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U.S. Dept. of Justice - Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018

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U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

August 2020, NCJ 252157

Bul l etin

Correctional Populations in
the United States, 2017-2018
Laura M. Maruschak and Todd D. Minton, BJS Statisticians

A

n estimated 6,410,000 persons were held
in prisons or jails or were on probation
or parole in 2018, marking a 19-year low
in the number of persons under the supervision
of adult correctional systems in the United States
(figure 1).1 This correctional population peaked
at 7,339,600 in 2007 and has declined every year
since. Between 2017 and 2018, the correctional
population declined 2.1%, and between 2008 and
2018, it declined 12.3%.
By the end of 2018, about 1 in 40 adult U.S.
residents were under some form of correctional
supervision, down from 1 in 32 a decade
earlier. In 2018, 2,510 out of 100,000 adult U.S.
residents were under the supervision of adult
correctional systems in the U.S. (table 4). This
marked a 26-year low in the adult correctionalsupervision rate.
This report summarizes data from several Bureau
of Justice Statistics (BJS) collections on populations
that are supervised by adult correctional systems
in the U.S. (See Methodology.)
1This includes a small number of persons age 17 or younger

who were under adult correctional supervision.

Figure 1
Persons under the supervision of adult
correctional systems in the U.S., 2008-2018
Number (in millions)
8
Totala

7
6
5

Probation

4
3

Prisonb
Parole
Local jail

2
1
0

’08

’10

’15

’18

Note: Counts are rounded to the nearest 100. Estimates may
have been revised based on updated reporting and may differ
from numbers in past reports. See table 1 for counts.
aDetails may not sum to totals because the total correctionalpopulation counts were adjusted to exclude probationers and
parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who were also on
probation, and prisoners who were held in local jails. See table 5
and Methodology for more details.
bOffenders who were under the jurisdiction of state or
federal prisons.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey,
Annual Parole Survey, Annual Survey of Jails, and National
Prisoner Statistics program, 2008-2018.

HIGHLIGHTS
„„

The adult correctional-supervision rate (adults
supervised per 100,000 adult U.S. residents)
decreased 21% from 2008 to 2018, from 3,160 to
2,510 per 100,000 adult U.S. residents.

„„

The percentage of adult U.S. residents under
correctional supervision was lower in 2018 than
at any time since 1992.

„„

The adult incarceration rate (adults in prison or
jail per 100,000 adult U.S. residents) has declined
every year since 2008, and the rate in 2018 was
the lowest since 1996.

„„

The portion of adult U.S. residents in prison or
jails fell 17% from 2008 to 2018.

„„

The correctional population declined 2.1%
from 2017 to 2018, due to decreases in both
the community-supervision (down 2.4%) and
incarcerated (down 1.4%) populations.

„„

The community-supervision population fell from
4,508,900 in 2017 to 4,399,000 in 2018.

„„

The incarcerated population decreased from
2,153,600 in 2017 to 2,123,100 in 2018.
S T I CS
Y E A R S O F S T AT I

These systems supervise persons living in the community
while on probation or parole, persons incarcerated under
the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons, and persons
in the custody of local jails. (See Terms and definitions.)
For more information on the correctional population,
see Prisoners in 2018 (NCJ 253516, BJS, April 2020),
Probation and Parole in the United States, 2017-2018
(NCJ 252072, BJS, August 2020), and Jail Inmates in 2018
(NCJ 253044, BJS, March 2020).
The community-supervision and incarcerated
populations continued a steady decline
The decline in the total correctional population, from
6,549,700 in 2017 to 6,410,000 in 2018, continued a
downward trend that began in 2008 (table 1). Persons
supervised in the community on either probation
(3,540,000 persons) or parole (878,000) continued
to make up the majority of the correctional
population at year-end 2018. Nearly 7 in 10 persons
in the correctional population were supervised in the
community at year-end 2018 (4,399,000), while 3 in 10

were incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local
jails (2,123,100).2
The 2.1% decrease in the correctional population
from 2017 to 2018 was due to a 2.4% decline in the
number of persons supervised in the community and a
1.4% decline in the incarcerated population. The decrease
in the community-supervision population during 2018
accounted for 79% of the decline in the total correctional
population. Between December 31, 2017 and December
31, 2018, the number of persons under supervision in
the community decreased to 4,399,000 (down 109,900).
The total community-supervision population decreased
by 2.4% during 2018, as the probation population
decreased 2.9% and the parole population increased
0.3%. At the end of 2018, the number of persons under
2The total correctional, community-supervision, and incarcerated

populations exclude offenders with dual correctional statuses to avoid
double-counting. Persons with dual correctional statuses include
probationers and parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who
were also on probation, and prisoners who were held in local jails. See
table 5 and Methodology for more details.

Table 1
Number of persons supervised by adult correctional systems in the U.S., by correctional status, 2008-2018
Year
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018*
Percent change
2008-2018
2017-2018

Total correctional
populationa
7,312,600
7,239,100
7,089,000
6,994,500
6,949,800
6,899,700
6,856,900
6,740,300
6,616,200
6,549,700
6,410,000
-12.3%
-2.1

Community supervision
Probation
5,093,400
4,271,200
5,019,900
4,199,800
4,888,500
4,055,900
4,818,300
3,973,800
4,790,700
3,944,900
4,749,800
3,912,900
4,713,200
3,868,400
4,650,900
3,789,800
4,537,100
3,673,100
4,508,900
3,647,200
4,399,000
3,540,000
Totalc

-13.6%
-2.4

-17.1%
-2.9

Parole
826,100
824,600
840,800
855,500
858,400
849,500
857,700
870,500
874,800
875,000
878,000

2,310,300
2,297,700
2,279,100
2,252,500
2,231,300
2,222,500
2,225,100
2,172,800
2,165,100
2,153,600
2,123,100

Incarceratedb
Prison
1,608,300
1,615,500
1,613,800
1,599,000
1,570,400
1,577,000
1,562,300
1,526,600
1,508,100
1,489,200
1,465,200

6.3%
0.3

-8.1%
-1.4

-8.9%
-1.6

Totald

Local jaile
785,500 †
767,400 †
748,700
735,600
744,500
731,200
744,600
727,400
740,700
745,200
738,400
-6.0%
-0.9

Note: Counts are rounded to the nearest 100 and include estimates for non-responding jurisdictions. Estimates for 2016 and earlier may have been
revised based on updated reporting and may differ from numbers in past reports. All probation, parole, and prison counts are for December 31, while
jail counts are for the last weekday in June. Details may not sum to totals due to rounding and because estimates were adjusted to exclude persons with
dual correctional statuses (probationers and parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who were also on probation, and prisoners who were held
in local jails). See table 5 and Methodology for more details. See the Key Statistics page on the BJS website for correctional-population statistics prior to
2008. Significance testing was conducted for local jail estimates because counts are based on a sample of jails in the Annual Survey of Jails. Other counts
presented are based on a full census of the population.
*Comparison year for local jail inmates only.
†Difference with comparison year is significant at the 95% confidence level.
aEstimates were adjusted to exclude persons with dual correctional statuses (probationers and parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who were
also on probation, and prisoners who were held in local jails). See table 5 and Methodology for more details.
bOffenders who were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or were held in local jails.
cEstimates were adjusted to exclude parolees who were also on probation. See table 5 and Methodology for more details.
dEstimates were adjusted to exclude prisoners who were held in local jails. See table 5 and Methodology for more details.
eThe Annual Survey of Jails is a nationally representative sample of local jails rather than a full census. See appendix table 5 for standard errors.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, Annual Survey of Jails, and National Prisoner Statistics program,
2008-2018.

