPER
INTERNATIONAL PAPER
INTERNATIONAL PAPER

City
LOWLAND
TEXAS CITY
SERGEANT BLUFF
DONALDSONVILLE
GOOSE CREEK
ASHTABULA
BEATRICE
MANSFIELD
RIEGELWOOD
QUEEN CITY

State
TN
TX
IA
LA
SC

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,463,493
6,888,560
6,432,455
6,173,200
5,000,105

OH
NE
LA
NC
TX

4,856,250
4,805,810
4,695,750
4,592,300
4,372,316

The paper industry ranked second in
releases of suspected neurotoxicants in
2004. Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills
release large amounts of methanol, a
byproduct of the pulping and washing
processes.
The International Paper
paperboard mill in Mansfield, Louisiana
released the second most methanol to air of
any facility—more than 4.2 million pounds to
the air and water—in addition to more than
250,000 pounds of ammonia and other
chemicals.
Ranking third for neurotoxicant releases, the
electric services industry (comprised mainly
of power plants) accounted for about 80
percent of all hydrogen fluoride released
into the air in 2004. Almost all of this
pollution comes from the combustion of coal,
which contains small amounts of fluoride
compounds that form hydrogen fluoride
when burned.19 In Cartersville, Georgia,
Georgia Power’s coal-fired Bowen power
plant released 1.5 million pounds of
hydrogen fluoride, the most of any facility in
the country.

2004 (Figure D). Georgia is home to 10
power plants releasing more than 4.6 million
pounds of suspected neurotoxicants and
more than a dozen pulp, paper, and
paperboard facilities releasing more than
18
million
pounds
of
suspected
neurotoxicants to air and water in 2004.
Similarly, Ohio is home to 25 power plants
releasing more than five million pounds of
suspected neurotoxicants and more than 150
chemical facilities releasing almost 14 million
pounds of suspected neurotoxicants to air
and water in 2004. See Appendix J for a
list of all states with facilities releasing
suspected neurotoxicants to air and water in
2004.
In 2004, 13 percent of all air and water
releases of suspected neurotoxicants
reported to TRI occurred within just 20 zip
codes.
Zip code 37778 in Lowland,
Tennessee, home to the Liberty Fibers Corp.,
ranked first for total releases of suspected
neurotoxicants to air and water, followed by
77590 in Texas City, Texas and 44004 in
Ashtabula, Ohio (Table 19). See Appendix
K for a list of the 100 zip codes reporting
the
most
releases
of
suspected
neurotoxicants to air and water in 2004.
Similarly, almost 17 percent of all air and
water releases of suspected neurotoxicants
reported to TRI occurred within just 20 U.S.
counties.
Three Texas counties—Harris,
Galveston, and Jefferson—ranked in the top
10 counties for most air and water emissions
of suspected neurotoxicants in 2004 (Table
20). See Appendix L for a list of the 100
counties reporting the most releases of
suspected neurotoxicants to air and water in
2004.

Texas, Tennessee, Georgia, Louisiana, and
Ohio ranked highest for overall releases of
suspected neurotoxicants to air and water in

17

Figure D. Air and Water Releases of Suspected Neurotoxicants by State, 2004

Note: Hawaii reported more than 310,000 pounds of neurotoxicants released to air and water in 2004; Alaska reported
almost 1.9 million pounds.
Table 19. Top 10 U.S. Zip Codes for Air and Water
Releases of Suspected Neurotoxicants, 2004
(pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Zip
Code
37778
77590
44004
70346
51054
29445
68310
71052
28456
30901

City
LOWLAND
TEXAS CITY
ASHTABULA
DONALDSONVILLE
SERGEANT BLUFF
MOUNT HOLLY/GOOSE CREEK
BEATRICE
MANSFIELD
RIEGELWOOD
AUGUSTA

State
TN
TX
OH
LA
IA
SC
NE
LA
NC
GA

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,463,493
7,292,059
6,952,997
6,935,633
6,791,533
6,245,054
4,881,133
4,748,082
4,703,218
4,655,458

Table 20. Top 10 U.S. Counties for Air and Water
Releases of Suspected Neurotoxicants, 2004
(pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

County
HAMBLEN
HARRIS
ASCENSION
GALVESTON
BERKELEY
RICHMOND
ASHTABULA
JEFFERSON
WOODBURY
LOS ANGELES

State
TN
TX
LA
TX
SC
GA
OH
TX
IA
CA

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
14,702,488
14,231,090
9,705,246
8,717,524
7,506,926
7,339,191
7,142,731
7,089,354
7,037,963
5,214,571

18

SUSPECTED RESPIRATORY
TOXICANTS
Exposure to certain toxic substances can
cause adverse effects on the respiratory
system ranging in severity from irritation to
bronchitis to cancer.
The link between
exposure to asbestos fibers and cigarette
smoke and disorders such as lung cancer and
emphysema is well documented. In addition,
exposure to ground ozone, a common air
pollutant, has been linked to the onset of
asthma attacks and to the development of
As is the case with
asthma itself.20
neurological disorders, the respiratory
impacts of most toxic substances have been
subject to less study, and no government
agency has compiled a definitive list of
respiratory toxicants. Environmental Defense,
however, has compiled a list of suspected
respiratory toxicants based on a variety of
scientific sources.21 The TRI program does not
require industries to report their releases of
all of these substances.

FINDINGS
In 2004, facilities reporting to TRI released
almost 1.5 billion pounds of suspected
respiratory toxicants directly to the air.
Aerosols of hydrochloric acid were released
in the greatest quantities, representing more
than one of every three pounds of suspected
respiratory toxicants released in 2004
(Table 21). Hydrochloric acid is used for
cleaning, pickling, and electroplating metals;
in refining mineral ores; in petroleum well
extraction; in leather tanning; and in
producing polymers and plastics, rubber,
fertilizers, dyes, and pigments.22 Electric
power plants also release hydrochloric acid
to the air in large quantities. Hydrochloric
acid is highly corrosive and irritating to the
eyes and the respiratory tract. Chronic
occupational exposure has been linked to
gastritis, chronic bronchitis and dermatitis in
workers, while long-term, low-level exposure
has been linked to dental erosion.23

Table 21. Suspected Respiratory Toxicants Released
in the Highest Volume to the Air, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Chemical
HYDROCHLORIC ACID AEROSOLS
METHANOL
SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS
AMMONIA
HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

Total Air
Emissions
558,372,304
166,647,387
140,715,422
129,307,197
71,954,379

The electric services industry, which includes
electric power plants, was responsible for
the greatest releases of suspected
respiratory toxicants in 2004 (Table 22).
This industry accounted for 46 percent of all
suspected respiratory toxicant releases
nationwide and 90 percent of all releases of
hydrochloric acid. Nine of the 10 facilities
releasing the most respiratory toxicants were
power plants (Table 23). Since coal contains
trace amounts of chloride, coal-burning
electric utilities release chloride into the air,
which can combine with hydrogen in the air
to form hydrogen chloride. Upon contact with
water, the hydrogen chloride forms
hydrochloric acid.24
Table 22. Industries Releasing the Most Suspected
Respiratory Toxicants to Air, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Industry
Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services
Chemicals and Allied Products
Paper and Allied Products
Transportation Equipment
Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products
Petroleum Refining and Related Industries
Food and Kindred Products
Primary Metal Industries
Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Products
Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery
and Transportation Equipment

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
683,233,869
208,965,306
180,398,372
59,980,420
56,684,176
50,120,478
47,745,821
44,884,498
37,183,096
31,458,836

19

Table 23. Facilities Releasing the Most Suspected
Respiratory Toxicants to Air, 2004 (pounds)
Rank

Facility

City

State

Total Air
Emissions

1

U.S. TVA JOHNSONVILLE FOSSIL PLANT

NEW
JOHNSONVILLE

TN

17,048,396

2

RELIANT ENERGY KEYSTONE POWER PLANT

SHELOCTA

PA

16,403,890

3

AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER AMOS PLANT

WINFIELD

WV

15,708,386

4

BOWEN STEAM ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANT

CARTERSVILLE

GA

15,457,168

5

LOWLAND

TN

14,769,926

6

LIBERTY FIBERS CORP
AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER KAMMER/
MITCHELL PLANTS

MOUNDSVILLE

WV

14,272,016

7

DUKE ENERGY BELEWS CREEK STEAM STN

BELEWS CREEK

NC

13,661,595

8

MARSHALL STEAM STATION
CAROLINA POWER & LIGHT CO ROXBORO
STEAM ELECTRIC PLANT
PROGRESS ENERGY CRYSTAL RIVER ENERGY
COMPLEX

TERRELL

NC

13,571,617

SEMORA

NC

12,160,544

CRYSTAL RIVER

FL

11,960,774

9
10

Ohio, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and
Pennsylvania ranked highest in respiratory
toxicant releases to air in 2004 (Figure E).
These states are home to some of the
country’s largest coal-burning and polluting
power plants, as shown in Table 23, as well
as chemical facilities and refineries. Ohio
alone is home to seven power plants
releasing at least four million pounds of
hydrochloric acid in 2004.
See Appendix M for a list of all states with
facilities releasing suspected respiratory
toxicants to the air in 2004.

Figure E. Air Releases of Suspected Respiratory Toxicants by State, 2004

Note: Hawaii reported more than 2.3 million pounds of respiratory toxicants released to air in 2004; Alaska reported
more than 1.6 million pounds.

20

Zip code 37134 in New Johnsonville,
Tennessee ranked first in the nation for air
releases of suspected respiratory toxicants,
followed by zip codes in Shelocta,
Pennsylvania and Winfield, West Virginia
(Table 24); these zip codes are home to the
three power plants releasing the most
suspected respiratory toxicants to air in
2004, as shown in Table 23. Three West
Virginia zip codes fall in the top 10 for most
respiratory toxicant releases.
Similarly, Jefferson County, Ohio — home to
FirstEnergy’s W. H. Sammis power plant and
American Electric Power’s Cardinal power
plant — falls at the top of the list of counties
reporting the highest releases of suspected
respiratory toxicants, followed by Armstrong
County, Pennsylvania. One-fifth (20 percent)
of all air and water releases of suspected
respiratory toxicants occurred within just 20
U.S. counties (Table 25).
See Appendix N for a list of the 100 zip
codes and Appendix O for the 100 counties
reporting the most releases of suspected
respiratory toxicants to the air in 2004.
Table 24. Top 10 U.S. Zip Codes for Air Emissions
of Suspected Respiratory Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Zip
Code
37134
15774
25213
30120
37778
26041
27009
28682
45144
25265

City
NEW JOHNSONVILLE
SHELOCTA
WINFIELD
CARTERSVILLE
LOWLAND
MOUNDSVILLE
BELEWS CREEK
TERRELL
MANCHESTER
NEW HAVEN

State
TN
PA
WV
GA
TN
WV
NC
NC
OH
WV

Total Air
Emissions
17,185,681
16,403,890
15,708,386
15,476,036
14,769,926
14,312,502
13,661,597
13,571,617
12,977,392
12,526,073

Table 25. Top 10 U.S. Counties for Air Emissions of
Suspected Respiratory Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

County
JEFFERSON
ARMSTRONG
HUMPHREYS
HARRIS
PERSON
MARSHALL
PUTNAM
BARTOW
CATAWBA
HAMBLEN

State
OH
PA
TN
TX
NC
WV
WV
GA
NC
TN

Total Air
Emissions
21,850,211
19,514,515
18,805,656
17,672,267
16,396,477
16,017,366
15,716,564
15,660,124
15,016,129
15,009,961

DIOXINS
EPA added the chemical class known as
dioxins to the Toxics Release Inventory
beginning in the 2000 reporting year. Long
regarded as among the most toxic chemicals
known to science, dioxins can alter the
growth and development of cells and lead to
adverse effects on reproduction and
development, suppression of the immune
system, and cancer. In fact, EPA estimates
that the cancer risk from dioxins in levels
already present in the general public is
approximately 1-per-1,000.25
Chlorine
bleaching of pulp and paper, certain types
of chemical manufacturing and processing,
and other industrial processes all can create
small quantities of dioxins.
Dioxins are treated separately from other
chemicals in this report because minute
quantities of dioxins are dangerous to human
health. As a result, EPA requires facilities to
report their dioxin releases to TRI in units of
grams rather than pounds. Including dioxins
with other toxicants would downplay the
severe consequences that even small releases
of dioxins can have on human health and the
environment.

21

Table 26. Industries Releasing the Most Dioxins to
Air and Water, 2004 (grams)

FINDINGS
U.S. facilities nationwide reported releasing
2,631 grams of dioxins to the air and water
during 2004. The chemical industry released
the most dioxins to air and water, accounting
for almost half (49 percent) of all air and
water emissions of dioxins (Table 26). The
electric power sector and paper industry
followed, together accounting for almost a
third (31 percent) of the dioxin releases.
The most dioxin releases occurred in Texas,
Louisiana, Alabama, New Hampshire and
Arkansas (Figure F). These states are home to
numerous chemical facilities, pulp and
paperboard mills, petroleum refineries, and
large coal-burning power plants. Freeport,
Texas and Plaquemine, Louisiana are home
to the two facilities—both owned by Dow
Chemical—that released the most dioxins in
2004 (Table 27).
These two facilities
account for almost a third (31 percent) of the
dioxins released across the country in 2004.
See Appendix P for a list of all states home
to facilities reporting dioxin releases in
2004.

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Industry
Chemicals and Allied Products
Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services
Paper and Allied Products
Primary Metal Industries
Lumber and Wood Products, Except Furniture

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
1,291.33
606.55
208.30
192.70
189.77

Table 27. Facilities Releasing the Most Dioxins to
Air and Water, 2004 (grams)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Facility
DOW CHEMICAL CO FREEPORT FACILITY
DOW CHEMICAL CO LOUISIANA DIV
INNOVENE POLYETHYLENE N.A.
TILLOTSON RUBBER CO.
CAHABA PRESSURE TREATED FOREST PRODS
VULCAN CHEMICALS
DOMTAR INDUSTRIES INC ASHDOWN MILL
PPG INDUSTRIES INC
KOPPERS INC
HUXFORD POLE & TIMBER CO. INC.

City
FREEPORT
PLAQUEMINE
LA PORTE
DIXVILLE
NOTCH
BRIERFIELD
WICHITA
ASHDOWN
WESTLAKE
GRENADA
HUXFORD

State
TX
LA
TX
NH
AL
KS
AR
LA
MS
AL

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
524.00
298.47
235.86
151.27
74.97
57.01
43.77
39.78
36.77
27.85

Figure F. Dioxin Releases to Air and Water by State, 2004

Note: Hawaii reported 4 grams of dioxins released to air and water in 2004; Alaska reported 8 grams.

22

These dioxin releases are quite concentrated
within a relatively small number of localities,
especially in the Gulf of Mexico region. In
2004, almost two-thirds (62 percent) of all
air and water releases of dioxins reported
to TRI occurred within just 20 zip codes
(Table 28). Zip code 77541 in Freeport,
Texas saw the highest releases of dioxins to
air and water, followed by zip codes in
Plaquemine, Louisiana, La Porte, Texas, and
Dixville Notch, New Hampshire. Similarly,
almost 65 percent of all air and water
releases of dioxins occurred within just 20
counties, half of which are located in the
Gulf region (Table 29).
See Appendix Q for a list of the 100 zip
codes and Appendix R for the 100 counties
reporting the most dioxin releases to the air
and water in 2004.

Table 28. Top 10 U.S. Zip Codes for Dioxin
Releases to Air and Water, 2004 (grams)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Zip
Code
77541
70765
77571
03576
35035
67215
71822
70669
38960
36543

City
FREEPORT
PLAQUEMINE
LA PORTE
DIXVILLE NOTCH
BRIERFIELD
WICHITA
ASHDOWN
WESTLAKE
GRENADA
HUXFORD

State
TX
LA
TX
NH
AL
KS
AR
LA
MS
AL

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
525.37
298.47
239.37
151.27
74.97
57.01
43.77
43.24
36.77
27.85

Table 29. Top 10 U.S. Counties for Dioxin Releases
to Air and Water, 2004 (grams)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

County
BRAZORIA
IBERVILLE
HARRIS
COOS
BIBB
SEDGWICK
LITTLE RIVER
CALCASIEU
ESCAMBIA
GRENADA

State
TX
LA
TX
NH
AL
KS
AR
LA
AL
MS

Total Air
and
Water
Emissions
525.87
301.64
254.91
151.86
74.97
57.51
47.93
43.33
39.12
37.22

23

TOXIC RELEASES TO LAND
The mining industry dominates land releases
of carcinogens, developmental toxicants and
reproductive toxicants – largely due to the
on-site land disposal of hundreds of millions
of pounds of compounds including lead,
arsenic and chromium. We decided to
separate the toxic releases to air and water
from the toxic releases to land because most
mining facilities are in remote locations with
a small surrounding population. Although the
mining industry’s pollution poses long-term
threats to the environment and public health,
the massive releases of toxic substances to
land would have deemphasized the threats
posed by less voluminous air and water
discharges nationwide.
In 2004, facilities reporting to TRI released
more than 608 million pounds of carcinogens,
developmental toxicants or reproductive
toxicants to land. Land releases include all
the chemicals disposed on land within the
boundaries of the reporting facility and can
include
on-site
landfills,
surface
impoundments (uncovered holding ponds),
land treatment, and accidental spills or
leaks. The metal mining industry, led by the
lead and zinc, gold, silver, and copper
sectors, was responsible for about 485
million pounds (80 percent) of these releases
(Table 30). The electric services sector had
the largest non-mining sector releases to
land.
The 10 facilities releasing the most toxic
substances to land belong to the metal
mining industry, led by the Red Dog mine in
Kotzebue, Alaska and the Coeur Rochester
mine in Lovelock, Nevada (Table 31).