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community supervision was the lowest since 1998, when
they numbered 4,122,400 (not shown in tables).
On December 31, 2018, an estimated 2,123,100 persons
were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal
prisons or in the custody of local jails, which was
30,500 fewer persons than in 2017. By year-end 2018,
the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal
prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level since 2003,
when 2,086,500 persons were incarcerated (not shown
in tables).
During 2018, the prison population decreased 1.6%,
while the jail population remained relatively stable. The
prison population at year-end 2018 (1,465,200) was at its
lowest level since 2002 (1,440,100; not shown in tables).
The total incarcerated population was 1.4% lower in 2018
than in 2017.
The probation, prison, and jail populations
decreased, while the parole population increased
After peaking in 2007 at 7,339,600 (not shown in tables),
the total correctional population declined annually
through 2018. The composition of the population
remained generally unchanged despite the decreasing
probation population during that time. Probationers
accounted for the majority of offenders under
correctional supervision in 2008 (58%) and 2018 (55%)
(table 2). Prisoners represented less than a quarter of the
correctional population in 2008 (22%) and 2018 (23%).
Parolees (11% in 2008 and 14% in 2018) and jail inmates
(11% in 2008 and 12% in 2018) were the smallest groups
of persons under correctional supervision between
year-end 2008 and year-end 2018.

From 2008 to 2018, decreases in probation (down
731,300 persons), prison (down 143,100), and jail (down
47,100) populations accounted for the overall decline in
the total correctional population (table 3). The decrease
in the probation population caused 81% of the total
decline in the correctional population, as probationers
made up the largest portion of the total population under
correctional supervision. The parole population was the
only population to increase during this time (up 51,900).
Table 3
Change in the number of persons supervised by adult
correctional systems in the U.S., 2008-2018
Correctional population
Total changea
Probationb
Prisonb,c
Paroleb
Local jaild

2008-2018
Change in
Percent of
population
total change
-902,700
100%
-731,300
81.0
-143,100
15.9
51,900
-5.7
-47,100
5.2

Note: Counts are rounded to the nearest 100 and include estimates
for non-responding jurisdictions. Details may not sum to totals due
to rounding and because counts used to calculate change in each
correctional population included persons with dual correctional statuses
(probationers and parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who were
also on probation, and prisoners who were held in local jails). See table 5
and Methodology for more details.
aReflects the change in probation, prison, parole, and local jail
populations, minus the change in offenders with dual correctional
statuses, to avoid double-counting. From 2008 to 2018, the number of
offenders with dual correctional statuses increased by 33,000. See table 5
and Methodology for more details.
bPopulation as of December 31.
cOffenders who were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons.
dPopulation as of the last weekday in June.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, Annual
Parole Survey, Annual Survey of Jails, and National Prisoner Statistics
program, 2008 and 2018.

Table 2
Number of persons supervised by adult correctional systems in the U.S., by correctional status, 2008 and 2018
Correctional population
Totala
Probationb
Prisonb,c
Paroleb
Local jaild

Population
7,312,600
4,271,200
1,608,300
826,100
785,500

2008
Percent of total population
100%
58.4
22.0
11.3
10.7

Population
6,410,000
3,540,000
1,465,200
878,000
738,400

2018
Percent of total population
100%
55.2
22.9
13.7
11.5

Note: Counts are rounded to the nearest 100 and include estimates for non-responding jurisdictions. Details may not sum to totals due to rounding and
because estimates were adjusted to exclude persons with dual correctional statuses (probationers and parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who
were also on probation, and prisoners who were held in local jails). See table 5 and Methodology for more details.
aReflects probation, prison, parole, and local jail counts, minus offenders with dual correctional statuses, to avoid double-counting. There were 178,500
offenders in 2008 and 211,500 offenders in 2018 with dual correctional statuses. See table 5 and Methodology for more details.
bPopulation as of December 31.
cOffenders who were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons.
dPopulation as of the last weekday in June.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, Annual Survey of Jails, and National Prisoner Statistics program, 2008
and 2018.

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The rate of persons under correctional supervision
decreased for the eleventh consecutive year
Since peaking at 3,210 offenders per 100,000
U.S. residents age 18 or older in 2007 (not shown in
tables), the correctional-supervision rate has trended
downward, falling to 2,510 per 100,000 at year-end 2018
(table 4). Changes in both the correctional population
and the U.S. population affected the rate. More than half
(58%) of the decrease in the correctional-supervision
rate from 2008 to 2018 was attributed to the decrease in
the number of offenders under correctional supervision.
The remainder (42%) of the decline was attributed to the
increase in the U.S. resident population age 18 or older
(not shown in tables). The correctional-supervision rate
at year-end 2018 was the lowest it had been since 1992
(2,490 per 100,000; not shown in tables).

At year-end 2018, an estimated 1,730 offenders per
100,000 adult U.S. residents were on probation or
parole. This was similar to the rate in 1990, when the
community-supervision population was smaller by
about 1.2 million offenders and the adult U.S. resident
population was smaller by almost 69 million persons
(not shown in tables). Like the correctional-supervision
rate, the community-supervision rate has declined
for 11 consecutive years since peaking in 2007 (2,240
per 100,000; not shown in tables).
In 2018, about 830 persons per 100,000 adult U.S.
residents were under the jurisdiction of state or federal
prisons or in the custody of local jails. This incarceration
rate has declined since reaching a high of 1,000 per
100,000 adult U.S. residents from 2006 to 2008. The
incarceration rate is currently at its lowest point since
1996 (830 per 100,000; not shown in tables).

Table 4
Rate of persons supervised by adult correctional systems in the U.S., by correctional status, 2008-2018

Year
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018

Total correctional populationa
Adults
U.S. adult
supervised
Adults supervised residents under per 100,000
per 100,000 U.S. correctional
U.S. residents
adult residentsc
supervision
of all agesd
3,160
1 in 32
2,390
3,100
1 in 32
2,350
3,000
1 in 33
2,280
2,930
1 in 34
2,240
2,880
1 in 35
2,210
2,830
1 in 35
2,170
2,780
1 in 36
2,140
2,710
1 in 37
2,090
2,640
1 in 38
2,040
2,590
1 in 39
2,010
2,510
1 in 40
1,950

Community-supervision population
Adults on
probation/parole
Adults on probation/ per 100,000
parole per 100,000
U.S. residents
U.S. adult residentsc
of all agesd
2,200
1,670
2,150
1,630
2,070
1,570
2,020
1,540
1,520
1,980
1,950
1,490
1,910
1,470
1,870
1,440
1,810
1,400
1,780
1,380
1,730
1,340

Incarcerated populationb
Adults in
Adults in prison/
prison/local jail
local jail per
per 100,000
100,000 U.S. adult U.S. residents
residentsc
of all agesd
1,000
760
980
750
960
730
940
720
920
710
910
700
900
690
870
680
860
670
850
660
830
650

Note: Rates are estimated to the nearest 10. Rates include a small number of persons age 17 or younger who were under adult correctional supervision.
Estimates may have been revised based on updated reporting and may differ from numbers in past reports. See the Key Statistics page on the BJS website
for correctional-population statistics prior to 2008.
aOffenders who were supervised in the community by probation or parole agencies, were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons, or were in the
custody of local jails.
bOffenders who were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or were held in local jails.
cRates were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. resident population of persons age 18 or older for January 1 of the following year.
dRates were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. resident population of persons of all ages for January 1 of the following year.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, Annual Survey of Jails, and National Prisoner Statistics program,
2008-2018; and U.S. Census Bureau, post-censal estimated resident populations for January 1 of each year, 2009-2019.

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Terms and definitions
Adult—a person subject to the jurisdiction of an adult
criminal court or correctional agency. Adults are age
18 or older in most jurisdictions. Persons age 17 or
younger who were prosecuted in criminal court as if
they were adults, or who were confined in local jails but
not sentenced, are counted as adults. Persons age 17 or
younger who were under the jurisdiction of a juvenile
court or agency are excluded. (See Methodology for
more details on prisoners and local jail inmates age 17
or younger.)
Community-supervision population—estimated
number of adults living in the community while
supervised on probation or parole.
Community-supervision rate—estimated number of
adults living in the community while supervised on
probation or parole per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages
(i.e., total community-supervision rate) or U.S. residents
age 18 or older (i.e., adult community-supervision rate).
Correctional population—estimated number of adults
living in the community while supervised on probation
or parole and adults under the jurisdiction of state or
federal prisons or in the custody of local jails.
Correctional-supervision rate—estimated number
of adults supervised in the community on probation
or parole and adults under the jurisdiction of state
or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails per
100,000 U.S. residents of all ages (i.e., total correctionalsupervision rate) or U.S. residents age 18 or older (i.e.,
adult correctional-supervision rate).
Imprisonment rate—estimated number of prisoners
under state or federal jurisdiction sentenced to more
than one year per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages (i.e.,
total imprisonment rate) or U.S. residents age 18 or older
(i.e., adult imprisonment rate). This statistic does not
appear in this report. (See Prisoners in 2018, NCJ 253516,
BJS, April 2020.)
Incarcerated population—estimated number of
prisoners under the jurisdiction of state or federal
prisons and inmates in the custody of local jails.
Incarceration rate—estimated number of prisoners
under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons and
inmates in the custody of local jails per 100,000 U.S.
residents of all ages (i.e., total incarceration rate) or U.S.
residents age 18 or older (i.e., adult incarceration rate).

Indian-country jail population—estimated number
of inmates held in correctional facilities operated by
tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA),
U.S. Department of the Interior. These facilities include
confinement facilities, detention centers, jails, and
other facilities operated by tribal authorities or the BIA.
(See Jails in Indian Country, 2016, NCJ 250981, BJS,
December 2017.)
Local jail population—estimated number of inmates
held in confinement facilities operated under the
authority of a sheriff, police chief, or city or county
administrator. Facilities are intended for adults but
may hold juveniles before or after they are adjudicated.
Facilities include jails, detention centers, city or county
correctional centers, special jail facilities (such as
medical or treatment centers and pre-release centers)
and temporary holding or lockup facilities that are part
of the jail’s combined function. Inmates sentenced to jail
facilities usually have a sentence of one year or less. (See
Jail Inmates in 2018, NCJ 253044, BJS, March 2020.)
Military prison population—estimated number of
service personnel incarcerated under the jurisdiction
of U.S. military correctional authorities. (See appendix
table 3.)
Parole population—estimated number of parolees who
are on conditional release in the community following
a prison term while under the control, supervision, or
care of a state or federal correctional agency. Violations
of the conditions of supervision during this period may
result in a new sentence of confinement or a return to
confinement for a technical violation. Parolees include
adults released through discretionary or mandatory
supervised release from prison.
Prison population—estimated number of prisoners
incarcerated in a long-term confinement facility run
by a state or the federal government and typically
holding felons and other offenders with sentences of
more than one year, although sentence length may vary
by jurisdiction.
Prison jurisdiction population—estimated number
of prisoners under the jurisdiction or legal authority
of state or federal correctional officials, regardless
of where the prisoner is held. This population
represents BJS’s official measure of the prison
population and includes prisoners held in public or
private prisons, penitentiaries, correctional facilities,
halfway houses, boot camps, farms, training or
treatment centers, and hospitals. Counts also include
prisoners who were temporarily absent (less than

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30 days); in court or on work release; housed in
privately operated facilities, local jails, or other state
or federal facilities; and serving concurrent sentences
for more than one correctional authority.
Prison custody population—estimated number of
prisoners held in the physical custody of state or
federal prisons regardless of sentence length or
the authority having jurisdiction. This population
includes prisoners housed for other correctional
facilities but excludes prisoners in the custody of
local jails, held in other jurisdictions, out to court,
or in transit from one jurisdiction of legal authority
to the custody of a confinement facility outside that
jurisdiction. Prisoners based in private facilities
are excluded from custody counts unless otherwise
specified. (See appendix table 4.)

Probation population—estimated number of
probationers who are on a court-ordered period
of supervision in the community while under the
control, supervision, or care of a correctional agency.
The probation conditions form a contract with the
court by which the person must abide to remain in
the community, generally in lieu of incarceration. In
some cases, probation may be a combined sentence
of incarceration followed by a period of community
supervision. Often, probation entails monitoring or
surveillance by a correctional agency. In some instances,
probation may not involve any reporting requirements.
Territorial prison population—estimated number
of prisoners in the custody of correctional facilities
operated by departments of corrections in U.S. territories
(American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands)
and U.S. commonwealths (the Northern Mariana Islands
and Puerto Rico). (See appendix table 3.)