Table 30. Industries with Most Land Releases of
Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants and
Reproductive Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Industry
Metal Mining
Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services
Primary Metal Industries
Chemicals and Allied Products
National Security and International Affairs
Coal Mining
Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Products
Nonclassifiable Establishments
Paper and Allied Products
Electronic and Other Electrical Equipment/
Components, Except Computer Equipment

Total OnSite Land
Releases
485,420,236
85,267,251
21,476,222
9,439,722
2,279,833
1,420,598
1,050,941
889,779
449,465
194,170

Table 31. Facilities with Most Land Releases of
Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants and
Reproductive Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Facility

City

State

Total OnSite Land
Releases

1

RED DOG OPERATIONS

KOTZEBUE

AK

131,857,483

2

LOVELOCK

NV

85,302,846

3

COEUR ROCHESTER INC
KENNECOTT UTAH COPPER MINE
CONCENTRATORS & POWER PLANT

COPPERTON

UT

52,554,078

4

NEWMONT MINING TWIN CREEKS MINE

GOLCONDA

NV

39,000,000

5

BARRICK GOLDSTRIKE MINES INC

ELKO

NV

22,594,720

6

NEWMONT MINING LONE TREE MINE

VALMY

NV

20,000,790

7

NEWMONT MINING CARLIN SOUTH AREA

CARLIN

NV

14,000,000

8

BUICK MINE/MILL

MO

11,307,924

MT

9,219,699

MO

8,173,767

Rank

9

MONTANA TUNNELS MINING INC

BOSS
JEFFERSON
CITY

10

FLETCHER MINE/MILL

BUNKER

Two-thirds (67 percent) of the land releases
of carcinogens, developmental toxicants and
reproductive toxicants were lead or lead
compounds (Table 32). Exposure to lead can
affect almost every organ and system in the
human body, especially the central nervous
system. Exposure to low doses of lead can
cause IQ deficits, attention deficit

24

hyperactivity disorder, and deficits in
vocabulary, fine motor skills, reaction time,
The
and hand-eye coordination.26
developing brains and nervous systems of
children are particularly sensitive to the
damaging effects of lead.
Table 32. Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants
and Reproductive Toxicants Released in the Highest
Volume to Land, 2004 (pounds)27

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Chemical
LEAD COMPOUNDS
ARSENIC COMPOUNDS
CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS
NICKEL COMPOUNDS
LEAD

Total OnSite Land
Releases
395,498,060
115,570,487
28,959,574
22,266,594
11,759,696

The states receiving the most toxic releases
to land are often the most sparsely
populated.
Nevada, Alaska, and Utah
ranked first, second and third for total land
releases of carcinogens, developmental
toxicants and reproductive toxicants in 2004
(Figure G), accounting for 71 percent of the
land releases of these substances. The
mining industry accounts for the vast majority
of the toxic releases to land in these states.
See Appendix S for a list of all states with
facilities reporting land releases of
carcinogens, developmental toxicants and
reproductive toxicants in 2004.

Figure G. Land Releases of Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants and Reproductive Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Note: Hawaii released more than 125,000 pounds of toxic substances to land in 2004.

25

The largest land releases of carcinogens,
developmental toxicants and reproductive
toxicants occurred in relatively remote areas.
As shown in Table 33, zip code 99752,
located 90 miles north of Kotzebue, Alaska
and home to the Red Dog zinc and lead
mine, ranked first for total releases of these
substances to land, followed by zip code
89419 in Lovelock, Nevada (home to the
Coeur Rochester silver mine) and 84006 in
Copperton/Bingham Canyon, Utah (home to
the Kennecott Utah copper mine). Four
Nevada counties—Pershing, Humboldt, Elko,
and Eureka—fell in the top 10 counties with
the most land releases of carcinogens,
developmental toxicants and reproductive
toxicants (Table 34).
See Appendix T for a list of the 100 zip
codes and Appendix U for the list of the 100
counties reporting the most land releases of
carcinogens, developmental toxicants and
reproductive toxicants in 2004.

Table 33. Top 10 U.S. Zip Codes for Land Releases
of Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants and
Reproductive Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2

Zip
Code
99752
89419

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

84006
89414
89803
89438
89822
63629
65440
84044

City
KOTZEBUE
LOVELOCK
BINGHAM CANYON/
COPPERTON
GOLCONDA/MIDAS
ELKO
VALMY
CARLIN
BUNKER
BOSS
MAGNA

State
AK
NV

Total OnSite Land
Releases
135,329,476
85,322,626

UT
NV
NV
NV
NV
MO
MO
UT

53,818,352
42,382,733
35,016,558
23,485,855
18,790,206
13,358,616
12,435,901
11,398,156

Table 34. Top 10 U.S. Counties for Land Releases of
Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants and
Reproductive Toxicants, 2004 (pounds)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

County
NORTHWEST ARCTIC
PERSHING
HUMBOLDT
SALT LAKE
ELKO
EUREKA
REYNOLDS
IRON
JEFFERSON
SILVER BOW

State
AK
NV
NV
UT
NV
NV
MO
MO
MT
MT

Total OnSite Land
Releases
135,329,476
85,929,456
65,757,170
65,216,816
36,696,303
18,790,206
14,598,233
12,435,901
9,574,327
8,940,004

26

BUSH ADMINISTRATION WEAKENS
THE TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY

A

s this report demonstrates, facilities
across the country continue to release
millions of pounds of toxic chemicals known
or suspected to cause serious health effects.
The Toxics Release Inventory program plays
a pivotal role in providing for the public’s
right-to-know about the use and release of
these toxic chemicals. Regrettably, the Bush
administration recently weakened the TRI
program by reducing the information
available to the public about toxic chemicals
released into communities.
BACKGROUND: TRI REPORTING
REQUIREMENTS
The TRI program requires companies that
manage or release toxic chemicals above
established thresholds to disclose these
activities to EPA in an annual reporting
process. This annual reporting, made for
each toxic chemical present at a facility and
covered by the program, provides EPA with
a snapshot of toxic waste management and
pollution activities at a particular facility.
Once annual reports are submitted, EPA
compiles and disseminates the data on its
website for public review.
TRI disclosure requirements apply only to
certain classes of industrial facilities that
employ more than 10 full time employees
and release, store or manage any one of
650 listed toxic chemicals in amounts that
exceed established reporting thresholds.28
Depending on the type and quantity of toxic
chemical, facilities comply with reporting
requirements by submitting one of two forms:
a short “Form A” certification statement or a
detailed “Form R” report. The Form R report
provides a full disclosure that captures

FORM R REPORT VS. FORM A CERTIFICATION
Form R Report: Includes the name of toxic
chemical, the amount released to the
environment (delineated by total releases
to water, underground injection wells, air,
and disposed to land), the amount
recycled, the amount combusted for
energy, and the amount transferred
offsite (delineated by total sent offsite
for disposal, recycling or energy
combustion).
Form A Certification: Acknowledges that
the listed toxic chemical is present at a
facility.
detailed information about the chemicals
released, such as the quantity of the chemical
disposed or released onsite to the air, water,
or land; injected underground; or transferred
for disposal or release offsite.29
Since 1995, however, EPA has allowed
facilities to submit the more limited Form A
certification statement in lieu of the detailed
Form R if they release or manage toxic
chemicals in small amounts.30 The Form A
only certifies that a toxic chemical is present
at a facility but does not contain any of the
detailed information about the quantities of
the toxic chemical used, released, or
managed as waste. According to EPA, “the
primary difference between information
contained on Form R and the Form A
Certification Statement is that the Form R
provides details of releases and other waste
management (e.g., total quantity of releases
to air, water, and land; on- and off-site
recycling, treatment, and combustion for

27

energy recovery), while the Form A does
not.”31
The Form R reports supply the critical data
that enables TRI users to assess when toxic
substances are released, where releases
occur and in what amounts. Form A only
serves to warn the public that a toxic
chemical is present at a facility without
providing any additional information.

FORM A CERTIFICATION STATEMENT
ELIGIBILITY
Since the Form A certification statement does
not provide useful information about the
quantity and ultimate disposition of a toxic
chemical release, EPA historically has
restricted the use of Form A by establishing a
low Form A reporting threshold.32 A facility
is eligible to use the Form A only when the
combined total amount of the waste
management and release of a toxic chemical
is less than the established reporting
threshold.
If
the
combined
waste
management and release total exceeds the
reporting threshold, a facility must complete
and submit a detailed Form R report.
In addition to reporting thresholds, EPA had
disallowed Form A eligibility for a small but
dangerous class of chemicals called
persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). PBT
chemicals, such as lead and mercury, are
treated separately and with greater
attention because they remain in the
environment for long periods of time, do not
readily degrade, and build up or
accumulate in body tissue. Because PBTs are
dangerous even in small amounts, EPA
required facilities to report all PBT releases
on detailed Form R reports without regard to
threshold levels—until December 2006.

BUSH ADMINISTRATION
WEAKENS TOXIC RELEASE
REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
On December 22, 2006, EPA finalized a
new rule that will reduce the quantity and
quality of toxic chemical data submitted
under TRI and available to the public.33 The
new rule consists of two major modifications
to the reporting requirements for TRI toxic
chemicals.

DIMINISHED REPORTING FOR PERSISTENT
BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICS
The new rule allows, for the first time,
facilities to obtain Form A certification for
PBT chemicals when the total reportable
amount for a PBT does not exceed 500
pounds and the chemical is not disposed or
released to the environment.34 Previously,
EPA required detailed Form R reporting for
all PBT chemicals, regardless of total
reportable amount or ultimate disposition. In
a 1999 rulemaking, EPA claimed that Form A
certification is “insufficient for conducting
meaningful analyses on PBT chemicals” and
prohibited the use of certification for PBT
chemicals.35
The expansion of Form A
certification eligibility to PBT chemicals
represents a significant divergence from the
EPA’s previous position and eliminates
currently collected information on the most
dangerous and long-lived toxic chemicals.

RAISED REPORTING THRESHOLDS FOR TRI
CHEMICALS
The second change increases the reporting
threshold for non-PBT toxic chemicals from
500 pounds to 5,000 pounds per year. The
raised threshold permits facilities to forgo
detailed reporting and submit only a
certification statement if the total reportable
amount for a toxic chemical is below 5,000
pounds, provided the total amount of the
28

substance disposed or released to the
environment does not exceed 2,000
The new reporting threshold
pounds.36
increases by a factor of ten the point at
which facilities must report to EPA and will
allow facilities to release four times the
amount of a toxic chemical without reporting
the release to EPA. Accordingly, the raised
reporting threshold for non-PBT chemicals
appreciably reduces the amount and quality
of toxic release data available to the public.

Generally, these changes enable facilities to
withhold currently reported information
about toxic chemicals and restrict public
access to information about toxic chemicals
released in communities.
A preliminary
analysis of the changes by the Government
Accountability Office estimated that 3,565
facilities would no longer be required to
submit information describing the amount
and location of toxic chemical releases.37

29

RECOMMENDATIONS

T

he continued use and release of toxic
chemicals presents tangible and serious
threats to human health and the environment.
Each year, emerging science provides
increasing
evidence
linking
chemical
exposures to adverse health impacts.
Americans have known about the potential
threat of toxic releases in their communities
for years, but the data on toxic releases
reviewed in this report reveal that many
communities still confront large-scale releases
of substances that are known or suspected to
damage public health. Moreover, for many
chemicals, crucial data gaps remain in our
understanding of how these chemicals
interact with humans and may affect our
health and well-being.
To reduce toxic chemical use and releases in
our communities and ensure that these
communities have access to information about
this pollution, we recommend the following
steps.

RESTORE PUBLIC ACCESS TO TOXIC
RELEASE DATA
In order to maintain the quality and quantity
of TRI data collected and disseminated to
the public, EPA should:
Š Reverse its recent rulemaking extending
Form A eligibility to PBT chemicals. As
mentioned previously, PBT chemicals do
not readily degrade, accumulating in the
food chain and in animal and human
body tissue. Because even small releases
of these chemicals pose a serious threat
to human health, EPA should require full
disclosure of releases of PBT chemicals.
Š Reverse its recent rulemaking increasing
reporting thresholds for all non-PBT TRI

chemicals. The sizeable increase in the
reporting threshold will have a significant
impact on the information available to
the public about dozens of toxic
chemicals from thousands of facilities in
states and communities across the
country. Some facilities will not have to
provide detailed information on the
amounts and locations of toxic chemical
releases and disposals, complicating
governmental and community efforts to
understand and track toxic chemical
pollution.

IMPROVE TRI DATA QUALITY
Although the TRI represents the best source
of national and local toxic release and
waste management information, EPA could
improve the quality of the TRI data.
Specifically, the methods used to generate
data and the time it takes for EPA to process
and publish the data present major
limitations for communities and states. In
order to improve the quality of TRI data,
EPA should:
Š Improve the accuracy of reported toxic
release and waste management data.
The TRI program does not currently
require any specific monitoring of
emissions, but instead allows facilities to
rely on equations that estimate releases
and waste generation during the course
of the reporting year. Although facilities
are responsible for the accuracy of the
TRI data submitted to EPA, relying on
emissions estimations may not provide a
valid and accurate accounting of toxic
data. Instead, EPA should evaluate and
require facilities to use continuous
monitoring devices, the most effective
way to accurately track all quantities of
toxic releases. Advances in technology
30

have improved the reliability and
reduced the cost of continuous monitoring
devices, and many facilities already use
such devices to monitor pollution.

chemicals, including data on releases of
chemical categories of serious concern
such as PBTs, carcinogens and hazardous
air pollutants.

Š Increase the speed at which EPA
processes TRI data and makes it public.
EPA did not release TRI data for the
2004 reporting year until April 2006.
Delays in releasing data force the public,
communities and states to rely on TRI
data that is often two to three years old.
EPA should expedite TRI data release by
promoting full and timely electronic
reporting for all covered facilities and
by reducing the time that facilities have
to confirm data submissions to 60 days.
Technological improvements, such as
continuous monitoring, also would reduce
the time required to calculate and verify
toxic release data.

Š Provide a balanced analysis of the data
results that highlights troubling findings in
addition to positive trends.

IMPROVE TRI DATA ANALYSIS
When EPA releases TRI data, the agency
also provides an analysis of the information
in its Public Data Release (PDR). In recent
years, EPA has reduced the amount of
analysis provided in the PDR. For example,
EPA has stopped enumerating a list of the
facilities with the highest toxic releases. EPA
should implement the following steps to
ensure that the public is provided with a
useful analysis of the TRI data:
Š Detail the facilities in each industry sector
responsible for the most toxic releases
and list the U.S. states and counties
experiencing the most pollution.
Š Explain in each PDR that TRI does not
cover all chemicals or all sources of
chemicals; include the percentage of
facilities, chemicals, and/or releases that
are covered under TRI each year.

Š Develop a TRI data user’s guide for the
media and the public.

REDUCE CHEMICAL USE
The data reported to TRI demonstrate that
toxic chemicals are released to the
environment
in
significant
quantities
nationwide. While the links between some of
these chemicals and health problems are
uncertain, common sense and the weight of
available evidence suggest that prudent
steps be taken to reduce the use and release
of toxic chemicals nationwide.
State and federal governments can play a
direct role in reducing toxic emissions to the
air and water by strictly enforcing basic
pollution laws such as the Clean Air Act and
Clean Water Act. Ultimately, however, state
and federal governments must address the
issue of preventing pollution by encouraging
reductions in the use of toxic chemicals and
the substitution of safer alternatives. The
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act,
which requires reporting of toxic chemical
use and the development of plans for use
reduction by industry, reduced generation of
toxic waste per unit of production by 65
percent between 1990 and 2004 and onsite releases of TRI chemicals by 91
percent.38
Revitalizing pollution prevention efforts at
the state and federal levels should be a top
policy priority.

Š Provide information on the potential
health hazards of the reported toxic
31

REFORM CHEMICALS POLICY
Chemicals that are untested or known to be
hazardous to human health should not be on
the market or in widespread use and
distribution. U.S. chemicals policy should
ensure that manufacturers and industrial
users provide regulatory agencies and the
public with adequate information about their
products so that agencies can act to protect
public health from potentially dangerous
substances before damage is done.
Currently, manufacturers can put chemicals
on the market before detection methods
have even been developed to test for the
presence of the chemical in air, water, soil,
and our bodies. The burden falls on federal
and state governments to develop these

analytical methods – an expensive and timeconsuming process. The costs of developing
analytical methods to test for a chemical’s
safety should fall to the manufacturers who
stand to profit from the product.
Manufacturers should be required to provide
all hazard and health-impact information to
EPA so the agency can begin to assess the
thousands of chemicals currently on the
market for which it has little or inadequate
data.
Manufacturers of chemicals also
should be required to conduct an alternatives
analysis to determine if they are using the
least hazardous chemical for each
application. Finally, EPA’s authority to ban
or restrict the use of a chemical if it can harm
human health must be strengthened.