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Methodology

in Custody Reporting Program). The MCI provides the
number of local jail inmates confined as of December 31.

Sources of data

Mortality in Correctional Institutions (formerly
Deaths in Custody Reporting Program). The MCI
is an annual collection that provides national-, state-,
and incident-level data on persons who died while in
the physical custody of the 50 state departments of
corrections (DOCs) or the approximately 2,800 adult
local-jail jurisdictions nationwide.

The statistics presented in this report include data from
various Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) data collections.
Each collection relies on the voluntary participation
of federal, state, and local respondents. For more
information about the following data collections, see the
Data Collections page on the BJS website.
Annual Probation Survey and Annual Parole Survey.
BJS’s Annual Probation Survey and Annual Parole
Survey, which began in 1980, collect data from probation
and parole agencies in the U.S. that supervise adults.
These data collections define adults as persons subject to
the jurisdiction of an adult court or correctional agency.
Juveniles sentenced as adults in a criminal court are
considered adults. Juveniles under the jurisdiction of a
juvenile court or correctional agency are excluded.
The two surveys collect data on the number of adults
supervised in the community on January 1 and
December 31 each year, the number of entries to and
exits from supervision during the reporting year,
and characteristics of the population at year-end.
(See appendix tables 1 and 2.) Both surveys cover the
50 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal
system. BJS depends on the voluntary participation of
state central reporters and separate state, county, and
court agencies for these data.
Annual Survey of Jails. The Annual Survey of Jails
(ASJ) has collected data from a nationally representative
sample of local jails each year since 1982, except 1983,
1988, 1993, 1999, and 2005, when complete censuses
of local jails in the U.S. were conducted. Jails are
confinement facilities usually administered by a local
law enforcement agency that primarily are intended to
hold adults but may also hold youth age 17 or younger
before or after they are adjudicated. The 2017 and 2018
ASJ were stratified probability samples of 871 active jail
jurisdictions nationwide. ASJ data used in this report
include inmates age 17 or younger who were held either
before or after they were adjudicated (about 3,600
persons at midyear 2017 and 3,400 at midyear 2018).
Because the ASJ is designed to produce only nationallevel estimates, tables and figures in this report that
include jurisdiction-level counts of the incarcerated
population and the total correctional population were
based on jail data collected through the Mortality in
Correctional Institutions (MCI) (formerly the Deaths

The MCI began in 2000 in response to the Death in
Custody Reporting Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-297) and
is the only national statistical collection to obtain
comprehensive information about deaths in adult
correctional facilities. In addition to the death count,
BJS requests that jails provide summary statistics about
their population and facility admissions. All jails,
including those with no deaths to report (about 80% of
jails in any given year), are asked to complete the annual
summary form.
In appendix tables 1 and 2, BJS uses the local jail counts
from the 2017 and 2018 MCI to generate jurisdictionlevel estimates of the total incarcerated and correctional
populations. Because of this, the total correctional and
incarcerated populations in appendix tables 1 and 2 do
not match the totals reported in other tables and figures
in this report.
National Prisoner Statistics Program. The National
Prisoner Statistics (NPS) program began in 1926 under
a mandate from Congress and is conducted annually.
It collects data from the nation’s 50 state DOCs and the
Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). The NPS distinguishes
between prisoners in custody and prisoners under the
jurisdiction of correctional authorities. To have custody
of a prisoner, a state or the BOP must physically hold that
prisoner in one of its facilities. To have jurisdiction over
a prisoner, the state or BOP must have legal authority
over that prisoner, regardless of where the prisoner is
incarcerated or supervised. Some states were unable
to provide counts that distinguish between custody
and jurisdiction.3
The NPS prisoner counts included in figure 1, tables 1
through 4, and appendix tables 1 and 2 are consistent
with the jurisdiction counts and findings reported in
Prisoners in 2018 (NCJ 253516, BJS, April 2020). The
NPS jurisdiction counts represent BJS’s official measure
3To determine which states did not distinguish between custody

and jurisdiction counts, see the Jurisdiction notes for Prisoners in
2018 (NCJ 253516, BJS, April 2020) at https://www.bjs.gov/index.
cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=6846.

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of the prison population and include persons held in
prisons, penitentiaries, correctional facilities, halfway
houses, boot camps, farms, training or treatment centers,
and hospitals. Also included in the jurisdiction counts
are prisoners who were temporarily absent (less than
30 days), in court, or on work release; housed in privately
operated facilities, local jails, or other state or federal
facilities; or serving concurrent sentences for more than
one correctional authority.
The NPS prisoner custody counts are reported only in
appendix table 4 and include all prisoners held within
state and federal facilities, including those housed for
other correctional facilities, prisoners held in privately
operated facilities, prisoners age 17 or younger who were
serving time in a state or federal correctional facility after
being sentenced in criminal court as if they were adults.
Also included in the prisoner custody count are persons
in the six states in which prisons and jails form an
integrated system, including persons age 17 or younger
who may have been held before or after adjudication.
Through the annual NPS collection, BJS has obtained
year-end counts of prisoners in the custody of
U.S. military authorities from the Department of Defense
Corrections Council since 1994. In 1994, the council,
comprising representatives from each branch of military
service, adopted a standardized form (DD Form 2720)
that obtains data on prisoners held in U.S. military
confinement facilities inside and outside of the
continental U.S. (See appendix table 3.)
Since 1995, through the annual NPS collection, BJS
has collected year-end counts of prisoners from DOCs
in the U.S. territories (American Samoa, Guam, and
the U.S. Virgin Islands) and U.S. commonwealths (the
Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico). These
data represent all prisoners in the custody of prison
facilities in the U.S. territories and commonwealths. (See
appendix table 3.) See Prisoners in 2018 (NCJ 253516,
BJS, April 2020) for more statistics and information,
including non-response.
Survey of Jails in Indian Country. The Annual Survey
of Jails in Indian Country (SJIC) has been conducted
annually since 1998, except in 2005 and 2006. The
SJIC collects detailed information on all adult and
juvenile confinement facilities, detention centers, jails,
and other facilities operated by tribal authorities or
the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian
Affairs. (See appendix table 3.) See Jails in Indian
Country, 2016 (NCJ 250981, BJS, December 2017) for
more statistics and information.

Counts adjusted for offenders with dual
correctional statuses
Offenders under correctional supervision may have dual
correctional statuses for several reasons:
„„ probation

and parole agencies may not always be
notified immediately of new arrests, jail admissions, or
prison admissions

„„ absconders

included in a probation or parole agency’s
population in one jurisdiction may actually be
incarcerated in another jurisdiction

„„ persons

may be admitted to jail or prison before
formal revocation hearings and potential discharge by
a probation or parole agency

„„ persons

may be serving separate probation and parole
sentences concurrently

„„ state

and federal prisons may hold prisoners in
county facilities or local jails to reduce crowding in
their prisons.

In 1998, through the Annual Probation Survey and
Annual Parole Survey, BJS began collecting data on
the number of probationers and parolees with dual
correctional statuses, and BJS has since expanded the
information collected. In 1999, BJS began collecting data
through the NPS on the number of prisoners under the
jurisdiction of state or federal prisons who were held in
county facilities or local jails (table 5). Table 5 includes
adjustments that were made to the total correctional
population, the total community-supervision population,
and all estimates of the total incarcerated population
presented in this report to exclude offenders with dual
correctional statuses to avoid double-counting.
The estimates from the Annual Probation Survey and
Annual Parole Survey are based on data reported by
the probation and parole agencies that provided the
information for the reporting year. Because some
probation and parole agencies did not provide data
on individuals with dual statuses, the total number
of offenders who had dual correctional statuses may
be underestimated.
Due to these adjustments, the sum of correctional
statuses in figure 1, tables 1 through 4, and appendix
tables 1 and 2 do not equal the total correctional
population, without subtracting out the offenders with
dual correctional statuses. In addition, the sum of the
probation and parole populations do not yield the total
community-supervision population, because the total
was adjusted for parolees who were also on probation.

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Table 5
Number of offenders with dual correctional statuses at year-end, 2008-2018
Year
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018

Total
178,500
168,100
170,300
169,300
168,400
170,800
176,100
174,000
180,500
206,800
211,500

Prisoners in
local jail
83,500
85,200
83,400
82,100
83,600
85,700
81,800
81,200
83,700
80,800
80,500

In local jail
23,800
21,400
21,300
21,100
21,200
22,400
23,500
24,400
24,400
37,100
38,700

Probationers—
In state/federal prison
32,400
23,100
21,500
22,300
21,700
16,700
24,600
28,200
24,000
34,900
34,900

In local jail
19,300
19,100
21,400
18,000
18,500
21,800
21,800
19,600
24,500
26,400
24,500

Parolees—
In state/federal prison
15,600
14,300
14,400
14,900
10,700
11,800
11,600
11,200
13,000
14,400
14,100

On probation
3,900
5,000
8,300
11,000
12,700
12,500
12,900
9,400
10,800
13,300
18,900

Note: Counts are rounded to the nearest 100. Estimates for 2016 and earlier may have been revised based on updated reporting and may differ from
numbers in past reports. Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, and National Prisoner Statistics program, 2008-2018.

Also, the sum of the prison and local jail populations
do not equal the total incarcerated population because
prisoners held in local jails were excluded from the total.
Decomposing the decline in the correctionalsupervision rate
To decompose the decline in the correctionalsupervision rate discussed in this report, the following
formula was used:
ΔR = [P1 × (1/GP1)] − [P0 × (1/GP0)]
= [P1 × ((1/GP1) − (1/GP0))] + [(1/GP0) × (P1 − P0)]
= [(1/GP1) × (P1 − P0)] + [P0 × ((1/GP1) − (1/GP0)]
In this formula, ΔR is the change in the correctionalsupervision rate, P1 is the total correctional population
for the most recent year, P0 is the total correctional
population for the earlier year, GP1 is the adult U.S.
resident population for the most recent year, and
GP0 is the adult U.S. resident population for the
earlier year. The components [(1/GP0) × (P1 − P0)]
and [(1/GP1) × (P1 − P0)] provide the change in the
correctional-supervision rate due to the change in the
total correctional population. These two components
were summed, and the average was used to estimate
the amount of change in the correctional-supervision
rate attributed to the change in the total correctional
population during that period.
The components [P1 × ((1/GP1) − (1/GP0))] and
[P0 × ((1/GP1) − (1/GP0))] provide the change due
to the adult U.S. resident population. These two
components were summed, and the average was used
to estimate the amount of change in the correctional-

supervision rate attributed to the change in the adult U.S.
resident population during the period.
Non-response adjustments to estimate
population counts
Probation, parole, prison, and jail populations
Probation, parole, prison, and jail population counts
were adjusted to account for non-response across data
collections. The methods varied and depended on the
type of collection, type of respondent, and availability of
information. For more information on the non-response
adjustments implemented to generate national- and
jurisdiction-level estimates of the probation, parole, and
prison populations, see Prisoners in 2018 (NCJ 253516,
BJS, April 2020) and Probation and Parole in the United
States, 2017-2018 (NCJ 252072, BJS, August 2020). For
more information on the non-response adjustments
implemented to generate national counts of the jail
population in the tables and figures in this report that
include national estimates, see Jail Inmates in 2018
(NCJ 253044, BJS, March 2020).
Jail population—jurisdiction-level estimates
Non-response in the 2018 MCI was minimal. The unit
response rate was 97.8% at the time of this report.
Because the MCI data collection used a census design
(no sampling), each jail was initially self-representing
and had a design weight of one. To reduce non-response
bias, post-stratification was used to adjust the weight
of responding jails so their responses represented
non-responding jails. The weighting used in 2018 is
described below.

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Control totals for the 2018 confined jail population from
the MCI were estimated at the state level as follows:

Comparability of jurisdiction-level estimates
over time

„„ The

All jurisdiction-level estimates included in this report
are based on data reported within the reference year.
Some jurisdictions update their population counts after
submitting their data to BJS. Updated population counts
usually include data that were not entered into the
information system before the survey was submitted or
data that were not fully processed by year-end.

year-to-year change in the confined jail population
among 2017 and 2018 MCI respondents was computed
within each state.

„„ Estimated

2018 values were calculated by multiplying
the yearly change rate and the 2017 MCI estimate of
the confined population for jails that did not respond
to the 2018 MCI.

„„ The

sum of reported, item-imputed, and
MCI-estimated values for the 2018 confined jail
population for each state served as the control totals
for the post-stratification procedure.

„„ The

post-stratification weight-adjustment factor was
identical for all jails within a state and was computed
as the ratio of the control total for state i to the sum of
the reported and item-imputed 2018 MCI confined
jail-population values for state i:

PSAdji =

∑

Control totali
ni Reported confined + Item imputed confined
i
j
j=1

The final analysis weight was the product of the design
weight and the post-stratification adjustment factor.
Because the design weight was one for all jails, the
analysis weight was equal to the adjustment factor. This
same method was used in 2017, using 2016 data to
estimate for 2017.