32

METHODOLOGY

A

ll data analyzed for this report are from
the EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory.
Subsequent amendments to TRI reports made
by industry following EPA’s release of the
2004 reporting year data may not be
reflected in this analysis. We only looked at
releases in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia and excluded releases in U.S.
territories.
Health Effects
We looked at all of the chemicals and
substances reported in 2004 to TRI and
categorized them by health effect. We used
California’s Proposition 65 list, current as of
December 8, 2006, to categorize chemicals
as carcinogens, developmental toxicants
and/or reproductive toxicants. To identify
suspected neurological and respiratory
toxicants, we used Environmental Defense’s
Scorecard.org website.
Environmental
Defense’s lists are based primarily on
information compiled by EPA, the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
the states of California, Massachusetts and
New Jersey, and European government
agencies, as well as toxicological studies
published in scientific journals. In a small
number of cases, Environmental Defense
conducted supplementary review to identify
any remaining potential human health
hazards.39 See Appendix V for a list of the
chemicals included in this report and
associated health effects.
Not all chemicals reported to TRI in 2004 fell
into these five categories of health concern
and therefore are excluded from this report.
Some of the excluded chemicals may cause
other health effects, ranging from skin
disorders to endocrine disruption; other
chemicals have little toxicity data available.
In cases in which a single chemical was listed,
but TRI reports only releases by chemical

class, we assumed the entire class causes the
listed health effect. For example, releases
of polycyclic aromatic compounds are
reported to TRI as a class, even though they
are listed separately on California’s
Proposition 65 list. Also, some chemicals are
listed as toxic in certain forms on the
Proposition 65 list, but their releases are
reported to TRI in the aggregate. For
example,
several
“technical
grade”
chemicals are listed as carcinogens under
Proposition 65, but TRI does not make a
similar distinction. Because there is no way
to resolve this mismatch, we assumed all
substances reported to TRI that are listed on
Proposition 65 cause the listed health effect.
In cases in which an elemental form of a
substance was on the Proposition 65 list, we
assumed compounds including the substance
also cause the listed health effect. Two
specific
examples
bear
mentioning.
Proposition 65 includes lead and cadmium as
developmental and reproductive toxicants,
but not their compounds. Environmental
Defense lists lead compounds as recognized
developmental and reproductive toxicants
and cadmium compounds as suspected
developmental and reproductive toxicants
based on the inclusion of their elemental
forms on the Proposition 65 list. This analysis
includes both lead compounds and cadmium
compounds in our list of developmental and
reproductive toxicants.
Industry Analysis
Industry analysis is based on the primary,
four-digit Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) codes reported by the facilities to TRI.
We grouped each facility by its major
industry (the first two numbers of the SIC
code) as defined by the U.S. Department of
Labor.40 Some facilities did not report
primary SIC codes and were excluded from
the industry analysis.
33

Appendix A. Air and Water Releases of Recognized Carcinogens,
2004: By State

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (pounds)
1
TX
10,391,058
2
SC
4,194,931
3
LA
3,694,761
4
AL
3,315,804
5
FL
2,727,494
6
GA
2,688,152
7
OH
2,566,355
8
IL
2,566,470
9
IN
2,518,340
10
NC
2,433,827
11
PA
2,480,858
12
VA
2,190,876
13
TN
2,009,980
14
KY
2,061,123
15
MI
1,900,687
16
OR
1,840,414
17
IA
1,520,613
18
AR
1,386,192
19
NY
1,294,480
20
WA
1,279,089
21
MS
1,242,306
22
MO
1,183,753
23
WI
1,160,393
24
KS
1,157,103
25
MN
898,238
26
WV
822,101

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
Total
(pounds) (pounds)
228,039 10,619,097
80,853 4,275,784
154,843 3,849,604
160,998 3,476,802
57,463 2,784,957
66,862 2,755,014
45,251 2,611,606
20,958 2,587,428
66,998 2,585,338
84,283 2,518,110
33,240 2,514,098
18,162 2,209,038
121,332 2,131,312
50,395 2,111,518
25,273 1,925,960
32,839 1,873,253
22,379 1,542,992
64,273 1,450,465
72,838 1,367,318
36,475 1,315,564
14,498 1,256,804
10,361 1,194,114
15,652 1,176,045
876 1,157,979
4,606
902,844
44,742
866,843

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (pounds)
27
MA
781,444
28
MT
754,276
29
CA
704,710
30
OK
730,540
31
CT
702,671
32
ME
635,527
33
NJ
433,639
34
NE
346,334
35
MD
323,033
36
AZ
219,479
37
ND
191,061
38
UT
162,708
39
ID
139,654
40
DE
139,868
41
SD
135,637
42
WY
118,931
43
HI
93,136
44
NM
81,868
45
CO
79,715
46
NH
72,256
47
RI
69,517
48
NV
17,110
49
AK
47,805
50
VT
1,914
51
DC
1
National
68,508,232

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
Total
(pounds)
(pounds)
8,863
790,307
595
754,871
49,857
754,567
7,462
738,002
4,316
706,987
44,455
679,982
29,296
462,935
605
346,939
4,873
327,906
16
219,495
638
191,699
10,501
173,209
21,093
160,747
12,127
151,995
693
136,330
380
119,311
363
93,499
988
82,856
75
79,790
4,411
76,667
724
70,241
31,668
48,778
307
48,112
15
1,929
0
1
1,768,810 70,277,042

34

Appendix B. 100 U.S. Zip Codes Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Carcinogens, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Zip
Code
77590
29440
98632
33439
40216
35601
14652
77530
47620
79607
29706
02111
59912
77536
77541
28120
22603
70734
47112
70068
77520
97432
29115
24526
62526
52732
67210
52404
48131
70669
29461
77705
71730
38113
33440
70079
75603
19426
36752
38326
77511
61602
77507
97355
32347
70805
59802
43512
36201
77017
32837

City
TEXAS CITY
GEORGETOWN
LONGVIEW
BRYANT
LOUISVILLE
DECATUR
ROCHESTER
CHANNELVIEW
MOUNT VERNON
DYESS AFB
CHESTER
BOSTON
COLUMBIA FALLS
DEER PARK
FREEPORT/JONES CREEK/CLUTE
MOUNT HOLLY
WINCHESTER
GEISMAR
CORYDON
LA PLACE
BAYTOWN
DILLARD
ORANGEBURG
BIG ISLAND
DECATUR
CLINTON
WICHITA
CEDAR RAPIDS
DUNDEE
WESTLAKE
MONCKS CORNER
BEAUMONT/CHEEK
EL DORADO
MEMPHIS
CLEWISTON
NORCO
LONGVIEW
COLLEGEVILLE/TRAPPE
BURKVILLE
COUNCE
ALVIN
PEORIA
PASADENA
LEBANON
PERRY
BATON ROUGE
MISSOULA
DEFIANCE
ANNISTON
HOUSTON
ORLANDO

State
TX
SC
WA
FL
KY
AL
NY
TX
IN
TX
SC
MA
MT
TX
TX
NC
VA
LA
IN
LA
TX
OR
SC
VA
IL
IA
KS
IA
MI
LA
SC
TX
AR
TN
FL
LA
TX
PA
AL
TN
TX
IL
TX
OR
FL
LA
MT
OH
AL
TX
FL

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
2,207,262
1,052,995
734,693
726,120
632,791
628,789
620,628
579,198
531,148
524,899
479,524
478,090
475,978
469,380
469,177
423,181
415,940
410,390
405,710
387,467
367,401
362,177
359,913
359,392
345,078
334,310
333,973
328,594
317,902
316,379
315,540
310,939
291,808
288,166
277,164
272,600
270,023
269,753
267,055
261,015
259,644
247,136
245,615
242,913
238,544
235,690
234,389
233,369
217,060
216,391
212,035

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Zip
Code
37662
29059
28716
77631
39654
75961
97478
32034
29512
37331
04740
63336
71601
36067
39832
97501
74764
77571
77978
29532
77592
50444
52761
53120
32402
37138
36769
67337
23860
31515
23851
29704
75572
42029
61350
04694
32533
31015
29406
06706
71360
71635
66115
41144
77049
28586
64119
31415
28502

City
KINGSPORT
HOLLY HILL
CANTON
ORANGE
MONTICELLO
NACOGDOCHES
SPRINGFIELD
FERNANDINA BEACH
BENNETTSVILLE
ETOWAH
EASTON
CLARKSVILLE
PINE BLUFF
PRATTVILLE
CEDAR SPRINGS
MEDFORD
VALLIANT
LA PORTE
POINT COMFORT
DARLINGTON
TEXAS CITY
HANLONTOWN
MUSCATINE
EAST TROY
PANAMA CITY
OLD HICKORY
PINE HILL
COFFEYVILLE
HOPEWELL
JESUP
FRANKLIN
CATAWBA
QUEEN CITY
CALVERT CITY
OTTAWA
BAILEYVILLE
CANTONMENT
CORDELE
NORTH CHARLESTON
WATERBURY
PINEVILLE
CROSSETT
KANSAS CITY
WURTLAND
HOUSTON
VANCEBORO
CLAYCOMO
SAVANNAH
KINSTON

State
TN
SC
NC
TX
MS
TX
OR
FL
SC
TN
ME
MO
AR
AL
GA
OR
OK
TX
TX
SC
TX
IA
IA
WI
FL
TN
AL
KS
VA
GA
VA
SC
TX
KY
IL
ME
FL
GA
SC
CT
LA
AR
KS
KY
TX
NC
MO
GA
NC

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
210,265
207,060
203,139
198,030
194,941
194,721
193,830
192,863
191,925
189,532
187,909
187,863
186,674
186,339
184,139
183,916
183,402
179,227
178,691
176,465
175,471
174,402
174,052
173,357
172,662
171,278
169,793
169,006
167,458
167,414
165,938
165,133
164,122
162,614
162,415
162,206
162,133
161,017
160,748
158,823
157,302
156,263
156,219
155,954
155,620
154,898
153,981
151,997
151,164

35

Appendix C. 100 U.S. Counties Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Carcinogens, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

County
HARRIS
GALVESTON
GEORGETOWN
BRAZORIA
JEFFERSON
JEFFERSON
COWLITZ
PALM BEACH
MORGAN
MONROE
MONTGOMERY
ORANGEBURG
POSEY
TAYLOR
SEDGWICK
CHESTER
COOK
SUFFOLK
FLATHEAD
LINN
GASTON
MACON
NUECES
ST CHARLES
ASCENSION
BERKELEY
FREDERICK
ST JOHN THE BAPTIST
SHELBY
HARRISON
CALCASIEU
ORANGE
MONROE
DOUGLAS
BEDFORD
LINN
EAST BATON ROUGE
SULLIVAN
NEW HAVEN
CLINTON
MC CURTAIN
CUYAHOGA
HARRISON
LANE
UNION
NASSAU
MC MINN
HENDRY
WAYNE
LOWNDES
PEORIA

State
TX
TX
SC
TX
TX
KY
WA
FL
AL
NY
PA
SC
IN
TX
KS
SC
IL
MA
MT
OR
NC
IL
TX
LA
LA
SC
VA
LA
TN
IN
LA
TX
MI
OR
VA
IA
LA
TN
CT
IA
OK
OH
TX
OR
AR
FL
TN
FL
MI
AL
IL

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
2,557,944
2,383,244
1,052,996
928,811
927,624
832,951
756,248
726,365
707,188
672,782
619,606
567,681
531,148
524,899
518,739
503,832
500,006
492,223
475,987
464,337
458,712
448,962
436,117
426,739
423,132
421,875
416,317
415,422
409,268
405,710
392,262
391,408
383,594
362,178
359,392
353,409
343,591
335,324
334,417
334,386
332,953
327,890
300,201
298,811
291,824
289,579
281,646
277,164
270,314
267,055
263,801

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

County
HARDIN
CHARLESTON
AUGUSTA
IBERVILLE
MISSOULA
TAYLOR
DEFIANCE
JEFFERSON
BAY
BERKS
CALHOUN
PIKE
ORANGE
CALHOUN
ST LOUIS
CHATHAM
HAYWOOD
AROOSTOOK
DARLINGTON
BIBB
WALWORTH
FLORENCE
LAWRENCE
NACOGDOCHES
MARLBORO
BROOKE
AUTAUGA
YORK
OAKLAND
EARLY
JACKSON
RICHLAND
JACKSON
LICKING
CRAVEN
MECKLENBURG
ESCAMBIA
WORTH
DAVIDSON
MUSCATINE
MONROE
SMITH
LAKE
WILCOX
MONTGOMERY
WYANDOTTE
ALLEGHENY
WAYNE
RAPIDES

State
TN
SC
VA
LA
MT
FL
OH
AR
FL
PA
AL
MO
FL
TX
MO
GA
NC
ME
SC
GA
WI
SC
MS
TX
SC
WV
AL
SC
MI
GA
OR
SC
AL
OH
NC
NC
FL
IA
TN
IA
AL
TX
IN
AL
KS
KS
PA
GA
LA

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
261,015
253,915
250,654
243,905
241,714
240,438
233,371
225,560
220,304
218,255
218,066
217,123
215,491
215,014
207,017
203,599
203,139
198,609
196,063
195,529
195,473
195,241
194,948
194,721
192,071
187,866
186,339
185,875
184,441
184,139
183,916
183,889
183,291
177,763
175,768
175,456
174,614
174,402
174,062
173,273
171,459
171,331
170,571
169,793
169,032
168,619
168,150
167,414
167,322

36

Appendix D. Air and Water Releases of Recognized Developmental
Toxicants, 2004: By State

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (pounds)
1
TN
23,549,316
2
TX
9,040,947
3
IL
6,481,819
4
IN
4,083,409
5
NC
3,752,033
6
SC
3,731,802
7
VA
3,623,611
8
LA
3,238,219
9
MS
3,182,851
10
MI
3,113,824
11
KY
2,917,524
12
PA
2,802,885
13
OH
2,524,573
14
AR
2,436,581
15
KS
2,346,709
16
NY
2,109,636
17
GA
2,056,781
18
AL
1,549,188
19
WV
1,573,354
20
MO
1,292,480
21
FL
1,199,120
22
OK
1,096,267
23
WI
1,037,768
24
IA
874,129
25
MN
746,168
26
CA
706,945

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
Total
(pounds) (pounds)
36,574 23,585,890
265,430 9,306,377
11,021 6,492,840
16,769 4,100,178
7,718 3,759,751
15,055 3,746,857
15,040 3,638,651
33,892 3,272,111
1,771 3,184,622
6,557 3,120,381
12,174 2,929,698
6,994 2,809,879
12,940 2,537,513
2,219 2,438,800
4,698 2,351,407
8,433 2,118,069
10,156 2,066,937
92,689 1,641,877
26,460 1,599,814
9,032 1,301,512
2,202 1,201,322
380 1,096,647
1,380 1,039,148
2,168
876,297
3,410
749,578
634
707,579

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (pounds)
27
NJ
572,522
28
CT
530,142
29
MA
467,136
30
OR
449,738
31
NV
336,982
32
WA
338,866
33
UT
220,318
34
MD
225,541
35
NE
197,842
36
AZ
175,633
37
CO
171,688
38
NM
158,597
39
SD
156,905
40
NH
123,183
41
RI
108,911
42
ND
88,554
43
WY
86,961
44
DE
68,620
45
MT
59,139
46
AK
57,402
47
HI
31,863
48
ID
27,193
49
ME
20,682
50
VT
4,509
51
DC
0
National
95,746,866

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
Total
(pounds)
(pounds)
1,682
574,204
250
530,392
178
467,314
6,054
455,792
30,017
366,999
3,930
342,796
6,783
227,101
568
226,109
112
197,954
44
175,677
26
171,714
576
159,173
693
157,598
118
123,301
33
108,944
496
89,050
20
86,981
12,364
80,984
404
59,543
235
57,637
76
31,939
706
27,899
1,457
22,139
271
4,780
0
0
672,889 96,419,755

37

Appendix E. Air and Water Releases of Recognized Reproductive
Toxicants, 2004: By State

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

State
TN
TX
IL
AR
KS
LA
WV
OH
NY
AL
PA
FL
MI
MO
IN
KY
VA
NJ
OK
WI
GA
SC
IA
CA
MS
NC

Total Air
Emissions
(pounds)
18,114,657
4,838,506
3,929,176
1,479,094
1,393,391
1,274,970
741,012
636,324
492,074
443,222
424,530
422,603
387,123
352,081
304,433
289,125
256,627
76,323
181,813
165,414
150,555
132,031
114,113
104,540
90,267
77,407