Also, some jurisdictions have experienced reporting
changes for one or more correctional-population
collections over time. These changes may result from
making administrative changes (such as consolidating
databases or implementing new information systems that
result in data review and cleanup), reconciling offender
records, reclassifying offenders (including changes
from probation to parole and offenders with dual
community-supervision statuses), and including certain
subpopulations that were not previously reported.
For these reasons, comparisons between jurisdictions
and comparisons between years for the same jurisdiction
over time may not be valid. More detailed information
about updates and reporting changes that affect the
ability to make jurisdiction-level comparisons over time
may be found in the source reports for each of the four
correctional populations, such as the Probation and
Parole in the United States series or the Prisoners series,
for the particular reference year.

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A

Jurisdiction
Federal
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbiae
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey

Total correctional population
Total
Adults supervised Adults supervised
correctional per 100,000
per 100,000
population, U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2018a age 18 or olderb
all agesb
302,100
120
90
6,083,300
2,390
1,850
99,200
2,600
2,030
7,800
1,410
1,060
136,800
2,450
1,890
74,700
3,220
2,470
513,100
1,670
1,290
122,600
2,740
2,140
54,800
1,930
1,530
20,600
2,680
2,120
9,500
1,640
1,340
357,400
2,080
1,670
495,200
6,140
4,680
27,200
2,440
1,920
51,800
3,910
2,920
171,900
1,740
1,350
164,700
3,200
2,450
47,600
1,960
1,500
39,000
1,770
1,340
99,600
2,870
2,230
104,000
2,920
2,230
10,300
950
770
96,600
2,050
1,600
71,200
1,280
1,030
219,200
2,790
2,190
122,900
2,840
2,180
63,600
2,790
2,130
106,100
2,230
1,730
16,700
2,000
1,570
25,100
1,720
1,300
40,300
1,700
1,310
10,400
940
760
173,700
2,490
1,950

Community-supervision population
Adults on
Adults on
Adults on
probation/parole probation/parole
probation/
per 100,000
per 100,000
parole,
U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2018c age 18 or olderb all agesb
122,800
50
40
4,276,200
1,680
1,300
1,240
60,900
1,600
3,400
620
460
84,300
1,510
1,170
53,800
2,320
1,780
312,400
1,020
790
91,300
2,040
1,590
43,100
1,520
1,210
14,500
1,890
1,490
8,600
1,480
1,210
209,400
1,220
980
433,200
5,370
4,100
21,900
1,960
1,540
39,700
3,000
2,240
116,100
1,180
910
118,400
2,300
1,760
35,600
1,460
1,120
21,900
990
750
62,800
1,810
1,400
62,300
1,750
1,340
6,800
620
500
80,600
1,710
1,330
53,700
970
780
164,800
2,100
1,650
1,910
107,500
2,480
37,200
1,630
1,240
63,100
1,330
1,030
11,400
1,360
1,070
15,900
1,090
820
19,800
830
640
6,300
570
460
146,300
2,100
1,640

Incarcerated population
Adults in
Adults in prison/
prison/local jail
Adults in
local jail per 100,000 per 100,000
prison/local jail, U.S. residents age 18 U.S. residents
12/31/2018d
or olderb
of all ages
179,200
70
50
1,919,200
750
580
40,400
1,060
820
4,400
790
600
54,600
980
750
24,700
1,070
820
200,700
650
510
32,700
730
570
13,700
480
380
6,100
790
620
1,800
310
260
150,500
870
700
89,700
1,110
850
5,400
480
380
12,100
920
690
55,800
560
440
46,300
900
690
14,000
580
440
18,000
820
620
37,500
1,080
840
45,700
1,280
980
4,000
370
300
27,600
580
460
17,600
320
250
54,500
690
540
15,900
370
280
27,500
1,210
920
43,000
900
700
6,200
740
580
9,300
640
480
20,500
860
670
4,100
370
300
28,700
410
320

Continued on next page
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APPENDIX

Jurisdiction
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Total correctional population
Total
Adults supervised Adults supervised
correctional per 100,000
per 100,000
population, U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2018a age 18 or olderb
all agesb
26,800
1,660
1,280
202,300
1,310
1,040
148,600
1,830
1,420
10,100
1,730
1,320
322,500
3,540
2,760
81,800
2,730
2,070
81,000
2,430
1,920
360,200
3,540
2,810
22,000
2,570
2,080
67,000
1,670
1,310
15,100
2,270
1,710
117,400
2,220
1,730
672,400
3,130
2,330
26,800
1,190
840
6,500
1,260
1,030
122,000
1,830
1,430
115,200
1,950
1,520
21,500
1,490
1,190
100,600
2,210
1,730
9,900
2,240
1,720

Community-supervision population
Adults on
Adults on
Adults on
probation/parole probation/parole
probation/
per 100,000
per 100,000
parole,
U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2018c age 18 or olderb all agesb
13,700
850
660
139,700
900
720
94,100
1,160
900
7,000
1,200
920
253,900
2,780
2,170
43,300
1,450
1,100
59,900
1,790
1,420
288,000
2,830
2,250
20,900
2,450
1,980
36,700
920
720
9,200
1,380
1,040
72,100
1,360
1,060
474,600
2,210
1,640
16,600
740
520
940
770
4,800
65,000
970
760
88,900
1,500
1,170
10,900
760
600
63,900
1,400
1,100
6,300
1,430
1,090

Incarcerated population
Adults in
Adults in prison/
prison/local jail
Adults in
local jail per 100,000 per 100,000
prison/local jail, U.S. residents age 18 U.S. residents
12/31/2018d
or olderb
of all ages
13,100
810
620
67,700
440
350
54,600
670
520
3,100
530
400
70,500
770
600
38,500
1,290
970
21,100
630
500
77,900
770
610
2,800
320
260
30,300
760
590
6,100
910
680
49,300
930
730
218,000
1,010
750
12,500
550
390
1,700
320
260
57,100
850
670
30,900
520
410
10,600
740
590
36,700
810
630
4,000
910
700

Note: The federal count plus the state count differs from national estimates in other tables and figures in this report because they include local jail counts for December 31, 2018, which are used to produce
jurisdiction-level estimates. These local jail counts are not used to produce national estimates of the total correctional or incarcerated populations, as BJS's official sources of data to generate national estimates
are the Annual Survey of Jails and Census of Jails. Counts were rounded to the nearest 100 and include estimates for non-responding jurisdictions. Rates were estimated to the nearest 10. Details may not sum
to totals due to rounding and because estimates were adjusted to exclude persons with dual correctional statuses (probationers and parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who were also on probation,
and prisoners who were held in local jails). See table 5 and Methodology for more details.
aExcludes, by jurisdiction, an estimated 80,500 prisoners held in jail, 34,900 probationers in prison, 38,700 probationers in jail, 24,500 parolees in jail, 14,100 parolees in prison, and 18,900 parolees on probation.
See table 5.
bRates were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. adult resident population of persons age 18 or older and persons of all ages within the jurisdiction on January 1, 2019.
cExcludes, by jurisdiction, an estimated 18,900 parolees on probation. See table 5.
dExcludes, by jurisdiction, an estimated 80,500 prisoners held in jail. See table 5.
eAfter 2001, responsibility for sentenced prisoners from the District of Columbia was transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, Mortality in Correctional Institutions, and National Prisoner Statistics program, 2018; and U.S. Census Bureau, post-censal
estimated resident population for January 1, 2019.