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
Total
(pounds) (pounds)
10,533 18,125,190
17,520 4,856,026
7,358 3,936,534
2,130 1,481,224
4,399 1,397,790
33,217 1,308,187
23,650
764,662
4,485
640,809
3,268
495,342
11,115
454,337
3,975
428,505
1,664
424,267
4,456
391,579
8,871
360,952
7,687
312,120
3,362
292,487
3,316
259,943
131,130
207,453
352
182,165
1,345
166,759
2,256
152,811
11,159
143,190
5,957
120,070
567
105,107
1,849
92,116
2,232
79,639

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (pounds)
27
WA
64,670
28
UT
51,455
29
NM
47,187
30
ND
38,706
31
AK
32,674
32
MN
29,503
33
WY
32,108
34
CO
30,771
35
MT
26,015
36
AZ
21,018
37
DE
13,225
38
MD
18,042
39
MA
17,029
40
HI
16,559
41
OR
11,454
42
NE
14,151
43
ID
10,676
44
NV
7,878
45
ME
4,878
46
CT
5,567
47
RI
3,380
48
SD
2,308
49
NH
1,913
50
VT
37
51
DC
0
National
37,372,615

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
Total
(pounds)
(pounds)
3,834
68,504
1,523
52,978
571
47,758
485
39,191
196
32,870
3,274
32,777
20
32,128
26
30,797
399
26,414
4
21,022
6,969
20,194
254
18,296
77
17,106
51
16,610
3,116
14,570
110
14,261
686
11,362
0
7,878
1,390
6,268
242
5,809
21
3,401
693
3,001
118
2,031
15
52
0
0
331,927 37,704,542

38

Appendix F. 100 U.S. Zip Codes Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Developmental Toxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Zip
Code
37778
61832
29201
37774
37055
72370
38401
28601
23228
66542
39046
48040
42134
38116
38834
77701
19310
40216
30809
61938
38024
24501
46580
79607
61054
29307
77536
74002
26055
77522
28704
14150
70669
78407
17601
77530
70805
67880
14522
76306
48131
71109
39301
35601
14043
77590
33439
28645
25401
70079
31415

City
LOWLAND
DANVILLE
COLUMBIA
LOUDON
DICKSON
OSCEOLA
COLUMBIA
HICKORY
RICHMOND
TECUMSEH
CANTON
MARYSVILLE
FRANKLIN
MEMPHIS
CORINTH
BEAUMONT
ATGLEN
LOUISVILLE
EVANS
MATTOON
DYERSBURG
LYNCHBURG
WARSAW
DYESS AFB
MOUNT MORRIS
SPARTANBURG
DEER PARK
BARNSDALL
PROCTOR
BAYTOWN
ARDEN
TONAWANDA
WESTLAKE
CORPUS CHRISTI
LANCASTER
CHANNELVIEW
BATON ROUGE
ULYSSES
PALMYRA
WICHITA FALLS
DUNDEE
SHREVEPORT
MERIDIAN
DECATUR
DEPEW
TEXAS CITY
BRYANT
LENOIR
MARTINSBURG
NORCO
SAVANNAH

State
TN
IL
SC
TN
TN
AR
TN
NC
VA
KS
MS
MI
KY
TN
MS
TX
PA
KY
GA
IL
TN
VA
IN
TX
IL
SC
TX
OK
WV
TX
NC
NY
LA
TX
PA
TX
LA
KS
NY
TX
MI
LA
MS
AL
NY
TX
FL
NC
WV
LA
GA

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
14,410,790
3,555,300
2,253,649
2,226,210
1,519,851
1,428,423
1,308,483
1,144,614
1,124,656
1,116,113
1,110,539
1,094,284
1,033,212
954,972
895,066
756,449
742,827
723,266
682,072
661,122
629,456
629,241
566,923
524,904
521,541
513,944
504,156
496,660
486,973
476,802
432,667
421,923
395,369
395,232
391,949
378,191
359,392
359,006
342,388
342,221
334,271
331,230
324,461
322,615
319,367
316,387
315,560
300,114
295,000
290,464
288,510

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Zip
Code
06484
89506
77511
77017
77520
33169
70734
37091
71730
16749
79066
49093
24089
46706
45750
30901
26836
35661
75603
37642
39702
75702
79007
77642
26146
37809
70538
63336
75961
39401
47620
77507
46124
46540
40324
70776
77631
46581
37814
24526
33069
77705
78410
70043
55350
37066
44481
46947
76065

City
SHELTON
RENO
ALVIN
HOUSTON
BAYTOWN
MIAMI
GEISMAR
LEWISBURG
EL DORADO
SMETHPORT
PAMPA
THREE RIVERS
FIELDALE
AUBURN
MARIETTA
AUGUSTA
MOOREFIELD
MUSCLE SHOALS
LONGVIEW
CHURCH HILL
COLUMBUS
TYLER
BORGER
PORT ARTHUR
FRIENDLY
MIDWAY
FRANKLIN/LOUISA
CLARKSVILLE
NACOGDOCHES
HATTIESBURG
MOUNT VERNON
PASADENA
EDINBURGH/CAMP ATTERBURY
MIDDLEBURY
GEORGETOWN
SAINT GABRIEL
ORANGE
WARSAW
MORRISTOWN
BIG ISLAND
POMPANO BEACH
BEAUMONT/CHEEK
CORPUS CHRISTI
CHALMETTE
HUTCHINSON
GALLATIN
WARREN/LORDSTOWN
LOGANSPORT
MIDLOTHIAN

State
CT
NV
TX
TX
TX
FL
LA
TN
AR
PA
TX
MI
VA
IN
OH
GA
WV
AL
TX
TN
MS
TX
TX
TX
WV
TN
LA
MO
TX
MS
IN
TX
IN
IN
KY
LA
TX
IN
TN
VA
FL
TX
TX
LA
MN
TN
OH
IN
TX

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
286,658
286,314
279,151
272,272
267,217
264,255
258,756
254,567
248,855
247,752
245,784
242,938
238,153
237,071
231,705
226,361
217,519
216,599
216,424
209,306
199,228
197,866
195,790
192,450
190,219
189,147
188,064
182,613
182,433
180,185
178,561
178,065
177,739
177,098
172,063
171,773
169,978
168,440
167,471
166,315
165,920
164,757
161,119
155,960
153,302
150,958
150,779
150,258
149,845

39

Appendix G. 100 U.S. Zip Codes Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Reproductive Toxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Zip
Code
37778
61832
37774
72370
38401
66542
79607
26055
14150
67880
77530
77536
33439
35601
79066
77511
70079
48131
70538
77017
77590
24526
77631
79007
77520
44035
63336
77541
08023
77642
77705
26184
75702
79720
77651
75603
70805
77463
77507
78410
70586
77522
70669
70710
77640
33440
15025
77630
52732
40353
43402

City
LOWLAND
DANVILLE
LOUDON
OSCEOLA
COLUMBIA
TECUMSEH
DYESS AFB
PROCTOR
TONAWANDA
ULYSSES
CHANNELVIEW
DEER PARK
BRYANT
DECATUR
PAMPA
ALVIN
NORCO
DUNDEE
FRANKLIN/LOUISA
HOUSTON
TEXAS CITY
BIG ISLAND
ORANGE
BORGER
BAYTOWN
ELYRIA
CLARKSVILLE
FREEPORT/JONES CREEK/CLUTE
DEEPWATER
PORT ARTHUR
BEAUMONT/CHEEK
WAVERLY
TYLER
BIG SPRING
PORT NECHES
LONGVIEW
BATON ROUGE
OLD OCEAN
PASADENA
CORPUS CHRISTI
VILLE PLATTE
BAYTOWN
WESTLAKE
ADDIS
PORT ARTHUR
CLEWISTON
CLAIRTON/JEFFERSON HILLS
ORANGE
CLINTON
MOUNT STERLING
BOWLING GREEN

State
TN
IL
TN
AR
TN
KS
TX
WV
NY
KS
TX
TX
FL
AL
TX
TX
LA
MI
LA
TX
TX
VA
TX
TX
TX
OH
MO
TX
NJ
TX
TX
WV
TX
TX
TX
TX
LA
TX
TX
TX
LA
TX
LA
LA
TX
FL
PA
TX
IA
KY
OH

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
14,410,776
3,555,300
2,226,209
1,428,423
1,308,478
951,849
524,899
486,973
416,892
359,006
340,276
323,715
288,050
274,209
245,776
239,873
239,052
231,924
188,064
187,996
172,488
166,292
162,676
159,513
145,925
144,302
141,293
137,882
136,096
132,164
122,336
120,240
113,802
112,847
106,867
105,909
102,261
102,110
101,420
98,534
95,363
91,496
90,228
89,947
89,336
88,782
88,382
82,068
80,803
77,250
77,065

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

Zip
Code
77641
46304
78403
26037
44004
78407
65440
40216
70734
54981

62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

19061
46402
76065
37138
77701
70037
63629
70043
63048
39581
23692
19145
61350
77506
62084
53044
47586
25112
36505
43512
44481
61537
77503
75706
74501
77592
70721
78071
77978
77632
49707
61846
42029
29492
74820
70765
70057
79008
45714

City
PORT ARTHUR
CHESTERTON/BURNS HARBOR
CORPUS CHRISTI
FOLLANSBEE
ASHTABULA
CORPUS CHRISTI
BOSS
LOUISVILLE
GEISMAR
WAUPACA
MARCUS HOOK/TRAINER/
LINWOOD
GARY
MIDLOTHIAN
OLD HICKORY
BEAUMONT
BELLE CHASSE
BUNKER
CHALMETTE
HERCULANEUM
PASCAGOULA
YORKTOWN/GRAFTON
PHILADELPHIA
OTTAWA
PASADENA
ROXANA
KOHLER
TELL CITY
INSTITUTE
AXIS
DEFIANCE
WARREN/LORDSTOWN
HENRY
PASADENA
TYLER
MC ALESTER
TEXAS CITY
CARVILLE
THREE RIVERS
POINT COMFORT
ORANGE
ALPENA
GEORGETOWN
CALVERT CITY
WANDO
ADA
PLAQUEMINE
HAHNVILLE/TAFT
BORGER
BELPRE

State
TX
IN
TX
WV
OH
TX
MO
KY
LA
WI
PA
IN
TX
TN
TX
LA
MO
LA
MO
MS
VA
PA
IL
TX
IL
WI
IN
WV
AL
OH
OH
IL
TX
TX
OK
TX
LA
TX
TX
TX
MI
IL
KY
SC
OK
LA
LA
TX
OH

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
76,695
73,666
72,304
71,148
70,213
66,864
66,138
65,363
65,273
62,592
61,793
60,585
59,870
59,829
59,010
58,883
53,893
53,625
53,045
51,902
51,602
51,234
50,665
49,738
49,590
49,527
49,400
48,891
47,509
46,588
45,435
43,214
42,794
42,746
42,680
42,631
41,252
41,119
39,685
39,634
38,598
38,211
34,471
34,450
34,426
34,249
34,143
33,712
32,215

40

Appendix H. 100 U.S. Counties Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Developmental Toxicants, 2004

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

County
HAMBLEN
VERMILION
HARRIS
RICHLAND
LOUDON
DICKSON
MISSISSIPPI
JEFFERSON
MAURY
CATAWBA
SHELBY
HENRICO
SHAWNEE
MADISON
ST CLAIR
SIMPSON
ALCORN
JEFFERSON
ERIE
CHESTER
NUECES
KOSCIUSKO
COLUMBIA
SPARTANBURG
LYNCHBURG CITY
COLES
DYER
ELKHART
BRAZORIA
HENRY
OGLE
TAYLOR
MARSHALL
OSAGE
BUNCOMBE
CALCASIEU
LANCASTER
GALVESTON
EAST BATON ROUGE
MONROE
ST CHARLES
CALDWELL
LOS ANGELES
CADDO
DALLAS
GRANT
COOK
LAUDERDALE
WICHITA
WAYNE
MORGAN

State
TN
IL
TX
SC
TN
TN
AR
TX
TN
NC
TN
VA
KS
MS
MI
KY
MS
KY
NY
PA
TX
IN
GA
SC
VA
IL
TN
IN
TX
VA
IL
TX
WV
OK
NC
LA
PA
TX
LA
MI
LA
NC
CA
LA
TX
KS
IL
MS
TX
NY
AL

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
14,578,261
3,621,127
2,346,750
2,258,044
2,226,212
1,519,851
1,430,888
1,390,937
1,335,292
1,174,320
1,159,282
1,124,715
1,116,124
1,110,679
1,098,133
1,033,212
895,066
839,206
830,597
797,278
738,796
735,407
682,072
678,668
670,790
661,122
631,927
629,711
574,340
529,633
528,013
524,904
497,177
496,660
433,528
433,231
425,852
410,072
391,265
384,420
379,881
377,677
374,179
367,454
366,908
359,006
356,175
348,064
344,479
342,403
326,618

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

County
MC KEAN
ORANGE
IBERVILLE
PALM BEACH
HUTCHINSON
FAIRFIELD
CHATHAM
BERKELEY
DE KALB
WASHOE
MIAMI-DADE
WASHINGTON
HARRISON
ALLEGHENY
ASCENSION
MARSHALL
UNION
GRAY
COLBERT
MIDDLESEX
ST JOSEPH
SMITH
RICHMOND
WAYNE
HARDY
LOWNDES
GREENE
HAWKINS
MIDDLESEX
ST MARY
JOHNSON
GASTON
NEWPORT NEWS CITY
TYLER
BROWARD
MARION
PIKE
NACOGDOCHES
FORREST
TRUMBULL
POSEY
ALLEN
ST BERNARD
OAKLAND
KENT
YORK
PLEASANTS
SEDGWICK
SCOTT

State
PA
TX
LA
FL
TX
CT
GA
WV
IN
NV
FL
OH
TX
PA
LA
TN
AR
TX
AL
NJ
MI
TX
GA
MI
WV
MS
TN
TN
MA
LA
IN
NC
VA
WV
FL
IN
MO
TX
MS
OH
IN
OH
LA
MI
MI
PA
WV
KS
KY

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
326,530
326,003
316,878
315,798
313,126
305,736
296,332
295,001
288,441
286,672
282,318
268,326
265,893
265,350
258,760
254,567
248,871
246,237
246,005
244,842
242,965
240,659
228,695
225,082
217,519
214,311
211,741
210,293
208,670
206,417
200,097
197,959
190,777
190,219
185,976
184,481
182,673
182,433
180,316
179,732
178,561
176,501
176,368
175,492
174,807
173,821
172,281
172,143
172,063

41

Appendix I. 100 U.S. Counties Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Reproductive Toxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

County
HAMBLEN
VERMILION
LOUDON
MISSISSIPPI
HARRIS
MAURY
SHAWNEE
JEFFERSON
TAYLOR
MARSHALL
BRAZORIA
ERIE
GRANT
ST CHARLES
PALM BEACH
ORANGE
MORGAN
NUECES
GRAY
MONROE
GALVESTON
ST MARY
HUTCHINSON
BEDFORD
SMITH
LORAIN
PIKE
SALEM
CALCASIEU
PLEASANTS
EAST BATON ROUGE
ALLEGHENY
HOWARD
HARRISON
WEST BATON ROUGE
EVANGELINE
HENDRY
IBERVILLE
JEFFERSON
LAKE
MADISON
CLINTON
WOOD
MONTGOMERY
PORTER
BROOKE
ASHTABULA
IRON
ASCENSION
DELAWARE
REYNOLDS

State
TN
IL
TN
AR
TX
TN
KS
TX
TX
WV
TX
NY
KS
LA
FL
TX
AL
TX
TX
MI
TX
LA
TX
VA
TX
OH
MO
NJ
LA
WV
LA
PA
TX
TX
LA
LA
FL
LA
KY
IN
IL
IA
OH
KY
IN
WV
OH
MO
LA
PA
MO

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
14,410,776
3,593,888
2,226,211
1,429,962
1,351,884
1,309,932
951,860
588,806
524,899
494,578
489,610
422,397
359,006
297,427
288,288
285,062
274,651
253,922
246,229
233,019
215,374
206,417
193,225
166,292
156,549
148,553
141,343
136,154
124,039
120,637
120,473
117,034
112,847
106,413
105,225
95,363
88,782
87,815
87,807
84,995
80,998
80,863
77,441
77,250
74,577
71,149
70,236
66,138
65,276
63,999
63,266

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

County
WAUPACA
ST BERNARD
ELLIS
DAVIDSON
PLAQUEMINES
MOBILE
LOS ANGELES
WAYNE
JEFFERSON
JACKSON
PHILADELPHIA
YORK
TRUMBULL
LA SALLE
CALHOUN
KANAWHA
SHEBOYGAN
PERRY
DEFIANCE
BOYD
MARSHALL
PITTSBURG
WILL
LIVE OAK
JEFFERSON
BERKELEY
RICHMOND
ALPENA
GLOUCESTER
WASHINGTON
MARSHALL
PONTOTOC
MARION
LUCAS
SALT LAKE
MORTON
VICTORIA
MC MINN
CUYAHOGA
ST LAWRENCE
ORANGEBURG
MARINETTE
KAY
BUTLER
MOORE
ST JOHN THE BAPTIST
SULLIVAN
TULSA
BARTOW

State
WI
LA
TX
TN
LA
AL
CA
MI
MO
MS
PA
VA
OH
IL
TX
WV
WI
IN
OH
KY
IL
OK
IL
TX
AL
SC
GA
MI
NJ
OH
KY
OK
IN
OH
UT
ND
TX
TN
OH
NY
SC
WI
OK
PA
TX
LA
TN
OK
GA

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
62,594
62,181
60,326
60,115
58,944
54,889
54,292
53,775
53,774
52,013
51,718
51,602
51,410
51,243
50,506
50,274
49,973
49,400
46,590
45,879
43,214
42,680
41,375
41,119
40,678
39,844
39,552
38,598
35,005
34,813
34,475
34,426
33,281
32,807
31,396
30,780
30,406
29,641
29,345
28,883
28,380
28,320
28,235
28,078
27,868
27,645
26,889
26,634
25,714

42

Appendix J. Air and Water Releases of Suspected Neurotoxicants,
2004: By State

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (pounds)
1
TX
73,076,723
2
TN
52,011,756
3
GA
45,646,927
4
LA
45,916,257
5
OH 42,767,562
6
SC
32,887,312
7
AL
34,264,640
8
NC
34,217,139
9
IL
32,715,557
10
IN
30,352,468
11
FL
26,649,428
12
VA
26,376,235
13
MS
23,525,548
14
IA
22,575,345
15
KY
22,098,060
16
PA
21,741,816
17
MI
21,158,834
18
AR
19,702,941
19
MO 20,098,727
20
CA
15,735,587
21
OK 14,212,450
22
WI
13,185,508
23
OR
11,919,902
24
WV 10,416,257
25
MN 10,797,724
26
KS
10,953,359

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
(pounds)
3,140,585
1,405,162
1,787,607
1,464,655
648,169
6,213,447
2,102,890
635,978
258,542
1,151,159
422,014
376,671
448,052
228,570
423,410
360,496
356,347
814,476
126,826
2,219,661
186,700
310,407
347,205
930,043
285,403
8,637

Total
(pounds)
76,217,308
53,416,918
47,434,534
47,380,912
43,415,731
39,100,759
36,367,530
34,853,117
32,974,099
31,503,627
27,071,442
26,752,906
23,973,600
22,803,915
22,521,470
22,102,312
21,515,181
20,517,417
20,225,553
17,955,248
14,399,150
13,495,915
12,267,107
11,346,300
11,083,127
10,961,996

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State
(pounds)
27
WA
9,113,976
28
NY
9,489,542
29
NE
8,983,004
30
MD
6,839,745
31
UT
6,124,502
32
ME
4,748,872
33
NJ
4,546,557
34
ID
4,096,123
35
MT
3,731,916
36
MA
2,798,158
37
AZ
2,696,188
38
ND
2,301,737
39
CO
2,226,283
40
CT
2,052,690
41
DE
1,767,071
42
AK
1,521,671
43
WY
1,658,781
44
SD
1,645,134
45
NV
1,248,969
46
NH
1,209,026
47
NM
763,228
48
RI
422,666
49
HI
309,039
50
VT
49,075
51
DC
3,428
National
795,351,443

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
Total
(pounds)
(pounds)
1,285,960
10,399,936
358,998
9,848,540
45,569
9,028,573
155,065
6,994,810
12,113
6,136,615
683,953
5,432,825
463,640
5,010,197
310,176
4,406,299
41,844
3,773,760
10,611
2,808,769
6,281
2,702,469
31,721
2,333,458
33,592
2,259,875
49,072
2,101,762
243,377
2,010,448
354,468
1,876,139
4,928
1,663,709
899
1,646,033
45,940
1,294,909
75,766
1,284,792
3,063
766,291
1,676
424,342
1,477
310,516
5,323
54,398
5,742
9,170
30,884,366 826,235,809

43

Appendix K. 100 U.S. Zip Codes Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Suspected Neurotoxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Zip
Code
37778
77590
44004
70346
51054
29445
68310
71052
28456
30901
71601
61832
75572
84029
31515
29506
70805
23860
63937
62526
24426
74019
98632
30165
29440
36470
39815
42029
35601
45802
23851
33830
54494
73701
37134
30906
70734
75603
32034
21226
37774
52732
52627
77541
40216
36426
95564
43512
32533
37662
74764

City
LOWLAND
TEXAS CITY
ASHTABULA
DONALDSONVILLE
SERGEANT BLUFF
MOUNT HOLLY/GOOSE CREEK
BEATRICE
MANSFIELD
RIEGELWOOD
AUGUSTA
PINE BLUFF
DANVILLE
QUEEN CITY
GRANTSVILLE/ROWLEY
JESUP
FLORENCE
BATON ROUGE
HOPEWELL
ELLSINORE
DECATUR
COVINGTON
CLAREMORE
LONGVIEW
ROME
GEORGETOWN
PERDUE HILL
ATTAPULGUS
CALVERT CITY
DECATUR
LIMA
FRANKLIN
BARTOW
WISCONSIN RAPIDS
ENID
NEW JOHNSONVILLE
AUGUSTA
GEISMAR
LONGVIEW
FERNANDINA BEACH
BALTIMORE/CURTIS BAY
LOUDON
CLINTON
FORT MADISON
FREEPORT/JONES CREEK/CLUTE
LOUISVILLE
BREWTON
SAMOA
DEFIANCE
CANTONMENT
KINGSPORT
VALLIANT

State
TN
TX
OH
LA
IA
SC
NE
LA
NC
GA
AR
IL
TX
UT
GA
SC
LA
VA
MO
IL
VA
OK
WA
GA
SC
AL
GA
KY
AL
OH
VA
FL
WI
OK
TN
GA
LA
TX
FL
MD
TN
IA
IA
TX
KY
AL
CA
OH
FL
TN
OK

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
14,463,493
7,292,059
6,952,997
6,935,633
6,791,533
6,245,054
4,881,133
4,748,082
4,703,218
4,655,458
4,610,770
4,397,460
4,372,316
4,034,429
3,863,929
3,693,281
3,576,343
3,515,808
3,431,376
3,414,179
3,331,000
3,287,303
3,265,304
3,218,901
3,133,189
3,100,885
3,067,885
2,993,683
2,805,774
2,785,622
2,776,052
2,761,564
2,753,216
2,727,855
2,709,669
2,683,454
2,637,720
2,609,001
2,579,715
2,568,219
2,564,318
2,535,187
2,507,954
2,505,716
2,456,796
2,391,290
2,348,917
2,331,652
2,323,288
2,318,152
2,302,263

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Zip
Code
29201
28716
39654
70669
39832
29406
38310
45750
31601
71220
67801
77571
32177
77701
94553
39046
28586
70663
77520
77705
31415
47629
70634
47620
97051
77536
70086
38326
36769
64119
37167
48131
39462
77631
32402
71630
70427
59802
39156
23181
32347
39567
71901
36851
99611
61025
37055
35618
77530

City
COLUMBIA
CANTON
MONTICELLO
WESTLAKE
CEDAR SPRINGS
NORTH CHARLESTON
ADAMSVILLE
MARIETTA
VALDOSTA/CLYATTVILLE
BASTROP
DODGE CITY
LA PORTE
PALATKA
BEAUMONT
MARTINEZ
CANTON
VANCEBORO
SULPHUR
BAYTOWN
BEAUMONT/CHEEK
SAVANNAH
NEWBURGH
DERIDDER
MOUNT VERNON
SAINT HELENS
DEER PARK
SAINT JAMES
COUNCE
PINE HILL
CLAYCOMO
SMYRNA
DUNDEE
NEW AUGUSTA
ORANGE
PANAMA CITY
ARKANSAS CITY
BOGALUSA
MISSOULA
REDWOOD
WEST POINT
PERRY
PASCAGOULA
HOT SPRINGS
COTTONTON
KENAI
EAST DUBUQUE
DICKSON
COURTLAND
CHANNELVIEW

State
SC
NC
MS
LA
GA
SC
TN
OH
GA
LA
KS
TX
FL
TX
CA
MS
NC
LA
TX
TX
GA
IN
LA
IN
OR
TX
LA
TN
AL
MO
TN
MI
MS
TX
FL
AR
LA
MT
MS
VA
FL
MS
AR
AL
AK
IL
TN
AL
TX

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
2,294,687
2,293,821
2,280,176
2,264,804
2,246,508
2,208,562
2,165,621
2,138,718
2,108,395
2,095,065
2,036,197
2,013,412
1,986,585
1,954,379
1,954,368
1,949,833
1,942,771
1,871,955
1,870,940
1,867,002
1,856,978
1,841,409
1,825,145
1,814,407
1,791,479
1,785,563
1,773,454
1,748,763
1,746,748
1,726,556
1,723,727
1,705,956
1,704,484
1,701,442
1,689,517
1,683,659
1,682,233
1,666,297
1,664,143
1,662,242
1,653,319
1,646,127
1,637,897
1,629,605
1,622,968
1,616,863
1,590,981
1,585,653
1,575,443

44

Appendix L. 100 U.S. Counties Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Suspected Neurotoxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

County
HAMBLEN
HARRIS
ASCENSION
GALVESTON
BERKELEY
RICHMOND
ASHTABULA
JEFFERSON
WOODBURY
LOS ANGELES
JEFFERSON
HUMPHREYS
GAGE
EAST BATON ROUGE
VERMILION
COLUMBUS
DE SOTO
CALCASIEU
JEFFERSON
SHELBY
CASS
BRAZORIA
POLK
TOOELE
ORANGE
RICHLAND
ELKHART
FLORENCE
WAYNE
COOK
MORGAN
WOOD
MACON
CHATHAM
HOPEWELL CITY
FLOYD
ALLEN
CARTER
ROGERS
COWLITZ
WAYNE
NASSAU
COVINGTON CITY
MONROE
JACKSON
GEORGETOWN
BALTIMORE CITY
WASHINGTON
DECATUR
SULLIVAN
MARSHALL

State
TN
TX
LA
TX
SC
GA
OH
TX
IA
CA
AR
TN
NE
LA
IL
NC
LA
LA
KY
TN
TX
TX
FL
UT
TX
SC
IN
SC
GA
IL
AL
WI
IL
GA
VA
GA
OH
MO
OK
WA
MI
FL
VA
AL
MS
SC
MD
OH
GA
TN
KY

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
14,702,488
14,231,090
9,705,246
8,717,524
7,506,926
7,339,191
7,142,731
7,089,354
7,037,963
5,214,571
5,102,041
4,986,947
4,881,133
4,861,928
4,823,500
4,782,051
4,775,248
4,771,396
4,747,848
4,585,412
4,372,328
4,179,426
4,078,549
4,034,763
4,024,714
3,971,167
3,938,970
3,933,525
3,880,219
3,830,120
3,806,697
3,662,266
3,612,334
3,546,361
3,515,693
3,457,199
3,442,179
3,431,376
3,430,701
3,379,981
3,357,501
3,352,735
3,331,000
3,282,036
3,255,259
3,133,190
3,097,865
3,091,327
3,072,332
3,071,909
2,993,687

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

County
HARRISON
MONROE
ISLE OF WIGHT
ESCAMBIA
CHARLESTON
CONTRA COSTA
GARFIELD
JEFFERSON
LEE
LOUDON
MC CURTAIN
CLINTON
CALHOUN
LICKING
HUMBOLDT
ALLEGHENY
ESCAMBIA
CALHOUN
BAY
DEFIANCE
IBERVILLE
NUECES
ST CHARLES
COLBERT
HAYWOOD
LAWRENCE
CATAWBA
WARREN
EARLY
UNION
MCNAIRY
LOWNDES
MISSISSIPPI
RUSSELL
LOWNDES
MOREHOUSE
CRAVEN
ST JAMES
PUTNAM
HARDIN
FORD
GLYNN
OAKLAND
RUTHERFORD
LINN
MADISON
YORK
LANE
HARRISON

State
TX
MI
VA
FL
SC
CA
OK
AL
IA
TN
OK
IA
TX
OH
CA
PA
AL
SC
FL
OH
LA
TX
LA
AL
NC
MS
NC
MS
GA
OH
TN
MS
AR
AL
GA
LA
NC
LA
FL
TN
KS
GA
MI
TN
OR
MS
SC
OR
MS

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(pounds)
2,963,472
2,878,742
2,791,898
2,781,263
2,767,853
2,756,035
2,727,855
2,677,091
2,644,610
2,607,810
2,591,461
2,535,995
2,529,941
2,525,779
2,443,450
2,425,943
2,391,370
2,380,599
2,344,763
2,331,654
2,312,425
2,308,806
2,304,927
2,297,691
2,293,821
2,280,183
2,277,971
2,250,995
2,246,508
2,208,025
2,165,621
2,133,077
2,115,759
2,110,570
2,108,755
2,095,065
2,087,418
2,070,525
2,041,371
2,040,707
2,036,197
2,022,030
2,004,906
1,988,825
1,981,562
1,953,806
1,934,243
1,933,688
1,916,664

45

Appendix M. Air Releases of Suspected Respiratory Toxicants, 2004:
By State

Rank State
1
OH
2
NC
3
TN
4
TX
5
PA
6
GA
7
FL
8
IN
9
WV
10
KY
11
SC
12
LA
13
IL
14
AL
15
MI
16
VA
17
MD
18
MS
19
IA
20
MO
21
NY
22
AR
23
WI
24
CA
25
OK
26
OR

Total Air
Emissions
(pounds)
116,946,061
99,151,657
90,886,174
89,551,196
86,166,871
86,018,217
71,732,901
69,213,183
67,462,213
58,201,781
53,833,882
51,726,808
51,390,003
51,017,194
47,385,163
45,911,573
32,647,236
31,295,706
27,638,474
25,389,668
22,100,072
21,611,950
19,078,998
17,207,357
15,431,081
12,499,164

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State
(pounds)
27
KS
12,256,702
28
MN
11,898,443
29
WA
11,712,062
30
NJ
11,435,560
31
NE
10,520,352
32
UT
9,682,475
33
DE
7,540,269
34
MA
5,911,189
35
ME
5,394,464
36
ND
4,546,642
37
NH
4,531,690
38
ID
4,296,733
39
MT
4,250,357
40
AZ
4,248,933
41
CO
2,862,040
42
HI
2,343,006
43
WY
2,263,701
44
CT
2,259,767
45
NV
1,742,951
46
SD
1,704,384
47
AK
1,630,231
48
NM
984,354
49
RI
418,133
50
VT
50,727
51
DC
3,429
National
1,485,983,177

46

Appendix N. 100 U.S. Zip Codes Reporting the Most Air Releases of
Suspected Respiratory Toxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Zip
Code
37134
15774
25213
30120
37778
26041
27009
28682
45144
25265
27343
34428
21226
43961
30170
43913
37050
45620
47670
31061
45715
48161
77590
51054
32514
41045
15461
70346
15748
20664
28012
41230
45052
42337
26541
29440
43811
32409
32177
47629
37748
17821
17370
29044
84029
15944
30165
71052
39735
28456
68310

City
NEW JOHNSONVILLE
SHELOCTA
WINFIELD
CARTERSVILLE
LOWLAND
MOUNDSVILLE
BELEWS CREEK
TERRELL
MANCHESTER
NEW HAVEN
SEMORA
CRYSTAL RIVER
BALTIMORE/CURTIS BAY
STRATTON
ROOPVILLE
BRILLIANT
CUMBERLAND CITY
CHESHIRE
PRINCETON
MILLEDGEVILLE
BEVERLY
MONROE
TEXAS CITY
SERGEANT BLUFF
PENSACOLA
GHENT
MASONTOWN
DONALDSONVILLE
HOMER CITY
NEWBURG
BELMONT
LOUISA
NORTH BEND
DRAKESBORO
MAIDSVILLE/EVERETTVILLE
GEORGETOWN
CONESVILLE
SOUTHPORT
PALATKA
NEWBURGH
HARRIMAN
DANVILLE
YORK HAVEN
EASTOVER
GRANTSVILLE/ROWLEY
NEW FLORENCE
ROME
MANSFIELD
ACKERMAN
RIEGELWOOD
BEATRICE

State
TN
PA
WV
GA
TN
WV
NC
NC
OH
WV
NC
FL
MD
OH
GA
OH
TN
OH
IN
GA
OH
MI
TX
IA
FL
KY
PA
LA
PA
MD
NC
KY
OH
KY
WV
SC
OH
FL
FL
IN
TN
PA
PA
SC
UT
PA
GA
LA
MS
NC
NE

Total Air
Emissions
(pounds)
17,185,681
16,403,890
15,708,386
15,476,036
14,769,926
14,312,502
13,661,597
13,571,617
12,977,392
12,526,073
12,160,544
11,960,774
11,817,842
11,729,787
10,377,850
10,049,602
9,984,805
9,474,147
8,679,874
8,678,131
8,638,437
7,531,571
7,460,286
7,247,509
7,025,872
7,011,109
6,869,976
6,847,847
6,721,953
6,480,304
6,279,138
6,278,862
6,278,293
6,137,785
6,105,916
6,024,390
5,875,052
5,851,790
5,831,584
5,728,528
5,706,867
5,645,152
5,574,143
5,440,215
5,248,250
5,219,545
5,201,216
5,082,654
5,036,140
4,923,318
4,895,989