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A

Jurisdiction
Federal
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbiae
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey

Total correctional population
Total
Adults supervised Adults supervised
correctional per 100,000
per 100,000
population, U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2017a age 18 or olderb
all agesb
310,400
120
100
6,212,700
2,460
1,900
99,000
2,610
2,030
12,600
2,270
1,710
137,200
2,510
1,930
73,100
3,170
2,430
532,000
1,750
1,350
122,600
2,790
2,170
56,000
1,980
1,570
21,800
2,880
2,270
9,900
1,720
1,410
361,600
2,140
1,710
502,700
6,320
4,800
27,100
2,430
1,910
50,300
3,890
2,890
189,000
1,910
1,480
163,500
3,200
2,450
47,000
1,950
1,490
38,900
1,760
1,330
2,310
103,000
2,980
111,300
3,120
2,380
10,400
950
780
98,400
2,100
1,630
77,400
1,400
1,120
228,100
2,920
2,280
121,900
2,840
2,180
61,300
2,690
2,050
105,400
2,220
1,720
15,500
1,880
1,470
24,200
1,670
1,260
39,300
1,690
1,310
10,700
980
790
184,000
2,650
2,070

Community-supervision population
Adults on
Adults on
Adults on
probation/parole probation/parole
probation/
per 100,000
per 100,000
parole,
U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2017c age 18 or olderb all agesb
128,200
50
40
4,380,700
1,730
1,340
60,700
1,600
1,240
8,200
1,480
1,110
84,600
1,550
1,190
52,200
2,260
1,730
328,200
1,080
830
91,300
2,080
1,610
43,900
1,550
1,230
15,400
2,030
1,600
9,000
1,580
1,290
214,200
1,270
1,010
435,800
5,480
4,160
21,500
1,920
1,510
38,100
2,950
2,190
129,000
1,300
1,010
118,500
2,320
1,770
35,500
1,470
1,130
22,200
1,010
760
67,400
1,950
1,510
70,800
1,990
1,520
6,800
630
510
81,700
1,740
1,350
59,100
1,070
860
173,200
2,220
1,730
105,900
2,470
1,890
37,200
1,630
1,250
60,500
1,280
990
10,700
1,290
1,010
15,200
1,050
790
18,700
800
620
6,400
580
470
154,500
2,230
1,740

Incarcerated population
Adults in prison/
Adults in
local jail per 100,000
prison/local jail, U.S. residents age 18
12/31/2017d
or olderb
182,200
70
1,944,900
770
40,400
1,070
4,400
800
54,700
1,000
24,500
1,060
203,900
670
32,500
740
14,000
500
6,400
850
1,800
320
149,800
890
93,400
1,170
5,600
500
12,200
940
60,000
610
45,000
880
13,400
560
17,600
800
36,300
1,050
44,600
1,250
4,100
370
28,600
610
18,400
330
55,100
700
16,700
390
27,800
1,220
44,900
950
5,600
670
9,000
620
890
20,600
4,300
400
30,700
440

Adults in
prison/local jail
per 100,000
U.S. residents
of all ages
60
600
830
600
770
810
520
580
390
670
260
710
890
400
700
470
670
430
600
810
960
300
470
270
550
300
930
730
530
470
690
320
350

Continued on next page
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APPENDIX

Jurisdiction
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Total correctional population
Total
Adults supervised Adults supervised
correctional per 100,000
per 100,000
population, U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2017a age 18 or olderb
all agesb
28,700
1,780
1,370
208,700
1,350
1,070
151,400
1,890
1,470
10,300
1,780
1,360
334,400
3,680
2,860
83,500
2,800
2,120
84,900
2,580
2,040
367,300
3,620
2,870
23,400
2,750
2,210
68,000
1,720
1,350
14,500
2,200
1,650
119,600
2,290
1,770
677,100
3,200
2,370
26,200
1,190
840
6,800
1,330
1,080
120,800
1,820
1,420
120,800
2,070
1,610
20,900
1,440
1,150
100,800
2,230
1,740
10,000
2,250
1,720

Community-supervision population
Adults on
Adults on
Adults on
probation/parole probation/parole
probation/
per 100,000
per 100,000
parole,
U.S. residents
U.S. residents of
12/31/2017c age 18 or olderb all agesb
15,200
950
730
140,900
910
720
96,000
1,200
930
7,200
1,240
950
265,100
2,920
2,270
43,800
1,470
1,110
63,900
1,940
1,530
292,100
2,880
2,280
22,400
2,640
2,120
37,500
950
740
8,700
1,320
990
72,800
1,390
1,080
478,500
2,260
1,680
16,300
740
520
1,020
830
5,200
64,200
970
760
94,500
1,620
1,260
9,900
680
550
64,400
1,420
1,110
5,900
1,340
1,030

Incarcerated population
Adults in prison/
Adults in
local jail per 100,000
prison/local jail, U.S. residents age 18
12/31/2017d
or olderb
13,400
840
72,700
470
55,400
690
3,100
540
70,900
780
39,700
1,330
21,000
640
81,600
800
2,900
340
30,500
770
5,900
900
50,700
970
217,800
1,030
12,300
560
1,500
300
56,600
860
31,000
530
11,000
760
36,400
800
4,000
910

Adults in
prison/local jail
per 100,000
U.S. residents
of all ages
640
370
540
410
610
1,010
500
640
270
600
670
750
760
390
250
670
410
610
630
690