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Zip
Code
45157
23836
30901
71601
20608
61832
62017
41056
75572
32226
70805
49460
24426
29506
27574
23860
47025
35186
62526
19966
42348
28401
47928
20842
07306
31515
35601
28114
63937
98632
37716
37662
23851
44095
29445
47150
47250
74019
35580
32034
52732
45750
75603
16201
39815
42029
40330
16873
15144

City
NEW RICHMOND
CHESTER
AUGUSTA
PINE BLUFF
AQUASCO
DANVILLE
COFFEEN
MAYSVILLE
QUEEN CITY
JACKSONVILLE
BATON ROUGE
WEST OLIVE
COVINGTON
FLORENCE
ROXBORO
HOPEWELL
LAWRENCEBURG/GREENDALE
WILSONVILLE
DECATUR
MILLSBORO
HAWESVILLE
WILMINGTON
CAYUGA
DICKERSON
JERSEY CITY
JESUP
DECATUR
MOORESBORO
ELLSINORE
LONGVIEW
CLINTON
KINGSPORT
FRANKLIN
EASTLAKE
MOUNT HOLLY/GOOSE CREEK
NEW ALBANY
MADISON
CLAREMORE
PARRISH
FERNANDINA BEACH
CLINTON
MARIETTA
LONGVIEW
KITTANNING
ATTAPULGUS
CALVERT CITY
HARRODSBURG
SHAWVILLE
SPRINGDALE

State
OH
VA
GA
AR
MD
IL
IL
KY
TX
FL
LA
MI
VA
SC
NC
VA
IN
AL
IL
DE
KY
NC
IN
MD
NJ
GA
AL
NC
MO
WA
TN
TN
VA
OH
SC
IN
IN
OK
AL
FL
IA
OH
TX
PA
GA
KY
KY
PA
PA

Total Air
Emissions
(pounds)
4,870,835
4,785,337
4,663,723
4,563,572
4,547,584
4,515,033
4,511,880
4,454,679
4,453,511
4,390,622
4,346,953
4,300,126
4,185,458
4,117,400
4,112,488
4,064,790
3,965,792
3,959,130
3,921,676
3,918,683
3,898,896
3,831,483
3,794,973
3,661,598
3,623,418
3,615,935
3,578,071
3,560,855
3,431,376
3,407,948
3,401,043
3,392,628
3,352,926
3,343,537
3,342,639
3,325,634
3,288,579
3,276,081
3,235,443
3,220,527
3,182,220
3,134,628
3,125,469
3,110,625
3,059,576
3,057,576
3,051,986
2,989,270
2,985,206

47

Appendix O. 100 U.S. Counties Reporting the Most Air Releases of
Suspected Respiratory Toxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

County
JEFFERSON
ARMSTRONG
HUMPHREYS
HARRIS
PERSON
MARSHALL
PUTNAM
BARTOW
CATAWBA
HAMBLEN
STOKES
ADAMS
MASON
BALTIMORE CITY
CITRUS
INDIANA
WASHINGTON
MONROE
HEARD
STEWART
ASCENSION
GALLIA
ESCAMBIA
GALVESTON
GASTON
GIBSON
PUTNAM
BAY
JEFFERSON
WOODBURY
RICHLAND
YORK
HAMILTON
RICHMOND
CARROLL
SHELBY
BERKELEY
WAYNE
GREENE
DUVAL
MUHLENBERG
CHARLES
JEFFERSON
COSHOCTON
LAWRENCE
MONONGALIA
GEORGETOWN
VERMILION
WARRICK
PUTNAM
CLERMONT

State
OH
PA
TN
TX
NC
WV
WV
GA
NC
TN
NC
OH
WV
MD
FL
PA
OH
MI
GA
TN
LA
OH
FL
TX
NC
IN
GA
FL
TX
IA
SC
PA
OH
GA
KY
TN
SC
MI
PA
FL
KY
MD
KY
OH
KY
WV
SC
IL
IN
FL
OH

Total Air
Emissions
(pounds)
21,850,211
19,514,515
18,805,656
17,672,267
16,396,477
16,017,366
15,716,564
15,660,124
15,016,129
15,009,961
13,664,898
12,977,392
12,659,702
12,349,782
12,127,099
11,941,498
11,931,256
11,604,377
10,377,850
9,984,805
9,573,764
9,474,647
9,260,540
9,229,221
8,874,420
8,683,717
8,563,051
8,377,691
8,112,647
7,889,087
7,875,688
7,467,192
7,360,347
7,320,454
7,097,269
7,032,506
7,002,088
6,984,390
6,924,640
6,858,221
6,512,853
6,481,930
6,316,384
6,292,872
6,278,862
6,116,646
6,024,714
5,961,837
5,917,853
5,886,370
5,815,137

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

County
ROANE
CHESTERFIELD
MONTOUR
EAST BATON ROUGE
FLOYD
CALCASIEU
ALLEGHENY
JEFFERSON
TOOELE
COOK
LOS ANGELES
DE SOTO
OTTAWA
CHOCTAW
POLK
COLUMBUS
GAGE
MORGAN
PRINCE GEORGES
MONTGOMERY
MASON
CASS
BRAZORIA
FLORENCE
SHELBY
MACON
SUSSEX
DEARBORN
LAKE
COVINGTON CITY
MONROE
PEORIA
SULLIVAN
WOOD
VERMILLION
HOPEWELL CITY
NEW HANOVER
JACKSON
HANCOCK
NASSAU
ELKHART
COLBERT
HARRISON
NORTHAMPTON
ALLEN
HUDSON
ORANGE
RUTHERFORD
MONTGOMERY

State
TN
VA
PA
LA
GA
LA
PA
AR
UT
IL
CA
LA
MI
MS
FL
NC
NE
AL
MD
IL
KY
TX
TX
SC
AL
IL
DE
IN
OH
VA
NY
IL
TN
WI
IN
VA
NC
MS
KY
FL
IN
AL
TX
PA
OH
NJ
TX
NC
MD

Total Air
Emissions
(pounds)
5,712,127
5,709,240
5,645,152
5,616,248
5,449,363
5,405,489
5,402,060
5,253,925
5,249,077
5,241,848
5,190,933
5,109,771
5,063,441
5,036,140
5,002,297
5,002,094
4,895,989
4,602,863
4,551,892
4,518,941
4,454,679
4,453,511
4,449,368
4,345,535
4,333,556
4,296,072
4,289,294
4,258,237
4,218,884
4,185,458
4,144,575
4,141,500
4,126,108
4,116,611
4,076,443
4,063,817
4,029,927
4,006,943
3,945,329
3,944,962
3,944,696
3,810,572
3,809,877
3,790,383
3,693,514
3,686,974
3,674,062
3,664,226
3,662,099

48

Appendix P. Air and Water Releases of Dioxins, 2004: By State

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (grams)
1
TX
87.44
2
LA
49.46
3
AL
42.05
4
NH
153.79
5
AR
26.76
6
KS
69.19
7
FL
58.86
8
IN
60.97
9
MS
13.50
10
PA
49.91
11
IL
43.48
12
TN
32.36
13
OH
39.61
14
KY
35.86
15
NY
30.32
16
MO
30.31
17
NJ
31.64
18
SC
29.16
19
VA
27.17
20
GA
24.52
21
WI
28.84
22
WV
13.97
23
NC
21.94
24
WA
15.80
25
CA
16.37
26
MI
16.13

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions Total
(grams) (grams)
751.81
839.24
365.28
414.74
124.19
166.24
0.00
153.79
53.55
80.31
0.00
69.19
3.29
62.15
0.02
60.99
46.47
59.97
0.91
50.82
0.04
43.52
8.32
40.68
0.42
40.03
0.02
35.89
4.64
34.96
3.15
33.46
0.18
31.82
1.28
30.44
2.28
29.45
4.63
29.14
0.05
28.89
14.25
28.21
2.69
24.63
8.33
24.13
1.55
17.92
1.57
17.70

Total Air
Emissions
Rank State (grams)
27
IA
17.05
28
MD
15.86
29
AZ
13.34
30
MA
13.09
31
UT
11.69
32
NV
9.84
33
OK
9.18
34
WY
9.44
35
OR
8.24
36
MN
8.74
37
AK
8.18
38
ME
7.15
39
ND
7.02
40
MT
5.67
41
CO
5.54
42
SD
5.52
43
CT
5.44
44
ID
1.06
45
DE
4.25
46
HI
4.39
47
NM
2.96
48
NE
2.53
49
DC
0.00
49
RI
0.00
49
VT
0.00
National
1,225.59

Total
Surface
Water
Emissions
(grams)
0.00
0.22
0.00
0.17
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.00
0.68
0.00
0.00
0.99
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.00
0.06
4.18
0.32
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1,405.84

Total
(grams)
17.05
16.08
13.34
13.26
11.69
9.84
9.46
9.44
8.92
8.74
8.18
8.14
7.02
5.67
5.57
5.52
5.50
5.24
4.57
4.39
2.96
2.53
0.00
0.00
0.00
2,631.43

49

Appendix Q. 100 U.S. Zip Codes Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Dioxins, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Zip
Code
77541
70765
77571
03576
35035
67215
71822
70669
38960
36543
70057
08862
46304
70805
26155
29448
78112
46402
77015
62539
54603
36427
71635
99752
14652
08871
71601
39577
32226
37134
46312
17929
77536
60450
23692
32177
36610
36916
61021
65440
85938
11768
44446
83501
78012
36079
34956
71730
02726
21703
37662

City
FREEPORT
PLAQUEMINE
LA PORTE
DIXVILLE NOTCH
BRIERFIELD
WICHITA
ASHDOWN
WESTLAKE
GRENADA
HUXFORD
HAHNVILLE
PERTH AMBOY
CHESTERTON/BURNS HARBOR
BATON ROUGE
NEW MARTINSVILLE
HARLEYVILLE
ELMENDORF
GARY
HOUSTON
ILLIOPOLIS
LA CROSSE
BREWTON
CROSSETT
KOTZEBUE
ROCHESTER
SAYREVILLE
PINE BLUFF
WIGGINS
JACKSONVILLE
NEW JOHNSONVILLE
EAST CHICAGO
CRESSONA
DEER PARK
MORRIS
YORKTOWN/GRAFTON
PALATKA
MOBILE
PENNINGTON
DIXON
BOSS
SPRINGERVILLE
NORTHPORT
NILES
LEWISTON
CHRISTINE
TROY
INDIANTOWN
EL DORADO
SOMERSET
FREDERICK
KINGSPORT

State
TX
LA
TX
NH
AL
KS
AR
LA
MS
AL
LA
NJ
IN
LA
WV
SC
TX
IN
TX
IL
WI
AL
AR
AK
NY
NJ
AR
MS
FL
TN
IN
PA
TX
IL
VA
FL
AL
AL
IL
MO
AZ
NY
OH
ID
TX
AL
FL
AR
MA
MD
TN

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(grams)
525.37
298.47
239.37
151.27
74.97
57.01
43.77
43.24
36.77
27.85
22.00
19.00
17.80
17.00
15.10
11.46
9.29
8.63
8.42
8.30
8.07
7.93
7.67
7.53
7.13
7.00
6.80
6.56
6.54
6.50
6.39
6.00
5.94
5.85
5.59
5.34
5.33
5.20
5.11
5.00
4.94
4.90
4.80
4.78
4.67
4.63
4.57
4.47
4.44
4.39
4.29

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
80
82
83
84
85
86
87
87
87
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
98
100

Zip
Code
71836
98106
70791
75572
34219
23004
59323
37660
75074
37050
70734
52761
62217
15077
23851
63336
43512
27107
82201
36769
71360
29440
32831
57702
34691
84078
24175
36426
84029
98632
39358
12550
85654
33316
97818
63866
11101
78359
14012
66536
02563
21226
70764
71052
30901
45620
42337
27343
34428

City
FOREMAN
SEATTLE
ZACHARY
QUEEN CITY
PARRISH
ARVONIA
COLSTRIP
KINGSPORT
PLANO
CUMBERLAND CITY
GEISMAR
MUSCATINE
BALDWIN
SHIPPINGPORT
FRANKLIN
CLARKSVILLE
DEFIANCE
WINSTON-SALEM
WHEATLAND
PINE HILL
PINEVILLE
GEORGETOWN
ORLANDO
RAPID CITY
HOLIDAY
VERNAL
TROUTVILLE
BREWTON
GRANTSVILLE/ROWLEY
LONGVIEW
SCOOBA
NEWBURGH
RILLITO
FORT LAUDERDALE
BOARDMAN
MARSTON
LONG ISLAND CITY
GREGORY
BARKER
SAINT MARYS
SANDWICH
BALTIMORE
PLAQUEMINE
MANSFIELD
AUGUSTA
CHESHIRE
DRAKESBORO
SEMORA
CRYSTAL RIVER

State
AR
WA
LA
TX
FL
VA
MT
TN
TX
TN
LA
IA
IL
PA
VA
MO
OH
NC
WY
AL
LA
SC
FL
SD
FL
UT
VA
AL
UT
WA
MS
NY
AZ
FL
OR
MO
NY
TX
NY
KS
MA
MD
LA
LA
GA
OH
KY
NC
FL

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(grams)
4.16
4.16
4.13
4.09
4.08
4.04
4.00
3.95
3.92
3.92
3.85
3.83
3.81
3.63
3.63
3.61
3.60
3.58
3.58
3.57
3.57
3.54
3.50
3.48
3.40
3.40
3.39
3.35
3.26
3.26
3.26
3.23
3.23
3.22
3.21
3.20
3.20
3.20
3.19
3.18
3.18
3.15
3.14
3.13
3.11
3.09
3.08
3.08
3.05

50

Appendix R. 100 U.S. Counties Reporting the Most Air and Water
Releases of Dioxins, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

County
BRAZORIA
IBERVILLE
HARRIS
COOS
BIBB
SEDGWICK
LITTLE RIVER
CALCASIEU
ESCAMBIA
GRENADA
MIDDLESEX
ST CHARLES
EAST BATON ROUGE
PORTER
MARSHALL
LAKE
DORCHESTER
BEXAR
SANGAMON
SCHUYLKILL
JEFFERSON
SULLIVAN
DUVAL
LA CROSSE
JEFFERSON
ASHLEY
NORTHWEST ARCTIC
MONROE
HUMPHREYS
NORTHAMPTON
MOBILE
STONE
SUFFOLK
SAN BERNARDINO
GRUNDY
COLLIN
YORK
YORK
PUTNAM
APACHE
CLARK
CHOCTAW
FREDERICK
BEAVER
LEE
IRON
TRUMBULL
NEZ PERCE
UNION
ATASCOSA
PIKE

State
TX
LA
TX
NH
AL
KS
AR
LA
AL
MS
NJ
LA
LA
IN
WV
IN
SC
TX
IL
PA
AR
TN
FL
WI
AL
AR
AK
NY
TN
PA
AL
MS
NY
CA
IL
TX
PA
VA
FL
AZ
NV
AL
MD
PA
IL
MO
OH
ID
AR
TX
AL

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(grams)
525.87
301.64
254.91
151.86
74.97
57.51
47.93
43.33
39.12
37.22
26.21
23.81
22.58
17.80
16.63
16.51
11.46
10.29
8.99
8.73
8.70
8.24
8.21
8.07
7.91
7.67
7.53
7.33
7.18
6.99
6.87
6.56
6.20
5.89
5.85
5.82
5.62
5.59
5.52
5.39
5.31
5.20
5.19
5.14
5.11
5.00
4.80
4.78
4.77
4.67
4.63

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
94
96
97
98
99
100

County
MARTIN
RICHMOND
BRISTOL
JASPER
BERKELEY
PERSON
KING
CASS
MANATEE
NEW CASTLE
BUCKINGHAM
ROSEBUD
QUEENS
STEWART
SHEBOYGAN
JEFFERSON
ASCENSION
MERCER
INDIANA
RAPIDES
CHATHAM
RANDOLPH
PIKE
PIMA
ISLE OF WIGHT
DEFIANCE
FORSYTH
PLATTE
WILCOX
GEORGETOWN
ORANGE
PENNINGTON
NIAGARA
ORANGE
PASCO
UINTAH
BALTIMORE
BOTETOURT
LOS ANGELES
HONOLULU
WILL
MUHLENBERG
TOOELE
COWLITZ
DE SOTO
KEMPER
HENDERSON
BROWARD
MORROW

State
FL
GA
MA
MO
SC
NC
WA
TX
FL
DE
VA
MT
NY
TN
WI
OH
LA
ND
PA
LA
GA
IL
MO
AZ
VA
OH
NC
WY
AL
SC
FL
SD
NY
NY
FL
UT
MD
VA
CA
HI
IL
KY
UT
WA
LA
MS
KY
FL
OR

Total Air
and Water
Emissions
(grams)
4.57
4.47
4.44
4.29
4.28
4.24
4.16
4.09
4.08
4.07
4.04
4.00
3.97
3.92
3.88
3.87
3.85
3.83
3.82
3.82
3.82
3.81
3.80
3.76
3.63
3.60
3.58
3.58
3.57
3.54
3.50
3.48
3.46
3.41
3.40
3.40
3.39
3.39
3.31
3.30
3.29
3.29
3.26
3.26
3.26
3.26
3.22
3.22
3.21

51

Appendix S. Land Releases of Recognized Carcinogens,
Developmental Toxicants, and Reproductive Toxicants, 2004: By State

Rank State
1
NV
2
AK
3
UT
4
MO
5
MT
6
TN
7
ID
8
AZ
9
AL
10
CA
11
OH
12
OR
13
CO
14
IN
15
TX
16
FL
17
WA
18
KY
19
PA
20
LA
21
IL
22
WV
23
NC
24
GA
25
NY
26
SD

Total On-Site
Land Releases
(pounds)
217,684,550
146,041,919
71,046,244
29,112,845
19,213,010
13,096,523
11,561,621
9,051,038
8,143,122
8,055,481
7,218,389
7,178,954
6,807,014
5,429,586
4,897,645
4,660,221
4,139,934
3,879,206
3,850,831
3,270,052
3,061,609
2,967,047
2,836,439
2,623,216
1,650,634
1,521,688

Rank
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
National

State
VA
MI
MS
NM
OK
AR
WY
SC
ND
MD
MN
KS
DE
NJ
NE
HI
WI
IA
MA
ME
NH
CT
RI
DC
VT

Total On-Site
Land Releases
(pounds)
1,211,016
1,130,688
1,089,421
977,681
955,042
821,229
521,310
485,847
465,890
365,227
321,863
304,377
222,770
176,761
151,277
125,694
114,161
82,047
58,794
10,684
3,446
870
250
0
0
608,595,163

52

Appendix T. 100 U.S. Zip Codes Reporting the Most Land Releases of
Recognized Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants, and Reproductive
Toxicants, 2004

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Zip
Code
99752
89419
84006
89414
89803
89438
89822
63629
65440
84044
59638
59701
99801
37040
89003
97812
83624
93239
35459
80860
80468
84022
43616
99153
37134
32831
89801
99712
84029
83846
85532
93206
36079
61615
70665
85614
83276
47670
57754
63048
85629
85235
15698
14107
63638
16003
45144
28429
45620
89821
86321

City
KOTZEBUE
LOVELOCK
BINGHAM CANYON/COPPERTON
GOLCONDA/MIDAS
ELKO
VALMY
CARLIN
BUNKER
BOSS
MAGNA
JEFFERSON CITY
BUTTE
JUNEAU
CLARKSVILLE
BEATTY
ARLINGTON
GRAND VIEW
KETTLEMAN CITY
EMELLE
VICTOR
PARSHALL
DUGWAY/CLIVE
OREGON
METALINE FALLS
NEW JOHNSONVILLE
ORLANDO
ELKO
FAIRBANKS
GRANTSVILLE/ROWLEY
MULLAN
CLAYPOOL
BUTTONWILLOW
TROY
PEORIA
CARLYSS/SULPHUR
GREEN VALLEY
SODA SPRINGS
PRINCETON
LEAD
HERCULANEUM
SAHUARITA
HAYDEN
YUKON
MODEL CITY
ELLINGTON
BUTLER
MANCHESTER
CASTLE HAYNE
CHESHIRE
CRESCENT VALLEY
BAGDAD

State
AK
NV
UT
NV
NV
NV
NV
MO
MO
UT
MT
MT
AK
TN
NV
OR
ID
CA
AL
CO
CO
UT
OH
WA
TN
FL
NV
AK
UT
ID
AZ
CA
AL
IL
LA
AZ
ID
IN
SD
MO
AZ
AZ
PA
NY
MO
PA
OH
NC
OH
NV
AZ

Total OnSite Land
Releases
(pounds)
135,329,476
85,322,626
53,818,352
42,382,733
35,016,558
23,485,855
18,790,206
13,358,616
12,435,901
11,398,156
9,239,419
8,940,004
8,431,523
8,010,194
7,845,810
7,158,025
6,534,179
5,860,697
3,622,389
3,455,674
3,021,010
2,848,464
2,673,566
2,633,893
2,477,968
2,463,302
2,432,118
2,239,090
2,217,774
2,215,061
2,164,735
1,922,463
1,917,766
1,891,630
1,876,552
1,754,066
1,537,100
1,478,806
1,468,405
1,468,275
1,436,461
1,392,809
1,362,057
1,256,700
1,239,617
1,049,897
1,011,109
996,042
947,032
919,863
910,927

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Zip
Code
85237
32226
39746
99352
73860
45750
78380
42337
35186
37662
83873
89045
41045
89418
30170
71901
35580
83227
32177
98531
26739
37050
70765
25265
78359
26366
47882
27343
26041
43913
47928
87416
47885
38401
31061
42452
48161
35772
46402
77536
26574
47601
59759
75691
40272
47629
88043
30263
62201

City
KEARNY
JACKSONVILLE
HAMILTON
RICHLAND
WAYNOKA
MARIETTA
ROBSTOWN
DRAKESBORO
WILSONVILLE
KINGSPORT
WALLACE
ROUND MOUNTAIN
GHENT
IMLAY
ROOPVILLE
HOT SPRINGS
PARRISH
CLAYTON
PALATKA
CENTRALIA
MOUNT STORM
CUMBERLAND CITY
PLAQUEMINE
NEW HAVEN
GREGORY
HAYWOOD
SULLIVAN
SEMORA
MOUNDSVILLE
BRILLIANT
CAYUGA
FRUITLAND
WEST TERRE HAUTE
COLUMBIA
MILLEDGEVILLE
ROBARDS/HENDERSON
MONROE
STEVENSON
GARY
DEER PARK
GRANT TOWN
BOONVILLE
WHITEHALL
TATUM
LOUISVILLE
NEWBURGH
HURLEY
NEWNAN
E.SAINT LOUIS/SAUGET

State
AZ
FL
MS
WA
OK
OH
TX
KY
AL
TN
ID
NV
KY
NV
GA
AR
AL
ID
FL
WA
WV
TN
LA
WV
TX
WV
IN
NC
WV
OH
IN
NM
IN
TN
GA
KY
MI
AL
IN
TX
WV
IN
MT
TX
KY
IN
NM
GA
IL

Total OnSite Land
Releases
(pounds)
880,157
871,132
866,816
851,786
794,539
747,430
722,090
710,120
700,296
668,556
655,826
609,959
608,579
606,830
600,552
570,394
557,605
554,423
542,602
530,654
530,522
521,870
490,419
483,418
481,067
465,868
462,895
442,704
439,616
413,402
387,146
383,254
379,864
379,774
375,332
362,589
359,320
354,548
344,033
342,263
336,518
335,346
334,900
332,797
332,642
331,642
321,299
320,219
318,614

53

Appendix U. 100 U.S. Counties Reporting the Most Land Releases of
Recognized Carcinogens, Developmental Toxicants, and Reproductive
Toxicants, 2004
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

County
NORTHWEST ARCTIC
PERSHING
HUMBOLDT
SALT LAKE
ELKO
EUREKA
REYNOLDS
IRON
JEFFERSON
SILVER BOW
NYE
JUNEAU
MONTGOMERY
GILLIAM
OWYHEE
KINGS
TOOELE
SUMTER
GILA
TELLER
PIMA
GRAND
SHOSHONE
LUCAS
PEND OREILLE
HUMPHREYS
ORANGE
FAIRBANKS NORTH STAR
PEORIA
KERN
PIKE
CALCASIEU
CARIBOU
JEFFERSON
GIBSON
LAWRENCE
NIAGARA
WESTMORELAND
NEW HANOVER
BUTLER
WASHINGTON
ADAMS
GALLIA
LANDER
YAVAPAI
PINAL
WHITE PINE
DUVAL
MONROE
BENTON
SULLIVAN

State
AK
NV
NV
UT
NV
NV
MO
MO
MT
MT
NV
AK
TN
OR
ID
CA
UT
AL
AZ
CO
AZ
CO
ID
OH
WA
TN
FL
AK
IL
CA
AL
LA
ID
MO
IN
SD
NY
PA
NC
PA
OH
OH
OH
NV
AZ
AZ
NV
FL
MS
WA
TN

Total OnSite Land
Releases
(pounds)
135,329,476
85,929,456
65,757,170
65,216,816
36,696,303
18,790,206
14,598,233
12,435,901
9,574,327
8,940,004
8,463,426
8,431,523
8,010,194
7,158,025
6,534,179
5,860,697
5,064,954
3,623,093
3,557,544
3,455,674
3,190,862
3,021,010
2,873,920
2,673,566
2,633,893
2,479,712
2,463,302
2,258,538
2,034,692
1,923,322
1,917,766
1,877,303
1,537,100
1,516,716
1,478,806
1,468,405
1,447,084
1,362,200
1,100,143
1,049,897
1,031,683
1,011,109
947,032
930,452
923,865
880,157
877,311
871,259
866,816
851,786
846,531

Rank
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

County
MAJOR
NUECES
SHELBY
MUHLENBERG
WARRICK
CARROLL
PERSON
HEARD
GARLAND
WALKER
CUSTER
PUTNAM
LEWIS
GRANT
STEWART
JEFFERSON
IBERVILLE
INDIANA
MASON
SAN PATRICIO
HARRISON
SULLIVAN
SAN JUAN
MARSHALL
JEFFERSON
HARRIS
MONROE
MAURY
JEFFERSON
VERMILLION
VIGO
PUTNAM
CLERMONT
HENDERSON
JACKSON
LAKE
GRANT
MARION
RUSK
COWETA
ST CLAIR
LIMESTONE
ANDREWS
ROANE
BALTIMORE
COSHOCTON
TITUS
BARTOW
HALIFAX

State
OK
TX
AL
KY
IN
KY
NC
GA
AR
AL
ID
FL
WA
WV
TN
KY
LA
PA
WV
TX
WV
IN
NM
WV
OH
TX
MI
TN
AL
IN
IN
GA
OH
KY
AL
IN
NM
WV
TX
GA
IL
TX
TX
TN
MD
OH
TX
GA
VA

Total OnSite Land
Releases
(pounds)
794,539
749,153
722,510
721,250
666,988
608,579
604,780
600,552
570,950
557,605
554,423
543,376
530,654
530,522
521,870
509,905
490,780
486,266
483,418
481,067
465,868
462,895
461,412
440,702
413,402
402,603
399,290
389,463
389,271
387,162
385,646
375,332
370,630
362,589
354,548
347,466
340,529
337,919
332,797
320,219
320,119
317,683
312,782
310,595
306,584
302,159
300,481
299,087
297,582

54

Appendix V. Substances Reported to TRI in 2004 with Known or
Suspected Health Effects
R= Recognized S= Suspected
These substances may pose other health threats, such as damage to the endocrine or cardiovascular systems. In
addition, some of the chemicals not noted as recognized carcinogens, for example, may be suspected carcinogens.
Refer to the methodology for details about how we compiled the list of health effects.
Chemical Name
1,1,1,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE
1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE
1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE
1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE
1,1-DICHLORO-1-FLUOROETHANE
1,1-DIMETHYL HYDRAZINE
1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE
1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
1,2-BUTYLENE OXIDE
1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE
1,2-DIBROMOETHANE
1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE
1,2-DICHLOROETHANE
1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE
1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE
1,2-DIPHENYLHYDRAZINE
1,2-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
1,3-BUTADIENE
1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE
1,3-DICHLOROPROPYLENE
1,4-DICHLORO-2-BUTENE
1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE
1,4-DIOXANE
2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL
2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL
2,4-D
2,4-D 2-ETHYL-4-METHYLPENTYL ESTER
2,4-D 2-ETHYLHEXYL ESTER
2,4-D BUTOXYETHYL ESTER
2,4-D BUTYL ESTER
2,4-D ISOPROPYL ESTER
2,4-D SODIUM SALT
2,4-DB
2,4-DIAMINOANISOLE
2,4-DIAMINOANISOLE SULFATE
2,4-DIAMINOTOLUENE
2,4-DIMETHYLPHENOL
2,4-DINITROPHENOL
2,4-DINITROTOLUENE
2,4-DITHIOBIURET
2,4-DP
2,6-DINITROTOLUENE
2,6-XYLIDINE
2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE
2-CHLOROACETOPHENONE
2-ETHOXYETHANOL
2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE
2-METHOXYETHANOL
2-METHYLLACTONITRILE
2-METHYLPYRIDINE
2-NITROPHENOL

Carcinogen

Developmental
Toxicant

Reproductive
Toxicant

R
R
R
R

R
R

R

R
R

R
R
R
R
R

R

R

R
R
R
R

Neurotoxicant
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S

R
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

Respiratory
Toxicant

S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R
R
R

S

R

R

R
R
R

R

R

R

R

R

S
S

S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S

55

Chemical Name
2-NITROPROPANE
2-PHENYLPHENOL
3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE
3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE
3,3'-DIMETHOXYBENZIDINE
3,3'-DIMETHOXYBENZIDINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE
3,3'-DIMETHYLBENZIDINE
3-CHLORO-2-METHYL-1-PROPENE
3-CHLOROPROPIONITRILE
3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE
4,4'-DIAMINODIPHENYL ETHER
4,4'-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL
4,4'-METHYLENEBIS(2-CHLOROANILINE)
4,4'-METHYLENEBIS(N,N-DIMETHYL)BENZENAMINE
4,4'-METHYLENEDIANILINE
4,6-DINITRO-O-CRESOL
4-AMINOAZOBENZENE
4-AMINOBIPHENYL
4-DIMETHYLAMINOAZOBENZENE
4-NITROPHENOL
ACEPHATE
ACETALDEHYDE
ACETAMIDE
ACETONE
ACETONITRILE
ACIFLUORFEN, SODIUM SALT
ACROLEIN
ACRYLAMIDE
ACRYLIC ACID
ACRYLONITRILE
ALACHLOR
ALDICARB
ALDRIN
ALLYL ALCOHOL
ALLYL CHLORIDE
ALLYLAMINE
ALPHA-NAPHTHYLAMINE
ALUMINUM (FUME OR DUST)
ALUMINUM OXIDE (FIBROUS FORMS)
ALUMINUM PHOSPHIDE
AMETRYN
AMITRAZ
AMITROLE
AMMONIA
AMMONIUM SULFATE (SOLUTION)
ANILINE
ANTIMONY
ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS
ARSENIC
ARSENIC COMPOUNDS
ASBESTOS (FRIABLE)
ATRAZINE
BARIUM
BENDIOCARB
BENOMYL
BENZAL CHLORIDE
BENZENE
BENZIDINE
BENZOIC TRICHLORIDE
BENZOYL CHLORIDE
BENZYL CHLORIDE
BERYLLIUM
BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS

Carcinogen
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

Developmental
Toxicant

Reproductive
Toxicant

Neurotoxicant
S
S
S

Respiratory
Toxicant
S
S
S
S

S
S
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

R
R

S
S

S

S
S

S

S

S

S
S
S

S

S
S

S
S

S
S

S

R
R
R
R

S
S
S
S
S

R

S
S

S
S
S
S

R

R

S
S
S
S
S

S

S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S

R

R

R
R
R

R
R
R
R
R
R

R
R

S
S

R

R

R

R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

56

Chemical Name
BETA-NAPHTHYLAMINE
BIFENTHRIN
BIPHENYL
BIS(2-CHLORO-1-METHYLETHYL) ETHER
BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER
BIS(CHLOROMETHYL) ETHER
BIS(TRIBUTYLTIN) OXIDE
BORON TRIFLUORIDE
BROMINE
BROMOCHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE
BROMOFORM
BROMOMETHANE
BROMOTRIFLUOROMETHANE
BROMOXYNIL
BROMOXYNIL OCTANOATE
BUTYL ACRYLATE
BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE
BUTYRALDEHYDE
C.I. ACID RED 114
C.I. DIRECT BLUE 218
C.I. FOOD RED 15
C.I. SOLVENT YELLOW 14
C.I. SOLVENT YELLOW 3
C.I. SOLVENT YELLOW 34
CADMIUM
CADMIUM COMPOUNDS
CALCIUM CYANAMIDE
CAPTAN
CARBARYL
CARBOFURAN
CARBON DISULFIDE
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
CARBONYL SULFIDE
CARBOXIN
CATECHOL
CERTAIN GLYCOL ETHERS
CHLORDANE
CHLORENDIC ACID
CHLORINE
CHLORINE DIOXIDE
CHLOROACETIC ACID
CHLOROBENZENE
CHLOROBENZILATE
CHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE
CHLOROETHANE
CHLOROFORM
CHLOROMETHANE
CHLOROMETHYL METHYL ETHER
CHLOROPICRIN
CHLOROPRENE
CHLOROTHALONIL
CHLORPYRIFOS METHYL
CHLORSULFURON
CHROMIUM
CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS
COBALT
COBALT COMPOUNDS
COPPER
COPPER COMPOUNDS
CREOSOTE
CRESOL (MIXED ISOMERS)
CROTONALDEHYDE
CUMENE