Note: The federal count plus the state count differs from national estimates in other tables and figures in this report because they include local jail counts for December 31, 2017, which are used to produce
jurisdiction-level estimates. These local jail counts are not used to produce national estimates of the total correctional or incarcerated populations, as BJS's official sources of data to generate national estimates
are the Annual Survey of Jails and Census of Jails. Counts were rounded to the nearest 100 and include estimates for non-responding jurisdictions. Rates were estimated to the nearest 10. Details may not sum
to totals due to rounding and because estimates were adjusted to exclude persons with dual correctional statuses (probationers and parolees held in prisons or local jails, parolees who were also on probation,
and prisoners who were held in local jails). See table 5 and Methodology for more details.
aExcludes, by jurisdiction, an estimated 80,800 prisoners held in jail, 34,900 probationers in prison, 37,100 probationers in jail, 26,400 parolees in jail, 14,400 parolees in prison, and 13,300 parolees on probation.
See table 5.
bRates were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. adult resident population of persons age 18 or older and persons of all ages within the jurisdiction on January 1, 2018.
cExcludes, by jurisdiction, an estimated 13,300 parolees on probation. See table 5.
dExcludes, by jurisdiction, an estimated 80,800 prisoners held in jail. See table 5.
eAfter 2001, responsibility for sentenced prisoners from the District of Columbia was transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, Mortality in Correctional Institutions, and National Prisoner Statistics program, 2017; and U.S. Census Bureau, post-censal
estimated resident population for January 1, 2018.

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A

Other adult
correctional systems
Total
Territorial prisonsa
Jails in Indian countryb
Military facilitiesc

Number of persons
2008
2017
2018
17,170
14,900
14,200
13,600
11,000
10,200
1,920
2,680
2,680
1,650
1,270
1,290

Percent change
2008-2018
2017-2018
-17.4%
-4.8%
-24.8
-6.7
-22.0
0.0
39.3
1.5

Note: Counts of persons in these facilities are excluded from estimates of the incarcerated populations in
figure 1 and tables 1 through 4, as these persons are not under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons
or held in confinement facilities operated under the authority of a sheriff, police chief, or city or county
administrator. Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.
aThe 2017 and 2018 totals include population counts that were estimated for some territories due to
non-response. Estimates are based on the number of persons held on December 31 and are rounded to
the nearest 100. See Prisoners in 2018 (NCJ 253516, BJS, April 2020) for more details.
bEstimates are based on the number of persons held on the last weekday in June and are rounded to the
nearest 10. The 2017 and 2018 estimates are based on preliminary data. See Jails in Indian Country, 2016
(NCJ 250981, BJS, December 2017) for more details.
cEstimates are based on the number of persons held on December 31 and are rounded to the nearest 10.
See Prisoners in 2018 (NCJ 253516, BJS, April 2020) for more details.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Prisoner Statistics program and Survey of Jails in Indian
Country, 2008, 2017, and 2018; and U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Under Secretary for Defense
for Personnel and Readiness, 2008, 2017, and 2018.

A
Type of facility
Total custody populationa
Federalb
Prisons
Federal facilities
Privately operated facilities
Community corrections centersc
State prisons
State facilitiesd
Privately operated facilities
Local jails
Incarceration ratee
Adult incarceration ratef

Number of persons in custody
2008
2017
2018*
2,308,400
2,134,000
2,094,000
198,400
182,100
179,200
189,800
172,700
169,600
165,300
154,600
151,500
24,500
18,100
18,200
8,600
9,500
9,600
1,324,400
1,206,700
1,176,400
1,228,100
1,112,800
1,085,700
96,300
93,900
90,700
785,500 †
745,200
738,400
760
1,000

650
840

640
820

Percent change
2008-2018
2017-2018
-9.3%
-1.9%
-9.7%
-1.6%
-10.6
-1.8
-8.3
-2.0
-25.7
0.6
11.6
1.1
-11.2%
-2.5%
-11.6
-2.4
-5.8
-3.4
-6.0%
-0.9%
-15.8%
-18.0

-1.5%
-2.4

Note: Custody counts of prisoners are presented in this table and differ from the jurisdiction counts presented in other tables in this report. Counts are
rounded to the nearest 100 and include estimates for non-responding jurisdictions. Estimates may have been revised based on updated reporting and may
differ from numbers in past reports. See Methodology. Rates are rounded to the nearest 10. Details may not to sum to totals due to rounding. Prison counts
are for December 31, while jail counts are for the last weekday in June. See Methodology for sources of incarceration data and Terms and definitions for an
explanation of the differences between the custody prison population reported in this table and jurisdiction prison population reported in all other tables
and figures in this report. Significance testing was conducted for local jail estimates because counts are based on a sample of jails in the Annual Survey of
Jails. Other counts presented are based on a full census of the population.
*Comparison year for local jail inmates only.
†Difference with comparison year is significant at the 95% confidence level.
aAll persons in the custody of state or federal prisons, privately operated facilities, or local jails. Excludes persons held in U.S. territories (appendix table 3),
military facilities (appendix table 3), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities, jails in Indian country (appendix table 3), or juvenile facilities.
bAfter 2001, responsibility for sentenced prisoners from the District of Columbia was transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
cNon-secure, privately operated community corrections centers.
dExcludes prisoners held in local jails in Georgia for 2010, 2017, and 2018 to avoid double-counting.
eRates are based on the total number of persons in the custody of state or federal prisons, privately operated facilities, or local jails and were calculated
using U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. resident population of persons of all ages for January 1 of the following year.
fRates are based on the total number in the custody of state or federal prisons, privately operated facilities, or local jails and were calculated using
U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. resident population of persons age 18 or older for January 1 of the following year. An estimated 10,420 persons
age 17 or younger were in the custody of state prisons or local jails in 2008; 9,900 in 2010; 4,490 in 2017; and 4,140 in 2018.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Survey of Jails and National Prisoner Statistics program, 2008, 2017, and 2018; and U.S. Census Bureau,
post-censal estimated resident populations for January 1 of each year, 2009, 2018, and 2019.

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A
Year
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018

Standard error
4,020
4,230
5,430
6,010
7,680
8,040
8,380
7,190
5,940
6,610
7,120

Note: Standard errors are rounded to the nearest 10. See table 1
for counts of local jail inmates.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Survey of Jails,
2008-2018.

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16

The Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice is the
principal federal agency responsible for measuring crime, criminal
victimization, criminal offenders, victims of crime, correlates of crime,
and the operation of criminal and civil justice systems at the federal, state,
tribal, and local levels. BJS collects, analyzes, and disseminates reliable
statistics on crime and justice systems in the United States, supports
improvements to state and local criminal justice information systems, and
participates with national and international organizations to develop and
recommend national standards for justice statistics. Jeffrey H. Anderson is
the director.
This report was written by Laura M. Maruschak and Todd D. Minton.
Danielle Kaeble and Stephanie Mueller verified the report.
Eric Hendrixson and Jill Thomas edited the report. Carrie Epps produced
the report.
August 2020, NCJ 252157

Office of Justice Programs
Building Solutions • Supporting Communities • Advancing Justice
www.ojp.gov

 

 

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