Carcinogen
R

Developmental
Toxicant

Reproductive
Toxicant

Neurotoxicant
S
S
S
S

R
R
R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R

Respiratory
Toxicant

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R
S
R

S
S

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

R
R

R
R

R

R

R

R

R
R
R

S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S

S
S

S
S
S
S
S

R
S
S
S
S

R
R
R
R

S
S
S
S

R
R
R
R
R
R
R

R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R

S

S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S

57

Chemical Name
CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE
CUPFERRON
CYANAZINE
CYANIDE COMPOUNDS
CYCLOATE
CYCLOHEXANE
CYCLOHEXANOL
CYFLUTHRIN
CYHALOTHRIN
DAZOMET
DESMEDIPHAM
DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE
DIAMINOTOLUENE (MIXED ISOMERS)
DIAZINON
DIBUTYL PHTHALATE
DICHLOROBROMOMETHANE
DICHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE
DICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE
DICHLOROMETHANE
DICHLOROTETRAFLUOROETHANE (CFC-114)
DICHLORVOS
DICOFOL
DICYCLOPENTADIENE
DIEPOXYBUTANE
DIETHANOLAMINE
DIETHYL PHTHALATE
DIETHYL SULFATE
DIGLYCIDYL RESORCINOL ETHER
DIHYDROSAFROLE
DIISOCYANATES
DIMETHOATE
DIMETHYL PHTHALATE
DIMETHYL SULFATE
DIMETHYLAMINE
DIMETHYLCARBAMYL CHLORIDE
DINITROBUTYL PHENOL
DINITROTOLUENE (MIXED ISOMERS)
DINOCAP
DIPHENYLAMINE
DIPROPYL ISOCINCHOMERONATE
DISODIUM CYANODITHIOIMIDOCARBONATE
DIURON
EPICHLOROHYDRIN
ETHOPROP
ETHYL ACRYLATE
ETHYL CHLOROFORMATE
ETHYL DIPROPYLTHIOCARBAMATE
ETHYLBENZENE
ETHYLENE
ETHYLENE GLYCOL
ETHYLENE OXIDE
ETHYLENE THIOUREA
ETHYLENEIMINE
ETHYLIDENE DICHLORIDE
FAMPHUR
FENOXYCARB
FENPROPATHRIN
FENTHION
FERBAM
FLUAZIFOP BUTYL
FLUORINE
FLUOROURACIL
FLUVALINATE

Carcinogen

Developmental
Toxicant

Reproductive
Toxicant

Neurotoxicant

Respiratory
Toxicant
S

R
R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R

R
R

R

R

R

R

R

R
R

S

S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
S
S
R
R
R

S
S

S
S

S
S
S

S

S
S
S
S

R
R
R
R

R
R

S
S

R
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R
R
R
R
R

R

R
R

R
R
R
R

R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
S
S
S

S

R
S
S
S

S

R
S
R
R

S

58

Chemical Name
FOLPET
FORMALDEHYDE
FORMIC ACID
FREON 113
HEPTACHLOR
HEXACHLORO-1,3-BUTADIENE
HEXACHLOROBENZENE
HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE
HEXACHLOROETHANE
HEXACHLOROPHENE
HEXAMETHYLPHOSPHORAMIDE
HYDRAMETHYLNON
HYDRAZINE
HYDRAZINE SULFATE
HYDROCHLORIC ACID AEROSOLS
HYDROGEN CYANIDE
HYDROGEN FLUORIDE
HYDROQUINONE
IRON PENTACARBONYL
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL
LACTOFEN
LEAD
LEAD COMPOUNDS
LINDANE
LINURON
LITHIUM CARBONATE
MALATHION
MALEIC ANHYDRIDE
MALONONITRILE
MANEB
MANGANESE
MANGANESE COMPOUNDS
M-CRESOL
M-DINITROBENZENE
MERCURY
MERCURY COMPOUNDS
MERPHOS
METHACRYLONITRILE
METHAM SODIUM
METHANOL
METHIOCARB
METHOXONE
METHOXONE SODIUM SALT
METHOXYCHLOR
METHYL ACRYLATE
METHYL CHLOROCARBONATE
METHYL ETHYL KETONE
METHYL HYDRAZINE
METHYL IODIDE
METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE
METHYL ISOCYANATE
METHYL ISOTHIOCYANATE
METHYL METHACRYLATE
METHYL PARATHION
METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER
METHYLENE BROMIDE
METHYLENEBIS(PHENYLISOCYANATE)
MEVINPHOS
MICHLER'S KETONE
MOLINATE
MOLYBDENUM TRIOXIDE
MONOCHLOROPENTAFLUOROETHANE

Carcinogen
R
R

Developmental
Toxicant

R

R

R

R

Reproductive
Toxicant

R
R
R

R
R

R
R

Neurotoxicant
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R
R
R

R
R

R
R

R
R

S
S

R

R
R
R

R

S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S

R
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R

Respiratory
Toxicant

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
S
S
S

S

59

Chemical Name
M-XYLENE
MYCLOBUTANIL
N,N-DIMETHYLANILINE
N,N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE
NABAM
NALED
NAPHTHALENE
N-BUTYL ALCOHOL
N-HEXANE
NICKEL
NICKEL COMPOUNDS
NICOTINE AND SALTS
NITRAPYRIN
NITRIC ACID
NITRILOTRIACETIC ACID
NITROBENZENE
NITROFEN
NITROGEN MUSTARD
NITROGLYCERIN
N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
N-METHYLOLACRYLAMIDE
N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE
N-NITROSODIMETHYLAMINE
N-NITROSODI-N-BUTYLAMINE
N-NITROSODI-N-PROPYLAMINE
N-NITROSODIPHENYLAMINE
N-NITROSOMETHYLVINYLAMINE
N-NITROSO-N-ETHYLUREA
N-NITROSO-N-METHYLUREA
N-NITROSOPIPERIDINE
O-ANISIDINE
O-CRESOL
O-DINITROBENZENE
OSMIUM TETROXIDE
O-TOLUIDINE
O-TOLUIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE
OXYDEMETON METHYL
OXYDIAZON
O-XYLENE
OZONE
PARALDEHYDE
PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE
PARATHION
P-CHLOROANILINE
P-CRESIDINE
P-CRESOL
P-DINITROBENZENE
PEBULATE
PENTACHLOROBENZENE
PENTACHLOROETHANE
PENTACHLOROPHENOL
PENTOBARBITAL SODIUM
PERCHLOROMETHYL MERCAPTAN
PERMETHRIN
PHENANTHRENE
PHENOL
PHENOTHRIN
PHENYTOIN
PHOSGENE
PHOSPHINE
PHOSPHORIC ACID
PHOSPHORUS (YELLOW OR WHITE)
PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

Carcinogen

Developmental
Toxicant

Reproductive
Toxicant

R

R

Neurotoxicant
S

Respiratory
Toxicant
S

S
S

S

R
S
S
S
S
S

R

R
R
R

R
R

S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R
R
R

S
S

S
S
S

S

R
R

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

S

S
S
S
S
S

S
S

R
R
R

S
S
S
S

R
R

S
S

S
S
S

S

R
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S

R
R
R

R
R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S

S
S

S

R

R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

60

Chemical Name
PICRIC ACID
PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE
PIRIMIPHOS METHYL
P-NITROANILINE
P-NITROSODIPHENYLAMINE
POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC COMPOUNDS
POTASSIUM BROMATE
POTASSIUM DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
PROFENOFOS
PROMETRYN
PRONAMIDE
PROPACHLOR
PROPANE SULTONE
PROPANIL
PROPARGITE
PROPARGYL ALCOHOL
PROPETAMPHOS
PROPIONALDEHYDE
PROPOXUR
PROPYLENE
PROPYLENE OXIDE
PROPYLENEIMINE
P-XYLENE
PYRIDINE
QUINOLINE
QUINONE
QUIZALOFOP-ETHYL
RESMETHRIN
S,S,S-TRIBUTYLTRITHIOPHOSPHATE
SAFROLE
SEC-BUTYL ALCOHOL
SELENIUM
SELENIUM COMPOUNDS
SIMAZINE
SODIUM AZIDE
SODIUM DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
SODIUM FLUOROACETATE
SODIUM HYDROXIDE (SOLUTION)
SODIUM NITRITE
SODIUM O-PHENYLPHENOXIDE
STRYCHNINE AND SALTS
STYRENE
STYRENE OXIDE
SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS
SULFURYL FLUORIDE
TEBUTHIURON
TEMEPHOS
TEREPHTHALIC ACID
TERT-BUTYL ALCOHOL
TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
TETRACHLORVINPHOS
TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE
TETRAMETHRIN
THALLIUM
THIABENDAZOLE
THIOACETAMIDE
THIOBENCARB
THIODICARB
THIOPHANATE-METHYL
THIOUREA

Carcinogen

R
R
R
R
R

Developmental
Toxicant

Reproductive
Toxicant

Respiratory
Toxicant

R
R

S
S

R

S
S
S
S

S

S
S
S

S
S
S

R
R
R
R

Neurotoxicant
S
S
S
S

S
S

S

R
S
S
S
S

R
R
R

S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R

S
S
S
S
S
S

R
R
R

R
R

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

R

S
S
S
S

S

R
S
S
S
R
R
R

S
S
S

R

61

Chemical Name
THIRAM
THORIUM DIOXIDE
TITANIUM TETRACHLORIDE
TOLUENE
TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE (MIXED ISOMERS)
TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE
TOLUENE-2,6-DIISOCYANATE
TOXAPHENE
TRANS-1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE
TRANS-1,4-DICHLORO-2-BUTENE
TRIADIMEFON
TRIALLATE
TRIBUTYLTIN METHACRYLATE
TRICHLORFON
TRICHLOROETHYLENE
TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE
TRIETHYLAMINE
TRIFORINE
TRIPHENYLTIN HYDROXIDE
TRIS(2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE
TRYPAN BLUE
URETHANE
VANADIUM
VINCLOZOLIN
VINYL ACETATE
VINYL BROMIDE
VINYL CHLORIDE
VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE
WARFARIN AND SALTS
XYLENE (MIXED ISOMERS)
ZINC (FUME OR DUST)
ZINC COMPOUNDS
ZINEB

Carcinogen

Developmental
Toxicant

Reproductive
Toxicant

Neurotoxicant
S

Respiratory
Toxicant
S

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

R
R
R
R
R

S

S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S

S
S
S

R

R
R
S
R

S
S

R

R
R
R

S
S
S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S
S

S

62

END NOTES
H.R. Conf. Rep. No. 962, 99th Cong., 2dSESS. (1986), “Joint explanatory statement of the Committee of
Conference.”
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Toxics Release Inventory Program, “What is the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
Program?”, accessed January 29, 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/tri/whatis.htm.
3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Chemical Hazard Data Availability
Study, April 1998.
4 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Toxics Release Inventory, calculated using the TRI Explorer at
http://www.epa.gov/triexplorer/ on January 24, 2007. This total includes releases in the 50 U.S. states only.
5 American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2006, 1. Accessed January 10, 2007 at
http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2006PWSecured.pdf.
6 American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2006, 22. Accessed January 10, 2007 at
http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2006PWSecured.pdf.
7 American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2006, 23. Accessed January 24, 2007 at
http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2006PWSecured.pdf.
8 American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2006, 24. Accessed January 24, 2007 at
http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2006PWSecured.pdf.
9 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Report on
Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition, January 2005. Substance Profiles, Acetaldehyde, accessed January 11, 2007 at
http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/eleventh/profiles/s001acet.pdf.
10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Report on
Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition, January 2005. Substance Profiles, Acetaldehyde, accessed January 11, 2007 at
http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/eleventh/profiles/s001acet.pdf.
11 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Chemical Hazard Data Availability
Study, April 1998, as detailed in Table 1 of Appendix III.
12 U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ToxFAQs for Toluene, February 2001.
13 U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ToxFAQs for Carbon Disulfide, September 1997.
14 Lead compounds are not specifically identified as developmental or reproductive toxicants under Proposition 65.
Environmental Defense, however, classifies lead compounds as “recognized” developmental and reproductive
toxicants on its Scorecard.org website. The TOXNET database of the National Library of Medicine cites several
studies suggesting that exposure to inorganic lead compounds can lead to reproductive problems and impaired
neurological development in children. As a result, we include lead compounds as recognized developmental and
reproductive toxicants for purposes of this study. We made a similar determination for cadmium compounds, even
though Proposition 65 lists only elemental cadmium as a developmental and reproductive toxicant.
15 Environmental Defense, Scorecard, “Health Effects: Suspected Neurotoxicants,” accessed February 7, 2007 at
http://www.scorecard.org/health-effects/.
16 Environmental Defense, Scorecard, “Health Effects: Suspected Neurotoxicants,” accessed February 7, 2007 at
http://www.scorecard.org/health-effects/.
17 California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Toxic Air Contaminant Identification List
Summaries: Methanol, September 1997.
18 U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration, SIC Division Structure, “Description for
2873: Nitrogenous Fertilizers,” accessed January 30, 2007 at http://www.osha.gov/pls/imis/sic_manual.html.
19 Edison Electric Institute, “Straight Answers about the Toxics Release Inventory: FAQ about Hydrogen Fluoride,” April
2006; Electric Power Research Institute, “Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Profile: Hydrogen Fluoride,” December
1998.
20 Rob McConnell et al, “Asthma in Exercising Children Exposed to Ozone: A Cohort Study,” The Lancet, 2 February
2002.
21 Environmental Defense, Scorecard, “Health Effects: Suspected Respiratory Toxicants,” accessed February 7, 2007
at http://www.scorecard.org/health-effects/.
22 U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, “Medical Management Guidelines for Hydrogen Chloride,”
accessed January 30, 2007 at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/MHMI/mmg173.html.
23 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Transfer Network, Air Toxics Website, Hydrochloric Acid
(Hydrogen Chloride) Hazard Summary, revised in January 2000. Accessed January 30, 2007 at
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/hydrochl.html.
24 Electric Power Research Institute, “Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Profile: Hydrogen Chloride,” December 1998.
1

63

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NAS Review Draft of Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds, October 2004. See also EPA, Information Sheet 1,
“Dioxin: Summary of the Dioxin Reassessment Science,” updated October 2004, accessed January 11, 2007 at
http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p_download_id=435879.
26 U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Lead Toxicity,
October 2000; American Academy of Pediatrics, “Lead Exposure in Children: Prevention, Detection and
Management,” Pediatrics, 1036-1048 (October 2005).
27 Lead compounds are not specifically identified as developmental or reproductive toxicants under Proposition 65.
Environmental Defense, however, classifies lead compounds as “recognized” developmental and reproductive
toxicants on its Scorecard.org website. The TOXNET database of the National Library of Medicine cites several
studies suggesting that exposure to inorganic lead compounds can lead to reproductive problems and impaired
neurological development in children. As a result, we include lead compounds as recognized developmental and
reproductive toxicants for purposes of this study. We made a similar determination for cadmium compounds, even
though Proposition 65 lists only elemental cadmium as a developmental and reproductive toxicant.
28 40 C.F.R. § 372.65; EPA EPCRA 313 Chemical list for Reporting Year 2004, accessed March 5, 2007 at
http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/RY2004ChemicalLists.pdf.
29 For Form R reporting requirements see 40 C.F.R. § 372.85
30 For Form A reporting requirements see 40 C.F.R. § 372.95
31 71 Fed. Reg. 76,932, 76,934 (Dec. 22, 2006)
32 40 C.F.R. § 372.27 (establishing Form A eligibility if facility does not exceed threshold level of 500 pounds of total
quantities of a toxic released, disposed, treated, recycled or combusted at the facility, and amounts transferred from
the facility to offsite locations for treatment, disposal, recycling or combustion), amended by 71 Fed. Reg. 76,944
(Dec. 22, 2006)(expanding Form A eligibility from 500 pound total quantity threshold to 5,000 pounds if total onsite
releases and disposal do not exceed 2,000 pounds)
33 71 Fed. Reg. 76,932 et seq. (Dec. 22, 2006) (Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Final Rule)
34 71 Fed. Reg. 76,935
35 64 Fed. Reg. 58,732 (Oct. 29, 1999); 40 C.F.R. § 372.28 (exempting persistent bioaccumulative toxins from
alternative threshold certification)
36 71 Fed. Reg. 76,963
37 Statement of John B. Stephenson, EPA Actions Could Reduce Availability of Environmental Information to the Public,
GAO-07-464T, February 2007.
38 Toxics Use Reduction Institute, Results to Date, accessed February 19, 2007 at
http://turadata.turi.org/Success/ResultsToDate.html.
39 A complete list of sources and methodologies on which Environmental Defense’s listings are based can be found at
http://www.scorecard.org/health-effects/.
40 U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration, “SIC Division Structure,” accessed
February 12, 2007 at http://www.osha.gov/pls/imis/sic_manual.html.
25

64

 

 

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